N E A News

National Aeronautics and Space Ad ministration Washington. D.C.20546 AC 202 755-8370

For Release 1

IMMEDIATE

Press Kit
RELEASE NO:

Project

Seasat-A

78-77

ii

RELEASE NO:

78-77

CONTENTS 1-6 ..................................... 7-14 MISSION DESCRIPTION ................................. 15-25 SCIENCE RATIONALE ................................... 26-33 THE SPACECRAFT ...................................... 34-37 PAYLOAD ............................................. 37-40 DATA COLLECTION AND PROCESSING ...................... 41 LAUNCH VEHICLE SYSTEM (LVS)......................... MAJOR LAUNCH EVENTS FOR ATLAS F/SEASAT-A MISSION .... 42-45 46-50 SEASAT-A EXPERIMENT TEAMS ........................... 51-52 SEASAT-A MISSION TEAM ............................... 53-54 SEASAT-A CONTRACTORS ................................ GENERAL RELEASE

.

May 26. 1978

N S News AA
National Aeronautics and Space Administration Washington, D.C. 20546 AC 202 755-8370
For Release:

Dick McCormack Headquarters, Washington, D.C. (Phone: 2 02/75 5-8 58 3) Frank Bristow NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. (Phone: 213/354-5011)

IMMEDIATE

RELEASE NO:

78-77

NASA SATELLITE TO STUDY EARTH'S OCEANS FROM SPACE

NASA will launch Seasat-A, the first satellite to study the world's oceans, from the Western Test Range, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Lompoc, Calif., no earlier than June 24, 1 9 7 8 .

Seasat-A, a "proof-of-concept" mission, will be used to determine if microwave instruments scanning the oceans from space can provide useful scientific data for oceanographers, meterorologists and commercial users of the seas.

The spacecraft will send back information on surface winds and temperatures, currents, wave heights, ice conditions, ocean topography and coastal storm activity. -more-

-2-

An Atlas-Agena launch vehicle will loft Seasat-A into a an 800-kilometer (500-mile) high near circular polar orbit. The spacecraft will circle the Earth 14 times a day and its instruments will sweep across 95 per cent of the oceans' surface every 36 hours, providing oceanographers with their first synoptic, or worldwide, observation of the oceans.

Seasat-A will be used to prove the feasibility of later employing an operational, multiple-satellite Seasat network to monitor the world's oceans on a continuous, near-realtime basis.

Twice daily, such a system could provide ships at sea with detailed charts of routes updated to show latest weather conditions, sea state and hazards. Long-range use of the

system could influence ship design, port development and selection of sites for such off-shore facilities as power plants.

Other potential users of Seasat data include commercial fishermen, oil exploration firms, the Weather Service, pollution control agencies, the Coast Guard and Navy variety of others. and a

-more-

-3-

The basic part of Seasat-A (engineers call it "the bus") is an Agena that serves as second stage of the launch vehicle and carries a sensor module on which the instruments and related science payload are mounted. Agena is a three-

axis-stabilized spacecraft that has flown more than 300 missions.

The spacecraft has all-weather capability, and can see as well at night as in the daytime.

The instrument payload includes four microwave sensors and a visual and infrared radiometer. Experiment teams,

drawn from scientists representing various oceanographic disciplines, will determine the geophysical significance of the microwave data.

The four microwave instruments are:
0

A scanning multifrequency nicrowave radiometer. It

will measure sea surface temperature, estimate wind speed and detect water in the atmosphere (either vapor or liquid) to help scientists correct other instruments' data. Duncan

Ross of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's

Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorologic Laboratory, Miami, Fla., is team leader. -more-

-4-

0 A

radar scatterometer will measure sea surface effects

that can be converted directly to wind speed and direction. Prof. Willard Pierson of the State University of New York is team leader.

0

A synthetic aperture radar (SAR) will provide all-weather

high-resolution pictures of ocean waves, ice fields, icebergs, ice leads (linear openings in ice through which ships may navigate) and coastal conditions. return pictures of conditions on land.) (The SAR also can The instrument will

be used only when Seasat-A can "see" one of the tracking stations specially equipped to handle its large amounts of data. Dr. Paul Teleki of the U.S. Geological Survey, Reston,

Va., is team leader.

0

A radar altimeter serves two functions:

It will1

monitor average wave height and "significant wave height"

--

a term oceanographers use to designate the largest one-

third of all waves

--

and the altitude of the spacecraft

above the ocean to a precision of 10 centimeters ( 4 inches). That will let scientists measure sea surface topographic features that relate to ocean tides, storm surges and currents. Dr. Byron Tapley of the University of Texas is

team leader. -more-

-5A

fifth instrument aboard Seasat-A

--

a visual and

infrared radiometer

--

will provide data to support inforIt will measure sea

mation from the microwave sensors.

surface temperature in clear weather, and take pictures of cloud patterns and ocean and coastal features. Dr. Paul

McClain of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Environmental Satellite Service, Camp Springs, Md., is team leader.

While Seasat-A takes its measurement from space, an extensive program of "surface truth" also will be under way. Low flying aircraft, ships and instrumented buoys will take measurements to corroborate Seasat data.

Seasat-A's primary mission is for one year, but enough fuel and other consumables are being put aboard so the flight can be extended for another two years. For the first

month or more after launch,scientists and engineers will calibrate instruments and check out and improve computer programs that have been designed to translate Seasat data into useful information.

After the calibration phase is complete, the observation period will begin.

-more-

-6-

This will be the primary test for Seasat:

can a

spacecraft carrying microwave instruments tell scientists useful things about the sea surface and the atmosphere and how they interact?

If Seasat-A lives up to the expectations of those who believe the oceans can be studied from spacecraft, it could lead to a global system that can continuously monitor the oceans.

The Seasat-A program is managed for NASA by the Office

of Space and Terrestrial Applications.

NASA's Jet Propulsion

Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., manages the project and the satellite system. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center,

Greenbelt, Md., provides tracking, orbit and attitude determination for the mission and the Project Operations Control Center. NASA's Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, has Launch

management responsibility for the launch vehicle.

crew is provided by the U.S. Air Force Space and Missile Test Center. Lockheed Missiles
&

Space Co., Sunnyvale, Calif.,

is prime contractor for the satellite system.

(END OF GENERAL RELEASE.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOLLOWS.)

-more-

-7-

MISSION DESCRIPTION The launch of Seasat-A is timed so that, once the spacecraft reaches the desired orbit, it will have at least 3 0 days of full sunlight at the beginning of its mission. The full Sun period will allow engineers to use maximum spacecraft power during checkout and the engineering assessment phase. Seasat-A will be launched from the Western Test Range at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. The Atlas-Agena launch vehicle will aim for an orbit that is circular, 800 kilometers ( 5 0 0 miles) altitude, has an inclination of 108 degrees and a period of 101 minutes (1 hour, 41 minutes).* The primary mission is scheduled f o r one year. Enough fuel and other consumables are being put aboard the spacecraft to allow for an additional two-year-long extended mission. Seasat-A is a "proof-of-concept" mission with these objectives:
0

Demonstrate techniques for global monitoring of oceanographic phenomena and features: Provide oceanographic data of use to scientists and to applications users; and Determine key features of an operational oceandynamics monitoring system.

0

0

The major difference between Seasat-A and previous Earth observation satellites is the use of active and passive microwave sensors to achieve an all-weather capability. The geophysical oceanographic measurement capabilities for Seasat-A are shown in Table 1. The altimeter andscatterometer benefit from the atmospheric corrections provided by the microwave radiometer. The altimeter provides measurements only at the nadir of ground track location. The synthetic aperture imaging radar looks out at a nadir angle of approximately 20 degrees. *With these trajectory characteristics, sensors with 1,000 km (620 mi.) cross-track coverage will provide global repeat coverage every 36 hours, using both day and night passes to complete the fill-in (Figure 1). -more-

-8-

Geophysical Oceanoqraphic Measurement Capabilities for Seasat-A

MEASUREMENT GEOID TOPOGRAPHY SURGES, MICROWAVE RADIOMETER SURFACE WINDS
I

1

RANGE

1 PRKISION/ACCURACY 1 RESOCUIION, Irm I SPACIAL GRID,
<* 2 cm 0
I

lun

1 TEMPORAL GRID
LESS M A N

5cm-MOm
lOcm

- 10m
ds

1 . 6 - 12

'I

I
1

6 MONTHS -lo
50 36 h T 95% O COVERAGE

i2 m/i O *lo% R
f

50

2 m/a O 10% R
50

100

f 20.

COVERAGE

3 h TO 95% 6

HEIGHT GRAVITY WAMS

ALTIMETER

0.5

- 25 m

i . T 1 .O 05 O

m

O *lo% R

1.6

- 12
I

NADIR ONLY

1/14d NEAR CONTINENTAL U.S.
RELATIM V61R ABSOLUTE RADIOMETER

I
I

SURFACE TEMPERATURE

I
1

I

I

-2 -35OC
CLEAR WEATHER

1.5' 2.
10

1
-5
I
100

MICROWAVE RADIOMETER

1
I

I
I

36h
-5

-2-35.C
ALL WEATHER

I

1 .so
- 5 km

I I
I

36 h

loo
36h

EXTENT
SEA ICE

MICROWAVE RADIOMETER

I
I >25m

10-15 h

I

10-15
25 m

10-15

36h

t25 m t25 m
ICEBERGS

25 m

I
V6lR RADIOMETER

11 NEAR /4 C O N 1I N E NTAL U.S.

cLouDs#
OCEAN FEATURES ISLANDS

sHous~

36 h

I
WATER MICROWAVE RADIOMETER

11 NEAR /4 CONTINENTAL U.S.
i25 m
I 5 0 50

ATMOSPHERIC CORRECTIONS

36 h

Table 1

-more-

qa

SEASAT-n
36 HR ORBITAL COVERAGE

3
-

SEASAT-A
36 HR ORBITAL COVERAGE
12-24 HRS COVERAGE

P,

0-12 HRS COVERAGE

-10The 100-km (62-mi.) swath then allows it to overlap its coverage with the scatterometer wind measurements. The scatterometer looks out both sides with narrow fan beams. The fan beams, placed 45 degrees forward and 45 degrees back, allow two l o o k s at each piece of ocean separated by 90 degrees, to allow a wind direction assessment. The fan beams extend on the ground from a surface incidence angle of 25 degrees to 55 degrees for the full range of winds (3-25 meters/second), and then to 65 degrees for the higher winds (10-25 m/s). Below 25 degrees, the changes in backscatter from different wind speeds are difficult to differentiate. As a result measurements are not included in those small angles.

The microwave radiometer scans +25 degrees across
track, with a surface incidence angle of about 55 degrees.

The visible and infrared radiometer scans horizon to horizon, but only the middle 70 degrees of scan (or about 1,000 km -- 620 mi.) on the ground produce accurate temperatures. Angular distortions at the higher angles plus increasingly long atmospheric path lengths make accurate interpretation much more difficult. All of the instruments (except the imaging radar) are expected to be operated continuously during most of the mission to provide global coverage through on-board storage and then dump over one of the five NASA ground stations expected to be active in that period (see Figure 2). The imaging radar is to operate in real time only when it is over appropriate high-data-rate Satellite Tracking and Data Network (STDN) ground stations. Present plans for the imaging radar use existing stations in Alaska, California and Maryland (at Goddard Space Flight Center) and a new Canadian station at St. John's, Newfoundland, to cover all the coastal waters of the U.S. and the major North American ice fields of interest. A 24-hour ground trace is shown in Figure 3.

-more-

SEASAT-A

STATION COVERAGE
Figure 2
80

0

-80 L
0

I 180

U’
I

SEASAT-A

24 hour GROUND TRACE

P
h)

I

I

Figure 3

-13-

Project engineers and planners have divided the oneyear primary mission into several phases:

The Initial Orbital Cruise Phase begins as the spacecraft is acquired by the first ground tracking station of the STDN. It will continue while the spacecraft receives an initial checkout and the orbit is adjusted for launch errors and determined to sufficient accuracy (ultimate altitude accuracy will be a meter (three feet) or less). The Engineering Assessment Phase will begin when the early checkout is complete. Instruments aboard Seasat-A will be calibrated against prelaunch test information. Algorithms (computer programs) specially designed for Seasat will be checked and updated or improved where needed. During this phase, which could last from 30 to 90 days, the spacecraft, the sensors and the orbit must be checked and made as near ideal as possible, in preparation for the next phase -- the primary purpose of Seasat-A. The Observation Phase -- the key segment of Seasat's proof-of-concept mission -- is broken down into two parts or subphases. Once the Engineering Assessment Phase ends, experiment teams, whose sole purpose is scientific evaluation of the instruments and computer algorithms, will take data from the spacecraft sensors and other sources and determine how the information can be interpreted. Mission planners refer to this work as geophysical evaluation, and discuss it as different entirely from the engineering evaluation that precedes it. Once geophysical evaluation is complete, the second phase begins. Now the mission teams will produce Interim Geophysical Data Records and distribute them to experimenters and other users, independent of the evaluation teams. Sensors may be recalibrated in conjunction with surface truth findings throughout this phase. During the observation phase, data will be taken from all instruments (except the SAR) globally in an uninterrupted stream, stored on the satellite and dumped to a tracking station in three-hour segments. The Orbit Trim Phase will, from time to time, break into whatever work is going on. Interruptions will be required whenever Seasat-A's orbit must be adjusted. The satellite will be removed from its cruise condition, configured for the orbit trim, the course correction will be made and then the satellite will be returned to cruise. -more-

-14-

Extended Operations -- the final phase -- is being planned. It would begin at the completion of Seasat's first year of flight. Data from Seasat-A will be made available to users -after the experiment teams have completed their geophysical evaluation -- in as timely a fashion as required for each user. When the data become available for everyday use, the U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Weather Central at Monterey, Calif., for example, will receive data within a few hours of collection by the spacecraft. The eventual goal is to provide weather data within six hours after it is collected. Data will be distributed by the project to other users -again, after the evaluation subphase is complete from both NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., and the Navy's computer operations.

--

The Synthetic Aperture Radar will be used only on a real time basis. Since it collects data at the rate of 110 million bits per second, it can operate only when Seasat-A is within sight of a ground station equipped to handle its data. These stations include Goldstone, Calif.; Merritt Island, Fla.; and Fairbanks, Alaska. The Canadian government is planning to equip a station at St. John's, Newfoundland. The European Space Agency (ESA) is considering similar plans for southern England. Project planners are setting up a mission plan that reads more like a planetary encounter than an Earth-orbiting flight because mission activity builds with the passage of time to a specific target period. The project aims at support of a worldwide experiment in ocean and atmospheric sampling called the Global Atmospheric Research Project (GARP). Ships and aircraft from many nationsaround the world will probe the air and sea during special sampling periods in January and February, and again in June and July 1979.

-more-

-15-

SCIENCE RATIONALE The world's oceans play a fundamental role in the dynamics of the Earth's atmosphere and thus profoundly affect the weather and climate of the entire Earth. The oceans act as a planet-wide heat reservoir that stores, distributes and then releases solar energy; the sea is also the source for most atmospheric moisture. Scientists have estimated that more than 4 0 per cent of all the heat in the atmosphere comes from condensation of water vapor that enters the atmosphere by way of evaporation from the oceans. Exchanges between ocean and atmosphere produce largescale transport of energy on a global scale, usually from lower to higher latitudes, and have a major influence on weather and climate. A large portion of the heat energy that moves from the tropics to higher latitudes is carried by ocean currents. The enormous quantities of energy involved are dramatically illustrated by hurricanes and typhoons. The source of their energy is heat stored in the oceans. Scientists believe it is unlikely they will ever be able to make reliable predictions of weather, climate, ocean currents and other oceanographic parameters without the large-scale numerical models of atmospheric and oceanic circulation that are possible only with satellite observations.
A number of ocean science fields should be able to profit, either directly or indirectly, from satellite studies. Satellite oceanography is limited, generally to surface and near-surface measurements in the few tens of meters below and above what scientists call the boundary layer. That constraint is not as severe as it might appear, since data taken from satellites can be used with more conventionally derived information about vertical current and temperature profiles, depth and changes in salinity.

The areas of ocean-related science that can benefit from satellite information are marine geodesy and gravity; physical and biological oceanography; glaciology; boundary layer meteorology; and climatology.

In addition, a number of applications oriented users can benefit from satellite information: shipping, offshore oil drilling and mining, fishing fleets and residents of coastal regions.
-more-

-16-

It may be possible to monitor location and movement of oil spills from a satellite.

Many Earth satellites have carried sensors with some applications to oceanographic studies. Examples are TIROS, ITOS, Skylab, GEOS, Nimbus and the Applications Technology Satellite (ATS) series. Seasat-A will be the first dedicated test bed for a new class of instrumentation -- microwave sensors -- that can operate independent of solar illumination and without having to cease operations because of overcast. Seasat-A should add to our understanding of the oceans and the role they play in our lives in these fields: Oceanography, Meteorology and Climatology Waves Seasat-A should reveal the principal features of the dynamic behavior of ocean gravity waves, about which we now have a dearth of quantitative data. Many fundamental questions remain largely unanswered. A comparison between theory and observation has been difficult to obtain in large part due to the absence of adequate experimental data on waves, especially under storm conditions. Because of this lack, not enough is known about the genesis of waves in response to winds, their changing characteristics as they propagate over the ocean surface, their interactions with other surface wave fields, their generating, in turn, of internal waves, their trapping and refraction by strong currents and their attenuation as they enter shallow waters and suffer major changes in amplitude, speed and direction before finally dissipating their remaining energy in erosive, often destructive assaults on the coasts. Wave Heights -- The wave height information presently available has been generated largely by ships at sea. The ~ _ _ bulk of the information comes from some 1,200 ships, mostly in the northern hemisphere, which report estimated wave conditions in terms of height, period and dominant direction of travel. Recently the GEOS-3 altimeter has begun to provide wave data from space. Seasat's observations will be more accurate and cover the oceans much more systematically and completely. -more-

-17-

Seasat-A will make measurements of significant wave height by means of its short pulse altimeter, the return pulse broadening being a function of the wave amplitude. These measures will be good to 0.5 m (1.8 ft.) or + 10 per cent in the 1 to 20 ( 3 . 8 to 65 ft.) range and ; l i l be uniformly distributed over all the world's unfrozen oceans at a measurement density sufficiently great to permit the obtaining of good information about significant spatial variations along the orbital track. Accurate measurements of wave height every 5 0 km (31 mi.), for example, which is a reasonable operational schedule for Seasat-AI will result in some 7,000 observations per day. Wave Directional Spectra -- A very few weather ships, four or five in the North Atlantic and a single one in the North Pacific, record the wave height as a function of time at a point. Non-directional frequency spectra can be deduced from such records. Seasat-A will record wave directional spectra (i.e., wave amplitude as a function of wavelength and propagation direction) at some 500 or 600 locations in both hemispheres, using the coherent imaging radar of the type discussed in the last section. It will thus, for the first time, furnish global, synoptic measures of wave height and directional spectra which, together with the wind field, constitute the most basic quantities needed for open-ocean wave forecasting. Wave Images -- Where a wave field is not statistically homogeneous, a spectral description is not adequate and wave images are required instead. This is true, for example, of waves generated by intense storms, or in the study of refraction of waves as they enter shallower water, where bathymetric features can lead to large concentrations or dilutions of wave energy. Wave generation, propagation, interaction and absorption can be studied experimentally for a variety of conditions of wind speed, fetch and duration, using such data. Wave trapping and refraction through encounters with current systems is another phenomenon which can be elucidated by means of Seasat-A wave images. Coupling between surface waves and internal waves can also be studied with the aid of imagery. Evidence has already been presented that effects of internal waves are discernible in Landsat images in the visible and near-infrared regions of the spectrum. -more-

-18-

Sea Surface Temperature The temperature of the ocean's surface, another one of its basic characteristics, is currently mapped over cloud-free portions of the ocean by infrared radiometers operating on Nimbus, N O M and SMS satellites, with precisions approaching + 1 deqree ~ ( 1 . 8degrees F.). The temperatures of the remgining beclouded portions of the ocean surface are presently determined only from ships or buoys, however. Seasat-A's multichannel microwave radiometer will map sea surface temperature under conditions of clouds or light rains, albeit with considerably coarser spatial resolution and somewhat lower temperature precision than the infrared instruments. However, the microwave measurements should represent bulk ocean temperatures more closely than the infrared measures do, particularly under conditions where light surface winds result in little surface mixing. The microwave radiometer, in order to correct the sea temperature measurement for effects of atmospheric liquid and vaporous water and surface foam and roughness, must make independent determinations of these quantities by using several frequencies and two polarizations. The records of the several channels, taken together, form the basis for the determination of sea surface temperature, foam and roughness and hence, high wind speeds, cloud distribution, atmospheric water vapor content and sea and lake ice cover. Sea temperature is a parameter of considerable importance in oceanic and atmospheric processes, since it reflects the absorption by the sea of that prime mover, solar energy. The difference between active and inactive hurricane seasons may be due to water temperatures in hurricane gestation areas just 2 to 3 degrees C ( 3 . 6 to 5.4 degrees F.) lower than average. Ocean temperature is a major factor in determining the tone of weather and climate in coastal regions of the world and indeed, as the North Pacific Experiment suggests, may control short term climate on a continental scale through its influence on the circumpolar jet stream. Maps of sea surface temperatures are very useful for understanding the dynamics of current systems such as the Gulf Stream or Kuroshio, especially in winter and spring. Furthermore, open-ocean fish such as tuna tend to swim along the lines of constant temperature at certain times in their excursions and thus ocean temperatures assist in marine biological studies. In persistently cloudy areas such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone or the Antarctic Circumpolar Current Region, temperatures derived from a microwave radiometer will be of special value. Knowledge of sea surface temperature will also be important in connection with studies of marine fog. -more-

-19-

Ice Fields and Leads Ice will be studied in several ways during the Seasat-A mission. The small-scale features of lake and polar ice fields will be sampled frequently by the coherent imaging radar thereby providing data needed to chart ice leads, surface roughness characteristics, and motions of ridges, polynyas and openinqs in the ice, This information will be of value in studying the structure and dynamics of ice formations. Furthermore, there are indications that the age and thickness of ice may be determined from a properly configured imaging radar. On a coarser but more nearly global scale, the microwave scanning radiometer should provide images of ice cover that can be used to extrapolate the fine-grained imaging radar coverage. Delineations of the edges of ice packs and glaciers and the general advance and retreat of ice cover should be possible with this device. The information about the ice leads and openings will also be of value in connection with the all-weather determination of heat transfer into the atmosphere, which proceeds approximately 1,000 times more rapidly across the water than the ice interface. Such data will be valuable for weather and climate studies in the polar regions, where much of the world's weather is spawned. Sea Surface Topoqraphy The marine geoid is defined as the surface which would be assumed by a motionless, uniform ocean under the influence of the Earth's gravity and rotation, and uniform atmospheric pressure. Thus, it reflects only the effects of gravitational and gross centripetal forces. Departures of the sea surface from the geoid due to tides, currents, Coriolis force, wind, pressure and wave-making and other forces are grouped under the term "sea surface topography." These departures, if measurable, can often be used to derive information on the forcing functions themselves. The general strategy planned for conducting these topographical experiments with Seasat-A includes the focusing of efforts in the Western North Atlantic Quadrangle region defined by Goddard, Bermuda, Grand Turk and Cape Kennedy where laser trackers will yield accurate orbital heights for Seasat-A, and relatively good geoid information is available. -more-

-20-

The aim is to determine the sea surface topography to about a third of a meter in this area, and to one or two meters elsewhere, or about a factor of two or more better than in the case of GEOS-C. In addition, the coverage patterns will be more uniform and complete in the case of Seasat-A. The Gulf Stream traverses this quadrangle and, in fact, exhibits all its major features in the area, i.e., relatively steady flow, meanders and eddies. Tides -- The M tidal signal is relatively strong in the quadrangle, and $he orbital paths are nearly parallel and orthogonal to the co-range lines there. The complicated, ill-understood transition from deep sea to coastal tides can a l s o be studied here. The deep ocean tides have amplitudes of the order of a meter. It is anticipated that the determination of the deep ocean tides on a global basis may be attempted by analyzing the entire ensemble of data gathered over a period of a year and solving say,for tidal amplitudes and phases, dissipation Parmeters and quantities representing the yieldinq of the solid Earth in response to both the lunisolar gravitational effects and the loading of the ocean tides themselves. Tidal dissipations are thought to occur mainly in regions of broad continental shelves, such as the Patagonian Shelf and the Bering Sea. Currents and the Oceanic Pressure Gradient -- The movement of water on a rotating Earth leads to a departure of the surface of the ocean from the geoidal equipotential surface due to the balance between the horizontal component of the coriolis acceleration and the resultant horizontal pressure gradient. The steady components of the dynamic topography of the sea surface have an extreme range of the order of 2 meters. The Seasat-A instrument complement will also include a thermal infrared imager which will aid in identifying and locating ocean features such as currents, and thus facilitate the interpretation of the altimeter records. The Seasat-A precision altimeter and tracking systems will yield measurements along subsatellite tracks with an equatorial spacing of approximately 2,500 km (1,553 mi.) (and even less at higher latitudes). In three months, the tracks should overlay the equator at about 2 0 km (12 mi.) intervals. Variable topographic features which have sufficiently long time constants (or are periodic) and are large enough to be sampled with this measurement precision and density should be discernible against spatial variations in the background geoid. -more-

-21-

It is anticipated, for example, that this approach will be used to search for the transient mid-ocean currents, of a spatial scale of the order of 5 degrees, which have recently been seen. Following them over the oceans as a whole will help greatly in the effort to understand how they interact with the mean general circulation of the ocean, and thereby contribute significantly to the solution of the central problem in physical oceanography at the present time. Tsunamis, Set-Up and Storm Surges -- Other oceanic departures from the geoid should be observable in the altimetric signal if the satellite is overhead at the time and place of occurrence. For example, a seismically excited wave, or tsunami, should be detectable in mid-ocean as a near-periodic topographic ripple of perhaps 50 cm range and a couple of hundred kilometers in wavelength. Since these disturbances last for tens of hours and ultimately traverse the entire ocean basin, there is a reasonable probability of observing one if it should occur during the lifetime of the spacecraft. The amplitude of a deep-ocean tsunami has never been measured. Similarly, variations in the set-up of water against the coast due to longer term wind stress will be looked for, and the extreme form of this phenomenon, the storm surge, should be observable if the timing and positioning relative to the satellite track are correct. Such an observation of a storm surge is a low probability event but, if obtained, the data would be extremely valuable as checks on storm surge prediction models. Seasat-A will probably not solve the problems o f ocean tides, currents and circulations completely, however, its accurate altimetry will permit important exploratory experiments to be conducted in all these areas. They should yield data which will be of much intrinsic value, and will provide the foundation for planning the next phase of the program in these areas of ocean science. Meteorology and Climatology Surface Winds -- Seasat-A will measure surface wind speeds, and to some extent, directions, by means of a scatterometer and a microwave radiometer. The former relies on Bragg scattering from wind-generated capillary waves, while the latter senses the increase in brightness temperature due to foam and roughness. The fraction of the surface covered by the capillaries or the foam and roughness is a function of wind speed. -more-

-22-

These instruments have both been operated on aircraft missions and on Skylab. The Seasat-A surface wind data will be equivalent to some 20,000 ship reports each day, roughly an order of magnitude larger than that presently provided by surface vessels. Again, they will be more or less uniformly distributed over the global oceans, thus filling the major gaps in the meteorological coverage patterns which result from the fact that ships are concentrated in the Northern Hemisphere, largely in the shipping lanes. Using wind data from the spacecraft in conjunction with ship, buoy and island information, it appears possible to define the vector surface wind field throughout the planetary boundary layer every 2 4 hours, for speeds from 4 to 5 m/sec to perhaps whole gale force or greater, on a relatively uniform grid of approximately 1,400 km (870 mi.) spacing. The definition of the surface wind over the oceans will be a large step forward in ocean wave forecasting. The wind data, used in conjunction with other surface-derived information and wave directional spectra supplied by Seasat-A as both initial and boundary values of the surface wave field, will allow development of an advanced, computerized global wave forecast model whose potential monetary value to marine interests is immense. Scientific problems in wind-wave interactions, such as the generation and radiation of waves by intense storms, and in mixing processes in the upper layers of the ocean, may be studied using the enhanced base of global data on winds, waves and ocean temperatures. The Planetary Atmosphere -- Coming, as they will, at the time of the Global Atmosphere Research Project (GARP)/ First GARP Global Experiment (FGGE) activities, these Seasat-A results will be especially relevant to the science of the atmosphere. The measurements of winds in the tropics and of sea surface temperatures to be made by Seasat-A are expected to be of real value in connection with weather studies in general and the FGGE in particular. Seasat-A is also likely to play a useful role in the longer range studies aimed at the second objective of GARP which is to investigate "the factors that determine the statistical properties of the general circulation of the atmosphere which would lead to a better understanding of the physical basis of climate." -more-

-23A significant improvement in the quality of the planetary weather forecasts in the one-to-three-day interval is expected to result from the infusion of Seasat-A data into global weather prediction models. The improvement will occur not only over the oceans but also over continental areas, such as the East Coast and the western half of the United States, which are strongly affected by maritime conditions. The data-sparse Southern Hemisphere will benefit especially. The quality of the forecasts there will increase substantially. This will result in both scientific and general gains in terms of our understanding of the atmosphere and the weather, and will permit studies of interhemisphere interactions to get underway in earnest. The fierce meteorological systems surrounding the Antarctic continent will also be susceptible to orderly study on a synoptic scale for the first time.

It is obvious that Seasat-A data will only form a portion of the total meteorological information entering into synoptic or global scale weather and climate studies. However, this expanded data base, containing global measurements of surface wind, waves and sea temperature, will be an important and often unique adjunct to the data obtained from surface sources and from other spacecraft. Solid Earth Physics The Ocean Geoid Although Seasat-A is designed primarily to give oceanic and atmospheric information, it will contribute significantly to solid Earth geophysics as well. The present knowledge of the geoid is based on observations of gravitational perturbations of satellite orbits, which reflect global features, and surface gravimetry which provides details in some local areas. The satellite altimeter approach offers the best prospect for acquiring highresolution ocean geoid data on a global basis. It has very large advantages over the conventional surface ship method in terms of the practicalities of achieving worldwide coverage. The geoid data provided by the altimeter are not attenuated by height. The regular coverage patterns of Seasat-A will improve the spatial resolution of the global geoid. The height resolution is expected to be improved to a scale of the order of a meter. -more-

-24-

The fine structure of the geoid to be traced out by the Seasat-A altimeter system is expected to reveal a great deal of information about the structure and dynamics of the Earth's crust. The small-scale undulations of the ocean geoid are manifestations of gravity anomalies which reflect density irregularities of corresponding scale and/or depth. Many of these, in turn, are considered to result from temperature patterns associated with convective flows within the asthenosphere. Upcurrents due to convection are thought to occur at ocean rise crests, and on their volcanic flanks. Lithospheric dynamics will also be partially elucidated by the high resolution surface gravity mapping obtained from Seasat-A. The understanding of tectonic plate behavior near subduction zones associated with such phenomena as compressive upbuckling will be increased.
A continuing interplay between the oceans and the solid Earth is seen again in the continental shelves and abyssal plains, which are heavily sedimented. The sedimentation process is influenced in significant ways by ocean waves, currents, temperatures and nutrient levels. Thus, this aspect of the solid Earth's structure can be better understood through an increased knowledge of ocean dynamics.

Fine resolution gravity maps will also permit more effective planning of other types of geophysical surveys that use, for example, heat flow probes, dredge hauls, seismic refraction profilometers, drill cores and precision depth sounders. Solid Earth Tidal Studies The ocean tidal studies will also yield data on the solid Earth tides. As mentioned earlier, the problem of the ocean tides actually cannot be fully solved without simultaneously determining the elastic behavior of the solid Earth as it responds not only to the lunisolar gravitational attractions but also to the loading due to the ocean tides themselves. Once the ocean tides are known, intriguing possibilities for detailed probing of the solid Earth can be opened up. For example, the ocean tidal currents flowing in the Earth's magnetic field generate electric potentials which are functions of the conductivity of both sea water and the solid Earth. Once the tides and currents are known, the influence of the solid Earth on the potentials may be estimated, and the corresponding effective conductivity as a function of effective depth in the Earth can be deduced. -more-

-25-

Through this route, one may derive information about the temperature distribution within the Earth's upper mantle, and draw inferences about the stress fields that may be responsible for seismic activity. Oceanoaraphic and Geodetic Levelina Oceanographic and geodetic methods have both been used to determine the positions of the level surfaces along both the east and west coasts of the United States. Mean sea level appears to slope upward from the south to north by nearly a meter, relative to land based spirit leveling. This discrepancy cannot be explained in terms of the estimated accuracies of the two procedures. The Seasat-A mission, with its capability for accurate determination of sea surface topography along the U.S. East Coast, for example, may offer prospects for helping to resolve this long-standing controversy. Orbital Dynamics The very accurate tracking and altimetric systems employed in the Seasat-A program will lead to considerable refinements in the science of orbital dynamics. The effects of high-order gravity perturbations will be better understood and accounted for. Non-gravitational perturbations such as those due to solar radiation pressure and residual atmospheric drag will be determined with increased accuracy. One result will be improved orbit determination and prediction models for other Earth-orbiting satellites. Engineering Science
A high technology system such as a spacecraft and the associated ground facilities always brings along with it a number of important developments in engineering science and technology. While it is difficult to specify exactly what will be the yield of Seasat-A in this regard, it is safe to speculate that in the areas of microwave sensors, in laser and radar tracking technology, and perhaps in data handling and dissemination, significant advances are to be expected. It is likely that other areas in space technology will be upgraded during the program, as well.

-more-

-26THE SPACECRAFT

The Agena, second s t a g e of t h e A t l a s F/Agena launch vehicle, serves as t h e s a t e l l i t e b u s p r o v i d i n g a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l , power, g u i d a n c e , t e l e m e t r y and command f u n c t i o n s . The s e n s o r module i s t a i l o r e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h e Seasat-A payload of f i v e microwave i n s t r u m e n t s and t h i e r antennas. T o g e t h e r , t h e t w o modules are a b o u t 2 1 m ( 4 0 f t . ) l o n g w i t h a maximum d i a m e t e r of 1 . 5 m ( 5 f t . ) w i t h o u t appendages deployed. Atop t h e A t l a s b o o s t e r r o c k e t , t h e e n t i r e s a t e l l i t e i s e n c l o s e d w i t h i n a 3-m ( 1 0 - f t . ) - d i a m e t e r nose f a i r i n g which matches t h e d i a m e t e r of t h e A t l a s . A f t e r b u r n o u t of the Agena s t a g e and i n j e c t i o n i n t o t h e 800-km (500-mi.) o r b i t , Seasat-A w e i g h t w i l l be n e a r l y 2 , 3 0 0 k m C5,050 l b s . ) . Many mechanical e l e m e n t s of t h e s a t e l l i t e are r i g i d l y r e s t r a i n e d a g a i n s t the s e v e r e l a u n c h v i b r a t i o n d u r i n g powered f l i g h t . Following t h e l a u n c h p h a s e , appendages, which w e r e l a t c h e d s e c u r e l y w i t h i n t h e n o s e f a i r i n g , are deployed t o t h e i r o r b i t a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n . The Agena ordnance subsystem a c t u a t e s p i n p u l l e r s t o r e l e a s e n e a r l y a dozen d e p l o y a b l e s p a c e c r a f t e l e m e n t s i n c l u d i n g s o l a r p a n e l s , a n t e n n a s and s u p p o r t booms. I n o r b i t t h e s a t e l l i t e w i l l a p p e a r t o " s t a n d on end" ( f i g u r e 4 ) l i k e a p e n c i l , t h e s e n s o r and communications a n t e n n a s p o i n t i n g toward E a r t h and t h e Agena r o c k e t n o z z l e and s o l a r p a n e l s o p p o s i t e toward space. Dominant f e a t u r e of the Seasat i s t h e S y n t h e t i c A p e r t u r e Radar ( S A R ) a n t e n n a , a 2.1 by 1 0 . 7 - m ( 7 by 3 5 - f t . ) p l a n a r a r r a y deployed p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e s a t e l l i t e body.
S e a s a t - A i s c o n t i n u a l l y s t a b i l i z e d on three axes by a momentum wheel/horizon s e n s i n g system t o a c c u r a t e l y p o i n t the sensors a t the Earth's surface.

Hot-gas j e t s p r o v i d e t h r u s t f o r a d j u s t i n g t h e o r b i t and f o r a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l d u r i n g Agena burn and o r b i t a d j u s t periods.
Two 11-panel s o l a r a r r a y s are t h e primary s o u r c e of

e l e c t r i c a l power. Two nickel-cadmium s t o r a g e b a t t e r i e s a r e used p r i o r t o s o l a r p a n e l deployment and s t o r e energy f o r peak power r e q u i r e m e n t s and d u r i n g s o l a r e c l i p s e period operations. Data s t o r a g e c a p a c i t y on t h e s a t e l l i t e i s a b o u t 350 the e q u i v a l e n t of more t h a n m i l l i o n b i t s of i n f o r m a t i o n t w o f u l l o r b i t s of measurements f r o m a l l s e n s o r s w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h e SAR. SAR d a t a i s n o t r e c o r d e d .

--

- more

-27Seasat-A On-Orbit Configuration

SCATTEROMETER SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR ANTENNA

ANTENNA No. 1

MULT I-CHANNEL MICROWAVE RADIOMETER LASER RETROREFLECTOR ALTIMETER

VlRR RADIOMETER
SAR DATA LINK ANTENNA

Figure 4

-28-

Redundant S-band t r a n s m i t t e r s and receivers, f u n c t i o n i n g as t r a n s p o n d e r s , p r o v i d e t h e communications l i n k f o r e n g i n e e r i n g and s e n s o r t e l e m e t r y . A s e p a r a t e S-band t r a n s m i t t e r p r o v i d e s t h e SAR downlink. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e primary t r a c k i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from S e a s a t ' s S-band communications system, t w o independent t r a c k i n g systems a i d i n n a v i g a t i o n and o r b i t d e t e r m i n a t i o n . Laser t r a c k i n g s i g n a l s o r i g i n a t e from ground s i t e s and are r e f l e c t e d f r o m an a r r a y of r e t r o r e f l e c t o r s on t h e s a t e l l i t e . A dual-frequency beacon t r a n s m i t s u l t r a s t a b l e c a r r i e r s t o a ground t r a c k i n g network, TRANET.
Power

The S e a s a t - A p o w e r s u b s y s t e m s u p p l i e s a l l e l e c t r i c a l power t o t h e s a t e l l i t e by g e n e r a t i n g , c o n v e r t i n g and switchi n g t h e power. Primary power s o u r c e i s a p a i r o f s o l a r a r r a y s generat i n g a b o u t 1 , 0 0 0 w a t t s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e m i s s i o n , v a r y i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e m i s s i o n w i t h a minimum of 700 w a t t s . The p a n e l s , r o t a t a b l e on one a x i s , s u p p o r t 1 4 . 5 s q u a r e m ( 1 5 6 s q u a r e f t . ) of s o l a r c e l l s .
Two nickel-cadmium b a t t e r i e s , k e p t charged by t h e s o l a r a r r a y s , s u p p l y a l l power d u r i n g a s c e n t t o o r b i t and d u r i n g s o l a r e c l i p s e p e r i o d s and augment s o l a r a r r a y power d u r i n g peak l o a d s . S o l a r e c l i p s e p e r i o d s o c c u r i n about h a l f t h e o r b i t s during t h e mission.
A d r i v e system c o n t i n u o u s l y p o s i t i o n s t h e a r r a y s a b o u t t h e i r c e n t r a l a x i s t o face t h e Sun as t h e s a t e l l i t e p l y s i t s o r b i t . The d r i v e system, f e d d i r e c t i o n s by sun s e n s o r s mounted on t h e o u t b o a r d p a n e l of each a r r a y , w i l l r o t a t e t h e a r r a y s about 5 , 0 0 0 t i m e s d u r i n g t h e f i r s t y e a r of flight.

N o r m a l s a t e l l i t e power r e q u i r e m e n t s can v a r y from about 5 0 0 t o 700 w a t t s b u t can exceed 1 , 2 0 0 w a t t s d u r i n g b r i e f p e r i o d s of SAR o p e r a t i o n s . During emergency c o n d i t i o n s , the s a t e l l i t e can be powered down t o a b o u t 4 5 0 w a t t s . Average o r b i t a l power l o a d i s a b o u t 700 w a t t s .
D a t a Svstem

Communications w i t h Seasat w i l l be S-band r a d i o l i n k between t h e E a r t h s t a t i o n s of the NASA S a t e l l i t e Tracking and Data Network ( S T D N ) and t h e d a t a system aboard t h e spacecraft.

-

more

-

-29-

The u p l i n k c a r r i e s commands and r a n g i n g s i g n a l s from ground s t a t i o n s t o t w o r e d u n d a n t receivers. The downlink c a r r i e r , from one of a p a i r of one-watt t r a n s m i t t e r s , i s modulated by r a n g i n g s i g n a l s and r e a l t i m e and s t o r e d deg i t a l data. 3 0 t h receivers a r e always on, o p e r a t i n g a t 2106 MHz. Only one t r a n s m i t t e r , s e l e c t e d by power-on command, i s on a t any one t i m e . The t r a n s m i t t e r s r a d i a t e a t 2287 MHz. Normally t h e downlink c a r r i e r w i l l be phase-locked t o t h e uplink carrier a t r a n s m i t t e r and r e c e i v e r combination f u n c t i o n i n g as a t r a n s p o n d e r -- and r e l a t e d i n frequency by a known r a t i o . Two 0.5-m ( 2 0 i n . ) - d i a m e t e r r e f l e c t i n g d i s k a n t e n n a s are used i n o r b i t . A s t u b a n t e n n a w i l l be used d u r i n g a s c e n t and t h e p e r i o d p r i o r t o d e p l o y i n g t h e o r b i t antennas.

--

A s e p a r a t e f i v e - w a t t S-band t r a n s m i t t e r , w i t h i t s own h e l i c a l a n t e n n a , sends a l l v e r y h i g h r a t e SAR d a t a i n r e a l t i m e t o s p e c i a l l y - e q u i p p e d STDN s t a t i o n s . SAR a n a l o g wide-

band d a t a i s a c q u i r e d o n l y when one of these s t a t i o n s i s i n view of t h e s a t e l l i t e . Ground commands, which can be t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e s a t e l l i t e a t 2 , 0 0 0 b i t s p e r second, are of t w o t y p e s , r e a l t i m e and s t o r e d program commands, and p r o v i d e c o n t r o l of s a t e l l i t e and s e n s o r o p e r a t i o n s . A l l commands are 6 4 - b i t words decoded on t h e s a t e l l i t e . R e a l t i m e commands a r e Stored s e n t s i n g l y and e x e c u t e d immediately upon r e c e i p t . program commands, s t o r e d i n t h e command memory f o r execut i o n of a sequence of e v e n t s , are f o r m a t t e d i n t o messages of up t o 6 4 commands. Each of t w o redundant memories s t o r e s 768 commands, a l l o w i n g t h e Seasat t o o p e r a t e autom a t i c a l l y f o r up t o 20 o r b i t s . Commands cannot be s t o r e d f o r e x e c u t i o n m o r e t h a n s i x days a f t e r t h e y are l o a d e d i n t o t h e memory. During normal o p e r a t i o n s , command l o a d frequency w i l l b e one 256-command l o a d e v e r y f i v e t o 1 2 h o u r s . During h i g h - a c t i v i t y p e r i o d s , more f r e q u e n t l o a d s may be r e q u i r e d .
Data t e l e m e t e r e d from S e a s a t - A w i l l c o n s i s t of eng i n e e r i n g and s e n s o r measurements p r e p a r e d f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n by t h e t e l e m e t r y f o r m a t t e r .

-

more

-

-30-

Encoded i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l i n d i c a t e v o l t a g e s , p r e s s u r e s , t e m p e r a t u r e s and o t h e r v a l u e s measured by t h e s p a c e c r a f t t e l e m e t r y s e n s o r s as w e l l as payload s e n s o r d a t a which can be t r a n s l a t e d l a t e r i n t o g e o p h y s i c a l measurements. I n r e a l t i m e o p e r a t i o n , d a t a i s s e n t t o one of two t a p e r e c o r d e r s and t o t h e t r a n s m i t t e r , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , a t 25 k i l o b i t s p e r second. During p l a y b a c k , one t a p e r e c o r d e r modulates t h e downlink a t 800 kbps w h i l e t h e o t h e r recorder i s s t o r i n g d a t a f o r playback. The 3 2 : l playback-recorded r a t i o allows more t h a n t w o o r b i t s of d a t a (EO0 m i n u t e s ) t o be p l a y e d back t o a STDN s t a t i o n i n l e s s t h a n seven minutes -- e a s i l y accomplished i n s i n g l e s t a t i o n p a s s .
N o SAR d a t a i s r e c o r d e d . The SAR o p e r a t e s o n l y 10 t o 1 5 minutes d u r i n g selected o r b i t s ( a b o u t 4 p e r c e n t of t h e m i s s i o n t i m e ) a s i t o v e r f l i e s one of f i v e ground s t a t i o n s

which can receive t h e widebank t e l e m e t r y stream. The onboard SAR d a t a and t r a n s m i s s i o n systems o p e r a t e i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e s a t e l l i t e communications system. T r a c k i n g The S p a c e c r a f t
To achieve t h e desired o r b i t a l period, e c c e n t r i c i t y and a l t i t u d e a c c u r a c i e s and t o s u p p o r t s c i e n c e d a t a processing, very precise o r b i t determination i s required. Three independent t r a c k i n g systems p r o v i d e t h e n e c e s s a r y measurements.

For t h e s t a n d a r d Doppler t r a c k i n g d a t a , t h e S-band s i g n a l w i t h r a n g i n g codes i n s e r t e d i s t r a n s m i t t e d f r o m t h e STDN s t a t i o n s , r e c i e v e d a t t h e s a t e l l i t e changed i n f r e quency by a known r a t i o and r e - t r a n s m i t t e d t o E a r t h . It is p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e p r e c i s e l y t h e t i m e d e l a y and the Doppler s h i f t of t h e r e c e i v e d s i g n a l , t h e r e b y measuring r a n g e and v e l o c i t y r e l a t i v e t o t h e ground s t a t i o n . T h i s i s c a l l e d c o h e r e n t two-way t r a c k i n g . Noncoherent one-way t r a c k i n g i s when no u p l i n k s i g n a l i s r e c e i v e d and t h e downl i n k c a r r i e r frequency i s p r o v i d e d by an onboard o s c i l l a t o r .
A ground receiver network, c a l l e d TRANET, o p e r a t e d by

t h e Department of Defense, receives a d u a l frequency Dopp l e r beacon from Seasat. The t r a c k i n g measurements w i l l b e used t o supplement t h e STDN S-band t r a c k i n g f o r o r b i t determination. Onboard equipment i n c l u d e s an u l t r a s t a b l e C t r a n s m i t t e r r a d i a t i n g a t 1 6 2 MHz and 324 MHz. W Seasat a l s o w i l l u s e t h i s frequency onboard as t h e s o u r c e f o r s a t e l l i t e timing.

-

more

-

-31-

The t h i r d t r a c k i n g system

u s e s a w o r l d w i d e network o f
1Jsed a t s e l e c t e d

l a s e r s t a t i o n s , some o p e r a t e d by t h e STDN and o t h e r s by
t h e Smithsonian A s t r o p h y s i c a l Observatory.

times for c a l i b r a t i o n of t h e r a d a r a l t i m e t e r , t h e l a s e r
s i g n a l s , o r i g i n a t i n g a t t h e ground s i t e s , are beamed a t t h e s a t e l l i t e s , r e f l e c t e d f r o m c o r n e r cube" r e t r o r e f l e c t o r s and d e t e c t e d on t h e ground. A r i n g of q u a r t z r e f l e c t o r cubes a b o u t 1 0 1 c m ( 4 0 i n . ) i n d i a m e t e r i s mounted on t h e s e n s o r module. Attitude Control The a s c e n t p o r t i o n of t h e a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l system p r o v i d e s s t a b i l i z a t i o n of t h e Seasat a f t e r A t l a s s e p a r a t i o n and d u r i n g t w o f i r i n g s of t h e Agena e n g i n e and c o n t r o l s d u r a t i o n of t h e e n g i n e burns. Following o r b i t a l i n s e r t i o n , it a l s o o r i e n t s t h e s a t e l l i t e from nose-forward t o nose-down and p r o v i d e s s t a b i l i z a t i o n d u r i n g deployment of a n t e n n a s and s o l a r arr a y s = These f u n c t i o n s a r e performed u s i n g h y d r a z i n e r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l t h r u s t e r s f o r a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l and a gyro r e f e r e n c e u n i t as one a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e , augmented by h o r i z o n s e n s o r s f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d p r i o r t o nose-down.
A t w o t a n k h y d r a z i n e s u p p l y f e e d s s e t s of o r b i t a d j u s t and r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l t h r u s t e r s . High-mode t h r u s t e r s , 53.4-newton ( 1 2 l b . ) are used d u r i n g a s c e n t . For o r b i t a d j u s t maneuvers, t w o 2 2 . 2 - N ( 5 - l b . ) t h r u s t e r s are mounted i n t h e Agena forward s e c t i o n so t h a t t h r u s t i s a p p l i e d i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n alonq t h e o r b i t a l a x i s . During o r b i t a d j u s t p e r i o d s , l o w mode r e a c t i o n cont r o l t h r u s t e r s (1.8-N o r . 4 l b . ) maintain s a t e l l i t e attitude. referenced t o t h e gyro u n i t .

The i n i t i a l o r b i t a d j u s t maneuver i s designed t o corr e c t i n j e c t i o n e r r o r s and w i l l be conducted about a week a f t e r launch when p r e c i s e o r b i t d e t e r m i n a t i o n h a s been made from an u n d i s t u r b e d s a t e l l i t e . Subsequent o r b i t t r i m maneuvers, planned t o o c c u r n o t m o r e t h a n once a month, w i l l be used t o compensate f o r a t m o s p h e r i c d r a g , s o l a r p r e s s u r e and o t h e r s u b t l e o r b i t d e g r a d a t i o n s . P r o p e l l a n t a l l o c a t i o n h a s been made f o r a t h r e e - y e a r m i s s i o n . During normal o p e r a t i o n s i n o r b i t , Seasat i s threea x i s s t a b i l i z e d by momentum wheels and g r a v i t y g r a d i e n t techniques.

-

more

-

-32-

Sensor p o i n t i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s i n c l u d e c o n t r o l t o an acc u r a c y of .5 d e g r e e i n r o l l , p i t c h and yaw and t e l e m e t e r e d d a t a on s a t e l l i t e o r i e n t a t i o n t o an accuracy of .2-degree i n a l l axes. Scanwheels p r o v i d e p i t c h and r o l l r e f e r e n c e s viewing t h e E a r t h ' s h o r i z o n and p i t c h and r o l l f i n e cont r o l . Y a w a t t i t u d e i s m a i n t a i n e d by gyrocompassing. Sun s e n s o r d a t a i s used t o d e t e r m i n e a c c u r a t e l y yaw o r i e n t a t i o n , b u t i s n o t used f o r c o n t r o l . T h e scanwheels a r e mounted a t t h e lower end o f t h e s e n s o r module n e a r a l l of t h e c r i t i c a l a n t e n n a s . P i t c h momentum wheel and roll r e a c t i o n w h e e l are l o c a t e d i n a s u p p o r t s t r u c t u r e above t h e s e n s o r module. Excess momentum accumulated i n t h e wheels i s removed by prov i d i n g a d j u s t i b l e t o r q u e on t h e s a t e l l i t e u s i n g e l e c t r o magnets which i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e E a r t h ' s magnetic f i e l d . Sensor Module The s e n s o r module i s a p l a t f o r m f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e f i v e s e n s o r s t o achieve t h e mission o b j e c t i v e s w i t h i n t h e r e q u i r e d r e s o l u t i o n and accuracy. The s e n s o r s are l o cated i n p o s i t i o n s r e l a t i v e t o one a n o t h e r and t o t h e beacon, l a s e r r e t r o r e f l e c t o r and communications a n t e n n a s so t h a t e a c h h a s an u n o b s t r u c t e d f i e l d o f view and e a c h a c h i e v e s t h e r e q u i r e d p o i n t i n g and s c a n a n g l e . Mounting p o s i t i o n s a l s o were selected t o p r e v e n t e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e between m u l t i p l e r a d i a t i n g s o u r c e s . The s e n s o r module's primary s t r u c t u r e i s a 25.4-cm ( 1 0 - i n . ) - d i a m e t e r aluminum a l l o y t u b u l a r m a s t t o which equipment mounts are a t t a c h e d .
Two scanwheel assemblies are mounted n e a r t h e forward end on t u b u l a r s u p p o r t s t o g i v e each u n i t a c l e a r v i e w o f E a r t h ' s horizon.

The Radar A l t i m e t e r (ALT) i s mounted a t t h e end o f t h e m a s t s t r u c t u r e -- n e a r e s t t h e E a r t h -- t h e one-meter d i a m e t e r r e f l e c t o r a n t e n n a and RF u n i t on t h e forward end and t h e s i g n a l p r o c e s s o r t o t h e s i d e . The r i n g of c o r n e r cube q u a r t z r e f l e c t o r s f o r t h e l a s e r t r a c k i n g system s u r r o u n d s t h e a l t i m e t e r a n t e n n a and RF e l e c t r o n i c s module.

-

more

-

-33-

The Microwave S c a t t e r o m e t e r (SASS) and Doppler beacon t r a n s m i t t e r f o r t h e TRANET t r a c k i n g system are mounted i n a s u p p o r t s t r u c t u r e on t h e s i d e of t h e mast. Four s l o t t e d a r r a y s t i c k a n t e n n a s f o r t h e SASS are stowed a g a i n s t t h e s t r u c t u r e and each deployed s e p a r a t e l y . The TRANET antenna i s a t t a c h e d t o a d e p l o y a b l e boom which a l s o s u p p o r t s one of t h e t w o S-band communications a n t e n n a s . T h e second i s deployed on a s e p a r a t e boom. The V i s i b l e and I n f r a r e d Radiometer ( V I R R ) c o n s i s t s o f a s c a n n e r mounted on a d e p l o y a b l e boom and e l e c t r o n i c s o n t h e mast t u b e .
T h e f i v e - c h a n n e l Scanning M u l t i f r e q u e n c y Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) i s mounted as a s i n g l e u n i t on t h e s i d e of t h e s e n s o r module s t r u c t u r e . T h e u n i t i n c l u d e s f i x e d o f f s e t p a r a b o l i c r e f l e c t o r , s c a n mechanism and d i g i t a l processor.

The S y n t h e t i c A p e r t u r e Radar (SAR) antenna and elect r o n i c s a r e i n s t a l l e d n e a r t h e base of t h e s e n s o r module. The huge SAR s e n s o r a n t e n n a i s i n e i g h t segments, f o l d e d d u r i n g l a u n c h and deployed t o form a f l a t r e c t a n g u l a r arr a y w i t h an area of 2 3 sq. m (245 sq. f t . ) The SAR downl i n k t r a n s m i t t e r i s mounted on t h e m a s t and i t s h e l i c a l antenna i s deployed on a s h o r t boom.

-

more

-

-34-

PAYLOAD Radar Altimeter The Radar Altimeter traces a 2 to 10 km (1.25 to 6.25 mi.) wide path (dependent on surface roughness), on a line directly below the satellite. The Radar Altimeter measures average wave height to within 10 per cent over a range of 2 to 20 m ( 6 to 65 ft.) and the height of t'he spacecraft above the ocean to a precision of 10 cm ( 4 in.). The height measurements should allow determination of sea-surface topographic features that correspond to ocean tides, storm surges and currents. The altimeter generates a 13.56 gigahertz chirp signal at two kilowatts peak power. The signal is radiated to Earth through a 1-m (39-in.) antenna that looks at the sub-spacecraft point. The reflected signal, when received at the spacecraft, is amplified, converted from analog to digital and processed digitally in the sensor. That processing includes:
0

Acquisition and tracking of the returned signal; Development of estimates of altitude and wave state; Relaying the onboard measurements and other data for transmission to Earth for additional processing.

The Radar Altimeter uses 177 watts and weighs 9 3 . 8 kg Ib.). Dr. Byron Tapley of the University of Texas is team leader.
(206.8

Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) The Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer data are used to derive sea surface temperatures, wind speed and atmospheric water content. It measures absolute levels and relative variations in the microwave radiation it receives from the surface. The instrument measures surface temperature with a precision of 1 1 / 2 to 2 degrees Celsius (2.7 to 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit); wind speeds up to 50 meters per second (110 miles an hour); and provides atmospheric correction data to other instruments by measuring water vapor content in the atmosphere.

-

more

-

-35-

It observes an area beneath the satellite 690 km (430 mi.) wide.
SMMR uses a scanning 42-degree-offset parabolic antenna to receive the signal from Earth, It measures horizontal and vertical polarization components of microwave radiation at 6.6 gigahertz, 10.69 GHz, 18.0 GHz, 21.0 GHz and 37.0 GHz. The signal is then converted from analog to digital in the instrument and is fed into the satellite telemetry data stream to Earth for final processing.

59.66 watts of power.

The Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer uses It weighs 53.9 kg (118.8 lb.).

Duncan R o s s of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorologic Laboratory, Miami, Fla., is team leader. Microwave Scatterometer (SASS) The Scatterometer measures fine-scale ocean-surface roughness caused by surface winds. The measurements can be converted directly into wind speed and direction. The Scatterometer measures wind speed from 4 m/s (9 mph) to 48 m/s (107 mph), to an accuracy of 10 per cent or 2 m/s (4.5 mph), whichever is greater, and wind direction to 20 per cent, The instrument measures wind speed and direction in two surface swaths on each side of the spacecraft, each 500 km (310 mi.) wide. The scatterometer can measure wind speed only for an additional 250 km (155 mi.) on each side of the main swaths. The SASS generates a 14.6 gigahertz signal at 100-watt peak power that is radiated to Earth through four fan-beam antennas that have vertical and horizontal polarization. The reflected signal is received, amplified and converted from analog to digital within the sensor. It is then routed to the satellite data system for transmission to Earth for processing. The electronics assembly weighs 59 kg (130 lb.) , and each antenna weighs 11 kg (24 lb.) for a total weight of 103 kg (227 lb.). Professor Willard J. Pierson of the City University of New York is team leader.

-

more

-

-36-

Visual and Infrared Radiometer (VIRR) The Visual and Infrared Radiometer is not a microwave instrument; its primary purpose is to provide supporting data for the four microwave experiments. The VIRR will provide images of atmospheric conditions, cloud coverage patterns, ocean and coastal features: it will also provide sea surface temperature maps. Visual image resolution will be 2 km (1.2 mi.): infrared image resolution will be 4 km (2.4 mi.), over a 2,100-km-wide (1,300-mi.) surface swath. Radiation emitted from Earth is collected by an ellipticalshaped scan mirror that directs it into a dichroic beam splitter. Infrared radiation is sent to a bolometer detector, while visible radiation is sent to a silicon PV detector. The signals are amplified, filtered and sent to the satellite telemetry system as analoq siqnals. They are diqitized by the satellite data processing-system for transmission to Earth for processing. The instrument, consisting of an electronics module and a scanner, weighs 8.1 kg (17.85 1b.)It uses 7.3 watts of power

.

Dr. Paul McClain of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Environmental Satellite Service, Camp Springs, Md., is team leader. Synthetic ADerture Radar ( S A R I The Synthetic Aperture Radar will provide allyweather pictures of ocean waves, ice fields, icebergs, ice leads (linear openings in sea ice), fresh water ice, land, snow cover and coastal conditions. It will also provide ocean wave spectra including wave direction. The instrument produces images with resolution of 25 m (80 ft.) over a swath 100 km (62 mi.) wide. A typical pass with the instrument will last 10 minutes. The SAR is the first NASA radar system of its kind designed to study ocean wave patterns from orbit. The system consists of a deployable radar antenna 2.1 m (7 ft.) by 10.7 m (35 ft.): a SAR sensor including a solid-state transmitter, low-noise receiver and digital controller and a data link to transmit the radar signal to Earth for processing.

-

more

-

-37-

The sensor generates a 1.275 GHz chirp signal at 1,000 watts peak power that is radiated to Earth by the radar antenna. The reflected signal is received on the spacecraft where it is amplified by the sensor, converted to 2.265 GHz and transmitted to Earth in analog form by the SAR data link. The signal is digitized and stored on tape at the tracking station. The signal is processed into radar images at Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Radar Imaging Processing Facility. Because of the high data rate of the radar imagery (equivalent to 110 million bps), the SAR, with its special ground equipment, will operate only within line of sight of specific tracking stations equipped to handle the data. Those tracking stations are located at Goldstone, Calif.; Merritt Island, Fla.; and Fairbanks, Alaska. The Canadian Government is planning to equip a station at St, John's Newfoundland. The European Space Agency is purchasing equipment for a tracking station at Oakhangar in southern England. The Synthetic Aperture Radar weighs 147 kg (324.5 lb.) and uses 2 1 6 watts of power. Dr. Paul Teleki of the U . S . Geological Survey, Reston, Va., is team leader. DATA COLLECTION AND PROCESSING The Seasat-A mission data system embraces all project elements associated with data flow between the satellite and the experimenter-user community on the ground. (Figure 5) An end-to-end system design approach has been adopted and will be implemented by a project data system design team. Consistent with initial program formulation, NASA will establish proof-ofconcept engineering and geophysical validation of Seasat data and users will provide the resources required for processing, analysis, dissemination and application of data peculiar to their special interests. The data products of the Seasat sensors must serve a variety of users in a variety of forms. Weather data is highly perishable; to be of practical value, operationally, they must be processed (e.g., formatted, merged, blended and analyzed) and applied in near real time. Data older than eight hours are of little interest except for climate studies or model development. At the opposite end of the spectrum is the geodesist, whose data are nearly time invariant. The geodesist's approach to analysis is often to fit and refit data by a bootstrap approach, finally achieving a best fit model of the ocean geoid. - more -

SEASAT-A

OCEAN DATA DlSTRl6UTION PLAN
Figure 5
SATELLITE

INSTRUMENT SCIENCE
COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE

RATE DATA LINKS

w
a ,

I

I

SURFACE TRUTH

STDN GSFC

- S P A C E F L I G H T T R A C K I N G AN
DATA NETWORK

- G O D D A R D S P A C E F L I G H T CENTER
- FLEET N U M E R I C A L WEATHER C E N T R A L

FNWC

USER ANALY S IS DATA DISSEMINATION ECON. VERIFICATION EXPMTS.

-39-

Some of the users will have sizeable ground data systems available to assist them in processing and analysis; others will have only inexpensive terminals with limited processing capability. Some users care only for specific outputs such as wind and wave data for use in ship routing: others, such as university researchers, want as much of the data as available for application to development of advanced prediction models. Thus Seasat's end-to-end data system, consisting of NASA and user facilities equipment and communication networks, must be flexible and dynamic enough to meet the demands of this broad spectrum of currently identified and future user applications. Data from the satellite will be returned in three separate streams. The real time stream at 25 kilobits per second and the 800 kbps playback stream from the Seasat tape recorders contain all data except that from the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). An analog SAR data stream is obtained in real time only at specially equipped ground stations -Goldstone, Calif., Fairbanks, Alaska, and Merritt Island, Fla. -- on special wide-band recorders utilizing Seasat-SARunique equipment. The data tapes will be forwarded directly to Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for processing. The SAR data processing facility at JPL contains unique equipment to correlate the raw radar data recorded at the selected STDN sites and to produce radar images on film. Both processing systems at JPL operate in non-real time, receiving data packages six to 10 days after the data is acquired.

Two non-NASA ground stations also will receive SAR telemetry. SAR data received and recorded at a station in Newfoundland will be processed at JPL and at the Canadian Centre for Remote Sensing. The European Space Agency operates the other station, located in England.
All other spacecraft telemetry data are recorded on either of two on board recorders, 100 per cent of each orbit. Each of 12 STDN stations throughout the world is equipped to acquire playback (tape recorder dump) data. After acquisition, the data are forwarded to Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., where the data are pre-processed and forwarded to JPL for final processing. Algorithms, needed to convert the data into information usable by the ocean experimenters, are developed at JPL and applied internally as well as provided to user organizations outside the project.

-

more

-

-40-

The tracking station at Fairbanks, Alaska, is committed to provide this same data to the Fleet Numerical Weather Central Facility (FNWC) at Monterey, Calif., within three hours after receipt of each playback acquisition. These data will be forwarded from Alaska to FNWC by commercial satellite link. FNWC desires data less than 6 hours old and will use these data in providing Seasat data products to various users (NOAA, Department of Fisheries, Commercial Weather Forecasters, etc.). In addition to this 3-hour requirement, other STDN stations will be used to attempt to provide global data to FNWC in a 12-hour time period. Real time data, approximately once each orbit, will be provided to the Seasat Project Operations Control Center (POCC) at Goddard Space Flight Center (by any STDN station) where spacecraft housekeeping data will be extracted and displayed for use in spacecraft health monitoring and configuration control operations. The STDN will also provide tracking support, both S-band and laser. Orbit computations support will be provided by the Mission and Data Operations Directorate at Goddard, utilizing these tracking data. The STDN stations are located at: Ascension Island; Santiago, Chile; Bermuda; Goddard; Goldstone; Guam; Hawaii; Madrid, Spain; Orroral, Australia; Merritt Island, Fla.; Quito, Ecuador; and Fairbanks, Alaska. All stations will provide tracking, telemetry and command capabilities. Both the Navy and JPL will combine ocean measurements from local sources with Seasat data. The "surface truth" data will be obtained from aircraft, ships and instrumented buoys making measurements along the satellite's target path. The Navy's Fleet Numerical Weather Center (NOAA) will distribute the Navy-processed data. NOAA also will distribute the non-real time data processed at JPL through the Environmental Data Service.

-

more

-

-41-

LAUNCH VEHICLE SYSTEM (LVS) The Launch Vehicle System (LVS) consists of a modified Atlas-F booster, an interstage adapter (ISA), a modified fairing and all associated aerospace ground equipment and facilities. The LVS is 34.6 m (113.5 ft.) overall length and 3.05 m (10 ft.) in diameter. The fairing is 10.2 m (32.8 ft.) in length and 3.05 m (10 ft.) in diameter. The LVS provides the initial boost and guidance to and the aerodynamic protection f o r , the satellite system. The Agena bus portion of the satellite system provides the injection stage propulsion and guidance functions. A nominal sequence of events is provided below in Table 2. The flight vehicle configuration is shown in Figure 6.

-more-

MAJOR LAUNCH EVENTS FOR ATLAS F/SEASAT-A MISSION Event Liftoff Roll Start Roll Stop Booster Engine Cutoff Booster Engine Jettison Start Guidance Steering Fairing Jettison Sustainer Engine Cutoff Start Agena Programmer Uncage Satellite System Gyros Vernier Engine Cutoff Satellite System Separation Fire Atlas Retro Rockets Satellite System 900 Roli Start Satellite System 90° Roll Stop Agena First Burn First Burn Shutdown Agena Second Burn Second Burn Shutdown Time
0

Altitude Kilometers - Miles
0
0

2.0 sec. 15.0 sec. 2 min. 9.5 sec. 2 min. 12.6 sec. 2 min. 27 sec. 3 min. 27.5 sec. 4 min. 44.4 sec. 4 min. 49.4 sec. 5 min. 2.4 sec. 5 min. 3.4 sec. 5 min. 8.9 sec. 5 min. 9.4 sec. 5 min. 18.4 sec. 5 min. 54.4 sec.
6 min. 23.4 sec.

45.7

28.4

122.4 173.5

76.0 107.8

185.2

115.3

10 min. 14.5 sec.

57 min. 28.4 sec. 57 min. 34.6 sec. -more790.2 491.0

SEASAT-A MISSION FLIGHT COMPENDIUM

A T L A S VEWER PIIASE t 1 , 4 0 0 LE THRUST

__ ~--flczE~

--?
COMMAND
BACWR

5.5 SEC

(CUD BIU T U 1 2 1
SPACE POSITION

A
VLCO Iv) VLiwrfn ENGINE CUTOFF (T+30S 5 NOMHAL)

-

8 &-".

I

WAMTIOH V t 5 . S

GUIDANCE DlSCWlT(S+lq ATLAS p n o c n a u m (1119 1)

BACKUP

RANGE SAFETY COMMA'D LHK P n o m u m DWLETICU
PSS

RANGE SAFZTY COMMAND UNK (V*o ZIMAIN FUEL CUTOFT)

COMMAND: GUIDANQ (V+S. 5) BACKUh PROCPAMLQR (V+S.S) FIRE RCTIIOROCUTS (VI() T m E RCTIIOROCKLTS BIU (VI()

wnisrr szco+z SIC

PSI m m r r BACKUP S E C O +SEC ~ START ACENA TlMlNC S E C 0 6 SEC START AGENA TlMlNG BIU I C O + 6 S U UNCACE SV GYROS SECO+IO S I C UNCAGE S GYROS B/U SECOtII) 5 SEC V

-

-

smcI wsIncu
MCUIP
ATLAS?Iux;IIAMMER

T430

T R A J E C T O R Y P R O F I L E F O R THE A T L A S F I S E A S A T - A M I S S I O N
FAIRING

.
L IFT-OFF

AGENA 90' ROLL

, /
\

DUMP PROPELLANT DURING 1/3 ORBIT

FOR 1ST BURN

FIRST BURN THRUST VECTOR CONTROL

?*

B

\

COAST GYRO COMPASS CONTROL

'\
ORIENT AGENA FOR 2ND BURN
2ND BURN THRUST VECTOR CONTROL

/J

-45F l i q h t Vehicle Configuration

4

LMSC -52.5

1 2 4 FAIRING

LMSC 247.0 SATELLITE MATING PLANE

A--T LMSC 442.44 LMSCU7.0 LMSC466.0 FIELD GDC 488.5 JOINT

LMSC 384 .O FAIRING SEPARATION PLANE FIELD JO~N~

GDC GDC INTERSTAGE ADAPTER LMSC 547.5 GDC 570.0

/-OOSTER B
34
M

MODIFIED ATLAS-F

b
Figure 6

GDC 1309.98

. .

-46-

SEASAT-A EXPERIMENT TEAMS Science Steering Group James A. Dunne, Chairman John R. Ape1
H. Michael Byrne

Jet Propulsion Laboratory Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, NOAA (alternate) Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorologic Laboratory, N O M National Environmental Satellite Service, N O M National Environmental Satellite Service, NOAA National Environmental Satellite Service (alternate) Naval Surface Weapons Center Naval Research Laboratory Naval Research Laboratory (alternate)
U.S. Geological Survey

Duncan B. Ross E. Paul McClain John W. Sherman I11 John Wilkerson Samuel L. Smith I11 Vince E. Noble Benjamin Yaplee Paul G. Teleki Willard Pierson Robert Stewart Byron D. Tapley Rene 0 Ramseier .

City University of New York Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of Texas Canadian Department of the Environment

-more-

-47-

Radar Altimeter Byron D. Tapley, Team Leader Craig L. Purdy H. Michael Byrne J. M. Diamante Bernard H. Chovitz Bruce Douglas Pat LeDeonibus Leonard Fedor Joseph T. McGoogan George H. Born William Fred Townsend Hamilton Hagar Samuel L. Smith I11 Jack Lorell Charles J. Cohen Joseph N. Siry Benjamin Yaplee David E. Smith
E. M. Gaposchkin

University of Texas Wallops Flight Center Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, NOAA Naval Oceanographic Service Naval Oceanographic Service,
NOAA

Naval Oceanographic Service Environmental Monitoring and Prediction, NOAA Environmental Research Laboratory, NOAA Wallops Flight Center Jet Propulsion Laboratory Wallops Flight Center Jet Propulsion Laboratory Naval Surface Weapons Center Jet Propulsion Laboratory Naval Surface Weapons Center Goddard Space Flight Center Naval Research Laboratory Goddard Space Flight Center Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Goddard Space Flight Center Goddard Space Flight Center Naval Surface Weapons Center -more-

F. 0 Vonbun .
H. Jay Zwally

R. J. Anderle

-48-

Synthetic Aperture Radar Paul G. Teleki, Team Leader Clifford L. Rufenach Duncan B . Ross John W. Sherman 111 Frank T. Barath Omar Shemdin Paul E. LaViolette Kumar Krishen Robert Beale William J. Campbell Bruce Blanchard Richard M. Hayes Robert Shuchman Robert Stewart Rene 0 Ramseier . Frank Gonzales Walter E. Brown, Jr. U.S. Geological Survey Wave Propagation Laboratory, NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorologic Laboratory, NOAA National Environmental Satellite Service, NOAA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Jet Propulsion Laboratory Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity Johnson Space Center Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory U.S. Geological Survey Texas A
&

M University

U.S. Coast Guard Environmental Research Institute of Michigan Scripps Institution of Oceanography Canadian Department of the Environment Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, NOAA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

-more-

-49-

Radar Scatterometer Willard Pierson, Team Leader Ledolph Baer Glenn Flittner Peter G. Black Isidore Halberstam City University of New York Environmental Monitoring and Prediction, NOAA National Weather Service National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory Langley Research Center University of Kansas National Environmental Satellite Service Langley Research Center

W. Linwood Jones
Richard K. Morre Jack Ernst W. L. Grantham Visual and Infrared Radiometer

E. Paul McClain, Team Leader
Andrew W. McCulloch Oscar C. Huh Robert L. Bernstein Fred Vukovich

National Environmental Satellite Service Goddard Space Flight Center Coastal Studies Institute, University of Louisiana Scripps Institution of Oceanography Research Triangle Institute

-more-

-50-

Scanning Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer Duncan B. ROSS, Team Leader John W. Sherman I11 Frank T. Barath Eni Njoku Joseph M. Stacey
J . W.

Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorologic Laboratory National Environmental Satellite Service, NOAA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Jet Propulsion Laboratory Jet Propulsion Laboratory
J e t Propulsion Laboratory

Waters

Per Gloerson Thomas T. Wilheit, Jr. Calvin T. Swift Norden E. Huang James P. Hollinger William J. Campbell Vincent J. Cardone John C. Alishouse

Goddard Space Flight Center Goddard Space Flight Center Langley Research Center Wallops Flight Center Naval Research Laboratory U.S. Geological Survey City University of New York National Environmental Satellite Service

-more-

-51-

SEASAT-A MISSION TEAM NASA Headquarters Dr. Anthony J. Calio Associate Administrator for Space and Terrestrial Applications Director of Environmental Observations Systems Program Manager Acting Associate Administrator for Space Tracking and Data Systems Associate Administrator for Space Transportation Systems Director, Expendable Launch Vehicles

Dr. Lawrence R. Greenwood S. Walter McCandless, Jr. Norman Pozinsky

John F. Yardley Joseph B. Mahon

Jet Propulsion Laboratory Dr. Bruce C. Murray Robert J. Parks Walker E. Giberson Dr. James A . Dunne John H. Gerpheide Edwin Pounder Anthony J. Spear Charles A. Yamarone Richard T. Hayes Willis G. Meeks -moreDirector Assistant Director for Flight Projects Project Manager Ocean Experiments Manager Satellite System Manager Mission Engineering Manager Sensors Manager Information Processing Manager Project Operations Manager Chief of Mission Operations

-52Goddard Space F l i g h t C e n t e r
Dr.

Robert S. Cooper

Director
Director, Mission and
Data O p e r a t i o n s

A l b e r t G. John B .

Ferris

Zegalia

Mission S u p p o r t Manager

L e w i s Research C e n t e r
Dr.

Bernard Lubarsky Szabo, Jr.

A c t i n g Director C h i e f , Seasat Launch Vehicle Office

S t e v e n V.

N a t i o n a l Oceanic and Atmospheric A d m i n i s t r a t i o n

John W. Sherman I11
Dr.

NOAA P r o j e c t Manager

John R. Ape1

Director, NOAA P a c i f i c Marine Environmental L a b o r a t o r y

Department of Defense Capt. Harry L. Bixby, U N S
DOD Program C o o r d i n a t o r

S Capt. Ron E. Hughes, U N
D r . V i n c e n t Noble Dr.

Commanding O f f i c e r , F l e e t Numerical Weather C e n t r a l C o o r d i n a t o r , Naval Research Laboratory C o o r d i n a t o r , Defense Mapping Agency

Charles Martin

Department of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Richard Hayes Lockheed Missiles & Space Co. John C . Solvason L S Program Manager MC C o o r d i n a t o r , U.S. Guard Programs

Coast

-more-

-53SEASAT-A CONTRACTORS

Satellite Lockheed Missiles Co., Inc. Sunnyvale, Calif.
&

Space

Satellite System (bus and sensor modules): Project Operations Support SAR Antenna

Ball Brothers Research Corp. Aerospace Division Boulder, Colo. Bell Aerospace, Textron Buffalo, N.Y. Hamilton Standard Division United Technologies Corp. Windsor Locks, Conn. Ithaco, Inc. Ithaca, N.Y. Motorola, Inc. Scottsdale, Ariz. Odetics, Inc. Anaheim, Calif. Pressure Systems, Inc. Los Angeles, Calif. Schaeffer Magnetics, Inc. Chatsworth, Calif. Sensor Svstems Aerojet General Corp El Monte, Calif. Andersen Labs, Inc. Bloomfield, Conn. Applied Physics Laboratory Johns Hopkins University Laurel, Md. -more-

Rocket Engine Thrusters

Orbital Attitude Control Radio Transponder Tape Recorders Hydrazine Tanks Solar Array Drives

.

SASS Antenna ALT Radar Pulse Modulator ALT RF and Sensor Integration and Test, Digital Processing Units and GSE; SAR Data Link

-54-

General Dynamics Corp. San Diego, Calif. General Electric Co. Valley Forge, Pa. Hughes Aircraft Co. El Segundo, Calif. Martin Marietta Corp. Denver, Colo. Microwave Research Corp. North Andover, Mass.
Santa B a r b a r a R e s e a r c h C e n t e r

SMMR Antenna Reflector SASS Sensor SASS Traveling Wave Tube: ALT RF Power Amplifier
SAR Power Supply

SMMR Antenna Feed
V I R R I n s t r u m e n t R e t e s t and

Goleta, Calif. Westinghouse Electric Co. Baltimore, Md. Zeta Labs Mountain View, Calif.

Calibration and Integration Support SAR Transmitter
ALT Up-converter

The following are Seasat-A sensor managers: Keith D. Fellerman Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Md. Joseph M. Stacey Jet Propulsion Laboratory Pasadena, Calif. Fred V. Huber Jet Propulsion Laboratory Pasadena, Calif. William L. Grantham Langley Research Center Hampton, Va. William A . Brence Wallops Flight Center Wallops Island, Va. -endVisible and Infrared Radiometer (VI RR) Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SARI Microwave Scatterometer (SASS) Radar Altimeter (ALT)