Carpathian List of Endangered Species

Contributors

This Red List is the result of the work of a group of scientists from countries located in the area of the Carpathian Mountains in Central Europe. It has been technically edited by Zbigniew J. Witkowski (chief editor), Wiesław Król and Wojciech Solarz. The editors would like to thank the following people for their excellent contributions to the following chapters of this publication: Vascular Plant Species (Lydia Tasenkevich); Vertebrates — small mammals and large herbivores (Kajetan Perzanowski), large carnivores (Henryk Okarma); Birds (Tomas Ruzicka); Reptiles and Amphibians (Mojmir Vlasin); Fishes and Lampreys (Krzysztof Kukuła, Judit Sandor); Invertebrates (Jerzy Pawłowski); Plant Alliances (Viera Stanova). Digital maps of the Carpathians were prepared by Jan Seffer and Rastislav Lasak. Databases for data gathering were designed by Wiesław Król, Paweł Adamski and Zbigniew J. Witkowski. This Red List would not have been completed without the commitment and support of the Carpathian Ecoregion Initiative (CEI), facilitated by the WWF International Danube–Carpathian Programme (DCP), within the framework of which biodiversity in the Carpathians has been assessed. Special thanks goes to Philip Weller, Sissi Samec and Suzie Holt all former staff at the WWF International Danube–Carpathian Programme Office in Vienna. Text editing and design advice was provided by Paul Csagoly, Communications Manager for the WWF International Danube– Carpathian Programme. Illustrations were drawn by Marek Keppert. Cover page design was made by Edward Bobeł, Wiesław Król. Layout and typesetting of the whole publication was provided by Edward Bobeł. This List was completed using databases and other sources of information as well as technical equipment and support from the Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow, Poland.

Carpathian List of Endangered Species
Edited by Zbigniew J. Witkowski — chief editor Wieslaw Król Wojciech Solarz

Authors Krzysztof Kukuła Henryk Okarma Jerzy Pawłowski Kajetan Perzanowski Tomas Ruzicka Judit Sandor Viera Stanova Lydia Tasenkevich Mojmir Vlasin

Vienna, Austria and Krakow, Poland April 2003

This edition published 2003 by the Carpathian Ecoregion Initiative

The Carpathian Ecoregion Initiative is a unique international partnership achieving conservation of nature in the globally important Carpathian Mountains and, at the same time, supporting local economy and culture for the lasting benefit of people living in the heart of Europe. Facilitated by WWF, more than 50 organizations from seven countries are working together to make this vision a reality. Copyright © 2003 WWF Reproduction of this publication for sale, resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without prior written permission of the copyright holder. Citation: Witkowski Z.J., Król W., Solarz W. (eds.). 2003. Carpathian List Of Endangered Species. WWF and Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences, Vienna-Krakow

About the Carpathian Ecoregion Initiative

ISBN 83–918914–0–2

Published by: WWF International Danube-Carpathian Programme, Vienna, Austria; and Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow, Poland Printed by EUROPRESS, Kraków, Poland

. . . . . . . 27 Reptiles and Amphibians . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 WWF International Danube–Carpathian Programme and the Carpathian Ecoregion Inititiative . 1 Vascular Plants . . . . . . xii Part II CONCLUSIONS AND SPECIES GROUPS ANALYSES Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv Part I INTRODUCTION Species Conservation. . . . . . . x References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Plant Alliances . 62 . . . . . . .Contents About this book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii How to Use This Book . 6 Mammals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Invertebrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Birds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v Why a Carpathian List Of Endangered Species?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii Methodology Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mountains and the Carpathians. . . . 32 Fishes and Lampreys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

WWF created its list of Global 200 ecoregions which represent the world’s most outstanding areas requiring targeted conservation efforts. animals and plant alliances in the Carpathians. The publication ends with additional information about the objectives and work of both the Carpathian Ecoregion Initiative and WWF. facilitated by the WWF International Danube Carpathian Programme. has been responsible for mapping overall biodiversity in the Carpathian ecoregion. Part I of the publication begins with an introduction about the importance of species conservation.About this Book While the importance of the conservation of species is globally recognized. The methodology used in compiling this Carpathian List Of Endangered Species is then explained. The Carpathian Mountains. but that no red list or book covers the entire Carpathian ecoregion as a whole. as a first step in its targeted conservation efforts. 2001). the editors of this publication concluded that existing red lists and red books do cover parts of the Carpathians. Part II opens with a set of conclusions that summarize the overall results taken from the six separate chapters on species groups that follow. 2000. especially in mountain systems. the rate of man–made extinctions and the development of new threats to species are catastrophic. The Carpathian Ecoregion Initiative. as are guidelines on how to understand the data presented. their origins and the need for a new comprehensive Carpathian List Of Endangered Species. This publication is therefore an initial response to filling in that gap and constitutes the second step in the data analysis process of the Carpathian Ecoregion Initiative (CEI). Turnock 2001) and the report on ”The Status of the Carpathians” (Webster et al. is one such Global 200 ecoregion. following its earlier work on sectoral syntheses (Witkowski et al. but also the popularisation of general knowledge about this region throughout Europe. In response. The ultimate goal of this document is not only the presentation of a list of threatened plants. It then defines red lists and red books. Following initial analyses. perhaps Europe’s richest mountains in terms of overall biodiversity. .

1999). has proven that mountain areas are of particular value for human beings. It is assumed that in natural conditions at least one species per year becomes extinct for purely natural reasons (Shaffer 1990). tens of thousands of species are disappearing from our planet (May 1999) and the intensity of the extinction process is as high as the mass extinctions known from paleobiological records (Sepkoski 1992). including conservation biology. Progress in ecology and related sciences. vulnerable or threatened. Mountains and the Carpathians The conservation of species. mountains have become the main areas for the rapid development of tourism and recreation. with people altering the biosphere and pushing an uncountable number of species to the verge of extinction.PART I Introduction Species Conservation. mountains host a unique variety of species. mountains are the sites of continental or regional species diversity hot spots. in the past several decades. The specific micro– and meso–climates of mountain areas play an important role in diminishing the global greenhouse effect (Cernuska et al. Moreover. As early as the 1980s. forms one of the basic elements of biodiversity conservation. prepared jointly by IUCN. however. Bearing in mind that we have so far described less than 2 million species globally — only a 10% to 15% fraction of total world species diversity — the majority of extinct forms are not known and never will be known to science. Vast complexes of mountain forests are vital for the timber production industry. . First and foremost. this principle of the preservation of genetic diversity was established as the foundation for the practice of conservation through the World Conservation Strategy. WWF and UNEP. This situation has rapidly changed today. particularly those in danger of extinction. These ecosystems are key sources and reservoirs of freshwater. species either become extinct in the ever–changing environment or develop into new distinctive forms. Over a period of millions of years. many of which are rare. The lifespan of a species is not unlimited. Every year. The rate of man–made extinctions is high enough to be called catastrophic. All over the world.

2001). Moreover. the Carpathians are one of Europe’s largest mountain ranges (fig. numbered in the thousands. General location of the Carpathians. Carpathian elevations are rather moderate. wolf and lynx. Carpathian populations of brown bear. are the largest montane populations of these species in Europe (Witkowski 1998). At the same time. This is possibly the last place in Europe where all “big game” species can be found. One consequence of these specific bio-geographical characteristics is . The Carpathians are included in this list of global biodiversity hot spots as one of the world’s key Palaearctic montane ecoregions (Webster et al. Small. 1. Owing to its relatively intact habitats and particularly extensive forest complexes. Fig.000 square km.000 metres above sea level. the Carpathians are one of Europe’s most valuable refuges of primeval forest fauna. 2000). 1).vi Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Introduction These were among the main reasons why WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature) identified montane forests and grasslands as ecosystems with global biodiversity importance in its Global 200 initiative (Dinerstein et al. Covering an area of approximately 206. with less than 1% of the area exceeding 2. scattered areas of alpine landscape and vast areas of primeval forests distinguish the Carpathians from other mountain ranges in Europe.

As a result. Czylok et al. However. The leading role was taken by the Survival Service Commission (currently the Species Survival Commission — SSC) of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources/World Conservation Union (IUCN). red lists and red books have been drawn up for geographic areas at different spatial scales: worldwide. the Species Survival Commission of IUCN at Cambridge prepares red data books for species that are threatened globally or at the continental scale. Shelag–Sosonko 1996. distribution.g. 1999). regional. Voloscuk 1996). a considerable number of red books and red lists were published. in these lists which cover separate countries (Austria. 1999. 1993.g. Oltean et al. For example. Głowaciński 1993. factors of decline and conservation measures. Feráková 1993. At the other end of the spectrum are red lists and red books focusing on specific areas within one nation. are few and far between (e. Maglocký. and to a large extent. Sytnyk 1980. assessing and popularising information about the most threatened plant and animal species on Earth. isolated areas scattered throughout the whole massif (Mirek. Kricfalusy et al. is the Red data book. National and regional approaches operate on an intermediate scale. Niklfeld 1999. Czech Republic. irrespective of political borders. Głowaciński 1992. vii Why a Carpathian List of Endangered Species? This Carpathian List of Endangered Species is based upon the concept of a Red book of species which was forged in the early 1960s as a reaction to the urgent need of gathering. Szeląg 1992). data published in red lists are usually restricted to a concise presentation of species distribution and status. 1999. The only list where the Carpathians are considered as a whole. defined either according to political or ecoregional (biome) divisions (e. country and local. 1994. Tasenkevich 1997. Early efforts resulted in the preparation and publication of red books on globally threatened mammals (Simon 1966) and birds (Vincent 1966). 1996. Kaźmierczakowa 1993. regional initiatives covering many countries. At the same time. Ukraine and Hungary). the Carpathians were included either as a part of a country’s territory (Čeřovský et al. patchy.Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Introduction that the alpine flora and fauna of the Carpathians are restricted to small. Kricsfalusy et al. Rakonczay 1989. While red books contain in–depth analyses of species status. several red lists and red books of plants and animals have been developed. Zarzycki. Slovakia. Dihoru.g. Zarzycki. they include more species than do red books. continental. In the Carpathian countries. In the following decades. because red lists cover whole taxa. Piękoś–Mirkowa 1992. such as this List of Endangered Species. covering areas of one or more countries. Parusel et al. Poland. Romania. despite a considerable number of endemic species that only occur here. Dihoru 1994. or only a part of the range was covered (e. the diversity of high-mountain flora and fauna in the Carpathians is rather poor in comparison with other large European mountains. Ingelog et al. Lists of threatened plants and animals of the Carpathian . Witkowski 1998). More recently. The nation–based approach is far more widespread than the region–based approach: while country red lists and books have been developed in a considerable number of nations. 1996).

2001). it was determined that there is a gap in knowledge about the pan–Carpathian status of threatened plant and animal species.viii Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Introduction National Parks and reserves (Voloscuk ed. . This list (in fact lists) includes the vascular plants and vertebrates of 17 national parks in the Carpathians. Categories of threat according to IUCN (IUCN 1994. This publication is an attempt to fill this gap. Fig. Extinct in the Wild (EW). Along with threatened and rare species. In order to make the data more consistent. 2001) used in this Carpathian List of Endangered Species (shaded area). a database was designed and species were selected according to unified criteria. as a result of the analysis of the existing data. 2) was estimated to be one of the following: Extinct (EX). Critically Endangered (CR). As a result. or Vulnerable (VU). Methodology Used Several authors participated in the data gathering process for the plant and animal species in this Carpathian List of Endangered Species. 1996). In conclusion. 2. the list also includes relatively common ones. this Carpathian List of Endangered Species comprises species for which the category of threat in the whole region (see fig. The key criteria for choosing species for the Carpathian List of Endangered Species was based on the IUCN classification scheme for threatened species (IUCN 1994. Categories of Threat and Protection Status The authors assessed the status of species for the whole of the Carpathians using “categories of threats” in countries available from existing country red lists and red books. Endangered (EN).

at times including boreal–montane species. Limitations of the Methodology Despite the efforts made to unify the work. The only available division that covered the whole region was elaborated by Kondracki (1978). For example. In the case of Arctic/Alpine and high mountain species. lithology. Posea and Badea 1984. Listed in the European Union’s Bird Directive or Habitat Directive. For instance. 1989). Endemic to the Carpathians. and Transsilvanian Upland. In order to present the distribution of Carpathian endangered species. it was impossible to present species distribution consistently. Regarding categories of “protection” status. In addition to the criteria applied for the delineation of sub–provinces. invertebrates being a good example. since potentially exploited species can at the same time be protected. it was necessary to use a consistent method for dividing the extensive mountain range into units. These are delineated on the grounds of general geological. Slovak Republic. There were also some differences in the selection of criteria of species between vertebrates. A large proportion of the European population of a species situated in the Carpathians.000.000 map of the Carpathians (Kamiński 1993) was wrapped to the Gauss–Kruger zone 34 projection system. Pécsi et al. Afterwards. Inner Eastern Carpathians. correction was carried out for Romania. data on the protection status of species was also collected. Bihoru Mountains. hydro–graphical and bio–geographical characteristics.Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Introduction Additional criteria applied when choosing species categories included whether the species was: Arctic/Alpine. High mountain. some differences in interpretation between the authors became apparent as the work progressed. Although land protection can be regarded as an additional form of species conservation. mesoregions were delineated on the basis of geographic location. details of the relief. anthropogenic alternations as well. Carpathian Region = 8 Sub–provinces = 186 Mesoregions In order to present a map of the division units. Sub–provinces are in turn divided into small units (mesoregions). On the basis of lists of protected and hunted species in the Carpathian countries. Species and Physiographic Units The presentation of species distribution is a vital part of any list or book of endangered species. invertebrates and vascular plants. on the basis of regional maps of orographical units. Demek et al. or Relic species. these turned out to be too simplified. The division is hierarchical and each unit is given a unique digital code. it is not covered in this List. Czech Republic and Hungary (Mazúr and Lukniš 1980. Outer Eastern Carpathians. relief. Listed in the Bern Convention. and in some cases. Altogether. local or state authorities can decide to suspend or restrict exploitation of some threatened spe- ix . There are eight large units (sub–provinces): Outer Western Carpathians. Inner Western Carpathians. Discrepancies in the state of knowledge between separate taxa partly account for this fact. Southern Carpathians. some authors used a broader approach. the original 1:2. Central Western Carpathians. 1987. there are 186 mesoregions in the Carpathians.

It must be emphasized that the development of a complete Carpathian List of Endangered Species. Mammals 3. for plant communities was not a goal of this project. For example. Furthermore. Reptiles and Amphibians 5. This in practice may lead to the protection of all or part of a population of species. plant alliances are not strictly related to species lists. Birds 4. Tables on Species Category of Threat and Protection Status Tables for vascular plants and vertebrates include the following information (see Sample Table 1 below): 1. The list covering vegetation taxa (plant alliances) is relatively more consistent than other lists in this publication because it was elaborated by only one author. Vascular Plants 2. the evaluation of plant alliances was done on the grounds of the occurrence of endemic vascular plant species. Invertebrate distribution can be attributed only to countries. Fishes and Lampreys 6. Invertebrates 7. Species Category of Threat and Protection Status 2. irrespective of their exact systematic position. How to Use This book The Carpathian List of Endangered Species is divided into the following chapters: 1. followed by two sets of data tables: 1. Category of Threat for Entire Carpathians and for Separate Carpathian Countries • EX – Extinct • EW – Extinct in the Wild • CR – Critically Endangered .x Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Introduction cies under hunting law. not to mesoregions (as with vascular plants and vertebrates). temporarily or permanently. The philosophy here was to have an overview about communities occurring within the Carpathians and to select the top 20 communities. The selection was based on the endemism of communities and the high proportion of endemic vascular plants within communities. Plant Alliances Each chapter begins with a textual explanation. species of vascular plants within one class and vertebrates within one phylum are listed in alphabetical order (according to scientific name). specific differences are explained below in descriptions to the tables. The plant alliances section of this book differs thoroughly from the plant and animal species chapters. Species and Physiographic Units To facilitate the use of this Carpathian List of Endangered Species. The presentation of the data for plant and vertebrate species (chapters 1 to 5) differs considerably from that for invertebrates and plant alliances (chapters 6 and 7).

Protection of Species in Carpathian Countries • SP – Strict protection • PP – Partial protection • E – Exploitation • NP – No Protection 3. inserted at the back of this Carpathian List of Endangered Species. To make the species distribution concise. The full list of unit names and codes is given on the back of the map of the entire Carpathian Mountains. 1777 Lutra lutra (Linnaeus. “513. Carpathian hold large proportion of world population xi Arctic/Alpine Species Endemic Category of Threat in Carpathian Countries RO UA SK CZ PL H A Protection in Carpathian Countries RO UA SK CZ PL H A High Mountain Species Category of Threat for Entire Carpathians Habitat Directive + + Bern Convention Large Carnivores Canis lupus Linnaeus. All codes have also been mapped onto this map. 513.43. ranges of mesoregion codes were used in some cases: for example.54” means that a species is present in all units in this range (513.Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Introduction • EN – Endangered • VU – Vulnerable • DD – Data Deficient • + – species present but not threatened 2.). 513.45 etc. 1758 Felis sylvestris Schreber. Relic . 1758) VU EN VU EX CR CR CR CR VU EN VU CR VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU SP SP SP PP SP SP SP SP E SP PP SP SP SP SP + + + + + + Tables on Species and Physiographic Units Species distribution is presented in the form of a code list of physiographic units (mesoregions) in which the species is present (see the sample table below). Rationale for Including Species in the Carpathian List of Endangered Species • Arctic/Alpine species • Included in Bern Convention • Included in Bird Directive (in case of birds) • Carpathians hold large proportion of world population • Endemic • Included in Habitat Directive • High mountain species • Relic Sample Table 1: Table on Species Category of Threat and Protection Status.44.43-513.

532.56. Kuliński W.71-74.412. 531. 542. (ed.B.51-54. 514.). 531. Demek J..1. UK.412.) 1993. scale 1:500 000. Gland. Gland. 513. Budnikov. 525. Czylok A. 522. Additionally. Uppsala and Institute of Biology.411-412. 1777 Lutra lutra (Linnaeus. Data on the “Protection” of species is presented only for Poland.. Dihoru G. IUCN. 514. Slovak Academy of Sciences. 584 pg.71-74.33-34. 532.64-65.51-53. There is no data on “Category of Threat” in Austria. 1: 43-58. Warszawa. Invertebrates within one phylum are listed in alphabetical order according to scientific name. 514. Gregor F.14. 514.84-85. Karpaty. 523. Parusel J. Maglocký S. Data on plant alliances is restricted to distribution in the countries.. Holub J. Farina ed. 526. 514.42-43. 1980.43 513. Red list of ferns and flowering plants (Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta) of the flora of Slovakia (second draft). ii + 30 pp. Olson D.41. Kraków..1. Wettengel W.. Ministry of Education of Ukraine and Uzhgorod State University.35-37.61-65..9. 531. Powell G. Čeřovský J. Part 1 List of theratened vascular plants and vertebrates. Uppsala & Riga. Swedish Threatened Species Unit. Tjernberg M.43-45. 516.. PWRiL. Wydawnictwa szkolne i pedagogiczne.41-42. 513. In: (J. 1987: Zeměpisný lexikon ČSR. Louks C. 524.62-64. 1758 Felis sylvestris Schreber. 513.. 533. Perspectives in Ecology: a . 3. 522. Lukniš M. 523. 513. 533. PTR Kartografia Warszawa. P periclitate şi endemice in flora Romaniei – Lista Roşie. 513.. Andersson R. Red List of Transcarpathia.2. 514. 2000. 516. 1999. 517. Backhuys Publ. 541. 525. 513. Catizzone M. 523. Biológia 48: 361–368. Msc. 523.31-33. (eds.4-6.xii Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Introduction Sample Table 2: Table on Species and Physiographic Units Species Large Carnivores Canis lupus Linnaeus. Kricsfalusy V. 515.71-72. WWF. 513. 1999. Ingelog T. it was impossible to avoid the following inconsistencies between data on invertebrates and data on plant and vertebrate sections: 1.31.51-52. 514. Maglocký S. 514. 523.4.45-49. 1999. 523.. Uzhgorod.34.. Parusel ed. 541. 517.62-64. (eds. Presentation of species distribution in physiographic units was not possible..1. 533.) Upper Silesian Nature Heritage Centre. Leiden..14. 516. Slovakia and the Czech Republic. Slovak Republic – Geomorphological units. 531.V.1-2. Dinerstein E. 514.. Głowaciński Z 1993. 541. Threatened plant species and plant alliances. Ricketts T. Allnutt T. 514. A rough estimation of species distribution can be done on the basis of “Categories of Threat” in the countries..3-4.B. Feráková V. 513. Hory a nížiny. Mazúr E. 515. (eds) 1993. 515. 517. 1996.) 1992. Polish Red Data Book of Animals. Biblioteka Almanachu Karpackiego „Płaj”. Academia Praha..43. 542. 531. 513. the exact systematic order of invertebrates was not followed in the tables. Farina ed.. 531. A workbook for conducting biological assessments and developing biodiversity visions for ecoregion-based conservation. Abell R.67-69. Zezula A. Proházka F. 514. 542 513. 515. Switzerland and Cambridge.11-14. In (A. 514. 531. 514.. Wikramanayake E. Czerwona Lista zwierząt ginących I zagrożonych w Polsce.. 514.. 514.44-47. IUCN Species Survival Commission. 1758) 513.) 1999.. 524. Red List of Upper Silesian Vertebrates.. Priroda. References Cernusca A. Bratislava. Mihaly A. Switzerland.54-57. 2.). 514. 1994.21-22.1. 526.1-2.4a. 1978. Prepared by IUCN Species Survival Commision. 542 Physiographic Units As with plants and vertebrates.V.. 523.81-85. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3. 523. 2001.51-53. 514. 513.11-12.). Bahn M. 541. Burgess N. Feráková V. Dihoru A. 516. Acta Botanica Horti Bucurestiensis: 173–197. Vyššie rastliny.71-73. 514.61-66. Warszawa. 522... 523. 525. Zakład Ochrony Przyrody i Zasobów naturalnych PAN. Kamiński P. IUCN 1994.21-25...72. 523. 542.33-34. Strand H. Red Data Book of the Baltic Region.51-57. Červená Kniha ohrozených a vzácnych druhov rastlin a živočichov SR a ČR. 524.. Land-use changes in mountain areas. Due to a scarcity of data on invertebrates. Raports Opinions vol.B. Perspectives in Ecology: a glance from the VIIth International Congress of Ecology. 524. 513.. IUCN.31.11-17. 532. et al.9. Plante rare. 513.65. 513. 513.31-34. O’Connor S. 526. 513.71-72. What we do and do not know about the diversity of life on Earth. Underwood E. Kondracki J..H. Riga. May R.55-57. (eds.48-49. In (A. IUCN Red List Categories.1-2. Głowaciński Z. 1993. 542. 542.. 513. Bayfield N. the list of endemic plant species and the list of the 20 most precious alliances are presented. G.23-29.

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PART II Conclusions and Species Groups Analyses Overall assessment of threat A number of conclusions can be reached in assessing the data that has been compiled in this Carpathian List of Endangered Species. EW — extinct in the wild. CR — critically endangered. according to data from the database. endangered or critically endangered. EN — endangered. VU — vulnerable. DD — data deficient. and EN/VU status as EN While this table shows that extinct species are far less frequently represented than in existing Carpathian country red lists and books. Table 1. Table 1 below presents the number of species in each taxon classified according to categories of threat. one should not conclude that extinction processes do not occur in the Carpathians. as . Extinctions certainly do take place. It can be seen that the majority of species fall into three categories: vulnerable. EX — extinct. Numbers of species in each category of threat. Systematic group Vascular plants* Mammals Birds Reptiles and Amphibians Fishes and Lampreys Invertebrates ** Total EX 13 2 — — 2 — 17 EW 1 — — — — — 1 CR 39 2 7 1 3 74 126 EN 135 12 11 6 14 125 303 VU 155 44 11 7 11 141 369 DD 1 — — 3 — — 4 *including species and subspecies **CR/EN Pan-Carpathian status of invertebrates was classified as CR.

with as many as 73. 3 presents the percentage of species in taxonomic groups in different categories of threat. and extinct in the wild. Overall assessments of threat Fig. vulnerable (VU) species account for 45% of all species. It may be assumed. . therefore. that in the case of groups for which data was relatively scarce in the Carpathians (e. except for vascular plants (Tasenkevych 1998) and bats (Wołoszyn. Percentage of species in taxonomic groups in different categories of threat. The fraction of critically endangered species in the Carpathians is particularly high among invertebrates (21. The process of data collection on extinctions used here was not standardized. endangered species (EN). but in the Carpathians only a small fraction may be detected due to the fact that no monitoring system has been developed for the whole ecoregion. Mammals are the least threatened group of vertebrates. Vertebrates as a whole are the least threatened group. and critically endangered (CR) — for more than 15% of species. explanations as in Table 1. Extinction processes in the past have been poorly monitored across the planet. Fig 3. species are higher than those in the table. Generally.2 Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Conclusions they do in other areas. Therefore. Bahsta 2001). while birds are the most threatened among vertebrates. the final extirpation of populations can only be estimated based on red data books for particular Carpathian countries or from the repeated monitoring of species. actual numbers of extinct. This Carpathian List of Endangered Species could only use local data related to changes to the flora and fauna of some regions. as such data was very limited in space and time. for approximately 37%. invertebrates).g.8%).3% of species classified as vulnerable.

Fishes of the region have been better preserved than in rivers outside of the region due to the fact that Carpathian rivers still constitute one of the major reservoirs of clean waters in central Europe. also included species classified as of rare or lower risk. and as it focuses on marine and lowland vascular plants and vertebrates. Rassi. a total of 40% of European flora species is estimated to be threatened (Lucas and Walters 1976. In the case of birds. however. Kornaś 1982). and these groups were not covered in this Carpathian List of Endangered Species.988 native and archaeophyte vascular plants recorded in the Carpathians (Tasenkevych 1998). Here. on the verge of extinction. do not find favourable breeding habitats in the Carpathians. While threat status of the Carpathian mammals and reptiles in this Carpathian List of Endangered Species are concordant with results obtained in the red lists of different European countries (Głowaciński 1992. Polish and Slovakian red lists may be misleading because the lists differ in terms of methodology of data gathering and analysis. 1994. Comparison with the only other Carpathian list As noted in the Introduction. as well as in different spatial coverage. then the threat to Carpathian flora appears to be similar or even higher than that in these two countries. flora and fauna are threatened as in other areas in Europe. birds and fishes in the Carpathians appear to be less threatened compared to their status in each Carpathian country even though these two groups are the most threatened among the Carpathian vertebrates (Fig. At the same time. A regional approach. one can observe that. pointing to the fact that. any comparison with the Carpathian List of Endangered Species is irrelevant. in the Carpathian ecoregion. Out of approximately 3. the process of flora degradation is less intensive than in the majority of the European biomes. This European evaluation. or extinct. dealt exclusively with vascular plants and vertebrates recorded in 17 national parks of the 3 . only Poland is included in this book. was also applied in the Red Data Book of the Baltic Region (Ingelog et al. 344 — or 9% of Carpathian flora — were classified as endangered. Vaisanen 1987).Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Conclusions Comparisons with other lists These results are concordant with results obtained in other national and regional lists. if only the species which fall into the five categories of threat included in this Carpathian List of Endangered Species are considered. the result can easily be explained by the fact that waterfowl and waders. 3). 1993). in the Carpathians. Among the Carpathian countries. which are among the most threatened groups of birds throughout Europe. Nowak et al. one has to bear in mind that any general conclusions drawn on the basis of simple comparisons of the Carpathian List of Endangered Species. similar to the one followed here. this Carpathian List of Endangered Species is the second attempt ever to cover the whole Carpathian ecoregion. More informative is a comparison of the results in this Carpathian List of Endangered Species with results obtained in the two red lists of the Carpathian countries of Poland and Slovakia (Zarzycki and Wojewoda 1986). However. In comparison. however. The first list.

CR. the result is that there are more vascular plant taxa in the Voloscuk list (compare columns II and III in table 2). classified at least in 1 national park as EX. 15 species of reptiles. III — number of species in the present list (only EX. 1996). were classified as extinct. Moreover. generally. while this List is restricted almost exclusively to species. Endangered (En) and Vulnerable (Vu) species. Table 2. 236 species of birds. Therefore. apart from Extinct (Ex). stem from two reasons. I Vascular Plants (taxa) Vertebrates Mammals Birds Reptiles and Amphibians Fishes and Lampreys 1163 412 85 236 32 59 II 500 206 59 100 26 21 III 344 136 60 29 17 30 A comparison of the two lists allows for a solid conclusion if threatened species alone from the Voloscuk list are considered (table 2. Rare (R). at least in one national park (out of 17 analysed by Voloscuk). while column III lists only species threatened on the Pan–Carpathian level. Care demanding (Cd). 1996) compared with those in this Carpathian List of Endangered Species. One is that the Voloscuk list of vascular plants includes subspecies. and VU species are included in the list). E(EN). our results show that there are 480 plant and animal taxa and 129 plant alliances presented in this Carpathian List of Endangered Species. and does not try to determine the Pan–Carpathian status of species made in this Carpathian List of Endangered Species. II — number of species in Voloscuk’s lists. is certainly far richer. Therefore non-threatened species constitute a substantial part of that list.4 Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Conclusions Carpathians (Voloscuk ed. As a result. The Voloscuk list is restricted to flora and fauna in national parks. however. 17 species of amphibians and 59 species of fishes and lampreys (see Table 2 below). EW. Altogether. endangered or vulnerable. Differences. Carpathian biodiversity. and they were not included into our List. Some of the species in the Voloscuk list were by no means threatened on the Pan–Carpathian level. Overall. the number of vascular species and vertebrates in the Voloscuk list significantly exceeds that included in this list. the Voloscuk list comprises 1. Numbers of vascular plants and vertebrates in the “Red Data Book” (Voloscuk ed. or V.163 species and subspecies of vascular plants. The other source of difference is that the Voloscuk list and this List were based on different methodologies. It must be remembered that fungi and lower plants are . column II). 85 species of mammals. however. column II in Table 2 represents a total number of species which. whereupon a significant concordance of the results becomes apparent. Indeterminate (I) and Present (Pr) species are also listed. EN. species in the list are selected according to seven categories of threat (IUCN 1994). The result of differences in methodology applied in the Voloscuk list and this List is a statistical artifact implying that. there are more threatened species in the Voloscuk list than in this List (see columns II and III in table 2). I — total number of species in Voloscuk’s list.

Blab J. 5 References Głowaciński Z. estimates for invertebrates vary between different taxa. Voloscuk. In other red lists and red books. Tasenkevich L.. Furthermore. Kornaś J. Rote Liste der gefaehrdeten Wirbeltire in Deutschland. are even more incomplete. Chiropterological Infomation Center. Bashta A. Riga. This is true at least for vascular plants. Prepared by IUCN Species Survival Commision. Ukraine. (eds) 1993.. Rassi. Kew.. ACNAP. Lists of threatened plants and animals of the Carpathian National Parks and reserves. Zarzycki K. 1998. Wojewoda W. Lucas G. IUCN 1994. 2001. Red Data Book of the Baltic Region. 1982. Andersson R. One possible future step to continue work on biological diversity in the Carpathians is an analysis of the list of several tens of focal species. V. Memorabilia Zoologica 37: 11-30.-T. Polish Red Data Book of Animals. Bonn – Bad Godesberg. Ingelog T. Red data book. Wołoszyn B. 2000). Part 1 List of theratened vascular plants and vertebrates. Państwowe. (eds. Adamski P. Witkowski Z. Polowy klucz do oznaczania nietoperzy. Bless R. Poland Bat Research and Protection Group & Institute of Ecology of the Carpathians UAN. Vienna. threats and conservation measures for focal species. I. Unpubl.M. Novak E. Lista roślin wymierających i zagrożonych w Polsce. Vaisanen 1987). The Carpathian Biodiversity Assessment – Reconnaissance phase. information on invertebrates included here should be referred to as a rough assessment rather than a comprehensive source of information. ranging from less than 10% to over 40% species threatened (Głowaciński ed. Such lists will contribute to filling in some of the inconsistencies evident in this Carpathian List of Endangered Species. PWRiL. Man’s impact upon the flora: processes and effects.) 1996.Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Conclusions not covered in this Carpathian List of Endangered Species. Warszawa.. (eds. report for the WWF Danube-Carpathian Programme. L’viv.L. such as large carnivores or the most valuable endemic plants and invertebrates which were selected through the biodiversity assessment of the region (Witkowski et al. Vaisanen R. Available data on other organisms in the Carpathians. Warszawa. .).) 1992. 2000. 1994. 1987. 1992. Helsinki.. Tatranska Lomnica. Gland. (eds. IUCN. London.. Slovak Republic. this will almost certainly result in updated red lists to be published in some countries in the near future. 290 pp. Kraków. The future As the body of knowledge on biodiversity in the Carpathians is relatively large. Flora of the Carpathians. Wydawnictwo Naukowe. Uppsala and Institute of Biology. Swedish Threatened Species Unit. such as fungi. and including them into this List would be of very little use. 1976 List of rare.. Uppsala & Riga. Kilda-Verlag. Nietoperze Karpat. Walters S. L’viv. Solarz W. Switzerland. Checklist of the native vascular plant species.). threatened and endemic plants for the countries of Europe. Invertebrates While data on vascular plants and vertebrates in this Carpathian List of Endangered Species were based upon red lists and red books published in the Carpathian countries and scientific monitoring. invertebrates — a major part of biological diversity — are undoubtedly underrepresented here.) 1986. Royal Botanic gardens. Tjernberg M.W. State Museum of Natural History NASU. Threatened animals and plants in Finland. Another opportunity is the development of an assessment.. following the concept of a Red Book of Carpathian biodiversity which would include an in-depth analysis of population status.. IUCN Red List Categories.. (ed. Rassi P. vertebrates and plant communities. (ed.

Polish.Vascular Plants by Lydia Tasenkevich State of knowledge The flora of the Carpathians have been studied by generations of Austrian. Vols. Vols. Russian. 3−12 (1950−1965) • Key for Determination of Vascular Plants in the Ukrainian Carpathians (1977) [“Vyznachnyck roslyn Ukrains’kykh Karpat”] • Květena Česke Republiky [Flora of the Czech Republic]. Hindák eds. List 1: Documents on the Flora of the Carpathians • Exkursionsflora von Österreich (Adler. Vols. Romanian. . 1−5 (Soó 1964−1973) Vascular Plants of Poland. 1995) These publications. 1−2 (Beldie 1977−1979) • Flora Polska (Flora Polski). some of which are complete. have been mainly concerned with the entire flora of individual countries of the Carpathian region. Vols. A Checklist (Mirek et al. and some of which are still in preparation (see list below). Vols. Fischer 1993) • Checklist of Non–Vascular and Vascular Plants of Slovakia (Marhold. however. 1998) • Flora of Romania. Hungarian. These studies are summarized in a number of documents including Checklists and Keys. Vols. Oswald. 1−4 (1988−1995) • Nová Kvìtena ÈSSR. Czech. Vols. 1−5 (1966−1997) • Flora of the Ukrainian SSR [Flora Ukrains’koyi RSR]. 1−14 (1919−1992) • Flora Republicae Popularis Romanicae [Flora RP (RS) Romîne]. Vols. Slovakian and Ukrainian botanists. 1−2 (Dostál 1989) • Synopsis Systematico–Geobotanica Florae Vegetanisque Hungaricae. No data was available on the composition and quantitative structure of Carpathian flora itself. 1−13 (1952−1976) • Flora Slovenska. until a checklist of native vascular plant species of the Carpathians (Tasenkevich 1998) was published.

endangered (E) and vulnerable (V) categories have been taken into consideration in this Carpathian List of Endangered Species. the status category of every taxon was defined on the basis of IUCN categories introduced over 20 years ago (Lucas. hybrid and apomictic taxa1 (for which their claim to the rank of species seems doubtful) are to be excluded from the count. Hindak. Red lists and red data books have been compiled in nearly all European countries with the aim of revealing the number of species in need of protection and their conservation status. The diversity and richness of native flora is also due to Atlantic. Northern and Eastern European.500 total for all European flora. Kaźmierczakowa 1993) have also been published. only taxa listed in the extinct (EX). 203 species of Hieracium from a total of 289 species and subspecies. the remaining 3. 1994. Maglocký 1983. red lists (Dihoru. Maglocký. Niklfeld 1999. As noted in the Introduction. Piękoś–Mirkowa 1992) and Ukraine (Stojko 1977.. Zarzycki 1986. Central. Mediterranean and Asian floristic elements which meet in the Carpathians. At the same time. . “threatened” taxa are listed as: extinct (EX). and according to IUCN criteria (IUCN 1994). and vulnerable (VU). 117 species of Rubus from a total of 192. extinct in the wild (EW). It is composed of 3. 1 This includes: 84 species of genus Alchemilla in the Carpathians (for which the total number of species in the Carpathians is 121). The data presented in existing red lists and red books (see Introduction) are concerned with the entire territories of individual countries.Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Vascular Plants It can now be asserted that the native flora of the Carpathians is among the richest on the European continent. and 86 species of genus Taraxacum Weber from a total of 114 species. Synge 1977). Council Directive 1992. An estimation of the specific threat to the flora of a specifically Carpathian area of a country has only been made in Poland (Mirek. The 383 species and subspecies of unquestionable taxonomic rank and 99 microspecies of genera Alchemilla. 7 Methods To estimate the threat to the entire vascular flora of the Carpathians. Komendar 1988). 1999. Rakonczay 1989. It should be noted that. Zarzycki. Zarzycki. 22 species of Sorbus from a total of 33 species and subspecies. endangered (EN). Even if the group of inbreeding. Rubus. as are the documents listed above in List 1.698 species and subspecies of the Carpathian native flora still make up approximately 30% of the 12. the ratio of the area between the Carpathians and Europe is 1:46. only in the Checklist of Slovakian Flora (Marhold. Oltean et al. In the Carpathian countries. 1998) and in the joint Slovak and Czech Red Book of Threatened and Rare Vascular Plants (Čeřovský et al. data on the conservation status of plant species from national red lists and red books cited above and several other sources (Convention 1973. From those lists. were the threatened plant species evaluated according to the 1994 criteria adopted by the IUCN. Dihoru 1993. Convention 1973) have been used in this work. critically endangered (CR). 1999). In the rest of the national listings. Sorbus and Hieracium are endemic to Carpathian flora. Feráková 1993. Szeląg 1992) and Red Books (Čeřovský et al. Shelag–Sosonko 1996.988 species and subspecies belonging to 131 families and 710 genera.

another two are declining species of threatened wet habitats and the rest occur in xerothermic grasslands and broad–leaved forests. 91 are relics and 95 taxa are on the edges of their geographical range in the Carpathians (Table 3). 12 taxa are Glacial relics and four are older settlers in the Carpathian flora of Tertiary age. seven occurred only on the edge of their range in the Carpathians. and one is extinct in the wild. 12 are sub-endemic. Seven species are endemic. In the case that a particular taxon was given a lower risk (LR). 62 species and subspecies are endemic. The number of critically endangered (CE) taxa is very high. Most of the plants of this group have only one or a few relic sites in the Carpathians. The 41 species and subspecies belonging to the CE category are on the verge of extinction from Carpathian flora and need particular care and urgent implementation of active protection measures in a number of cases. but was classified as EX. or even was not listed (NE) in certain countries. E (EN) or V (VU) in others. This list of threatened vascular plants in the Carpathian Mountains is the first attempt to assess the conservation status of the flora of this natural geographic unit regardless of state borders. two are weeds suffering in their whole range. so it is listed as data deficient (DD). Altogether. a total of 307 species and 37 subspecies have been chosen and are to be considered as threatened on the pan–Carpathian scale. rare (R). out of danger (O) or data deficient (DD) category in a certain country’s list.9% of native vascular plant taxa in the Carpathians are highly threatened. Their eventual extinction in the Carpathians would be a great loss not only to regional Carpathian flora but also to world flora. Conclusions Of approximately 1. there is insufficient data to assess their status on the regional level. 9. two are sub–endemic. Overall. 65 endemic species and subspecies. A total of 135 taxa are classified as endangered (EN) and 155 species and subspecies are considered as vulnerable (VU). three taxa were Glacial relics. There can be no doubt that further field investigations on the populations of threatened Carpathian plants would provide new data on which to base a more specific estimation of the conservation status of threatened plant species and verify the Carpathian Ecoregion Initiative database. amongst 344 threatened taxa of the flora of the Carpathian Mountains. and a further two mountain species had only one location each in the Carpathians. . A total of 10 taxa are on the very edge of their geographical ranges. Among these.500 pteridophytes and flowering plants listed in national threatened and rare plant species inventories cited above. this taxon has been taken into account for inclusion in this Carpathian List of Endangered Species. A total of 13 species have become extinct in the whole Carpathian area. two weed species are declining archeophytes. For one species.8 Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Vascular Plants It must be noted that the category of threat for a particular taxon may not be the same in different countries. 71 relics (mainly of the Glacial period) and 76 species on the edge of their geographical range. These alarmingly numerous groups of endangered and vulnerable species comprise. among others.

Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste România. Viera Stanova and Ms. 1–5. 1977–1979. Oswald K. Bertova L. Beldie A. Illustrated determinator of vascular plants. Futák J. The Flora of Romania.. Ulmer.) 1966–1997. Judit Sandor in checking the Slovakian and the Hungarian threatened plant species distribution data respectively. Vols. 1993. according to criteria of their rarity and protection. Criteria Endemics Pan–Carpathian West–Carpathian East–Carpathian South–Carpathian Transsilvanian Bihorian West–East Carpathian West–South Carpathian East–Carpathian–Bihorian East–South Carpathian West–Carpathian–Transsilvanian Sub–endemics Pannonian–Carpathian Alpine–Carpathian Carpathian–Balcanic Relics Tertial Glacial Postglacial Species on the edge of distribution Bern Convention Habitat Directive CITES Archeophytes Herbal plants High–montane plants Hydrophytes Hygrophytes Xerophytes Halophytes 9 Number of taxa 62 4 28 11 6 1 1 1 2 1 6 1 12 6 3 3 90 7 71 12 95 43 13 13 8 2 22 15 18 2 2 Acknowledgements I am most grateful to Ms.. Veda Press. Vols. Flora Slovenska. .. Fischer R. Groups of threatened vascular plant taxa in the Carpathians. Robin Webster for taking the trouble to revise the English text. Goliašová K (eds. References Adler W. Exkursionsflora von Österreich. Bucuresti..1–2. I greatly appreciate the work of Ms.Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Vascular Plants Table 3. Bratislava.

Kaźmierczakowa R. 1–5.) 1993.. 1999. Prokudin J. Zając M. Proházka F. Maglocký S. Maglocký S. 1973. Popescu A. Grüne Reihe des Bundesministeriums für Umwelt. Journ. . 1994. Zerov.10 Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Vascular Plants Čeřovský J.. 18 p.. Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora. Synopsis systematico-geobotanica florae vegetanisque Hungariae. Akadémiai Kiadó. 1989. Fragm..N. 1964–1973. Gregor F. Key for determination of vascular plant species of Ukraine [Opredelitel’ vyshih rasteniy Ukrainy]. Appendix 1 of 28 May 1999: Strictly protected flora species. Instytut Botaniki PAN. Karpaty. G.. 1994. Feráková V. Zarzycki K.). Uzhgorod. 1995 [Flora of the Czech Republic].1–14. Vyššie rastliny. 1994. Botan. Mihăilescu S. Kyiv. Flora Republicii Populare Romîne Vols. Praha. Heinrich eds. 3–12. Red Data Book of Ukraine. Convention on the conservation of European wildlife and natural habitats. Vols. Flora of the Ukrainian SSR. Key for determination of vascular plants in the Ukrainian Carpathians. Ukr. Naukova Dumka. Environmental Conservation. Contemporary threat to the vascular flora of the Polish Carpathians (S. Studii. Holub J. 45: 1–6. Shelag–Sosonko Y. (ed. 2) Instytut Botaniki PAN. 1981. (eds. 1995. Hindak F. L’viv. Szafer W.) 1996. Rote Listen gefährdeter Pflanzen Österreichs (zweite Auflage). Květena Česke Republiky.) 1952–1976. Chopyk V. Biológia.. 27 (3): 401–414. Editio Academiae Popularis Romanicae. periclitate şi endemice in flora Romaniei – Lista Roşie // Acta Botanica Horti Bucurestiensis 1993–1994..) 1919–1992. Checklist of the native vascular plant species. Soó R.. Bratislava. (eds. Band 10. Flor. IUCN. Kyiv.N. Dihoru Gh.I. Feráková V. Warszawa. Warszawa – Kraków... Mirek Z. Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe. Wojewoda and Z. Wojewoda eds. Kotov M. Raciborski M.. Savulescu T. Polish Botanical Studies.. Vörös Könyv. Bucuresti. Geobot. A Checklist. Uzhgorod.) 1998.. Jugend und Familie. Jasiewicz A. V. 6 p. Szeląg Z. Kyiv. 1998.V. Guidebook series..). Maglocký S.. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR Press. Mihaly A.. New Flora of the CSSR [Nová Kvĕtena CSSR].. V. (eds. In: (K. Komendar V. 48: 361–384. Ever Green Carpathians. Czerwona lista roślin naczyniowych zagrożonych w Polsce. 1977.H. Lista roşie a plantelor superioare din România.I. Plant Kingdom... Protopopova V. Academia Press. 1999. Graz. Academia Press. Veda.. Veröff.) 1999. Red List of ferns and flowering plants (Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta) of the flora of Slovakia (the second draft). Roslynnyi svit]. Vols. Krytskaya L. Sanda V. Piękoś–Mirkowa H. Plante rare. 4: 179–187. Plants: 32-50 p. Piękoś–Mirkowa H. Oltean M... Kyiv.. [Карпатам зеленіти вічно].. documentatii de ecologie 1: 6–10. 1992. IUCN Red List Categories. The IUCN Plants Committee and Its Work Throughout the World. Synge A. (eds. Gland.M. 1977.. 15. Nyárády E. Red List of Transcarpathia. I. Warszawa. Zarzycki. Negrean G. W. Zoznam vyhynutých. Flora Polski. Flora of the Carpathians.. Stojko S. Červená Kniha ohrozených a vzácnych druhov rastlín a živočíсhov SR a ČR.I. 1992.. Zarzycki K.) 1987. Kraków. In: (K. 1–13.M. W.B. Naukova Dumka. Inst. A Magyarországon kipusztult és veszélyeztetett növény–és állatfajok. Ministry of Education of Ukraine and Uzhgorod State University.. Dostál J.) Lista roślin zagrożonych w Polsce (wyd. Washington.) 1989. Vols. [Chervona knyha Ukrainy. 1–2. Convention on international trade in endangered species of wild fauna and flora.Poland).. 1–4. (ed. Karpaty. Hejný S. 1978.. Polska czerwona księga roślin.B. Zaverukha V. Zezula A. (ed. Tasenkevich L. (ed. Zarzycki. Budnikov. Mirek Z. Zarzycki K.. 1988–1995. 1977. sinteze. Kondracki J. Lucas G. Vascular plants of Poland. Akadémiai Kiadó. Budapest. (ed.. 38: 825–852. Wydawnictwa Szkolne i Pedagogiczne. Kraków. 1986. Lista wymierających i zagrożonych roślin naczyniowych Polski. State Museum of Natural History NASU. Problems of Protection of the Carpathian Phytogenepool [Проблеми охорони фітогенофонду Карпат].M. Geobot.L. Marhold K. Bratislava: Príroda. Rakonczay Z. 1988. Ukrains’ka encyklopedia. [Vyznachnyck roslyn Ukrains’kykh Karpat].. Bern. Praha. 107: 151–162. Slavík B (eds.Threatened plant species and plant alliances.. Wykaz gatunków rzadkich i zagrożonych flory polskiej. Pawłowski B. Kricsfalusy V. Institutul de Biologie Bucureşti. Dihoru G. endemických a ochrozených taxónov vyšších rastlín flóry Slovenska. K.) 1950–1965. Budapest.. Flora Ukrains’koi RSR]. ETH. Dobrochaeva D.. Dihoru A. Annex II (b). Vols.. Vols. Kraków. (eds.. Zając A. Roman N. Biológia (Bratislava). Checklist of Non-Vascular and Vascular Plants of Slovakia. Niklfeld H. Chopyk V. 1983.) Lista roślin wymierających i zagrożonych w Polsce. 1993. Jasiewicz A.

Aira caryophyllea L. ssp.Gmelin) Angstr. Bupleurum rotundifolium L. et Reuter) Rothm. ceterach Asplenium cuneifolium Viv. Agrostemma githago L. Androsace villosa L. Botrychium lanceolatum (S. Allium carinatum L.Schmid Alyssum stribrnyi Velen. ssp.Silva Armeria pocutica Pawl. et Kit. Koch Botrychium multifidum (S. Androsace maxima L. Achillea impatiens L.) Kit. ex Baumg. Astragalus australis (L.D. Asplenium fontanum (L. ssp. ex W. Botrychium virginianum (L. Adonis vernalis L.) Thell.) Rupr. Astragalus peterfii Jáv. Calamagrostis stricta (Timm) Koeler Callianthemum coriandrifolium Rchb. alpina (Willd. Koch Camelina alyssum (Mill.Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Vascular Plants Carpathian List of Endangered Species – vascular plants (for explanations. Asplenium adulterinum Milde Asplenium ceterach L.D. Aconitum jacquinii Rchb. Aconitum lasiocarpum (Rchb. Andryala levitomentosa (Nyár. Ajuga pyramidalis L. laevigata (Schur) Holub Barbarea lepuznica Nyár.) Rich.) Schweigger et Körte Asperula neilreichii Beck Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L. ssp. brymii (Dostál) Soó Alyssum montanum L. gmelinii (Jord. pulchellum Bonnier et Layens Allium zahariadii Májovský Alyssum montanum L. Arctostaphylos alpinus (L.Sell Anemone baldensis L. Astragalus frigidus (L. Alchemilla plicatula Gand. falcata Ciocirlan Avenula pubescens (Hudson) Dumort. Anacamptis pyramidalis (L. Aubrieta intermedia Heldr.) A.) Spreng. Astragalus vesicarius L. Arnoseris minima (L. Aphanes microcarpa (Boiss. Angelica palustris (Besser) Hoffm.Gray Astragalus norvegicus Weber Astragalus penduliflorus Lam. Aethionema saxatile (L. et Orph. et Kit.D.Braun ex W.) Willd. Androsace septentrionalis L.) Bernh. ssp.G. Botrychium matricariifolium (Retz.) Besser Adonis aestivalis L.) Lam. Andromeda polifolia L.) P. ssp. Campanula transsilvanica Schur EN EN VU VU EN VU EN VU VU EN EN EN EX VU EN EN VU EX EN EN EN CR EX VU EN EX VU EN VU CR CR EN EN EN EX EN EN VU VU EX EN EX VU VU VU VU VU VU EN VU EN VU VU EN VU VU VU CR EN EX EN EN EN VU VU VU EN VU VU VU CR VU VU CR EN + + + EN CR EN CR EN CR EN EN CR EN CR + EN + VU + EN + + VU + + + + + EX + CR EN EN + CR VU EN CR EN CR EX VU VU VU VU EN VU PP SP PP SP NP PP PP PP + + + PP SP PP PP VU + SP PP E + + + + EN VU + + + + VU EX VU + PP PP NP + + VU NP PP NP PP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP PP SP CR EN EN EN EN EN CR EX EN + EX VU VU + + EX + EN EX VU + EN CR CR + EX EX VU SP PP + CR EN + EX CR CR CR EW VU + + + + + EN + + SP NP PP SP SP SP PP + + + EN SP NP PP + SP SP SP SP SP + VU + EN EN + VU VU EN + + + + + EX EX + + + VU + + + + EX + EN VU VU + VU + EX EN EN EN CR EX CR EX VU VU VU PP NP PP EX CR EN PP PP PP NP SP SP SP PP + + + + VU EN VU + + VU VU EN SP PP SP SP PP SP + + EN SP SP SP + + + + + + + CR + VU CR SP VU SP SP VU EN + PP PP PP PP SP NP PP SP SP SP PP SP NP PP EX EX CR EN CR CR CR + + + EN EX EN EN + CR + + EN EN EN VU EN VU + + VU + + + + + + VU EX CR EN EX + EN EN VU EX CR + PP PP + + EX + VU EX SP SP SP SP PP EN VU PP + + Relic + + + + + + + + + + . Astragalus pseudopurpureus Guşuleac Astragalus roemeri Simonk.) P.) Sprengel Bupleurum praealtum L.J. Alyssum tortuosum Will.Br.) Hegi et Em.Gmel. ssp.G. ssp.) Swartz Bromus pannonicus Kummer et Sendtner Bulbocodium versicolor (Ker Gawl. Callitriche hamulata Kütz.) R.) Greuter et Burdet Asplenium ceterach L. ex Boiss. Aquilegia transsilvanica Schur Arabis nova Vill. Armoracia macrocarpa (Waldst. bivalens (D. Asplenium lepidum C.J.) A. Adonis flammea Jacq.Mey. see chapter on How to Use This Book) Carpathian hold large proportion of world population 11 Arctic/Alpine Species Endemic Category of Threat in Carpathian Countries RO UA SK CZ PL H A Protection in Carpathian Countries RO UA SK CZ PL H A High Mountain Species + + + + + + + + + + Category of Threat for Entire Carpathians Habitat Directive Bern Convention Achillea asplenifolia Vent. Campanula macrostachya Waldst.E. krajinae Domin Astragalus dasyanthus Pallas Astragalus excapus L.) Gáyer Adenophora liliifolia (L.Presl Astragalus alpinus L. Armeria maritima (Mill. Betula humilis Schrank Betula nana L. ssp.

Erysimum wittmannii Zaw.) Tzvelev Dianthus diutinus Kit. Carex diandra Schrank Carex dioica L. ssp.Br. Erythronium dens-canis L. Carex chordorrhiza Ehrh. Barton Cicuta virosa L. ssp. Cimicifuga europaea Schipcz. Daphne arbuscula Čelak. Carex davalliana Sm. simonkaiana (Jáv.) H. Carex praecox Schreber ssp. Cirsium brachycephalum Jur. Crepis alpestris (Jacq. Daphne laureola L. Turner) Gilmour Cerastium uniflorum Clairv. Centaurium littorale (D. ssp. Euonymus nanus M. rhizodes (Blytt. Chimaphila umbellata (L.) W.) Schönl. Carex stenophylla Wahlenb. Draba aizoides L. Dendranthema zawadzkii (Herb. Carex supina Willd.) Kük. Corydalis capnoides (L. Drosera anglica Huds.) Tausch Crepis sibirica L. Diphasiastrum issleri (Rouy) Holub Doronicum orientale Hoffm. et Kit. Crocus banaticus Gay Crocus flavus Weston Cryptogramma crispa (L. Conioselinum tataricum Hoffm. ex Schult. Draba dorneri Heuff. Bieb. ssp. ex Wahlenb. Daphne cneorum L. ex Wahlenb.) R.P. Draba dubia Suter Draba fladnizensis Wulfen Draba haynaldii Stur Draba stellata Jacq.) Jáv. Carex liparocarpos Gaudin Carex parviflora Host Carex pediformis C. Dracocephalum ruyschiana L. Dianthus nitidus Waldst. Crocus albiflorus Kit. Carex pulicaris L. Fritillaria meleagris L. Euphrasia exaristata Smejkal Ferula sadlerana Ledeb.) Beldie Dracocephalum austriacum L. Euphorbia carpatica Woł. curvata (Knaf. Crambe tataria Sebeök Crassula aquatica (L. Cyclamen fatrense Halda et Soják Cyperus flavescens L. Mey.) Nyman Elatine hydropiper L. ex Schult. pallidiflorum (Jáv.Bieb.) Pers. Corispermum nitidum Kit. Eleocharis austriaca Hayek Eleocharis carniolica Koch Epipactis albensis Nováková et Rydlo Epipogium aphyllum Swartz Erysimum hungaricum Zapał. Centaurea badensis Tratt.C. Dictamnus albus L. Cochlearia tatrae Borbás Colchicum arenarium Waldst. Corispermum canescens Kit. et Kit.A. Carex bohemica Schreber Carex brevicollis DC. Carex rupestris All. Cypripedium calceolus L. Carex buxbaumii Wahlenb. et Kit. Digitalis ferruginea L. Dianthus serotinus Waldst. ruthenicus (M. Carex hallerana Asso Carex limosa L. Carex strigosa Huds. Fritillaria orientalis Adams EN CR VU VU VU EN EN VU EN VU VU EN VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU EN VU EN EN VU EN VU VU EN VU EN VU VU EN VU VU EN CR EN VU CR VU VU CR VU VU VU EN EN VU VU EN EN CR VU VU EN VU VU VU VU EN VU VU CR EN EN EN VU VU VU EN EN EN EN VU EN VU EN EN EN VU VU EN CR CR CR EN CR EN VU CR CR CR EN CR CR VU + CR EN EN VU + EN + EX + + + EN VU VU + VU EN + + + VU + + + EN + + CR + + + EX + + + + + VU + + + + + + + EN CR EN CR EX CR VU EN EN EN CR VU CR EN + CR EN + VU VU EN CR VU EN VU + + VU + VU + + EN CR + CR VU EN + CR VU EN VU EN EN EN EN VU EX VU VU CR NP EN VU VU VU EN EN SP SP PP PP PP PP PP NP NP NP SP SP NP SP SP SP SP SP NP SP PP SP PP PP PP + + + VU VU EN + + + EN VU PP PP PP SP PP SP SP + + + EN + + + + + + + + + + VU EN + + + + + VU EX + + VU EX + + VU + + + EN EN EN VU VU + VU + + + NP NP PP NP NP NP PP PP PP PP SP PP PP NP SP + NP SP PP + + + CR EX CR CR + VU + VU + EN VU + + + VU + CR CR SP CR EN PP CR EN CR EN VU EN + VU + + EX + VU VU VU VU VU SP SP SP PP PP SP SP SP SP PP SP SP SP SP SP CR EN + + EN VU + + + EX VU VU + + VU + + VU VU + + VU + + + + + EX + + VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU PP PP PP PP PP PP + + NP SP PP PP SP + + SP CR EN EN + + EN EN CR VU EN CR + EN CR CR + EN VU CR EN + EN CR VU VU SP SP NP PP PP NP PP PP PP SP PP SP SP SP SP SP SP PP PP + + + SP SP SP SP NP NP SP + + + + + CR + CR EN EX VU VU VU EN VU + EN EN VU + + EN EX VU CR EN CR PP SP PP PP PP SP + + + + + + EN VU + + + EX CR EN SP PP SP PP + + + Relic + + + + + + + + + + + + + . Carex secalina Willd. Coronilla emerus L.12 Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Vascular Plants Carpathian hold large proportion of world population High Mountain Species + SP SP SP PP SP SP SP NP PP PP + NP PP + SP SP + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + SP + + + + + + + + + Category of Threat for Entire Carpathians Arctic/Alpine Species Endemic Category of Threat in Carpathian Countries RO UA SK CZ PL H A Protection in Carpathian Countries RO UA SK CZ PL H A Habitat Directive Bern Convention Campanula xylocarpa Kovanda Carex atrofusca Schkuhr Carex bicolor All.Lindb. Echinops ritro L.

Iris spuria L.Bieb. ssp. Juniperus sabina L. Linum trigynum L.) R. Leucojum aestivum L. Onosma arenarium Waldst.) O. glaucescens Holub Heracleum carpaticum Porcius Herminium monorchis (L. et Kit.) Sunderm. Orchis pallens L.Schwarz Ligularia glauca (L.Br. Jurinea mollis (L. Klein et Zagulski Nigritella nigra (L. ssp.) Garcke Lathyrus pisiformis L.) Rich. Galium parisiense L. ssp. Hesperis vrabelyiana (Schur) Borbás Himantoglossum hircinum (L.) Beauverd Onobrychis montana DC. Nigritella carpatica (Zapal. Linaria arvensis (L. Gladiolus felicis Mirek Gladiolus palustris Gaudin Glaux maritima L.) Fritsch Ledum palustre L. Juncus bulbosus L.) DC.) Rauschert Onosma tornensis Jáv.W. EN EN VU EN VU EN EN EX CR EN VU EN VU VU VU EN EN EN VU VU EN VU VU VU EN VU VU CR VU VU VU EN EN VU EN EN EN EN VU VU VU EN CR VU EN EN EX EN CR VU EN EN VU VU VU EN EN VU EN EN VU CR VU VU CR EN VU VU VU VU EX EN VU CR EN EN EN EN CR EN EN VU VU CR EN EX CR + EX EN VU + + + VU EX + EN VU VU + VU CR CR CR + EX EN VU VU VU EN + EN EN VU VU EN SP PP SP SP + NP SP SP + + + + + + + NP PP SP PP PP SP SP NP NP SP SP SP + NP SP SP SP PP + + + + EX EW + EX EN EN VU + EN VU VU VU EN VU EN EN CR VU EN CR VU + EW CR EN CR CR CR VU CR CR CR CR EN CR VU VU EN CR CR VU EN CR EX EN EX CR CR CR EN VU EX CR EN EN NP SP SP PP SP SP PP SP SP SP + VU + EW EX EN + VU VU + VU + + + + + VU + + + + + VU + + EX EN VU + + + + + + EX VU EN VU + + VU + + VU VU + + VU VU PP + PP PP PP PP PP SP + + + + + + + + EN VU EX CR VU VU VU VU VU VU PP NP PP PP NP PP NP PP SP PP SP SP SP SP SP PP SP SP SP SP SP VU PP + + CR CR EN EN CR VU VU EX EN VU EX VU + CR PP EN VU VU VU VU CR + EN VU + + EX + EN EN + + PP PP PP PP PP SP SP PP NP PP PP PP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP + + + + + + + NP PP SP PP PP SP CR CR + CR EX CR CR SP EN CR + EN EN VU EN EN VU VU SP NP SP SP PP PP SP PP SP NP SP + + + + + + + CR CR + EN + EN CR EN CR VU VU EN EN EN + VU SP SP SP PP PP SP PP PP PP SP NP PP SP NP PP PP NP SP PP PP + + + + + + EX + VU + VU VU + + EX EN + + + + + VU CR EN EN + CR CR CR CR CR CR CR EN + SP SP VU SP CR PP PP + + + + + + SP PP SP + + VU VU CR CR EX EN CR EN CR EN EN NP SP SP SP SP PP SP SP SP SP SP SP + + + + VU Relic + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + .) Rchb. Loiseleuria procumbens (L. ssp. Juncus castaneus Sm.) Elliott Lychnis nivalis Kit.) Rchb. et Schult. Hottonia palustris L. ssp. ssp.) Mackenzie Laserpitium siler L.) Lindley Minuartia hirsuta (M.) Mill.) Hegi Iris graminea L.) Fiori Kobresia simpliciuscula (Wahlenb. Leontopodium alpinum Cass. Gagea bohemica (Zauschner) Schult. Lonicera alpigena L. aspera (Poirot) Hayek Iris aphylla L.Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Vascular Plants Carpathian hold large proportion of world population High Mountain Species Category of Threat for Entire Carpathians 13 Arctic/Alpine Species Endemic Category of Threat in Carpathian Countries RO UA SK CZ PL H A Protection in Carpathian Countries RO UA SK CZ PL H A Habitat Directive Bern Convention Fumaria jankae Hausskn.) Sprengel ssp.) Ker Gawl. Onosma pseudoarenaria Schur ssp.) Desv. Lathyrus transsilvanicus (Spreng. Ligularia sibirica (L. Hammarbya paludosa (L.) Swartz Linaria alpina (L. frutescens (Kit. Inula salicina L.) Fritsch Microstylis monophyllos (L. Ononis repens L. Micromeria thymifolia (Scop. Galium transcarpaticum Stojko et Tasenk.) Rchb. Leucojum vernum L. ssp. Montia fontana L. Lindernia procumbens (Krocker) Borbás Linnaea borealis L. hungarica (Waldst. carpaticum (Spring. tuberculata (Kit.) Rchb. caprinum (M. Juncus sphaerocarpus Nees Juncus triglumis L. pseudocyperus (Schur) Soó Iris humilis Georgi Iris sibirica L. Lycopodiella inundata (L. Helianthemum grandiflorum (Scop. Limodorum abortivum (L.-Mazz.) Schinz et Thell. fil. Liparis loeselii (L. Ophrys fuciflora (F.) Hand. et Kit. Lotus borbasii Ujhelyi Ludwigia palustris (L. Geranium bohemicum L. ssp.) Holub Lysimachia thyrsiflora (L.) Teppner.) Cass. nigra Nigritella nigra (L.Bieb. Groenlandia densa (L. ssp. transsilvanica (Sprengel) Hayek Kobresia myosuroides (Vill.) Desv. Marsilea quadrifolia L.-Mazz. Lonicera coerulea L. Gentiana lutea L.) Hand.Hoffm. Lathyrus pannonicus (Jacq. ex DC.) Fourr.) Kuntze Hedysarum hedysaroides (L. Gagea fistulosa (Ram. Lomatogonium carinthiacum (Wulfen) Rchb. Narcissus angustifolius Curt. Lilium bulbiferum L.Schmidt) Moench Ophrys sphegodes Mill. Ophrys apifera Huds.) J. rubra (Wettst.

umbrosus (Waldst. Saxifraga hirculus L.-Sok. ssp.14 Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Vascular Plants Carpathian hold large proportion of world population High Mountain Species + + + + NP SP SP SP SP PP PP PP SP SP SP SP VU VU SP NP PP PP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP PP SP E + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + CR VU CR EN EN CR VU EX CR VU + + + + + + + + VU + + + VU + + EX + + EX + VU VU + + VU + + + VU + + EX VU VU + + EN EN CR VU EN + CR VU EX CR CR VU EN + EN VU EN CR EN CR + VU CR + CR + EN CR EX EN CR VU EN EW EN + CR EX CR VU + CR EN VU + + + VU EN CR + EN VU PP PP EN CR EN VU + EN + PP SP NP EN VU VU EN CR PP SP SP SP PP PP PP + + + + + + + + + + NP SP NP + + + + + Category of Threat for Entire Carpathians Arctic/Alpine Species Endemic Category of Threat in Carpathian Countries RO UA SK CZ PL H A Protection in Carpathian Countries RO UA SK CZ PL H A Habitat Directive Bern Convention Orchis spitzelii Sauter ex Koch Ornithogalum sphaerocarpum A.Braun Rubus senticosus Köhler ex Weihe Ruppia maritima L. Primula wulfeniana Schott ssp. cymosa Engler Saxifraga retusa Gouan Scheuchzeria palustris L. Ranunculus reptans L. Ranunculus altitatrensis Paclová et Murín Ranunculus glacialis L. ssp. Saxifraga mutata L.) Stearn et P.Br. Pulsatilla vernalis (L.Kern. triternata (Pallas ex DC.) R.) Scop. slavica (G. Selaginella helvetica (L. Pedicularis sceptrum-carolinum L. ssp. Pulsatilla halleri (All. hungarica (Ujhelyi) Soó Sibbaldia procumbens L. et Kit. f. Pulsatilla vulgaris Mill. Salix starkeana Willd. Salix bicolor L. Potentilla haynaldiana Janka Potentilla palustris (L. Salix myrtilloides L. Schoenoplectus mucronatus (L.Kern. Polypodium interjectum Shivas Potamogeton alpinus Balbis Potamogeton compressus L. demissa (Schott et Kotschy) D.Br.) Mill.W. Senecio doria L.F.) Palla Schoenus ferrugineus L.Webb Saxifraga mutata L. Salix helvetica Vill. Petrocallis pyrenaica (L.) DC.) Mill. scabra (Asch. Saussurea discolor (Willd. Sedum villosum L.Schultz Oxytropis carpatica Uechtr.) Willd. Salix herbacea L. Orobanche picridis F.) Hoffm. Scorzonera parviflora Jacq.) Crantz Sorbus pekarovae Májovský et Bernátová Sparganium angustifolium F. ssp.) L. Ranunculus millefoliatus Vahl Ranunculus pygmaeus Wahlenb. mutata Saxifraga pedemontana All.) Soó Polycarpon tetraphyllum (L. tatricum Nyár.) Soó Serratula lycopifolia (Vill. ssp. et Derv. Potamogeton trichoides Cham. hazslinszkyana (Soó) Kárpáti Sorbus chamaemespilus (L. Michx CR VU EN VU VU VU VU EN CR EN CR DD VU EN EN EN VU VU VU VU EX EN EN VU EN VU EN EN VU VU VU CR VU VU EN CR EN VU VU EN EN VU VU VU VU CR VU EN VU CR VU VU CR VU CR VU VU CR EN EN VU VU VU VU EW EN VU CR CR EN VU EN VU EN EN VU EN EN CR CR CR VU VU EX + + + + VU VU VU EX + CR + EN VU EN SP NP PP NP PP NP PP + NP PP + VU + EX + EX + + + EN CR CR EN CR + + CR EN EN VU + VU EX EN CR NP VU EN SP PP NP SP PP SP SP SP SP SP + VU EN + VU EN CR + EN VU VU + + VU + VU + VU EN EN VU EN EX EN NP NP PP SP SP VU EX EN SP PP EN EN VU SP EN EN + VU VU VU PP NP NP NP PP + + + + VU + + + + EX PP SP SP SP SP SP PP PP SP SP SP SP + + + + + + + SP PP + CR EX VU CR CR EW + CR + CR EN VU VU + EX + VU SP SP SP SP PP SP PP NP PP PP SP NP CR CR EN VU + PP + + + + + SP SP PP SP SP CR EX NP Relic + + + + + + + + + + + + + . Poa margilicola Bernátová et Májovský Poa nobilis Skalińska Poa pannonica A.) Ard.) DC. Primula farinosa L. Ranunculus malinovskii Jelen.) A. Papaver alpinum L. ssp.H. ssp. Saussurea porcii Degen Saussurea pygmaea (Jacq. Potentilla sterilis L. Rosa glauca Pourret Rubus bertramii G.Reuss) Zamels Pulsatilla patens (L. Sesleria heuflerana Schur ssp.Davis Paeonia tenuifolia L. Pinguicula vulgaris L. Primula halleri J. Scorzonera lanata (L. et Schlecht. et Graebn.Gmel. ssp. grandis (Wenderoth) Zamels Pyrola media Swartz Pyrus nivalis Jacq.) Sprengel Saxifraga cernua L. Sesleria caerulea (L. Salix retusa L. Paeonia mascula (L. Sorbus austriaca (Beck) Hedl.A. ssp. ssp.Kern. Ranunculus thora L.) Spring Senecio congestus (R. Scirpus hudsonianus (Michx) Fernald Scorzonera humilis L.) Mill. baumgarteniana (Degen et Moesz) Ludi Pulmonaria angustifolia L. Silene zawadzkii Herbich Sisymbrium austriacum Jacq.

) R. 513. 516.84.Kern.) Chevall.44. Agrostemma githago L. 533.11. 513. 531.) Schmalh. 517.4.1 514. 523. Stipa danubialis Dihoru et Roman Stipa dasyphylla (Lindem. 513. 526.411-412.45. Andryala levitomentosa (Nyár.83.26-28.1-2. 513.15. 516.72.51.11. 523. 514. 522. 513. 514. 514. 514.4a.37 515. 514.44. see chapter on How to Use This Book) Species Achillea asplenifolia Vent. 517. 523. 523. 523. 524. 523. 515.2.1-2.) Trautv. 517.14-15. 523. 523. Koch Succisella inflexa (Kluk) Beck Syringa josikaea J. 513. Trapa natans L. 541.1-2.51. Vulpia bromoides (L. Adonis vernalis L. Androsace maxima L.43-44.51-52 Relic + + + + + + + + + + + .15 513.32 516.53 523. 516.73.2.12. 531. 523.Br. 514.52. 541.85.) Kit. 516.65. Aira caryophyllea L.73.85. 515.13.85 514.2. 514.) Hegi et Em.28. 533. 514. 515. 531.2 513. 541. 523.31.411. 513.2-4.4-5.F.46.12.81. 533.2 523.D.54. alpina (Willd. ex Rchb. 531.411. 516. Tephroseris longifolia (Jacq. 514. 517. 517.51.72. Alyssum tortuosum Will.11-12. 541.44.22. 514. 531. Trifolium lupinaster L.2-4.34.1.Br. 532.41-42.65. 517.31.3. 531.42.) P.55.) Griseb.73. 523. Allium carinatum L. Anacamptis pyramidalis (L.55. 523. Stipa pulcherrima K.42.43.42-43.11 523. 516. 524. et Kit. 517.2. Taraxacum pieninicum Pawl.1-2 513. 541.3. 514. VU EN VU VU VU EN EN EN CR CR EX CR CR CR VU CR EN CR EN EN CR EN EN VU EN EN EN EN EN EN CR EN EN EX VU VU EN CR + VU + + + + + + + VU + + VU VU EX EX CR + + EN CR + + CR + CR EN + EN SP PP PP PP PP SP NP + + EN VU EN SP SP SP SP SP SP NP PP + + + + + EN CR CR EN + CR VU VU VU VU EN CR EN EN EN VU CR PP PP PP PP PP EN EN VU VU + VU VU + SP PP PP PP NP SP PP NP SP PP PP SP SP SP SP NP NP PP PP PP + + + + EX + + + EN VU EN VU + + EN VU VU VU + + + VU VU + + + VU EX CR CR VU CR + EX EN VU CR CR EN CR CR EN CR CR + + + SP PP PP SP SP + NP SP + CR EN VU EN EN EN PP PP SP NP SP Distribution of the Red Data List vascular plants in the Carpathians (for explanations.1 513.4a.1. Angelica palustris (Besser) Hoffm.14. 526.1 517. Utricularia bremii Heer Utricularia minor L. 513. 523.85.4.37 523. Aconitum lasiocarpum (Rchb.2. Tofieldia pusilla (Michx) Pers. 514.1-2. et Reuter) Rothm. 514.53 514.51 514.8.51 513.2. 513. 523.31. 514.29. Jacq.21. 522.Sell Anemone baldensis L.31 514. 514. 523.53. 513.2-4.31.31. Aethionema saxatile (L. 531. Androsace septentrionalis L. 514. gmelinii (Jord.1. Vaccinium microcarpum (Turcz.37 514. Vicia sparsiflora Ten.1.2. 523. 542. 531. 523. 531.4. 515.2 522.2-3.1 531. ssp.41. 523.54 513.22 514.Silva Armeria pocutica Pawl.65.) Willd. 523.25.37.85.) Spreng.42.12. 516..) R.25.Schmid Alyssum stribrnyi Velen. 513. et Schenk ssp.2. et Kit. 516. 531.15 514. Utricularia vulgaris L.2. 516.65.) P. 523.Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Vascular Plants Carpathian hold large proportion of world population High Mountain Species Category of Threat for Entire Carpathians 15 Arctic/Alpine Species Endemic Category of Threat in Carpathian Countries RO UA SK CZ PL H A Protection in Carpathian Countries RO UA SK CZ PL H A Habitat Directive Bern Convention Spiranthes spiralis (L.15 513. brymii (Dostál) Soó Alyssum montanum L.14.1. 516.43.Gray Woodsia ilvensis (L. Achillea impatiens L. 523.43.45.81.11. 523. 514. 531.81.2. 515.4.63.15 513.1. Arnoseris minima (L. 514. ex Rupr. moravica Holub Teucrium scorodonia L.) Rich.63.3 513.1. Aquilegia transsilvanica Schur Arabis nova Vill.2 514. 517.2 523. 514.51.4. 514.62 523.23.1.11-12. 531.51. 514. 531. 515. Andromeda polifolia L. Stellaria hebecalyx Fenzl Sternbergia colchiciflora Waldst.2. 517.Br. 541. 513.2.9.26. 517. 517.12. 515.14. 522. 523. 523. 541. 514. Adonis flammea Jacq.13. 514.2. 516.53. Armeria maritima (Mill. 531.36-37 513. 516. 516.2. 514.2 513. ex Baumg.51-52.2. 541. 516. 516.F.4. Viola epipsila Ledeb. ssp.43 523.57. 523.2. 515. Aconitum jacquinii Rchb. 516.2 513. ssp.411.1-2.3.2-4. Vaccinium oxycoccos L.51. Utricularia australis R.) S. 514. 514. Androsace villosa L.31. 523. 516. 531. ssp. Alchemilla plicatula Gand.2 513. Teesdalea nudicaulis (L.2.53.411.Br. 513.4. 514.71.2.Gray Waldsteinia teppneri Májovský Waldsteinia ternata (Stephan) Fritsch Woodsia alpina (Bolton) S. 517. 523. 517.1. pulchellum Bonnier et Layens Allium zahariadii Májovský Alyssum montanum L. 514. Physiographic Units 513. 514.) R. 542.2. Ajuga pyramidalis L. 514.) Gáyer Adenophora liliifolia (L.63.51.85 513.26.1. 516. 514. Thesium ebracteatum Hayne Thlaspi jankae A. 531.14.63.1 522. 513. 526. Armoracia macrocarpa (Waldst.3. 513. 531.27. Taraxacum arachnoideum Kirscher et Štěpánek Taraxacum erythrocarpum Kirschner et Štěpánek Taraxacum obliquum (Fries) Dahlst. 513.) Schweigger et Körte Asperula neilreichii Beck Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L. 513. 523. 523. Aphanes microcarpa (Boiss.51.52.) Besser Adonis aestivalis L. Arctostaphylos alpinus (L. 522. 533.

1.411-412. 515. 541.21 514.1. 523. 514.1.Presl Astragalus alpinus L.43.85. 513. 523. 514.Mey. 533.37 513.1.1. 514. 523.3.31. 531. 542. 515.12. 523.73.2.4.1. 516.1 514.1.71-72.42.1 513.26-28. 541.73 514. 514. 523.85.2. 542.28. 515.9.1.51.64.85.1.57. 526. Carex rupestris All.2. 514.2. 516.2. 517.1. 516.63. 514.11.11 513.E.4.4.11.64.2.31. 517.26-27. 514. 523.31.15 514.2.Gray Astragalus norvegicus Weber Astragalus penduliflorus Lam. 514. 541.2.46. 513.Braun ex W.31.22 517. 517. 531.2.53. 531.15 513.13.43. 531.25. 514. 514.4.2.31.2. 515.29.9. 524.4.) R. 531.14.31 514. 523. 522. 542. 514. Aubrieta intermedia Heldr.53.45 523. Asplenium lepidum C.85.2 514.23. 531. 517. 531.1. 533. 523. 514.2.4. 517. 533.3 513. 531. 523.71. 523.) Kük.) Tausch Crepis sibirica L.6.54.25.13.2-3.43. 514. 523.1 513. rhizodes (Blytt. 531. 517. 523. 526.4.33.2. 514. 516. 523.1 517.25. 515. 531. 514. 514.37 513. 514.411.11.1. 532.1.63. 514.65.51. Carex chordorrhiza Ehrh.42-43.22. 514. 542.62-63. 517. 514. 542.53 523.4.1.9.53. Koch Camelina alyssum (Mill. 515. Barton Cicuta virosa L. 523.11.2. 514. 541.25-26. 525.71-72.11 541. 533. 514. 513. 517. 517. 542.32.2-4. 542.72.31.16. 531.15.41 513. ssp.45.4. 523.9. 514.2 514.J. 514. Corydalis capnoides (L.2. 523.2.2.9. 515.34.4.1 514.17. 514.2. 514.42-43.D. 514.25. 531. 517. 513. Centaurium littorale (D. 532. Carex buxbaumii Wahlenb. 523.52-53. 531. 514. Carex hallerana Asso Carex limosa L. 516.4-5.72. 522.28.62-63. 541.15.44.) A. 541. 531. 517.71-73. 516.1.85.51-53. 514.52-53.1-2. 516. ex Schult. 522.25.6.85. Crocus banaticus Gay Crocus flavus Weston Cryptogramma crispa (L.5. laevigata (Schur) Holub Barbarea lepuznica Nyár.26. 514.11.53.31. 516.2 514. Cimicifuga europaea Schipcz. 523.1. Crepis alpestris (Jacq. 524.37. 522.9.27. ex Wahlenb. 541.83. 523.12-13. 523. 517.G. Carex davalliana Sm.1-2.1.29. 523. 516. 533. 514. 523.1. 542. 523.31. 542. 523.4. 517. 541. 514.5.12-13.25-26 .51.3. 531.1 513. 531.1.52.51.15 522. 517.43. 541. 513.25-26. 542. 523. 523. 514.4.4. 542. 542.2 514. 514.1.2.51. 514.) Sprengel Bupleurum praealtum L.15 517.32. Campanula macrostachya Waldst. 523.1 514. 531.15.53.85. 523. 514.2.411.1 513. 522.42 531. 533.4.4. Physiographic Units 513.1 513.15. Carex diandra Schrank Carex dioica L. 517. Carex secalina Willd.3.65.1.15.43. 533.1-2.25-26.63.12.2 517.31. Carex bohemica Schreber Carex brevicollis DC. 523. 531. 541.42.Gmel.2 513. 514. 516. 532.23.52-53 517.) H. 515. 513.2 513. 517. 523. ceterach Asplenium cuneifolium Viv. 542. Carex stenophylla Wahlenb.31.72.85.25.2.1-2. 513.63.74. 526. 514. 514.72.73. 517.15. 514.411-412.57. 514.51. 516.2.51. 542.2 513.26-27. 522.33. 513.29.2. 522.3.3.57. 531.42. 515.C. 517. ex Wahlenb.21 513.2 523. 514. 541. 513. 514.11.1. Cypripedium calceolus L. 515. 523. 523. 522.13.43. ssp.1. et Orph.65. 515. Betula humilis Schrank Betula nana L.51-53. 531. 516. Cirsium brachycephalum Jur. et Kit.2. 514. 542.12. 523. 531. 523.12.31.1.15. et Kit.31. 522. 523. 523. 541. 524. 514.11. 517.1.9. 517.53 513.31. 523. 523. 526.) Rupr. 514.12. 523.14.46. 514. 523.1. 514. Corispermum canescens Kit. 542. 525. 517. 523.4. Astragalus peterfii Jáv. Astragalus pseudopurpureus Guşuleac Astragalus roemeri Simonk.24 516. 517.12.31.2 513.4a.55-57.1. 533. 523. 523. 514.32-33 514. Conioselinum tataricum Hoffm. 513. 514.2.2. Coronilla emerus L.9.) Pers. 514.15 514. 531.9. 515.15.J. 542.26-29. 514.54. 514. 514.63-64.411. 513. 541.3. 541.73. 523. 523. 515. 542. 516. 523.52-53. 523. 523.73. 523.411.51 514.21 523. 514.2 514.63.4-5.1.4. 542. 531.51.1 513. ssp. 513. 522. ssp.1.13 523. 526. ex Schult.15.33.37. Asplenium fontanum (L. 514.P.411. ssp. 514.5.31.15. 531. Koch Botrychium multifidum (S. 531. 523. Cyclamen fatrense Halda et Soják Cyperus flavescens L. 523. 513. 516.73. 514.16 Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Vascular Plants Species Asplenium adulterinum Milde Asplenium ceterach L.2.26-27. 522.26-27. 514.15.31. Corispermum nitidum Kit.1-3. 541.23. 531.63. 523.2-3.) Bernh. 514. 522. 523.55.37. 542. ex W.52-53.31.3.4.41. 541.1 523.63.31.2. 517. 515. 523. 514. 517. 533.42. 531.4.2.1.21.72-73.1. Daphne arbuscula Čelak.31. 541. 541. 523. 517.1.12-13. 522. 541.23. 523.1. 523.26. 514.85.2.73.23 515.81.72. 513. 541. 517. 524. 531.63.45 514.52-53. 524. 523. 516.85. krajinae Domin Astragalus dasyanthus Pallas Astragalus excapus L. 516.2 523.25.28. 523.1. 523.Lindb.81.3.53.14. 517. 514.1-2.3.4. Botrychium matricariifolium (Retz.2 514. 514. 531. 531.2-5.4.4. 515.1.1. 513.11.31. 523.53.2. Botrychium virginianum (L. 531. 516. curvata (Knaf.63. 514.1. 541.22 513. Botrychium lanceolatum (S. 531. 514.5. 531. 517.82. 523.65. 531. 514. 514. 523. 515.1. 531.52-53. 531. 515. 526.2.31.9.2 514. 517.56.43.43.2. 523. Turner) Gilmour Cerastium uniflorum Clairv. 525. 514. 515. Crocus albiflorus Kit. 514. Calamagrostis stricta (Timm) Koeler Callianthemum coriandrifolium Rchb. 531.2 513.2.11.3. 523.63 513.42. 514.2. 514. Astragalus vesicarius L. 531. 531. 541.43.) Schönl. 541.11.) A.Gmelin) Angstr. 531. 522.1 513.31 522.32 513.1. 531. 523. 514. 517.1 513. 514.32 523. 515.2. 532. 523. 531. Cochlearia tatrae Borbás Colchicum arenarium Waldst.31.1. 523.2. 541. ssp.2. 514. 514.2.) Thell. 542. 517.11.411.2 513. 515.12-13. 531.2 516. 542.44.42. 531.11. 514. 517. 542. 531.82. 522. 516. 542. 523.3.1 514. 531. 531. 513. 514.73.3.1-2 514.24.9.46.62-63.51-53.52 513. 531. 517.) Swartz Bromus pannonicus Kummer et Sendtner Bulbocodium versicolor (Ker Gawl. 514. 523.46.2. 542. ex Boiss. Callitriche hamulata Kütz. 523. 523.23 513.51. 522.1.) Greuter et Burdet Asplenium ceterach L. 514. bivalens (D.1.4. 541. 514.51. 517.51.37.11 513.1.52-53. 522. 526.1-2.2. 515. 514.2 517. 523. 523. 523.85 522. 531.37.63.71. 542.2.) Lam.85.51.11.73.46.4.73-74.41. 531. 531.D.41 513. 514.53 523. 523.25. 531. 514. 514. 526.9. 514.) W.15 526.24.85. Campanula transsilvanica Schur Campanula xylocarpa Kovanda Carex atrofusca Schkuhr Carex bicolor All.2. 523.Br.2.1 513. Astragalus australis (L. 513. 523. 523. 541.4.1.13.2. 523.3-4. Centaurea badensis Tratt. Carex strigosa Huds. 515.72. 531.31.37. 523. 526. 532.55.71. 514.9.33 531.33. 531. 515. 531. 526.71.83.55. Carex praecox Schreber ssp.37.43.11. Crambe tataria Sebeök Crassula aquatica (L. Mey. 542. 531. 542. 523.63.62. 526.25. 513.23.G. 532.2 514. 517.12-14.2. 541.15. 532.12.9. 542. 541.83. 541. Bupleurum rotundifolium L.31 513. falcata Ciocirlan Avenula pubescens (Hudson) Dumort. 522. 531.63.63.A.1. 514.1 513.45-46. 523. Chimaphila umbellata (L. 514. Astragalus frigidus (L. 531. 513. 522.26.42-43.62-63.65.1. 523.411. 523. 514.73.52-53. 531.53.5. Carex liparocarpos Gaudin Carex parviflora Host Carex pediformis C.71-73. 514.44.2.3 513. 523. Carex pulicaris L. 541.11.2. 522. 531.1 513.1 531.2.1 513. 523.1.2.2 514. 531.2. 531. Carex supina Willd. 542.51.1.

515. 541. 523. 523.2.65. 513.4a.24.31.1.11. 531.51.12.24-25.5.411.2 516. 523.13.15. 523. 541.1.2.42 Erysimum wittmannii Zaw. 514.55.5. 533.2.31.21.81.2. 522. 531.46.) Tzvelev Dianthus diutinus Kit. 523.12-13.2 515.2 513.53. 541. 522.1. 542. 514. 513.21 Glaux maritima L. 514. caprinum (M. 522.52.62. 517.11. Liparis loeselii (L. 515.2 522.3. 523. 531. 531.51. 522. glaucescens Holub Heracleum carpaticum Porcius Herminium monorchis (L.2.2-4. 514.3 522. 523. 514.5.51.51-52.11 515.) Cass. 516.411. 514. 541. 514. 522. 531.22.1-2 Fumaria jankae Hausskn.51.15.25.85.85. carpaticum (Spring. 541. 515.21-23. 517 514.2. 531.44.21.73. 514.6. 532. 515. 514. 541. 517. 514. pseudocyperus (Schur) Soó Iris humilis Georgi Iris sibirica L.2. 531.4.411.1.1.1 Euphrasia exaristata Smejkal 514.2.3.15.25.4.11.1. 514. 514. 533. 531. 514. 526. 531.1.56.41.26-28.Schwarz Ligularia glauca (L. 514.11.2.11. Juniperus sabina L.62 515. 517.73.37 513.31.9.57. 531.14.53.41-43.31. 514. Echinops ritro L.32 513.) J. 514. 523. 541. 541. 517.73. 522. 523. 523.2. 514.2 513. 514. 516.21.45.12 517.) Mackenzie Laserpitium siler L.3.2-4.51.4.73. 516.25.3. Lindernia procumbens (Krocker) Borbás Linnaea borealis L.3 514.2-4. 542.81. ex DC. 533. 523. Lathyrus pannonicus (Jacq.2-3.85.1 517. 541. Juncus bulbosus L. 517.17. Daphne laureola L.42-43.5.24-25. 541.46. 523. Digitalis ferruginea L. 523.11.2. 523. 523. 514. 513. 523. 514.2 514.2. 515. 522.1 Euonymus nanus M. 525.41-42.1.51. 514.1 515. 541.1-2. 516. 517.5.2 514.51-53.24. 515.2. 517. 523. 514.85. Draba aizoides L. 531. 542. 523.2. 531.Bieb.5.9. 531. 516. 523.2-3.1. Lonicera alpigena L. 514. 526. Hesperis vrabelyiana (Schur) Borbás Himantoglossum hircinum (L. 523. 523. . 523.1.73. 517. 514. 522. 514.9. 514.5. 514.3.57.4. 542.15.1. 514.4.33 514. Leontopodium alpinum Cass. 531.3. 517. 531.14.52-53. 523.25. 517.81.) Rich.51-53. 523.) Sunderm.) Jáv. 523. Leucojum vernum L. 514. 523. 523. 517.12. 523. 515.24-25. 541.64.27. 524.53.2.23.36-37. 513.26-27. 517. 531.52.4. 532.31.52-53. 523.3.) Desv.1 513.2. 531.28.11.9. 516. 523. 515. 517. 523.2.71. 516.21 513. 531. 514.27-28. 516.1.11. 522. 523. 517.65.2.41-42. 514. 542.) Sprengel ssp. 513.) Desv. 523.15. 513.) Beldie Dracocephalum austriacum L.81-82. 531. 522. Leucojum aestivum L.65.37 Gagea fistulosa (Ram.71.51.63. 523.2. 542.32-34 531. 531.1. 515. 541.71.17. 522.5.2.42-43. 523.) Nyman Elatine hydropiper L.23 ssp.) Garcke Lathyrus pisiformis L.11.11 523. 531.85.1.45.1 514.73.1 Gladiolus felicis Mirek 513. 514.13. 531. Lathyrus transsilvanicus (Spreng. 517. 542. 523.13. 541. 514.2 514.51.12. 514.2.5.23 517. 533. 531.12.15. Limodorum abortivum (L.65. 514.21. 523.25. 531. 523.43.13.28. 515. 531.2 Hammarbya paludosa (L. 531.1. 531. 531.13. 517.42.53.2. 517.24-25.81. 514. 531. et Kit.28. 531. 523. 523. Lilium bulbiferum L.51. 531.2-3.52-53. 514. 524. 514. 541. 523. 524. 515.56. 542. 515. ssp.1 Galium transcarpaticum Stojko et Tasenk.2. 531. 517. 514. simonkaiana (Jáv. 542.11 531.) Kuntze 522. 515. 514.25.51 Erythronium dens-canis L.85.2 513.31.) O. 523. 531.1. 523.21. et Kit. 514.52-53. 517.2. 533. 523. 531. 516.29.45.23 516. et Kit. 515. 523.31. 514.1.4.1 Fritillaria orientalis Adams 523. 523.85. 531.2. 522. 523. 514. 531. 517.12. 523.4. 516. 531. 541. 542.66. 523.15.36. 523.2. 542. 517. 523. 542.11.1-2.51 Gladiolus palustris Gaudin 513. 516.45. 526.73. 516. 515.23. 541.32. 541.2 514. 513.2 513. 523.5.6 522. Drosera anglica Huds. aspera (Poirot) Hayek 522.2 Erysimum hungaricum Zapał. 516.33.31 531.73.53. 523.32 513.2 514.2.) Fiori Kobresia simpliciuscula (Wahlenb.52 Ferula sadlerana Ledeb.) DC.21. 514. Lomatogonium carinthiacum (Wulfen) Rchb. 522. 523. 523.) Rchb.31.22. 523. 514. 515.2.57. 522.2. 523.11.12.411-412. 517.2-3. Juncus castaneus Sm.63. 524. Hottonia palustris L. 523.15.12-16. 532. 531.15.12.15.9. 541.21. 515.21. 526.3.11.2.45.2 514.13-15.1 Euphorbia carpatica Woł. 515. 523. 522. 523.15.2 513. 523. 523.2. 531.65. 514.2 513. 526. 531. Diphasiastrum issleri (Rouy) Holub Doronicum orientale Hoffm.1.23 513. 517. 541.411. 514.) Swartz Linaria alpina (L. ssp. ruthenicus (M.29. 523.16. 526.5.3. 522.52. 523. 525. 514. 514. 522.12 513.63.26. ssp. 532. 531. 542.32 Helianthemum grandiflorum (Scop. 523. 515.1. 516.1. 514. 513.1 513. 523. 516.44.2.17. 531. 541. 531. 514.2.26-27. 531. Ligularia sibirica (L.51. 516.1. 514.1.3. 525.1 Gentiana lutea L.2.1. 516.Bieb. 515. 531.4.51-54. 513. 523.2.1. 515.3.14.1-2. 542. 526. 531.22 514. ssp. ssp. 516.33-34 Iris aphylla L.23-26.3. 531. 541. 531.) Schinz et Thell.73. 523.43.65.13.11. 523. 517.411.25.46. 526.65.31.1 Gagea bohemica (Zauschner) Schult. Linum trigynum L. Draba dubia Suter Draba fladnizensis Wulfen Draba haynaldii Stur Draba stellata Jacq.13.4.14. Dendranthema zawadzkii (Herb. 533. 523.11-12. 517. 523. 514.21.2 513.411.2.4.9.1 Geranium bohemicum L. 517.36.1 513.57. 513.3.2 517.) Fritsch Ledum palustre L. 522.1. 523. 514. 517. ssp.85 513.31 513.4. 514.1. 541.22.73.26. 517. 522. 514. 532. 522. Dracocephalum ruyschiana L.21. 514.2.1. Draba dorneri Heuff. Loiseleuria procumbens (L. 514.5.13.2.11.37. 531.2.37. 516. Lonicera coerulea L.9. 515.54.12. 514.) R. 541. Iris spuria L. 522.34 514.1.73. 533. Juncus sphaerocarpus Nees Juncus triglumis L.13.13 531. 514. fil. 542.411.411. 517.52-53.81. 533.2 513. 517. 523.21-22.5.23. Epipogium aphyllum Swartz 531.1 513.2.2 Fritillaria meleagris L.4. 531. 517.1.) Ker Gawl.72.1-3.43. 516.12. 514.14. 515. 523. Linaria arvensis (L. 513.34.2. 531. 542.31. hungarica (Waldst.3.26.411.2. 517.24-25.53. 531. 541.21.15.) Mill. 516. 517.46. 517. 516.411. et Schult.4 514. 516. 525.73. 531.25 Galium parisiense L.26. Dianthus nitidus Waldst. 526. 531.43.53. 522. 531.63. 513. 542.9. 523.42-43.27 517. Jurinea mollis (L. 514. 515.53. 524. 542.15.9. 542. 523. 523. 516.73. 522.46. 522.2.2 526.1. 516. 523. 523.23. 523.2. 542.27-28. 516. 542. Dianthus serotinus Waldst. 514.27. 531. 541. 516. 531.45-46. ssp.Br. 523.24. 531. 514. 522.12.15. 531. 532. 542. 516. Dictamnus albus L. 541. 526. Eleocharis austriaca Hayek Eleocharis carniolica Koch Epipactis albensis Nováková et Rydlo 17 Physiographic Units 513.52. 531.) Hegi Iris graminea L.63. transsilvanica (Sprengel) Hayek Kobresia myosuroides (Vill.2-3. 526. 523.51. 517. 517.1 Hedysarum hedysaroides (L. 523.411. 523.43. 531. 531. 522.25.74.65.412. 523.11. 532. 516.5. 542. 541.22. 523. 523.32-34.23 513.2. 522. 523.1.53. 514. 531.3.31. 514.12.21. 541.23 516.1 515.2.31. 523. ssp. 541. 531.4.9. 517.4.1.13 513. 542.Hoffm.73 513.2 516.2.51-53.12.24-25.2. 517.42-43. 541. 531.2.1. 541.1. 523. 524.25. 523.31. 532.11. 531. 542. 513.52-53.52 514.27. pallidiflorum (Jáv. 523. 531. 522. 541.9. 516.12. 514. 526. Inula salicina L. 522. 531.22. 514. 531.63.2 Groenlandia densa (L.) Fourr.Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Vascular Plants Species Daphne cneorum L.85.2 517.32.2.15. 514.42-43.23 514. 523.5. 514.1-2. 531. Bieb. 515.4. 515.51.11.56.51.23. 523.44 514.1. 522.45.42 513. 517.411.

531.2.32 541.72. 514. 514.1. Petrocallis pyrenaica (L.52-53 514. 513.31.25. 516.11-12.43-44. 516. 513. triternata (Pallas ex DC. 523. 514. 523.15.51. 531. 531. 533. nigra Nigritella nigra (L. Onosma arenarium Waldst.5 522.24-25 514.2.24.15. 531. Primula farinosa L. Paeonia mascula (L. Saussurea porcii Degen Saussurea pygmaea (Jacq.4. 514.2. Saxifraga mutata L.11.2. 531.43. 514.2 513. Primula halleri J. Orobanche picridis F.15.9.74.85. 513. 523.2.31.4.63.21.51.2.51. 514.51.2 514.1. 514.43.44.1 514.) Palla Schoenus ferrugineus L. 513.85.63. et Kit. 513.9. 522. 514. 524. 514.) Holub Lysimachia thyrsiflora (L. 514. 542.52.1. 513.44. 522. 526.51.52-53.31.25.56.51. 514.27. et Schlecht. 523.44. 515.1 513. 531.) Rauschert Onosma tornensis Jáv. 517. Montia fontana L.2. Narcissus angustifolius Curt. 515.) L. 542.33 514.2.1. Potentilla haynaldiana Janka Potentilla palustris (L.2.23 516. et Derv. 531.63. 531.15.2. 522.37. 523.73.1.-Sok. 523. 541. demissa (Schott et Kotschy) D. ssp. 542. 516.) Stearn et P.43.53 .26 514.51.5.71-72. 533.11.2.) Scop.52-53. 525. Nigritella carpatica (Zapal.31. Scirpus hudsonianus (Michx) Fernald Physiographic Units 513. 515.3.23 514. 517.51. 522. 523. 517.3. 541. 514. Marsilea quadrifolia L.44.45.56. 514.53.1-3.51.28.4-5.11. 513. 517. 514.2 514.25. 514.11.2 514.52-53. 514. 515.11 526.F.2 514.12.26.11. 533.57.45.31 514. 542. 523.) Hand.63-64.) Teppner. 517. Saussurea discolor (Willd.72.85 514. 514. 513. 531.41-43.4.) Lindley Minuartia hirsuta (M. 522.44.46.1 522.43.44. ssp.52-53. 514. 515. 523.1. 514. 516. 531. 523. 515.31.37 523.72. et Graebn. 523. 515. 526. 517.2. Salix myrtilloides L.53.43.11.51 513. 531. 541.85.31-32. 523. rubra (Wettst.) Willd. 523.51. 515. 523.63 531.) Rchb. 523.9.Bieb.1 523. 517.6 514. 523. Ranunculus reptans L. Pulsatilla vulgaris Mill.5. 514. 531. 531. Micromeria thymifolia (Scop. 531. 523. 531. 517. 531.12.31. 531.1. 542. 523. 522.15.21-23.25.53.-Mazz.1 513. Salix helvetica Vill.53.53 514. 514.63 513.2 514.9.15.24-25.71-72. 514.3.43.33. 524.2.52-53 513. 514.44.Kern.5 525.) Mill. 514. 516. 514. 523. 517.15. Salix starkeana Willd. 533.13-14. 531.63. 515. 513. 531. 522.53 514.11 514. 517. 531.15. 516.31. 541. Poa margilicola Bernátová et Májovský Poa nobilis Skalińska Poa pannonica A.32.11 514.22. 515.37 514.13. ssp.85.52-53.31-32. 523. 514.1. ssp. Klein et Zagulski Nigritella nigra (L.31. 523.411.15.1.85. 531. 541.26. 533.1 514.18 Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Vascular Plants Species Lotus borbasii Ujhelyi Ludwigia palustris (L.2.71.71-72.25. 514. 514. 523.55. 517. 531. 522.1.44-45. 523.4.W. 531.2 514.13. grandis (Wenderoth) Zamels Pyrola media Swartz Pyrus nivalis Jacq.2. 542. 523. 523.53 513. 514.1.85 514. 523. 542. 523. 542.41. 523. Salix herbacea L. 541.31.51. 515. 513. 516.2. 517.2.22. 523. 514. 531. 516. 513. 531. 515. 515. 523. 523. 532.65. 531. 523.52-53. Lycopodiella inundata (L.2. 531.2. 523. 523. 531. Pedicularis sceptrum-carolinum L.9.H. 513. 514.31 513.) Mill.41-42. 523. Ranunculus thora L. 531.411-412. 526. 515.15 513.Reuss) Zamels Pulsatilla patens (L.11.29.27-28.26.2-3. 522.2. 541.2 513. 514. 515.63.3 523. 515.) Hand. 516.2-3.2.2.W. 531.5. 531.85. Schoenoplectus mucronatus (L.52-53. 523.1-3. slavica (G.2.12. 516. 514.37 514.4. 531.25.52-53.51-53.42.411. Primula wulfeniana Schott ssp. 514. 523. 514. tuberculata (Kit. 533. 522. 523.2. 515. 513.12.24.73.6. 514.26.31.9. 514.45. 541.21. 523.37 513.71-72. 531. 517. 541.1. 523.2.11. 514.25 531. 517. 515.26-27.45.73.51. 513.Kern. Ranunculus malinovskii Jelen. 541.43.55-56. 517.22.73 522.11.22 513.2.2 523. 531.411-412.72. 523.52-53.14. 517.31.64. 514. 525.42. Onosma pseudoarenaria Schur ssp. 523. 516. 531.51.1-2.32-34 522. 513.36-37 514.45-46.81. 542. 514. 523. 523. 517.62-63.11.43.32 514. 514. ssp.22 513. Orchis pallens L. ssp. 513.1. 523. 522. 514. 514.) Fritsch Microstylis monophyllos (L. 532.81.1 514. Pulsatilla vernalis (L.53.52-53 522. Ranunculus millefoliatus Vahl Ranunculus pygmaeus Wahlenb.13.) Sprengel Saxifraga cernua L.2.72. Ophrys fuciflora (F.5. 514.15 514.42. 531. 522. 531. ssp. 531. 523.5. 523. 531. 522. 523. 514. 523. Polypodium interjectum Shivas Potamogeton alpinus Balbis Potamogeton compressus L.29.53 514.A. 523.411.32-34. 531. 531. 523.1 513.34. 513. 531.2 517. 531.31. 517.62.33. 541. 514. Papaver alpinum L. 514. 523.11 514.51.3 522. 522.3.31. 516.2. 533.2.11. ssp. Salix retusa L. 541.63.53 514.) Soó Polycarpon tetraphyllum (L.9. tatricum Nyár.51.41-42. 514. 513. 514.411. 515. 516.53.412.31.24-25. 531.41-42.52. 514.2.43. 517. 514.3 532.53.-Mazz.5.2.2. 524. 513. 531. 523.24.21 513.32-34 513.Br. 523.63. Saxifraga hirculus L. ssp. 523.24-25.Gmel. ssp. 514.73.) Elliott Lychnis nivalis Kit.) DC. 523.37. 514. 522. Ophrys apifera Huds.37 516.9. 524. 514. 514. 531.15.14. 514. 531.24-29. frutescens (Kit.1.25. 523.54-57. 517.24-25. 514.) Rchb. 531.3.) R.24.412.15. Ononis repens L.62-63. 523.43. 523.31. 531.) Beauverd Onobrychis montana DC.2 514.Webb Saxifraga mutata L.14. 525.9.34 531. f.13-14.14.51. Ranunculus altitatrensis Paclová et Murín Ranunculus glacialis L. scabra (Asch. 514.3-4 514. Rosa glauca Pourret Rubus bertramii G.52-53. 542. 524.54.46. 514.11. 514. 524.1. 523.31. 531.63. 515.43. 531.51-53. 523.63.1. 514. 522. 516.15.21 523. 523.15. Orchis spitzelii Sauter ex Koch Ornithogalum sphaerocarpum A. mutata Saxifraga pedemontana All. 514.15. 513.11. 515. baumgarteniana (Degen et Moesz) Ludi Pulmonaria angustifolia L.54.2-3.74.2 523. 526.15.Schultz Oxytropis carpatica Uechtr.22. 542. 531. Potentilla sterilis L.34. Pinguicula vulgaris L. 514.63. 531.51. 515.3. 523.) Mill.4.11.Braun Rubus senticosus Köhler ex Weihe Ruppia maritima L. 514.12.1. 542.46. 514.1. 523.) Rchb. 523.5.2.42.15.11. 517.53. 533. 514. 514. 515.26.6 513.12-13. 515.9.2.11. 514. 514. 531.Davis Paeonia tenuifolia L. 531.17. 522.66. 514.11. Salix bicolor L.2.2. Pulsatilla halleri (All.1 516. ssp.2 513. 523.65. 523.57.41-42. 542. 541. 531.Schmidt) Moench Ophrys sphegodes Mill.81.26-27.26-29.4.27.43. 532.54.2. 531.32. 532. 541.14.41-42. 542.31 513.411. 542.41. cymosa Engler Saxifraga retusa Gouan Scheuchzeria palustris L. 516.21. Potamogeton trichoides Cham.72.52-53 513.15. 531. 515.13 513. 523. 541. 523. 514.22. 523.9. 513.4. 542. 516. 526. 541.21.15 513. 542.2 514.51-52.26-28.25. 523.2 513.13. 515.1.1.2 516.11. 531. 514. 531.51-53.24.43. 514. 515.21 514. 514. 516.81. 523. 516. 514. 531.4. 514.73.15.43 513. 514.2.83-84. 513. 531.1 517. 531.15.

12.14. ssp. Trifolium lupinaster L. Vaccinium oxycoccos L.63. et Kit. 514. 522.73.2. 531. 516. 513.57.52.1. 516.2.4. 514.21 516. 523.51.15. 523. 514.41-42.2.4.2. 515. 541.81. 517. 523.4.4-5.15.52 514. 522.63 514.52. 523.) Chevall. 514.73.73. 517. 516.) Griseb. 523. Utricularia australis R.2.1-2.4.25. 542. 514.411.53. 513.52.72.12. 531.26.71-72. 532.411. 532.45.2 531.21 515.63.) Ard. 531. ex Rupr. 516.52-53. 515.81-83 513.) Soó Serratula lycopifolia (Vill. Taraxacum arachnoideum Kirscher et Štěpánek Taraxacum erythrocarpum Kirschner et Štěpánek Taraxacum obliquum (Fries) Dahlst. 542. 533.51.3-4.1. Senecio doria L.Kern.12. 522. 522.85.63. 531. 523. 523.42. 513. ex Rchb. moravica Holub Teucrium scorodonia L.21 522.26-28.62.65. et Kit.23. Scorzonera parviflora Jacq.2. 515. 514.55.15. 523.Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Vascular Plants Species Scorzonera humilis L. 541.2.31. 514.1. 541.14.15.37 516. 523.2-5 514.12 516. 515. 542. 517. 515.) R.2 513.55. 523.15.3. 523. 514.26-28.2.411.63 514. 523.32-33 514. 531. Scorzonera lanata (L. 514. 19 Physiographic Units 513.15.43. 542. 514.3.44.Kern. 531.82. 523. 523. 514.12.1.4. Thesium ebracteatum Hayne Thlaspi jankae A.73 516. 523. 516.) Crantz Sorbus pekarovae Májovský et Bernátová Sparganium angustifolium F. 523. 541. 541. hungarica (Ujhelyi) Soó Sibbaldia procumbens L.22 523. 523. Tephroseris longifolia (Jacq.1-3.42. 531.9. 523. Vaccinium microcarpum (Turcz.28 514.) A. 523.57.2-4. et Schenk ssp.64. 517. 542. 523. Sorbus austriaca (Beck) Hedl.34.Gray Waldsteinia teppneri Májovský Waldsteinia ternata (Stephan) Fritsch Woodsia alpina (Bolton) S. 517.9.12.31. 523.31. 514.1.52. 517.15.53.411. 523. 523. 542. 516.43.28. 523.2 514.13.52.2 513. 523.2-3 531. 526.12-13. 541.2.2. 523.24 513.2.2-3.43.1 513. 517.Gray Woodsia ilvensis (L.Br. 517.13.3. Michx Spiranthes spiralis (L. 523.) R. Teesdalea nudicaulis (L. 515. 522.46.54. 523.21. 533.42. hazslinszkyana (Soó) Kárpáti Sorbus chamaemespilus (L.2.62. 514. 516. Taraxacum pieninicum Pawl. 515. 516.1. 523. 523.85. ssp. 523.2 514. 523. Trapa natans L. 515. 531.42 514.53. 523.44. 514. 522.24-25.12. 517.53.51.62.37.2-4.11. 524.Br. 514. 542.56. 514.1.73. 524. 523. 513. 523.44. 526.4. 523.2.2. 524. 524. 514. 541.15.) Spring Senecio congestus (R.2 513. 525.. Koch Succisella inflexa (Kluk) Beck Syringa josikaea J.1 514.2-4.1 . 514.84. 523. 541.12.2 514.85. 523. 514.65 516. 516.F. 523.2 514. 523.2 514. 532. 516. Selaginella helvetica (L. 533.1 517.22-23.5. Sesleria caerulea (L. 514. 516.52-53.1 513. Sesleria heuflerana Schur ssp. 514. 531. 514. 514.85 542. Utricularia bremii Heer Utricularia minor L.14.3.13. 517. 523.1.2 513. Utricularia vulgaris L.12. 516.81.63.4 514. 523.11. 523.73. 514. 526. 542. 531. 517. Sedum villosum L.14. 517. 517. 541. 531.1.63.16 513. 515.) S. 541.6 513. 541.21.1. 514.1 515. 541.2. 523.3.15 513. Vicia sparsiflora Ten. 523. 531.1. 541. 516.6.1. 542. umbrosus (Waldst.51. 517.37.F.51-52.411-412.1.15.44. Stipa danubialis Dihoru et Roman Stipa dasyphylla (Lindem. 523. 526. 531.11.44. 522. 523.9. Tofieldia pusilla (Michx) Pers.85 515. Stellaria hebecalyx Fenzl Sternbergia colchiciflora Waldst.43. 516. 522. 531. 515.21. 522. Silene zawadzkii Herbich Sisymbrium austriacum Jacq.73. 517. 523. Stipa pulcherrima K.46 514.2.2.37 514.52.1. 523.2. 522.2-5.11.Br.1.25-26.81 513. 514.51.3. 523. 522.5. 514.21.55. 515.42.2 514.1. 522.63. 522.85 514.64.44.51. 515.1.1.) DC.81. 514. 515. 517. 523.5.24-25.52-53. 531.25.42.44. 514. Jacq. 517.52 523.26. 514.411 513. 517. 542.2.Br.2.51.63. 522. 517.1.71. 514. 523. 531. 523. Vulpia bromoides (L.12.53 513. 514. 514.) Schmalh.3.82. 513.12-13. 522.44. 514. 514.55. 531.) Trautv. 514.) Hoffm. 525.4.42.12-14.53 516. Viola epipsila Ledeb.37 513.

The Brown bear is present in all Carpathian countries. The conservation status of the Wolf in the Carpathians is not satisfactory. which consume considerable amounts of plant food.000 individuals.g.500 individuals. However. The conservation status of the Brown bear varies between the Carpathian countries: it is strictly protected. The species is only strictly protected in countries where small or medium populations occur.Mammals Large Carnivores by Henryk Okarma Carnivores are the top consumers in a trophic web and have considerable influence on populations of large herbivores. The general population trend in the region is increasing or stable. many consider this figure to be slightly overestimated. in those countries where hunting is prohibited. it is done so on the basis of relatively accurate estimates of population numbers and can be considered as a sustainable harvest. this number is probably considerably overestimated and scientists put the number at fewer than 4.000. However. However. In Ukraine. while in Hungary and Czech Republic it has been recorded only sporadically. it is probable that this is a considerable overestimate and the lat- . Officially. The general population trend in the region is either stable or slightly increasing. more than 5 months in Romania). carnivores are meat eaters. despite a relatively small population. Wolf Canis lupus. However. it is intensively hunted with long hunting seasons (e.400 individuals. European lynx Lynx lynx and Wildcat Felis sylvestris. The species is most numerous in Romania and Slovakia. The Wolf is the second most numerous large carnivore in the Carpathians. wolves are hunted throughout the year. Except for bears. partially protected or hunted. In countries where the species is more numerous (Romania. Official statistics estimate the whole Carpathian population to be about 5. with a slight decrease reported from Slovakia. 10 carnivore species were selected for this Carpathian List of Endangered Species including four flagship species: Brown bear Ursus arctos. statistics show the total Carpathian Lynx population to be about 3. Altogether. Slovakia). Official statistics for the whole Carpathian population indicate a population of about 7. although in considerably variable numbers.

g. The European bison has been reintroduced to the Carpathians after having been extirpated there about 200 years ago. hybridisation with the domestic cat. In Slovakia and Poland it is strictly protected and its population size is estimated to be 1. The general population trend in the Carpathians is decreasing or stable. having a pronounced influence on the composition and structure of local flora. the species is common in Romania and Hungary.400 Lynx.Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Mammals est scientific research indicates there to be only about 2.e. 21 Large Herbivores by Kajetan Perzanowski The three flagship species selected to represent large herbivores are the strictly herbivorous. hunters. Education programmes for gaining public acceptance of various target groups (e. Hunting is permitted only in Romania and Slovakia. There is no reliable data from Ukraine. so a national management policy would need to be coordinated at a regional level and between neighbouring countries. game managers) are also necessary. The conservation status of the Lynx in the region generally appears to be relatively satisfactory: the species is strictly protected in four countries. Chamois Rupicapra rupricapra and Moose Alces alces. including European bison Bison bonasus. According to official data. even–age monocultures). In order to achieve this. They occupy a range of ecological niches from concentrate selectors (i.g. Recomendations for Conservation and Management The distribution of large carnivores in the Carpathians is divided between administrations. however with a very long hunting season (5–6 months). Essential is the development of compensation systems and their application to mitigate conflicts with local human populations. respectively. with an increase reported from Romania. livestock owners. Knowledge about the Wildcat is very limited in the Carpathians. hoofed animals which ruminate their food. Their foraging activity considerably affects the processes of plant succession and is therefore a potentially important modifying factor for the landscape. National management plans for carnivores should be developed according to guidelines worked out by the Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe and adopted by the Bern Convention. All of these large herbivore species are important components of a trophic web. through intermediate feeders to true grazers. Population numbers are estimated to be about 160 . poaching and killing by hunters (who often mistake this species for feral cats). Major threats to the wildcat include unfavourable changes in forestry (e. species being highly selective towards the quality of their diet). there is a need to elaborate and apply more accurate methods of estimating carnivore numbers. Scientific assessments clearly demonstrate that the Lynx should be considered the most vulnerable large carnivore species in the region.200 and less than 200 individuals. Monitoring of the population dynamics of large carnivores is also required.

namely Aurochs Bos primigenius and Wild horse Equus caballus gmelini. regardless of administrative borders. and • population fragmentation and inbreeding. • poaching (locally intensive). Recomendations for Conservation and Management The most important and urgent needs regarding the protection and sustainable management of these ungulate species are improved information exchange and the development of a monitoring system common to all countries of the region. the European bison may serve as an umbrella species for other endangered animals. which among other aspects. the main threats for the large herbivore group include: • habitat loss. Due to its habitat and spatial requirements. Currently. • habitat fragmentation due to the increasing density and development of the road and railway network. resulting from infrastructure development encroaching up mountain valleys as well as improper practices in forestry. It is very sensitive to human–related disturbance and the loss of natural refuges. Its continued presence in the Carpathians depends on accessibility and continuity of migration routes from the core population in north–eastern Poland and Byelorussia. Therefore due to the absence of contact with other populations of the species. Fatra and Slovensky Raj. became extirpated from the region several centuries ago. Total numbers are currently estimated at about 300 individuals. The species is unable to form a stable breeding population due to the lack of suitable habitats. Total numbers in the ecoregion probably do not exceed 100. The joint Polish–Slovak population has been on the decline for a number of years. Small Mammals by Kajetan Perzanowski For this Carpathian List of Endangered Species. The Moose is present only sporadically on the northern slopes of the Carpathian range. Separate. would unify the legal status of particular species and impose the same approach to their protection and management over the whole home range of a population. Its presence in the ecoregion is limited to the Tatras. insectivores. The Chamois is the only ungulate species occurring in the alpine zone of the highest part of the Carpathians — the High Tatras. bats and rodents were combined together under the single category of Small Mammals. Its present numbers do not guarantee the survival of a self–sustainable population. Two large herbivore species.22 Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Mammals in the Bieszczady Mountains in Poland and about 220 in the Ukrainian Carpathians. This group is fairly well . isolated herds are threatened by inbreeding and further loss of genetic variability. the Carpathian Chamois are highly threatened by inbreeding. including clear cuts and artificial rejuvenation of forests with spruce mono–cultures. This could provide the basis for a joint conservation action plan.

Promberger eds. Jakubiec Z. B. Proceedings of the workshop „Wolves in Europe – current status and prospects”. Ratowania Fauny i Flory Karpat i Podkarpacia. Buryi vedmid’ v Karpatakh. Wiesbaden: 254–300. 5: 25. Okarma H. 1999.) 2001. Głowaciński Z. In: (C. 1996.) Bears: Status. In: (C. Acta Sc. (eds. Gula R. PWRiL. S. poaching. 1995. Uhl T. Historical biogeography of the lynx in Poland. Polska czerwona księga zwierząt. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Dr Tadeusz Buchalczyk for providing base data on rodents and other small mammals of the Polish Carpathians..Herrero and B. Effective conservation depends on the ability to protect their crucial habitats as well as on the introduction of a consistent legal status of the species in the region. Voloscuk ed. Národní muzeum. 1993. XII International Bear Association Conference on bear research and management. Warszawa.). Ursus arctos Linnaeus.) 1996. S. Germany: 36–42. Brno 30: 1–78. seriously threatened by habitat loss or alterations. Oxford: 89–93. Bear-human conflicts in Romania. Stubbe. Łowiectwo. So far.. 1999. Hell P. Status and management of the wolf in Poland. Malawski J. in the case of marmot and beaver. Slovakia. Ivan Voloscuk and Mojmir Vlasin for comments at various stages of the report. present and future. The wolf in Romania. it is necessary to introduce the monitoring of their population parameters (numbers. Isuf C. Červený J.. . F. Recommendations for Conservation and Management The status of the species belonging to this group is in general not sufficiently assessed.. Canada: 257–264. Ovidiu Ionescu. Ionescu O. Large carnivores re-settling in the Hungarian fauna: Will there be room for them? Proceedings of the XXI IUGB Congress. Cerveny J.. Wilk. Acta Sc. including their sensitivity to human pressure. 1758 – Braunbär. Krapp eds. II. Brno 30 (3): 1–78. Lynx in the Czech and Slovak Republics. Głowaciński ed. Peyton eds. 1993. 1999. Liczebne i przestrzenne granice wystepowania w ocenie polskich służb leśnych. Nat. Current situation and perspectives of the wolf in Czechoslovakia. Aula Verlag. Halifax. Ionescu O. Hanzal V. Warszawa. Therefore. 23 References Anděra M.) Handbuch der Säugetiere Europas. Kraków. 5/1 Raubsäuger. Carnivores (Carnivora). Okarma H. PWRiL. Servheen. Biological Conservation 66:153–158. (ed. 1758. Lisovyi i Myslyvs’kyi Zhurnal. Bashta 2001). (ed. Praha: 1–85. IUCN/SSC Bear Specialist Group and Polar Bear Specialist Group. 1995... Schroeder and C. Faragó. In: (W. Romania. Kręgowce. Bieniek M. The respective categories of threat for particular species applied in this Carpathian List of Endangered Species follow earlier red lists. survey and conservation plan. Wolsan M. Switzerland and Cambridge UK: 1–309.. Acta zoologica cracoviensis 41: 143– 167. Oberammergau.PWRiL. Perzanowski K. trends and distribution) on an eco–regional scale.) IUCN/SSC Bear and Polar Bear Specialist Groups. 1996. 2001. Koubek P. In: (M. Okołów 1998. 1996. Polska czerwona księga zwierząt. Peyton comp. Information Press. Krupka J.. Atlas of the mammals of the Czech Republic. 1992. Warszawa. The majority of species named in this Carpathian List of Endangered Species occur in small isolated populations. Okarma H.) 1989.. and to Drs Yaroslav Dovhanych.Servheen S. Other threats include probable high inbreeding in local populations which is further increased by low reproduction rates and. Bears – status survey and conservation action plan. several lists of threatened species (Głowaciński 2001. A Provisional Version. 1996) and monographs of Carpathian fauna have been published (Wołoszyn. 1998.) Wolves of Europe: 23–29. Nat. Brasov. past.Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Mammals studied in the Carpathians. Poland. 1999. Vyskum a ochrana cicavcov na Slovensku II: 37–47. Canis lupus Linne. Herrero. small mammals serve as important indicators of environment quality. Fund. Brzuski P. Present situation and perspectives on conservation of the Grey wolf (Canis lupus) in Slovakia. Lynx in the Czech and Slovak Republics. Findo S.. Hunchak M. Findo S. 1993. Gland. Frąckowiak W. Hell P.. Due to their requirements for highly specific environmental conditions. W: (Z. Koubek P.

Dovchanych Y. 1774) Erinaceus concolor Martin.) 1996. Promberger C. Ionescu O. Acta Theriologica 42: 241–252. 1774) Castor fiber Linnaeus. 1758) Mustela eversmanni Lesson. 1839) Eptesicus serotinus (Schreber. 1758 Ursus arctos Linnaeus. Okarma H. WWF Danube-Carpathian Programme. 1997. Status of carnivores on the Carpathian Ecoregion.) in Slovakia.. Okarma H. Kraków. In: (Z... Poland Bat Research and Protection Group & Institute of Ecology of the Carpathians UAN. Żbik.. Proc. Felis silvestris Schreber. 1838 Erinaceus europaeus Linnaeus.) Vol. Okołów C. Ustrzyki Dolne.24 Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Mammals Okarma H. 1981.. Bears (distribution. 1758) Microtus nivalis (Martins. Białowieża. Izdatelstvo “Nauka”. Poland.. Unpublished Report: 1–37. Wolsan M. Augustyn M. 1811) Dryomys nitedula Pallas.W. Sabadoš K.. Głowaciński ed. Śmietana W. Nietoperze Karpat. Polska Czerwona Księga Zwierząt. see chapter on How to Use This Book) Carpathian hold large proportion of world population Arctic/Alpine Species Endemic Category of Threat in Carpathian Countries RO UA SK CZ PL H A Protection in Carpathian Countries RO UA SK CZ PL H A High Mountain Species + + Category of Threat for Entire Carpathians Habitat Directive + + + + + + + + + + + + Bern Convention Large Carnivores Canis lupus Linnaeus. Large carnivores in the Romanian Carpathian. Bashta A. V. Szemethy L. Kręgowce. Polska Czerwona Księga Zwierząt. Promberger F. 1912 Rupicapra rupicapra (Linnaeus.). W: Monografie bieszczadzkie: Kręgowce Bieszczadów Zachodnich (Z.2:75–8. (eds). 2001. 2000. Lynx (Felis) lynx (Linne. 7: 217–229. Voloscuk I. 1993. Śnieżko S.. Carpathian Ecoregion Initiative.. Kozak I. ecology. The Carpathian bison: its past and future perspectives. 1758 Felis sylvestris Schreber. Głowaciński ed. W:. 1842) Miniopterus schrebersi (Kuhl. Wolf number changes in Bieszczady National Park.. Białowieski Park Narodowy.–T. The Carpathian Wolf – Romania at its Wildest. Selected ecological problems of Polish-Ukrainian Carpathians. 1998..).. Moscow: 67–91. Perzanowski K. PWRiL. 1758) VU EN EX EX EN EW EW EW VU VU + EW EW + EN NP NP E SP E PP + + + EN EN EW PP SP E PP + + Small Mammals Barbastella barbastellus (Schreber. ACANAP. Distribution and management of the brown bear (Ursus arctos L. Koubek P. Warszawa. Bieszczadzka populacja rysia. Folia Venatoria 10– 11: 15–35. 1766) Marmota marmota (Linnaeus. A. Slobodyan A. 86pp. 2001.. Bieszczady. L’viv. 2000. Ukraine. PWRiL. Carpathian List of Endangered Species – mammals (for explanations. Polowy klucz do oznaczania nietoperzy. Perzanowski K. 1777 Lutra lutra (Linnaeus. Kręgowce. use and protection). Warszawa. 1758 Glis glis (Linnaeus. Wolsan M. annual Report 1998: 4–23. International Wolf Magazine. 2000. 1827 VU VU VU VU VU VU EN VU VU VU VU EN VU EN VU VU VU CR EX VU VU + + VU VU VU VU VU VU VU CR VU EN VU VU VU VU + VU EN VU EN VU VU VU + VU EN VU VU + VU + VU VU VU VU VU + + EW VU EN + SP PP PP PP PP PP PP PP PP NP PP NP NP SP PP PP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + EN EN EN VU + VU VU + EN VU VU + VU + + + EN + EN EN Relic .. Monografie Bieszczadzkie 9: 147–155. Ionescu O. 1996. Restytucja i współczesny stan populacji żubrów w Bieszczadach. 1827 Equus caballus gmelini Antonius. In: (Z. 1758) Bison bonasus (Linnaeus. 1758) Lynx lynx Linnaeus. 1766) Eptesicus nilssonii (Keyserling & Blasius. (ed. Findo S. Šimiak M. (ed. Śmietana W. 1758) Bos primigenius Bojanus. Red data book – list of threatened plant and animals of the Carpathian National Parks and Reserves.2nd Annual Meeting of ICE–PAS. 1758). Chiropterological Infomation Center... Biosphere Conservancy 2. 1780) Crocidura sauveolens (Pallas. Okarma H. 1775. 1778) Eliomys quercinus (Linnaeus. Wajda J. Wołoszyn B. Promberger C. Perzanowski K. Paszkiewicz R. Ryś. Ionescu O.) 1998. 1997. 2001. Carpathian Large Carnivore Project. Ukraine.. Głowaciński ed. 1817) Muscardinus avellanarius (Linnaeus.. 1758 Crocidura leucodon (Hermann. Chronione gatunki roślin i zwierząt w polskich Parkach Narodowych.. 1758 VU EN VU EN EN EX CR CR CR CR CR CR VU EN CR + VU CR VU EN EN VU VU VU VU + VU VU VU VU + VU VU VU EN VU SP SP SP PP SP PP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP PP SP PP PP PP SP SP SP PP E SP SP PP + + + + + + + + + + EX NP Large Herbivores Alces alces (Linnaeus. 6: 16–17.

47. 1758) Rupicapra rupicapra (Linnaeus. 1952 Plecotus auritus (Linnaeus. 1774) Pitymys tatricus Kratochvil. 513. 522. 514. 532. 513. 514. 514. 1774) Pipistrellus kuhlii (Kuhl. 523. 522. 513. 513. 514. 514. 514.54-57. 522. 513. 523.1. 1758) Lynx lynx Linnaeus. 524.4-7. 1774) Rhinolophus hipposideros (Bechstein.64-65. 514. 541. 1866) Rhinolophus euryale Blasius.82-85.32-34.11-14.31-34. 1797) Myotis mystacinus (Kuhl.1-2.43 513. 513.71-74. 514. 542. 513. 515.71. 523. 1777 Lutra lutra (Linnaeus.11-17.64-65. 523. 523.21-25. 542.71-74. 1778) Sorex alpinus Schinz. 513. 513.56-57.23. 514.51-52. 525. 523. 514. 513. 513.51-52.42-44.2. 1766) Eptesicus nilssonii (Keyserling & Blasius. 524.31. 531. 541. 514. 532. 513. 531. 522.33 Physiographic Units Large Herbivores Alces alces (Linnaeus.42-43.8.3-4. 522.62-64. 513. 513.62-64. 533.52-53. 533.23-29. 541.1. 542.1. 526.412.11-15. 516.12 513. 524.43.Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Mammals Carpathian hold large proportion of world population High Mountain Species Category of Threat for Entire Carpathians 25 Arctic/Alpine Species Endemic Category of Threat in Carpathian Countries RO UA SK CZ PL H A Protection in Carpathian Countries RO UA SK CZ PL H A Habitat Directive + + + + + + + + + + Bern Convention Mustela lutreola (Linnaeus.34. 523.9. 523. 533. 523. 1837) Myotis dasycneme (Boie.14.41-42.51. 514.42.67. 525.15 514. 1758 Ursus arctos Linnaeus.14. 542. 525.71-73.1-2. 522.4-6.71-73. 1901) Sciurus vulgaris Linnaeus.2. 514. 513. 1817) Nyctalus noctula (Schreber. 523. 513. 513. 517. 1758 Sicista betulina (Pallas.41-47. 523.71-72. 522. 514.31. 522. 542 513.62-64. 1778) Eliomys quercinus (Linnaeus.52. 513. 514. 542 513.52-53. 515.54-57.63. 533. 516.81-85.12 Relic + . 1766) Vespertilio murinus Linnaeus. 1780) Crocidura sauveolens (Pallas. 531. 1771) Nyctalus lasiopterus (Schreber.12. 526. 1758) 513.15.71-72.412. 514.12 522.12.65.2.1. 1817) Pipistrellus nathusii (Keyserling & Blasius.1-5. 514. 526. 514. 524. 542. 1817) Myotis emarginatus (Geoffroy. 532. 1845) Myotis capaccinii (Bonaparte. 1840 Neomys anomalus Cabrera.21-22.41. 1839) 514.1. 531.31-33. 523. 1857) Myotis brandtii (Eversmann. 1800) Rhinolophus mehelyi (Matschie. 542. 514. 514.25 514.61-66. 522. 523.54. 513. 514. 513. 517.15. 1829) Rhinolophus blasii (Peters. 514.412.56. 514.41-42. 523. 514. 513.44-47.9. 513. 514. 533.44-47.33-34.21-23.12. 525. 1758) Bison bonasus (Linnaeus.9.52-53 513. 522. 515. 514. 517.31. 1758 513. 1818) Myotis blythi (Tomes. 515. 513.65. 533.55-57. 542. 513. 1758 CR VU VU VU VU VU EN VU CR VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU EN VU VU EN VU EN VU + + VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU CR VU CR VU VU VU VU CR + VU VU CR + + + EN VU VU VU VU VU EN + + EX VU VU VU VU VU VU EN VU VU VU VU + VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU + VU VU VU VU EN VU VU VU VU + + VU VU VU VU VU VU + VU VU VU VU + VU + EX + VU VU VU VU VU VU + VU VU + VU + VU VU VU VU + VU VU VU + + + EN + + VU EN + VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU VU + + VU VU VU VU + VU VU PP NP SP PP PP SP PP SP PP PP PP SP PP PP SP PP PP PP PP NP PP PP SP PP PP PP PP PP PP PP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP + + + + VU VU + VU VU VU VU VU + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + VU + VU EN + VU EN VU EN VU + + + VU + VU SP SP SP SP SP SP SP VU Distribution of the Red Data List mammals in the Carpathians (for explanations. 1758) Plecotus austriacus (Fischer. 1806) Myotis myotis (Borkhausen. 513. 542. 523. 1839) Pipistrellus pipistrellus (Schreber.9. 523. 516.71. 541.11-14.53. 523. 513. 1817) Myotis nattereri (Kuhl.71-74. 514. 532. 523. 523. 1758) Mustela nivalis Linnaeus.84-85. 1853 Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (Schreber. 542. 542.12-13. 1766 Myotis bechsteini (Kuhl. 513. 515. 516. 526.14. 522. 1811) Dryomys nitedula Pallas.33-34. 515.52-53. 1907 Neomys fodiens (Pennant.7174. 531.61-65.52-53.65.2. 525. 542. 516. 513.12. 531.32-34.51-57.62-64.1-2. 522.51-53.53-54.43. 531. 516. 542.33. 533. 514.3-4. 514.42-43.31. 1825) Myotis daubentonii (Kuhl. 1817) Nannospalax leucodon Nordmann.4a.12.7173. 523. 523.51-53. 542.43-45.25 513. 513. 514.1-2. 524.71.51. 515.5154. 523.71. 513. 541. 541.9. 542.82-85. 1758 Felis sylvestris Schreber.27 513. see chapter on How to Use This Book) Species Large Carnivores Canis lupus Linnaeus.1.1-2. 514. 514.1-2. 523.61-66.51-53. 513. 517. 526. 1774) Castor fiber Linnaeus 1758 Crocidura leucodon (Hermann. 514.411-412. 514.12 514.23-29. 531. 514. 514.11-12. 522.11-12.42-43.44-45.31. 513. 524. 514. 522.51-57.3.42 513. 523. 514. 514. 514. 523. 514.51.48-49.67-69. 514.45-49.52-53 Small Mammals Barbastella barbastellus (Schreber. 513. 531.71-72. 523.72. 514. 515.31.51-53.31.4a. 1837 Spermophilus citellus (Linnaeus.57.4.61-66. 1780) Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl. 532.35-37.

52-53. 517. 514. 1907 Neomys fodiens (Pennant.15. 533.9. 514. 516. 522.12. 523. 522. 523. 1825) Myotis daubentonii (Kuhl.71. 522. 516.21-23 514. 533. 514. 514. 1774) Erinaceus concolor Martin. 514. 1766 Myotis bechsteini (Kuhl. 517. 513. 516.2 514. 522.51.27. 516. 1778) Sorex alpinus Schinz. 517.12.1. 1829) Rhinolophus blasii (Peters.21-26. 514.12.53. 514. 1766) Vespertilio murinus Linnaeus. 514. 514. 1758) Mustela nivalis Linnaeus.15. 532.12.27. 1842) Miniopterus schrebersi (Kuhl. 526. 522.31.9.2 513.51-52. 522. 514. 516.15.52-53.9. 523.32.43. 522. 516. 514. 514. 1758) Microtus nivalis (Martins.12 514.4. 526.9. 514. 516.12. 523.3. 524.27. 1771) Nyctalus lasiopterus (Schreber. 541. 541.12 513.52-53. 1817) Myotis emarginatus (Geoffroy.12.25 513. 522. 517. 517.43. 1797) Myotis mystacinus (Kuhl. 522.12. 514.43. 1817) Muscardinus avellanarius (Linnaeus.12. 517.12. 522. 514.54. 522.4. 514. 533.32. 514.27.43.1 513. 522. 1774) Rhinolophus hipposideros (Bechstein.27 513.2 514. 515. 533. 514. 515. 517. 516.52-53. 542 522. 515. 1817) Pipistrellus nathusii (Keyserling & Blasius.33-37. 525. 514. 514. 523. 531. 522. 522. 514. 514. 1774) Pitymys tatricus Kratochvil. 517.52-53.51-52. 514. 516. 515. 1952 Plecotus auritus (Linnaeus. 516. 522.43.2 533 516. 1866) Rhinolophus euryale Blasius. 522. 524. 522. 514. 514. 532. 514. 516.2 513. 526.52-53. 542. 517.2. 522. 533. 514.25.52. 522. 515. 524.52-53.25 513.12. 1837) Myotis dasycneme (Boie.65. 532. 1901) Sciurus vulgaris Linnaeus. 522.2.2. 1758 Physiographic Units 514. 531.12. 531.25.52-53. 516. 513.9. 514. 522. 531. 531. 515.52-53. 514.12 .4. 517.27. 514. 1758 Sicista betulina (Pallas. 514. 533.2 513.9. 1838 Erinaceus europaeus Linnaeus. 517. 541. 522. 522. 514.1 513. 516. 515.43. 515. 517. 1839) Pipistrellus pipistrellus (Schreber. 516. 533. 531.25 513. 541.12. 514. 514. 515. 531. 531. 542. 515. 515.12.2. 542 513.25 513.51.2 513.15. 514. 516. 531.4.52.2. 514. 517. 1817) Nannospalax leucodon Nordmann. 514.27.9. 514. 516. 514.21-26.9.9.52. 514. 514.5.12. 1817) Myotis nattereri (Kuhl. 542. 542.2. 514.9. 514. 513. 514.12 514.2 522.27. 531. 514. 522.15. 1845) Myotis capaccinii (Bonaparte. 1780) Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl.11-17.12 513. 524. 514. 531. 514.15.27. 1758 Glis glis (Linnaeus.45.2.52-53. 525. 515. 1817) Nyctalus noctula (Schreber.43. 542 514.15.25 514. 514.2 514. 1800) Rhinolophus mehelyi (Matschie.52 514. 514. 1758) Mustela lutreola (Linnaeus. 532.12.12.33-37.9. 542 513. 523. 1837 Spermophilus citellus (Linnaeus.12.43.25 514.12. 531. 531. 533. 541.12. 532. 522. 514. 522. 522.32 513.2. 541. 515. 513.52-53.51-52.2.52-53. 515. 523.45. 514.2. 1774) Pipistrellus kuhlii (Kuhl.9.4.15.9. 522. 525.9.34. 1758) Plecotus austriacus (Fischer. 516. 515.52-53. 531. 531. 1857) Myotis brandtii (Eversmann.1. 1766) Marmota marmota (Linnaeus. 516. 524.15.12.27. 533. 1840 Neomys anomalus Cabrera.2.26 Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Mammals Species Eptesicus serotinus (Schreber. 531.12. 515. 522. 522.25 513.9.9.51. 517.2 514. 542 516. 514.1 513.2.52-53.32.2 516.43.11-17. 532.2. 522.51. 531.52-53. 522. 1818) Myotis blythi (Tomes. 514.32 513. 525.32 514. 532.31.71.52-53.12.27. 517. 531. 526. 526.2.25 513.52.2. 514.43. 531. 516. 514.43. 517. 522. 531.43. 514.2. 526. 514. 542 514.51-52. 517. 1853 Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (Schreber. 515. 533. 525. 525. 524.12. 514.25 513.9.27. 514. 514.12.9. 514.52-53. 514.2 531. 531. 515. 522.84.15. 1806) Myotis myotis (Borkhausen. 531. 513. 526. 516.

Eight bird species were identified as flagship species for the Carpathians: • Imperial eagle Aquila heliaca • Lesser spotted eagle Aquila pomarina • Corncrake Crex crex • White-backed woodpecker Dendrocopos leucotos • Rock thrush Monticola saxatilis • Ural owl Strix uralensis • Capercaillie Tetrao urogallus • Wallcreeper Tichodroma muraria State of Knowledge In the Czech Republic. birds of prey. 7 species are considered critically endangered. or those for which the Carpathians represent an important refuge in Europe. Red lists on birds of the Czech Republic date back to 1988. owls and grouse. Hungary. The relatively small group of qualified ornithologists and the inaccessibility of the mountains contribute to the fact that the precise distribution and density of most bird species is not known. Tucker and Heath 1994). 11 endangered and 11 vulnerable.g. endangered or critically endangered. However. The situation in the Ukraine and Romania is different. knowledge about the distribution of most species is fairly good. Similarly. Characteristic species were defined as those species where a significant area of their range falls into the Carpathians.Birds by Tomas Ruzicka A total of 29 birds were selected for this Carpathian List of Endangered Species. In these countries national censuses have been carried out and detailed research undertaken for different species (e. Poland and Slovakia.183 bird species in the world are considered to be vulnerable. the Romanian Red List of birds is due to be published in 2003. Only two species nesting in the Carpathians are considered to be globally threatened or conservation dependant: the Imperial eagle Aquila heliaca and the Corncrake Crex crex (IUCN Red Data List 2000. The latest ver- . this applies particularly to birds of prey. in Hungary the red list was published in 1989. Altogether. Corncrake). a total of 1. According to the 2000 IUCN Red Data List. covering the former Czechoslovakia.

The latest version of the Polish Red Data Book was recently published (Głowaciński 2001). Quite a unique migrating population of a few pairs of Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris balcanica) nest in the Romanian mountains of Munti Cindrel. hosting nearly 28–40% (1. Other noteworthy species of the Carpathian forests include the Black stork Ciconia nigra.285 pairs) of the entire European population (excluding Russia). which constitute important nesting habitats for most birds of prey.500–2. It is very difficult to estimate the total Carpathian population of Capercaillie. habitat alteration. The dense deciduous and mixed forests provide a home for species such as the White–backed woodpecker and the Ural owl. or 80 to 85 pairs. The number of pairs of the Ural owl living in the Carpathians represents nearly 20% (2.400 pairs) of its entire European population. the Carpathians. also find a valuable habitat in the Carpathians. The Carpathians represent a very important refuge for this species in Europe thanks to extensive agricultural practices. respectively. The Carpathians are a refuge for nesting species such as the Lesser spotted eagle and the globally threatened Imperial eagle. such as the Rock thrush and Wallcreeper. woodpeckers. owls and woodpeckers. The globally threatened Corncrake. undoubtedly represent a very important region for the species in Europe. has particu- . Nevertheless. nest in lower ranges and depressions in the Carpathians). New red lists for the Czech Republic. reaching the northern limit of their range here. Typical mountain species. The region represents a real stronghold for these species. Slovakia and Romania are due to be published in 2003. Interestingly. Bucegi and Parâng (Munteanu and Szabó 2001). Main Threats to Birds in the Carpathians Most birds are not dependent on small–sized habitats and can easily move to other similar habitats when their original one changes. Black woodpecker Dryocopus martius.28 Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Birds sion of the Slovakian Red List was published in 1998. fragmentation and destruction have been identified as the worst threats. mainly because of a lack of precise data from Romania and the Ukraine. The population of the White-backed woodpecker in the Carpathians is estimated to include up to 30% (11. The Red book for the Ukraine was published in 1994. the Carpathians are an important European stronghold for the steppe species Saker Falco cherrug (15% to 25% of the European population. a species which has been in steep and continuing population decline in Western Europe for the last 20 years. Grey–headed woodpecker Picus canus. Three–toed woodpecker Picoides tridactylus. Other valuable mountain species include the Water pipit Anthus spinoletta (20% of the European population) and the Alpine accentor Prunella collaris. particularly Romania. Destruction of old growth forests. especially for birds of prey. is found in the Carpathian meadows. Nevertheless.700 pairs) and 20% to 45% (85 pairs) of their European populations. grouses and Corncrakes. It is an isolated and northern most nesting location of this sub–species. It is not only the forests and mountains which provide a valuable habitat for birds. Tengmalm’s owl Aegolius funereus and Red–breasted flycatcher Ficedula parva.

State Nature Conservation of Slovak Republic. PWRiL. In addition to habitat destruction. 1999. at times a 70% decrease.. Acknowledgements The following ornithologists helped the author and provided data and recommendations for the Carpathian List of Endangered Species: Vojtech Mrlik. Bartosova D. T & A D Poyser. m. are especially vulnerable to pollution. Pro chyselnist’ khyzgykh ptakhiv v Ukraini. In: (P. Nests of some birds of prey (e. such as birds of prey and owls. 1993 a 1994. Chavko J. 4–7 lyutoho 1999 r. A. Retezat National Park. extensive beech and fir forests are the most valuable nesting habitats for White–backed. Ochrona Przyrody 50: 65–94. Ekolohichni aspekty okhorony ptakhiv (Materialy VII narady ornitolohiv Zakhidnoi Ukrainy prysvyachenoi pamyati V. Only in Romania is the Capercaillie still fairly common and hunted. 44–51. (ed.. Pilyuha V. Málková ed. (ed. (eds. Buteo 7: 182–190. Conf. Romania Bohdan Hodovanets. Black and Three-toed woodpeckers. usually fatal. Structure and vertical distribution of the breeding bird alliances in the Polish Tatra National Park. Pp. Bird crime has been monitored in Slovakia since 1965. Głowaciński Z. London. Kręgowce.) Proceedings of the Inter. zatverdzgenykh Ukrainskoyu rehionalnoyu OFK v 1987– 1988 r. L’viv. Deva. CEEWEB. Slovakia Atilla Sandor. Kostin S. Bratislava. New World Vultures to Guineafowl.. České Budějovice.Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Birds larly adverse effects..).). Polska czerwona księga zwierząt. Danko Š. Lynx Edicions. On the European scale. Institute of Nature Conservation PAS. and the occasional prosecution of robbers. Materialy ornitofaunistychnykh sposterezgen’. Anonymus 1993. and also for some passerines such as Red–breasted Flycatcher. Although data on bird crime from other countries is absent. especially for rare birds of prey. Miskolc.) in the protected Landscape Area Beskydy Mountains. 2000. Tetraonids – Tetraonidae at the break of millenium. Dzedushynskoho. Kataloh ornitofauny Zakhidnykh oblastey Ukrainy. Lutsk. Hryschenko V. M.. Profus P. zatverdzgenykh Ukrainskoyu rehionalnoyu OFK v 1982– 1986 r. pollution by DDT and hunting. Craig. Głowaciński Z. J. J. History and perspectives of Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volove ochko – Troglodytes (Kataloh ornitofauny Zakhidnykh oblastey Ukrainy). 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. Lutsk. Poland Jozef Chavko.. Blair M. Species Survival Commission Horban’ I. it is probable that the possible may significantly affect bird of prey populations also in the Ukraine and Romania. has made this species almost extinct in most of the Carpathian countries. Lesser spotted eagle. J. Hungary Zbigniew Głowaciński. 1994. stealing chicks for falconry and shooting birds for taxidermy can play a significant role in the decrease of populations of rare birds of prey. 1995. 1992. . Egg collection. Czech Republic.) 2001. 1997. Brno. Ukraine 29 References Anonymus 1991. J. Larger bird species are also threatened by collisions. Czech Republic Sandor Barati. Hagemeijer W. Golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos.. The very specific habitat requirements of the Capercaillie — coniferous forests with open areas and undergrowth of Bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus — together with intensive forest management practices. The EBCC Atlas of European Breeding Birds: Their Distribution and Abundance. Warszawa.g. with overhead wires and poorly designed electric poles.). Materialy ornitofaunistychnykh sposterezgen’. 2000. Ivano–Frankivsk. Krakow. Elliott. Rakhiv. Hilton-Taylor. Academy of Science. & Sargatal. and virtually extinct in Hungary.. bird crime is also a serious threat. Del Hoyo. 24–26 March 2000. Vetrov V. Vol. Saker) have been guarded there since 1990 resulting in lower numbers of robbed nests. Hniezdenie orla kráĺovského (Aquila heliaca) na Slovensku v r. Barcelona. Carpathian Biosphere Reserve.. Top predators. 2.

(ed. 313-317 in Meyburg B. Firmansky G. Murin B. Wroclaw. 1794) Glaucidium passerinum (Linnaeus.). České Budějovice. ed.. (ed. 1758) Caprimulgus europaeus Linnaeus. 1831 Bonasa bonasia (Linnaeus. Czech Republic. Conf. 1758 Strix uralensis Pallas. Dumka. 1803) Emberiza cia Linnaeus.) 1989. Hudec K. Animal kingdom.: BirdLife International (BirdLife Conservation Series No. London and Paris.. Heath M.D. Carpathian List of Endangered Species – birds (for explanations.. 233–242. 1771 Tetrao tetrix Linnaeus. Sylvia 30: 97–105. Státní zemědělské nakladatelství. 1758 Tetrao urogallus Linnaeus.. Weber P.-U. Atlas ptakow legowych Malopolski 1985–1991 (The atlas of breeding birds in Malopolska (1985–1991). Birds in Europe: their conservation status.) 1994.. 1992. E. Štastny K. Nakladatelství a vydavatelství H & H. (ed. Strazds M.. 1769) Scolopax rusticola Linnaeus.12–18 in Málková. (ed. Pp.. 1758) Picus canus Gmelin. WWGBP. Eagle Studies. 1766) Otus scops (Linnaeus.M. 1758) Dendrocopos leucotos (Bechstein. Sedlacek K. 1788) Lullula arborea (Linnaeus..30 Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Birds Jirat J. Tetraonids – Tetraonidae at the break of millenium. Početnosť hniezdnych populacii na Slovensku. Red book of Ukraine. Ptitsy. Ukrainskiye Karpaty (Priroda).) 1994. Uhlig. R. Malkova P. Schaeffer N. Zur Verbreitung des Schreiadlers Aquila pomarina in Rumanien. České Budějovice. SOR No. 1771 Ficedula parva (Bechstein.): Proceedings of the Inter. Danko S. 1758) Ciconia nigra (Linnaeus. Suppl. see chapter on How to Use This Book) Carpathian hold large proportion of world population Bird Directive Arctic/Alpine Species Endemic Category of Threat in Carpathian Countries RO UA SK CZ PL H A Protection in Carpathian Countries RO UA SK CZ PL H A High Mountain Species + + + Category of Threat for Entire Carpathians Habitat Directive Bern Convention Aegolius funereus (Linnaeus. Kemeri. Kristin A. 1766 Eremophila alpestris (Linnaeus. Randik A.. 24–26 March 2000. Realisation of the saving programme of critically endangered animal species – the Capercaillie in the Czech Republic.. (ed. Ochrana prírody. 1758 Tichodroma muraria (Linnaeus. 1994. Kovacs A. Kyiv.. Atlasul provizoriu al păsărilor clocitoare din România. Lugovoy A. L. Tetraonids – Tetraonidae at the break of millenium.. 2000. 6–11 in Málková. Shcherbak M. Workshop 14–18. 1988.M. Szitta T. Breeding by Horned Larks in southern Carpathians. Kiev. Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina).. Magyar G. 1758) Falco cherrug Gray. & Szabó. 1998.. 1758) Aquila chrysaetos (Linnaeus..K.F. 1997. Praha. 24–26 March 2000. Pp. Hudec K. et al. Buteo. Tetraonids in Europe and in the Czech Republic. (ed. Publishing house „Ukrains’ka encyklopedia”. 1994. BS Biologica Silesiae. 2001.2. R. 3). Publ. 1758 Charadrius morinellus (Linnaeus. P. 1758) Picoides tridactylus (Linnaeus.) 1999. Haraszthy L.. Červený zoznam a ekosozologický status vtákov (Aves) Slovenska. Darolova A. 1766) VU VU EN CR EN VU VU CR EN EN EN EN CR CR CR VU VU CR VU CR VU VU VU EN VU EN EN EN EN VU CR EW EW VU CR VU EN EN VU CR CR CR + CR EN EN EN CR + + + CR + EN EN VU + EN VU + + CR + + VU + CR EW VU EN CR + VU + + VU + CR + VU + EN CR + EN EW CR EN + + EW VU + CR EN EW EW CR EW + + VU CR EN + VU CR EN VU EN + CR CR EN VU + EN EN EN + VU VU + VU VU EN + VU VU VU CR CR EN EN VU + EN CR EN EN CR CR VU VU CR VU CR CR EN VU EN VU EN EN EN EN CR + CR + CR + + + CR VU SP SP SP PP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP PP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP PP SP PP SP SP SP SP PP PP SP SP SP SP PP NP SP SP SP PP SP SP PP PP SP PP SP PP NP PP E SP NP NP PP SP SP SP SP SP PP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP PP SP SP SP SP CR CR + CR CR + CR VU VU VU CR VU CR CR SP SP SP SP SP E SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP E SP SP E SP SP SP SP SP SP PP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP PP SP SP SP SP SP PP SP SP SP PP PP PP SP SP PP + SP SP PP SP PP SP PP PP PP SP PP SP SP + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Relic + + + . Rakonczay Z. Conf. U. 1758) Hieraaetus pennatus (Gmelin. Varga K. P. Mediaş.. Červená kniha ohrožených a vzácných druhů rostlin a živočichů ČSSR 1. Bejcek V. Tucker G. 1758 Prunella collaris (Scopoli. Budapest. Annex 6. 1834 Falco peregrinus Tunstall. European Union Species Action Plan. Pp. 1999. 1996. Czech Republic. Munteanu. P. Mielczarek P.. Annotated checklist of birds of Hungary. Nauk. Cambridge.. Jinočany. 1758) Aquila heliaca Saviigny.: 64. Conservation and studies on breeding biology of the Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) in north-east Hungary. Donat. Budapest.16. (eds. Kropil R. 1809 Aquila pomarina Brehm. 1758) Anthus spinoletta (Linnaeus. Ptáci. Štastny K. 1758) Monticola saxatilis (Linnaeus. 1758) Crex crex (Linnaeus. Latvia. D. November 1996.): Proceedings of the Inter. Bejcek V. and Chancellor. roc. Meyburg B–U. 1996: Atlas hnízdního rozšíření ptáků v České republice 1985 – 1989.. 2000. British Birds 94 (1): 42-43. 1988. Štastny K.. Berlin. Red Book (The extinct and endangered animal and plant species of Hungary) Akadémiai kiadó. Kristin A. Romania. Walasz K.

Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Birds
Distribution of the Red Data List birds in the Carpathians (for explanations, see chapter on How to Use This Book)
Species
Aegolius funereus (Linnaeus, 1758) Anthus spinoletta (Linnaeus, 1758) Aquila chrysaetos (Linnaeus, 1758) Aquila heliaca Saviigny, 1809 Aquila pomarina Brehm, 1831

31

Physiographic Units
513.2, 513.412, 513.43-44, 513.51-52, 513.55-57, 513.71, 514.9, 514.11, 514.13-14, 514.42-43, 514.51-53, 514.62, 514.64, 514.71-74, 514.85, 515.11-14, 515.23-28, 516.2, 516.4a, 522, 523.1-2, 523.51-55 513.44-46, 513.51-52, 513.55, 513.71, 514.9, 514.14, 514.42-43, 514.51-53, 514.63, 514.74, 514.84-85, 515.26-29, 522, 523.1-2, 523.31, 523.42-47, 523.51-57, 523.61-63, 523.66, 523.71-73, 524.2-3, 524.5, 525.3, 531.4, 531.11-15, 531.21-22, 531.25-26, 531.31-36, 533.2-3, 533.5, 542.1, 542.21-23, 542.32, 542.34, 542.42 513.55, 513.71, 514.9, 514.11-13, 514.42-43, 514.51-53, 514.63-64, 514.74, 514.84-85, 515.25-29, 516.2, 516.4a, 517.1-2, 522, 523.1-2, 523.31, 523.45-47, 523.51-56, 523.62-64, 523.71-73, 524.3, 524.5-6, 531.4, 531.11, 531.13, 531.15, 531.17, 531.22, 531.25-26, 531.31-36, 533.1, 533.6-7, 541.1-2, 542.1, 542.21-23, 542.31-34, 542.42 513.411, 514.2, 514.41-42, 514.81, 514.83, 515.21, 515.28, 516.2, 516.4, 517.1-2, 523.41, 523.51, 523.63-65, 523.71, 523.73, 531.24, 531.32, 541.2-4 513.411, 513.51, 513.55-57, 513.64-65, 513.71-72, 514.9, 514.11-14, 514.34, 514.41-43, 514.51-53, 514.62-63, 514.71-74, 514.82-85, 515.12-15, 515.21-29, 516.2, 516.4, 516.4a, 516.11, 517.1-2, 522, 523.1-2, 523.31, 523.41, 523.44-47, 523.5157, 523.62-66, 523.71-73, 524.5-6, 525.1-2, 526.1, 531.4, 531.11-12, 531.16-17, 531.21-26, 531.31-37, 532.1, 532.3, 533.1, 533.3, 533.5-7, 541, 542.1, 542.21-23, 542.31-33, 542.42-43 513.31-34, 513.411-412, 513.43-49, 513.51-57, 513.61-65, 513.67-69, 513.71-72, 514.9, 514.11-14, 514.33-34, 514.43, 514.51-53, 514.62-63, 514.71-72, 514.74, 514.82, 514.84-85, 515.11-15, 515.21, 515.23-26, 515.28-29, 516.2, 516.4a, 517.1, 522, 523.1-2, 523.31, 523.42-47, 523.51-57, 523.61-64, 523.66, 524.1-3, 524.5-6, 525.1, 525.3, 526, 531.4, 531.11, 531.13-15, 531.17, 531.21-22, 531.24-26, 531.31-37, 532.3, 533.1-3, 533.5-6, 533.8, 542.1, 542.21-23, 542.31-34, 542.4142 513.411, 513.44, 513.54, 513.71-72, 514.2, 514.9, 514.11, 514.13, 514.41, 514.43, 514.51-53, 514.71-74, 514.81, 514.85, 515.21-23, 515.25-27, 515.29, 516.2-4, 516.11-14, 517.1-2, 517.4-5, 522.12, 523.51 514.12, 514.52-53, 531.25 513.2, 513.32-34, 513.411-412, 513.43-49, 513.51-57, 513.61-65, 513.67-69, 513.71-72, 514.2, 514.9, 514.11-14, 514.31, 514.33-34, 514.41-43, 514.51-53, 514.62-64, 514.71-74, 514.81-85, 515.12-15, 515.17, 515.21-29, 516, 517.1-2, 517.4-5, 522.11-12, 523.1-2, 523.31, 523.41, 523.44, 523.46, 523.51, 523.62-65, 523.71-73, 524.5-6, 525.2, 526.2, 531.17, 531.22, 531.24-26, 531.32, 531.35, 531.37, 532.1, 532.3, 533.1, 533.3, 541, 542.1, 542.21-23, 542.32-34, 542.42 513.2, 513.31-34, 513.411-412, 513.43-49, 513.51-57, 513.61-65, 513.67-69, 513.71-72, 514, 515, 516, 517.1, 517.4-5, 522.11-12, 522.24, 523.2, 523.31, 523.41-42, 523.45, 523.51, 523.63-65, 523.71-73, 524.1, 524.5-6, 525.2, 526, 531.16-17, 531.23-26, 531.31-32, 531.35, 531.37, 532.1, 532.3, 533.1, 533.4, 533.7, 533.7a, 541, 542.21, 542.23, 542.32, 542.42-43 513.2, 513.31, 513.411-412, 513.43-44, 513.49, 513.51-52, 513.55-57, 513.61, 513.71-72, 514.2, 514.9, 514.13-14, 514.3234, 514.41-43, 514.51-52, 514.62-64, 514.71, 514.73-74, 514.81-85, 515.11-15, 515.21-28, 516.2, 516.4, 516.4a, 516.14, 517.1-2, 517.4-5, 522, 523.1-2, 523.31, 523.42, 523.44-46, 523.51-55, 523.57, 523.62-64, 523.71-72, 524.3, 524.6, 525.1, 531.15, 531.24-26, 531.31-33, 541.3-4, 542.1, 542.22-23, 542.33, 542.42 514.2, 514.51, 515.26, 515.28, 516.2, 517.1, 517.4-5, 523.31, 523.42, 523.45, 523.47, 523.51, 523.62, 523.66, 524.3, 524.5, 531.11, 531.13-15, 531.17, 531.22, 531.25-26, 531.32-33, 531.35-36, 533.1, 533.6-7, 542.1, 542.21-23, 542.41-42 513.11, 531.22, 531.25 513.1, 514.2, 514.41-42, 514.81, 515.26, 515.28, 516.2-4, 517.1-2, 517.4-5, 531.37, 533.1, 542.21 514.2, 514.9, 514.12, 514.42-43, 514.51-53, 514.63, 514.82, 514.85, 515.26, 516.2, 517.1-2, 517.4-5, 522, 523.1-2, 523.31, 523.45-46, 523.51-55, 523.62-63, 523.71, 524.3, 531.22, 531.31-32, 532.3, 533.1, 541.4, 542.1, 542.22-23, 542.33, 542.42 513.2, 513.32-34, 513.411-412, 513.42-49, 513.51-57, 513.61-65, 513.67-69, 513.71-72, 514.2, 514.11-14, 514.32-34, 514.41, 514.43, 514.52-53, 514.63-64, 514.71, 514.74, 514.84-85, 515.12-15, 515.23, 515.25-28, 516.2, 516.4, 516.4a, 516.11-12, 516.14, 517.1-2, 517.5, 522, 523.1-2, 523.31, 523.42-43, 523.45-46, 523.51-57, 523.61, 523.64, 523.71-73, 524.1, 524.3, 525, 526.2, 531.4, 531.11, 531.13, 531.16-17, 531.24-26, 531.32, 531.34-35, 531.37, 532.1, 532.3, 533.2-3, 533.6-7, 533.8, 541.1, 541.3-4, 542.1, 542.21, 542.23, 542.32-33, 542.42-43 513.32-34, 513.412, 513.43-49, 513.51-57, 513.61-65, 513.67-69, 513.71, 514.9, 514.11-14, 514.33-34, 514.43, 514.51-53, 514.62-64, 514.71-74, 514.82, 514.84-85, 515.11-15, 515.23-29, 516.2, 516.4, 516.4a, 522, 523.1-2, 523.51-55 517.1, 522.13-16, 522.21-25, 523.51 513.1, 513.52, 513.55-56, 513.71-72, 514.2, 514.9, 514.41-42, 514.51, 514.62, 514.64, 514.73, 514.81, 514.83-85, 515.1112, 515.14, 515.21-26, 515.28-29, 516, 517.1-2, 517.4-5, 522, 523.1-2, 523.51-55 514.2, 514.41-43, 514.52, 514.63, 514.85, 515.25-26, 515.28, 516.2, 517.2, 517.5, 522.12, 522.24-25, 523.51, 523.66, 524.2-3, 531.12-13, 531.17, 531.22, 531.24, 531.31-33, 531.35, 531.37, 532.3, 533.1, 533.6-7, 541.1, 542.1, 542.21-23, 542.31, 542.33, 542.42 513.411, 515.25, 516.2-4, 516.12, 516.14, 517.1, 517.4-5, 522, 523.1-2, 523.51-55 513.32-34, 513.412, 513.43-49, 513.51-57, 513.61-65, 513.67-69, 513.71, 514.9, 514.11-14, 514.42-43, 514.51-53, 514.6264, 514.71-74, 514.84-85, 515.11-15, 515.23-28, 516.2, 516.4, 522, 523.1-2, 523.31, 523.42-47, 523.51-57, 523.61-66, 523.71-72, 524.1-3, 524.5-6, 525.1, 525.3, 531.4, 531.13-17, 531.21, 531.23-26, 531.31-34, 531.36-37, 533.3, 533.5, 541.1, 541.4, 542.1, 542.21-23, 542.31, 542.33-34, 542.41-42 513.2, 513.31-34, 513.411-412, 513.43-45, 513.47-49, 513.51-52, 513.54-57, 513.61-65, 513.68-69, 513.71-72, 514, 515.1114, 515.17, 515.21-29, 516, 517.1-2, 517.4-5, 522, 523.1-2, 523.31, 523.41-42, 523.45-46, 523.51-57, 523.61-66, 523.71-73, 524, 525, 526, 531.4, 531.11-13, 531.16-17, 531.21-26, 531.31-37, 532.1, 532.3, 533, 541, 542.1, 542.21-23, 542.31-33, 542.41-43 513.51, 513.56-57, 514.9, 514.13, 514.43, 514.51-53, 514.63, 514.71-72, 514.84-85, 515.26, 522.12, 522.15, 522.24-25, 523.1, 523.31, 523.42, 523.45, 523.56, 523.62, 524.3, 524.5, 525.3, 531.11, 531.13-15, 531.22, 531.25, 531.32-34, 542.1, 542.23 513.2, 513.31-34, 513.411-412, 513.42-49, 513.51-57, 513.61-65, 513.67-69, 513.71-72, 514.2, 514.9, 514.12, 514.14, 514.32-34, 514.41-43, 514.51-53, 514.62-64, 514.71-74, 514.81-85, 515.12-15, 515.17, 515.21-26, 515.28-29, 516.2-4, 516.4a, 516.11-13, 517.1, 517.5, 522, 523.1-2, 523.51-55 513.32-34, 513.44-49, 513.51-55, 513.57, 513.61-65, 513.67-69, 513.71-72, 514.9, 514.11-14, 514.43, 514.51-53, 514.62, 514.64, 514.71-72, 514.85, 515.11-13, 515.23-29, 516.2, 516.4, 516.4a, 517.1-2, 522, 523.1-2, 523.31, 523.42, 523.45-47, 523.51-55, 523.57, 523.62-66, 523.71-73, 524.1, 524.3, 524.5-6, 525.1-2, 531.4, 531.11-14, 531.17, 531.21-22, 531.24-26, 531.31-34, 531.36-37, 532.1, 532.3, 533.6-7, 541.1, 541.3-4, 542.1, 542.21-23, 542.33, 542.42 513.45-46, 513.49, 513.51-52, 513.54-55, 514.9, 514.11, 514.13, 514.42-43, 514.51-53, 514.72-74, 514.84-85, 515.25-29, 516.4a 513.412, 513.44, 513.51, 513.56-57, 514.9, 514.11, 514.13-14, 514.42-43, 514.51-53, 514.63-64, 514.71-74, 514.82, 514.8485, 515.11-13, 515.23-24, 515.26-28, 522.13, 522.15-16, 522.24-25, 523.1-2, 523.31, 523.42-47, 523.56-57, 523.61-66, 523.72, 524.1-3, 524.5-6, 525.1, 525.3, 526.2, 531.4, 531.11, 531.13-15, 531.17, 531.21-22, 531.24-26, 531.32-37, 532.1, 532.3, 533.2-3, 533.5-6, 533.8, 542.1, 542.21-23, 542.31, 542.33-34, 542.41-42 513.52, 513.54, 514.9, 514.12, 514.14, 514.42-43, 514.51-53, 514.63, 514.84-85, 516.2, 523.31, 523.45, 523.47, 523.56, 523.66, 524.3, 531.11, 531.13, 531.15, 531.21-22, 531.24-26, 531.32-37, 533.5-6, 542.1, 542.21, 542.23, 542.42

Bonasa bonasia (Linnaeus, 1758)

Caprimulgus europaeus Linnaeus, 1758 Charadrius morinellus (Linnaeus, 1758) Ciconia nigra (Linnaeus, 1758)

Crex crex (Linnaeus, 1758)

Dendrocopos leucotos (Bechstein, 1803) Emberiza cia Linnaeus, 1766 Eremophila alpestris (Linnaeus, 1785) Falco cherrug Gray, 1834 Falco peregrinus Tunstall, 1771

Ficedula parva (Bechstein, 1794)

Glaucidium passerinum (Linnaeus, 1758) Hieraaetus pennatus (Gmelin, 1788) Lullula arborea (Linnaeus, 1758) Monticola saxatilis (Linnaeus, 1766) Otus scops (Linnaeus, 1758) Picoides tridactylus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Picus canus Gmelin, 1758

Prunella collaris (Scopoli, 1769) Scolopax rusticola Linnaeus, 1758

Strix uralensis Pallas, 1771 Tetrao tetrix Linnaeus, 1758 Tetrao urogallus Linnaeus, 1758 Tichodroma muraria (Linnaeus, 1766)

Reptiles and Amphibians
by Mojmir Vlašín Detailed knowledge about the distribution of most species of reptiles and amphibians is not very good. In most countries, national censuses have not been carried out. However, red lists are available in all countries. New red lists for some countries are due to be published. Out of a total of 31 reptile and amphibian species recorded in the Carpathians, 17 species have been recognized as endangered and/or characteristic for the region. Only one reptile and one amphibian species were selected as flagship species. The Aesculapian snake Elaphe longissima is the longest Carpathian snake reaching up to 2m. The body is relatively slender, smooth, and in old specimens, slightly keeled. Although mostly terrestrial, it is a good climber. It hibernates in rocky crevices, in rodent burrows, manure and in the cellars of ruins. In most states in the Carpathian region it is classified as a critically endangered species. It is protected within the EU Habitat Directive (Annex 4) and the Bern Convention (Annex 2). The Carpathian newt Triturus montandoni is a small newt reaching a maximum length of 10 cm (although it is usually smaller). The head is relatively flat and wide with 3 grooves. The back is sand–yellow to dark brown and sometimes greenish. The belly is always uniformly yellow to orange. The tail has pale streaks on the sides and its lower edge is orange with black spots. This newt is endemic to the Carpathians and inhabits humid, shaded slopes in deciduous forests. Although it mostly lives under stones, woods and leaves, the species reproduces in small water bodies near springs on wet meadows. Due to its endemism in the Capathian region and environs, it is not mentioned in the EU’s Habitat Directive but it is protected by the Bern Convention (Annex 2). In most Carpathian states it is protected as an endangered species. The following reptiles and amphibians, found in the Carpathians, can be selected as species of particular interest: Green lizard Lacerta viridis, Moor frog Rana arvalis, Fire-bellied toad Bombina variegata, European tree frog Hyla arborea and Swamp turtle Emys orbicularis.

Main Threats for Reptiles and Amphibians
The main threat for reptiles is the deterioration of habitats including clear-cutting, drainage and habitat fragmentation in general. Similar factors pose the greatest threats for

Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Reptiles and Amphibians
amphibians. Most reptiles and amphibians are dependent on small–size habitats and cannot move to other similar habitats if their own habitat changes. Additionally, very small and isolated populations, for instance of the Aesculapian snake, can be destroyed by collectors, natural succession and habitat destruction. Acknowledgements The following people were involved and helped the author in preparation of the list: Sandor Barati, CEEWEB, Miskolc, Hungary Kajetan Perzanowski, International Centre of Ecology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Ustrzyki Dolne, Poland Jan Kautman, National Museum, Bratislava, Slovakia Ioan Abrudan, Transsilvania University, Brasov, Romania Vasyl Pokynchereda, Carpathian Biosphere Reserve, Ukraine

33

References
Baruš V. et al. 1989. Červená kniha ohrožených a vzácných druhů rostlin a živočichů ČSSR 2. Kruhoústí, ryby, obojživelníci, plazi, savci. – SZN Praha. 136 pp. Bőhme W. (ed.) 1988. Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas 2/1, Wiesbaden:158 pp Cabela A., Grillitsch,H., Tiedemann F. 2001. Atlas zur Verbreitung und Okologie der Amphibien und Reptilien in Österreich: Auswertung der Herpetofaunistischen Datenbank der Herpetologischen Samm.des Nat. Mus. in Wien. Wien,880 pp. Głowaciński Z. (ed.) 2001. Polska czerwona księga zwierząt. Kręgowce. PWRiL, Warszawa. Gruber U. 1994. Die Schlangen Europas, Kosmos, Stuttgart,1994,248 pp. Honegger R. E. 1981. Threatened Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Wiesbaden Juszyk W. 1974. Plazy i gady krajowe. Warszawa, 772 pp. Mikátová B., Vlašín M., Zavadil V. (eds) 2001. Atlas rozšíření plazů v České republice (Atlas of the distribution of Reptiles in the Czech Republic – in Czech and English), AOPKČR Brno – Praha, 257 pp Nőlert A., Nőlert C. 1992. Die Amphibien Europas, Kosmos, Stuttgart,1992, 382 pp. Rakonczay Z. (ed.) 1989. Red Book (The extinct and endangered animal and plant species of Hungary) Akadémia kiadó, Budapest. Shcherbak M. M. (ed.) 1994. Red book of Ukraine. Animal kingdom. Publishing house “Ukrains’ka encyklopedia”, Kyiv. Vlašín M. 1994. Skokan štíhlý (Rana dalmatina): 86–90 – in Moravec, J.,1994: Altas rozšíření obojživelníků v České republice, Praha: 136 pp Wood A., Stedman–Edwards P., Mang J. .2001 The Root Causes of Biodiversity. Loss. WWF a Earthscan, 395 pp. Werner F. 1897. Die Reptilien und Amphibien Österreich – Ungarns und der Occupationsländer. Wien, 161 pp. Zylka A. 1979. Zmiany w charakterze zoogeograficznym polskej herpetofauny. – Przeglad Zool., 23:252–255.

Carpathian List of Endangered Species – reptiles and amphibians (for explanations, see chapter on How to Use This Book)
Carpathian hold large proportion of world population

Arctic/Alpine

Species

Endemic

Category of Threat in Carpathian Countries RO UA SK CZ PL H A

Protection in Carpathian Countries RO UA SK CZ PL H A

High Mountain Species

Category of Threat for Entire Carpathians

Habitat Directive
+ + + + + + +

Bern Convention

Reptiles
Coronella austriaca Laurenti, 1768 Elaphe longissima (Laurenti, 1768) Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758) Lacerta viridis (Laurenti, 1768) Natrix tessellata (Laurenti, 1768) Podarcis muralis (Laurenti, 1768) Vipera ammodytes (Linnaeus, 1758) Vipera berus (Linnaeus, 1758) Zootoca vivipara (Jacquin, 1787) VU EN CR EN DD VU VU VU DD + VU CR CR CR EN CR EN VU EN EN CR VU + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + EN CR CR CR EN CR CR VU VU EN + + + + + + SP SP SP SP SP NP SP SP PP PP PP NP PP PP PP PP PP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP PP SP SP SP SP SP NP NP + + + + + + + + + +

+

+ + +

+

NP

SP

Relic

34

Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Reptiles and Amphibians
Carpathian hold large proportion of world population High Mountain Species Category of Threat for Entire Carpathians

Arctic/Alpine

Species

Endemic

Category of Threat in Carpathian Countries RO UA SK CZ PL H A

Protection in Carpathian Countries RO UA SK CZ PL H A

Habitat Directive
+ + + +

Bern Convention

Amphibians
Bombina bombina (Linnaeus, 1761) Bombina variegata (Linnaeus, 1758) Rana dalmatina Bonaparte, 1840 Salamandra salamandra (Linnaeus, 1758) Triturus alpestris (Laurenti, 1768) Triturus cristatus (Laurenti, 1768) Triturus dobrogicus (Kiritzescu, 1903) Triturus montandoni (Boulenger, 1880) EN EN VU DD VU EN VU EN + + CR CR VU CR EN CR CR CR VU EN + EN CR EN EN ? + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + CR EN + EN CR EN CR CR VU + EN VU EN + VU EN SP SP SP SP SP SP NP SP PP PP PP PP PP PP PP PP SP SP NP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP PP NP NP SP SP SP NP NP SP + + + + + + + +

SP

+

+

Distribution of the Red Data List reptiles and amphibians in the Carpathians (for explanations, see chapter on How to Use This Book)
Species Reptiles
Coronella austriaca Laurenti, 1768 Elaphe longissima (Laurenti, 1768) Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758) Lacerta viridis (Laurenti, 1768) Natrix tessellata (Laurenti, 1768) Podarcis muralis (Laurenti, 1768) Vipera ammodytes (Linnaeus, 1758) Vipera berus (Linnaeus, 1758) 513.1-2, 513.31, 513.33-34, 513.411, 513.42-43, 513.45, 513.52-54, 513.61, 513.63, 513.65, 513.67, 513.71-72, 514.2, 514.9, 514.11-13, 514.31-34, 514.41-43, 514.51, 514.62, 514.64, 514.71-74, 514.81-85, 515.14-15, 515.21-23, 515.25-26, 515.28, 516.2-4, 516.11-14, 517, 522.11-12, 522.15-16, 522.21-26, 523, 524, 525, 526, 531, 532.1, 532.3, 533, 541, 542 513.411, 513.54, 513.72, 514.2, 514.31, 514.41-42, 514.62, 514.81-82, 515.15, 515.17, 515.21-23, 515.25-28, 516, 517, 522.12-16, 522.21-26, 523.1-2, 523.51-55 517.3, 523.2, 523.51-55 513.1, 513.411, 514.2, 514.31, 514.41-42, 514.62, 514.81, 514.83, 515.15, 515.17, 515.21, 515.26, 516.2-4, 516.11-14, 517, 523.2, 523.51-55 513.411, 513.72, 514.2, 514.31, 514.62, 514.73, 514.83, 515.15, 515.25-26, 515.28, 516.3-4, 516.4a, 516.13-14, 517.1, 517.5, 522.21-24, 523.1-2, 523.51-55 513.411, 513.43, 513.45, 513.56, 513.72, 514.2, 514.9, 514.11, 514.31-33, 514.41-43, 514.51, 514.62, 514.64, 514.71, 514.73, 514.81-82, 514.84-85, 515.14-15, 515.21-24, 515.26-28, 516, 517, 522.16, 523.1, 523.31, 523.42-47, 523.51, 523.56-57, 523.6166, 523.71, 524, 525, 526.1, 531.4, 531.11-15, 531.17, 531.21-26, 531.31-37, 532.1, 533.1-3, 533.5-7, 533.8, 541.1-2, 541.4, 542.1, 542.21-23, 542.31-34, 542.41-42 523.66, 526.2, 531.17, 531.31-33, 531.35, 531.37, 533.1, 533.6-7, 542.21-22, 542.42 513.2, 513.32-34, 513.411-412, 513.43-49, 513.51-52, 513.54-57, 513.61, 513.64-65, 513.67-68, 513.71-72, 514.9, 514.11-14, 514.31, 514.41-43, 514.51-53, 514.63-64, 514.71-74, 514.82, 514.84-85, 515.11-15, 515.21, 515.23-29, 516.4a, 517.1, 522, 523.12, 523.31, 523.41-47, 523.51-57, 523.61-64, 523.66, 523.71-72, 524.2-6, 525, 526, 531, 532.1, 533.2-7, 533.8, 541.3-4, 542.1, 542.21-23, 542.31-34, 542.41-42 513.32, 513.411-412, 513.43-47, 513.49, 513.51-52, 513.54-57, 513.61, 513.65, 513.67-68, 513.71-72, 514.9, 514.11-14, 514.42-43, 514.51-53, 514.63, 514.71-74, 514.81-82, 514.84-85, 515.11-14, 515.17, 515.21-29, 516.4a, 516.11, 517.1, 522, 523.1-2, 523.31, 523.42-47, 523.51-57, 523.61-66, 523.71-72, 524, 525, 531.4, 531.11-15, 531.17, 531.21-26, 531.31-37, 533.1, 533.3, 533.5-6, 533.8, 541.1-2, 541.4, 542.1, 542.21-23, 542.31, 542.33-34, 542.41-43

Physiographic Units

Zootoca vivipara (Jacquin, 1787)

Amphibians
Bombina bombina (Linnaeus, 1761) Bombina variegata (Linnaeus, 1758) Rana dalmatina Bonaparte, 1840 Salamandra salamandra (Linnaeus, 1758) 513.1-2, 513.31, 513.42, 513.45-49, 513.51-54, 513.61-65, 513.67-68, 513.71, 514.2, 514.11-13, 514.52-53, 515.26, 516.2-4, 516.11-14, 517, 522.11-12, 522.16, 523.1-2, 523.31, 523.41-47, 523.51-54, 523.56-57, 523.61-66, 523.71-73, 524, 525, 526, 531, 532, 533, 541, 542 513.2, 513.31, 513.411-412, 513.42, 513.44-45, 513.51, 513.54-57, 513.71-72, 514.2, 514.9, 514.11-14, 514.31-34, 514.42-43, 514.51-53, 514.62-64, 514.71-74, 514.81-85, 515, 516.2, 516.4, 516.11, 517.1-3, 522, 523.1-2, 523.51-55 513.1, 513.411, 513.45, 513.64-65, 514.2, 514.31-34, 514.41-42, 514.62, 514.81-84, 515.15, 515.17, 515.21-23, 515.26, 515.28, 516, 517, 522.11-12, 522.15-16, 522.21-25, 523.1-2, 523.31, 523.41-47, 523.51-52, 523.54-57, 523.61-66, 523.71-73, 524, 525, 526.2, 531, 532.1, 533, 541.1, 541.3-4, 542 513.2, 513.31-32, 513.411-412, 513.42-49, 513.51-57, 513.61-65, 513.68, 513.71-72, 514.2, 514.9, 514.11-14, 514.31-33, 514.42-43, 514.51-53, 514.62-64, 514.71, 514.73-74, 514.81-85, 515.11-15, 515.17, 515.21-22, 515.24-29, 516, 517, 522, 523, 524, 525, 526, 531, 532.1, 532.3, 533, 541, 542 513.2, 513.31, 513.411-412, 513.42-43, 513.45, 513.47-49, 513.51-52, 513.54-57, 513.67, 513.71-72, 514.9, 514.11-14, 514.42-43, 514.51-53, 514.62-64, 514.71-74, 514.84-85, 515.11-15, 515.22-29, 517.1-3, 522, 523.1-2, 523.31, 523.42-47, 523.51-57, 523.6164, 523.66, 523.71-73, 524, 525, 526, 531.4, 531.11, 531.13-15, 531.21-26, 531.31-37, 532.1, 532.3, 533.1-3, 533.5-7, 533.8, 541.1, 541.4, 542.1, 542.21-23, 542.31, 542.33-34, 542.41-42 513.2, 513.31, 513.411-412, 513.42-43, 513.45, 516.2-4, 516.12, 516.14, 522, 523.1-2, 523.51-55 514.31, 515.26, 516.4, 516.14, 517.4-5, 522.12, 522.21-23, 523.1-2, 523.51-54, 531.4, 531.35, 531.37, 533.1, 533.6-7, 533.7a, 541.1, 542.1, 542.21-22, 542.33-34, 542.42-43 513.32, 513.42-49, 513.51-57, 513.61-65, 513.67-68, 513.71-72, 514.9, 514.11-14, 514.43, 514.51-53, 514.71, 514.73-74, 514.84-85, 515.11, 515.22-29, 522, 523.1-2, 523.31, 523.41-47, 523.51-57, 523.61-65, 523.71-72, 524.1, 524.5-6, 525.1, 541.3

Triturus alpestris (Laurenti, 1768) Triturus cristatus (Laurenti, 1768) Triturus dobrogicus (Kiritzescu, 1903) Triturus montandoni (Boulenger, 1880)

Relic

1988. State of knowledge For the past several decades. Bieniarz. Schiemer. River slope ranges between less than 10‰ to over 100‰. . Banarescu 1993. Holčik 1996. Włodek 1988. Baruš et al. Fish preferring a bedrock bottom are a characteristic group. extensive angling pressure and introduction of alien fish species (Lelek 1987. 1981. Skóra 1999). 1995b). poaching. Witkowski et al. Common barbel Barbus barbus and Nase Chondrostoma nasus. Kirka et al. Holčik 1966. comprehensive research into fish conservation began in the region. 1999). Weisz 1964. In the 1990s. due in part to fast currents and considerable changes in water level. changes in river beds caused by hydrotechnical constructions (dams). Particularly alarming is a strong decrease in those fish that were once dominant species in the Carpathian rivers. Red lists for most threatened species were also drawn up (Głowaciński 1992. Włodek. Data gathered in the 1980s and 1990s points to increasing threats including: pollution. Threats for Fishes and Lampreys The impact of anthropogenic changes on ichtyofauna is evident in a number of river catchment basins of the Carpathians. The occurrence of macrophytes is rather restricted. 1976. Hanel 1996. Kux 1959. for instance. Kukuła 1999.Fishes and Lampreys by Krzysztof Kukuła and Judit Sandor The waters of the Carpathians are mainly fast–flowing mountain rivers and streams with a bedrock bottom. Relatively extensive data is available from the Polish (eg. Hensel 1972. Rolik 1971. studies on the Carpathian ichtyofauna have been carried out with varying intensity. Kux. 2001. Epler 1972. Koščo. The greatest numbers of threatened fish species belong to Cyprinids Cypriniformes. Lusk. Starmach et al. Košuth 1995a. Kukuła 2001). Waidbacher 1992. 1989. Witkowski 1995. Skóra. Lusk 1996. Starmach 1998. Sych 1996. Czech and Slovakian parts of the range (Weisz. Holčik. 1996. The population of anadromic Vimba Vimba vimba has also decreased markedly. 1981. with the dominant share of rheophilous species. 2001. 1996. Witkowski 1992. Such hydrological conditions determine fish composition. Amirowicz 2001. 1991.

Bern.. Acknowledgements Dr A. 1987.. Roczniki Bieszczadzkie. 1972... 1959. Prace. Roczniki Naukowe PZW. 1999. Threatened fishes of Europe.. M. Cervený seznam mihuli a ryb České Republiky – verze 1995.). Głowaciński Z. Witkowski A.) 2001. Waidbacher H. Kirka A.. Acta Hydrobiol. Ichtiofauna potoków zasilających zbiornik zaporowy Starina. Warszawa. Vol. Witkowski A. 1999. Příspevek k poznání ichthyofauny řek Laborce. Ryby słodkowodne Polski. Banarescu P. Roczniki Naukowe PZW.) 2000. 40: 199-205. Roczniki Naukowe PZW. 4: 47–64. Ichthyofauna of the upper San drainage basin. Vývoj a formovanie ichthyofauny v Oravskiej priehrade. Baruš V. Fizjograf. In: (P. Lelek A. Roczniki Naukowe PZW. Roczniki Naukowe PZW 1: 75–96. 14: 419-444. 2001.. 12: 29–60. Strategies for conservation of a Danubian fish fauna. Gajdušek J. Błachuta J. 17: 321–344. 1976. 1993. 1996. 21: 559–584.. Kręgowce.. Fauna ryb a jeji zachování v Československu. Mazurkiewicz G. Bern. (red. References Amirowicz A. Heese T. 1971. Kukuła K. London. Wiesbaden. Zoologica Poloniae. Biol. Bieniarz K. Starmach J. For these reasons. 1996. Brylińska M. Fleituch T. Badania ichtiofaunistyczne w rzece i dorzeczu Wisłoki w latach 1994–1995. 14: 45–54. Conservation of endangered freshwater fish in Europe 79–88. Witkowski A. Witkowski A. 89–98. prognoza formovania jej ichthyofauny a navrhy na prvotne zarybnenie. Jelonek M. Ichthyocenozy povodia Vahu v oblasti nadrze Liptowska Mara. Hefti eds. 1991. Ojcz. Aula – Verlag GmbH.. Časopis Moravského musea. Kirchhofer. Biologiczno-rybacka charakterystyka górnego odcinka rzeki Raby i jej dopływów. Koščo J. The status of the fish fauna in the Czech Republic In: (A.. Fragm. Epler P. Prace. 1. 9. Inconj... 41 (suppl.Niedzica and Sromowce Wyżne dam reservoirs (southern Poland). Skóra S. Med. 22: 9–79.. M. O projekcie restytucji ryb wędrownych w Polsce. Starmach J. 12: 5–75. Weisz T. Skóra S.A. Kux Z. Considerations on the threatened freshwater fishes of Europe. In: Europe (J. Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser sturio. Ichtiofauna rzeki Soły i jej dopływów. 1996. Ichtiofauna niektórych rzek Polski Południowej. 37: 87–98. 1996. trutta can be classified in this list as extinct species in the Carpathians. Památky a přiroda 1981: 619–623. Zagrożone gatunki ryb i minogów w ichtiofaunie województw małopolskiego i śląskiego. Netherl. D. PWRiL. Acta Hydrobiol.. 1964. Boon. 1995a. 1998. 55: 5 – 19. Institute of Freshwater Biology Polish Academy of Sciences. Holčik J.. 42: 243 – 259. 1988 – Ocena aktualnego stanu ichtiofauny i możliwości produkcyjnych dorzecza rzeki Raby. Faun. 1995b. 4: 155–162. Skóra S.. Kux Z. (ed. Pol. Kirchhofer D. 1966. 7: 307–319. 1989. Hanel L.) 1992. Ichtiofauna dorzecza górnego Wisłoka. P.. Holčik J. Lusk S. Polska czerwona księga zwierząt. Czerwona lista słodkowodnej ichtiofauny Polski. Mészáros J. (red. Lusk S..M. Skóra S. Zarys historii ochrony gatunkowej ryb w Polsce. PWRiL. Calow. Ichtiofauna dorzecza rzeki Skawy.. Nat. 44: 119– 138. Conservation of endangered freshwater fish in Europe. Chrońmy Przyr. Roczniki Naukowe PZW. 49: 191–246. 1981. Włodek J. Košuth P. 1: 97–121.). Rolik H. Witkowski A. Kirka A. Dokument. Roczniki Bieszczadzkie. Chrońmy Przyr. Warszawa – Kraków. Ichthyofauna of the River Dunajec in the region of the Czorsztyn . .. Košuth P. 1996. 51: 19–29. 1: 16–25. Ojcz. Nagy Š. Bastl I. 1992. 41 (Suppl. Ichtiofauna dorzecza górnego i środkowego Sanu. Příspevek k poznání ichthyofauny slovenských řek. 2001. Amirowicz.Holčik ed..J. Ryb.. Zoologica Poloniae.. J. Ichtiofauna Stużicy i dopływów Ublianki.M. 14: 235–248.. Głowaciński Z. Zool.36 Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Fishes and Lampreys Migratory fish are particularly affected by anthropogenic alternations of the environment. PWN. A: 1. Koščo J. Arch... helped in determining the category of threat of some species in the Polish Carpathians.): 29–40. 1995. Threats and protection of freshwater fishes in Poland. Włodek J. Ichthycenózy a bentos v riekach Východého Slovenska vo flyšovom pásme. River conservation and management John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 1999. 2001. Warszawa. Poľnohospodárska Veda. Kukuła K. Hydrotechnical constructions isolate them from their spawning grounds which in many cases are additionally degraded by pollution. Zagrożone gatunki ryb i minogów w województwie podkarpackim. Lusk S. 1988. Studia Ośr. Zmiany w ichtiofaunie polskich rzek: gatunki rodzime i introdukowane. Tople a Poprad.. Petts eds.) The freshwater fishes of Europe. Czerwona lista zwierząt ginących i zagrożonych w Polsce. G. 1992. Holčik J. Schiemer F. Hefti eds. In: (A. Sych R. Časopis Moravského Musea. Kotusz J. Roczniki Naukowe PZW. Biodiverzita ichtiofauny.). Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and probably also Sea trout Salmo trutta m... 1981. Ocrot. Weisz T. Biol.): 47-59... Vanishing freshwater fish species of Slovakia. Stan obecny i perspektywy ochrony minogów Petromyzonidae w Polsce. Włodek J. Amirowicz A. 14: 249–296. 4: 143–154. Włodek J.

515.4-6. 514. 1784 EN EN EN CR EN + + + EN VU + + CR + CR + + + SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP + + + Distribution of the Red Data List fishes and lampreys in the Carpathians (for explanations. 514.Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Fishes and Lampreys Carpathian List of Endangered Species – fishes and lampreys (for explanations. 531. 523. 513. 513.56.4a. 532. 514.26.1-2.72-74.9. 1782 516.17. 513.71-73.8. 514.51.85. 522. 1828 Gymnocephalus baloni Holcik & Hensel. 513. 517.43. 533.67-69.46-47.11-12. 523.46. 515. 531.32-34. 1842 Chondrostoma nasus Linnaeus. 531.1-7.11-15.65. 514. 533. 525. 526.41-43. 541. 525. 513. 523. 522. 531.11-12.2. 514.411-412.2. 1814 Rhodeus sericeus (Pallas. 523.21-22. 532.12-15. 513. 514.85. 542 513.7a. 523. 542 513.7a.51.41-43.45-47. 515. 533.62.12-15.71-73. 1758 Proterorhinus marmoratus Pallas. 514.21.84-85.31. 514.21-26.31-33. 533.32-34.411-412.7.17. 523.21-26. 513.64-65.16-17. 1931 Lampetra planeri Bloch. 513. 523.21-26. 516. 523.11-13. 513. 515. 1758 Cottus poecilopus Heckel. 513. 513. 513.1-2. 523.21-23. 531. 517. 513.71-74.31-33. 514.2-4.3234. 515. 523. 514.1-2. 523. 522.11-13.4-6.62.71-73. 532.1. 533.55.11-14.33-34.4. 1865) Sabanejewia romanica Bacescu.1-2. 526.1. 531. 523.54. 516. 523. 514. 516. 514.1.11. 523. 1974 Gymnocephalus schraetzer Linnaeus. 1758 Cottus gobio Linnaeus. 523.31.67.2. 1758 Hucho hucho Linnaeus.12.9. 523.61-62.67-69. 523.1. 514.43 513. 524. 514. 513. 542. 514. see chapter on How to Use This Book) Carpathian hold large proportion of world population 37 Arctic/Alpine Species Endemic Category of Threat in Carpathian Countries RO UA SK CZ PL H A Protection in Carpathian Countries RO UA SK CZ PL H A High Mountain Species Category of Threat for Entire Carpathians Habitat Directive + + + + Bern Convention Fishes Acipenser ruthenus Linnaeus. 523.31. 513.41.42-43. 515. 531. 524.52-57. 523.35.21-23. 533. 514. 513.1.6.11-14. 533. 525. 513.64. 531.32-34. 517.35-37. 513. 533. 1862 Gobio uranoscopus Agassiz. 531.1. 542.7a.42-43. 514. 522. 513.67-69.82.11-13.2. 533. 1758 Leuciscus souffia Risso. 515.1. 542.5.31.7a. 1758 Relic .28.1.4. 515. 514. 517. 514.51-52. 531. 541.4. 542. 514. 533.35.41. 514.61-65.56.7a 513. 513. 523. 533. 1758 VU EX CR VU VU EN EN VU VU EN EN EN EN CR VU VU VU VU EN EN EN VU EX VU CR EN EN CR EX + EN EX + EN EX VU CR + EX VU VU CR EN VU VU CR + CR EX VU VU + + CR + + + + + + + + + + + + + + EX CR VU VU VU VU VU EN + VU + + + + + + + + + EN EN + + + + EN + + + + EN EN EN + PP PP SP PP PP PP PP PP + VU + VU + CR + + CR CR EN EN CR + + VU VU + VU + + + + + + + + + VU EN VU + + + PP PP PP PP PP PP PP PP PP PP PP SP PP PP PP PP PP PP PP SP PP PP PP SP NP SP SP PP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP PP SP PP + + + + + + + + + + + + PP PP PP SP SP SP SP EW VU VU EN PP PP SP PP PP + SP SP PP SP PP + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + CR + VU + + + PP PP PP PP SP SP SP SP SP PP SP SP Lampreys Eudontomyzon danfordi Regan. 522.1.16-17.64.44. 514.4-6. 513. 1758 Thymallus thymallus Linnaeus. 514.4. 531.62. 531. 513. 1758 Zingel streber Siebold. 531.54-57.43. 514.1-3.51-57.71-72. 516.4. 523. 514.411-412.35-37. 513. 514. 515.61-66. 1782 Barbus barbus Linnaeus.1-7.5.21-22.51-55.11-12. 526.64. 514. 531. 531. 523. 515. 531. 1758 Barbus peloponnesius Valenciennes.41. 517. 523. 1758 Vimba vimba Linnaeus.61-66.16-17.28-29.53-57.11-12. 523.46-49. 516. 524. 513.11-13.34.21-23.1.51. 531. 513. 514.71-74.4. 515.71-74. 1758 Cobitis taenia Linnaeus.1-2. 514. 532.62. 1943 Salmo salar Linnaeus.16-17. 523.2-4. 517. 514. 515.17. 516. 515. 513. 514. 514. 1911 Eudontomyzon mariae Berg. 524.1-2. 513.1-2. 523.71-72.62.12.81-85.61-66. 524. 1758 Cobitis taenia Linnaeus. 524.2.12. 522.31-34. 1836 Gobio kessleri Dybowski.44-49.55-57. 523.43-44. 542. 531.12-13. 514.7a.4.32.71-72. 523.11-15.2. 523.21-25.411-412. 531.9.61-66. 531. 531. 1863 Zingel zingel Linnaeus. 513.37. 526.11-12.11-13. 517.85. 525. 523. 526.11-12. 516.46. 513. 513. 1758 Cottus gobio Linnaeus. 516. 522. 524.67-68.13. 513.25-29. 514. 514. 541. 515.46. 515. 533.46.61-65.41-42 Physiographic Units Barbus barbus Linnaeus. 515.71-73.43. 514. 532. 523.82. 1758 Phoxinus phoxinus Linnaeus.1-2. 533.46-49. 1758 Alburnoides bipunctatus Bloch.4. 542 513. 522. 541. 523. 515.71-72. 542. 531. 515. 541. see chapter on How to Use This Book) Species Fishes Acipenser ruthenus Linnaeus.12-13.15. 523.25-29.17. 522.25-28. 514.1.61.51-53.1-7. 514. 1842 Chondrostoma nasus Linnaeus. 541. 531.51-53.61-65.56. 1758 Acipenser sturio Linnaeus.45-49.51-52. 533. 523.25-26. 514.71-73. 514. 523.32-34. 531. 513. 1776) Romanichthys valsanicola Dumitrescu et Banarescu & Stoica. 516. 516.25-29.12-14.5-7.32-34.72-74.31-33.34 513. 513.84-85.9.31-34. 514.64.31-34. 523. 517.23. 524.61-65.43-44. 513.17. 1957 Sabanejewia aurata (Filippi.411-412.9.43. 514. 514. 531.2. 514. 523. 542.1. 513. 1758 Barbus peloponnesius Valenciennes. 517. 531.31.32-34. 515.35-37. 533. 531. 523.61-65. 523. 526.71-72.4. 523. 523. 523. 515. 513. 542.2.1.71-74. 533. 531. 513.41.71-72. 514. 513.21-23. 1758 Alburnoides bipunctatus Bloch. 514. 1826 Lota lota Linnaeus.81-82. 523. 515. 542. 515. 523. 513. 533.51-53.

1.5.54-57. 522. 522. 523. 1911 Eudontomyzon mariae Berg.73.1.2-4.1. 514. 516.47-48. 513.4a. 517.71-73. 523. 531.7a. 542.68. 514. 523. 542. 513.61-65. 522.411-412.46-47. 533.1-2. 515. 533.43.4a.33. 517. 523.43 513. 513. 533. 541.17. 513.31-34. 1758 Hucho hucho Linnaeus. 514. 542. 515.53. 515.5-7.54-55.1.82. 523. 514.41-42 513. 513. 513.15. 531.12.2-4.13.11.1. 541. 1931 Lampetra planeri Bloch. 523.72.5. 514. 531. 523. 523. 513.23-29.73. 523.9. 541. 533. 533.31. 515.57.1-2. 514.2. 513. 531. 523.45-49. 515. 542. 513.11. 541.61-65. 515.72.31-32.74.4a. 1828 Gymnocephalus baloni Holcik & Hensel.15.31-34. 1758 Physiographic Units 513.25-26.5. 514. 515. 514.22.55-57. 517.28. 533.11-12.55-56. 522.12-15.53. 513. 526.71-72. 542. 517.45-47.411-412. 542.41-43. 542.31-34.32-34.45-47. 533. 513.71-72. 522.5.51.66. 515. 523.9.41-43.71-72. 513. 517.32. 541. 515.55-57. 514.44.51. 524.12-13. 516.64-65. 524. 516. 541. 541. 531. 514.32-33.41-42 516.84-85. 515. 541. 522.21.1.31-34.14. 515. 531.11-12 . 1758 Proterorhinus marmoratus Pallas. 523. 514.24.6. 533. 523.7a.1.72-74.32. 541. 523.72. 514.11-13.67-69. 513.1. 514.44. 514. 513.25-26.43 516.31. 514.73. 513. 513. 516.61-66.51-52. 515. 523. 533.43 513. 532. 523.71-73. 542.51.53-57.15. 514. 523.5. 515. 523.51-53. 514.51. 516.12.51-57. 522.51.41-43. 523. 513.32-34.1. 523. 514. 517.11-13. 516. 533.23.52-53.51. 513.1. 515.51. 523.14-15.41-43.411-412. 522. 1865) Sabanejewia romanica Bacescu.411-412. 514.22.64. 523.9.4. 533. 515.51. 523.11. 513. 515.46-47. 514.31. 517.71-74. 523. 516. 514. 523. 517. 517.41-47.21-22. 523. 515. 516. 525.51-52. 516. 516. 522. 522. 515. 516.5. 1863 Zingel zingel Linnaeus. 542.47-49. 517. 542.61. 542. 531. 522.51.15.8.1. 523. 523.72.43 Lampreys Eudontomyzon danfordi Regan. 526. 513.2.32-34.43. 1758 Zingel streber Siebold.2-4. 514.57. 517. 526. 523. 513.11-13. 516.17. 515.32.12.45-47.34.1. 513. 531.5-7.7a. 514. 533. 525. 516.1. 513. 533. 514. 515. 513. 526. 514.35-37. 514. 524. 515. 541. 542. 516. 513. 514.24-29.31.12-14.5 513.57. 516. 513. 533.1-2.7a.21.5. 522. 513.412. 515.2.28-29. 516.1.61-62. 524.7a.1.17. 516.5-7. 514.22-24. 515. 524.2-4.45-47. 514.31.11-15. 532. 514. 513. 516.6264.31. 532.53.11-15.2.62.71-72.55. 523. 514.71-72. 523. 542. 513.71-72.41-43.22.1-2. 514.51. 531.74.11-13.53. 531. 542. 533. 514.3.61-66.1 513.64. 533. 541.32-34. 514.12. 523. 1758 Leuciscus souffia Risso.62-64. 514. 542. 516.71-74. 523. 513.411-412. 523. 513.55.22. 513. 531.55. 514. 514.71-72. 514. 522. 532. 514.11-13.8. 516. 513.7. 542.15.5.85.12-14. 542. 533.31-34. 523. 513.14. 523. 517. 515. 514.41-42 513. 514. 523.57.12-13.5. 523.16-17. 515. 514. 526. 515. 523. 1862 Gobio uranoscopus Agassiz. 513. 1826 Lota lota Linnaeus. 513.55-57.61-66.1. 523. 514.43-45. 516. 525.43.51.85. 522. 514.33-34 517. 533. 522. 514.43 532. 523. 517. 523.1-2.4. 532. 516. 524. 523. 522. 522.72. 517.11-12. 524.71. 525. 514.1.25. 513.61-65.14.42 513.1. 523. 514. 516. 517.1. 515. 542.26.23-25.8. 533. 523. 542.1. 523. 514.71-73. 516.13.31.43-49. 522. 514. 531.2-4.22-23.85.55.34-37.12.1-3. 516. 523. 1836 Gobio kessleri Dybowski. 514. 523.51.55-57.53.12-13. 513.9.2-4.73. 517. 522.11-14. 541.61.12. 542. 513.43. 523. 524. 1974 Gymnocephalus schraetzer Linnaeus.1-2. 1758 Vimba vimba Linnaeus.73. 531. 514.1.1-3.71-73. 523.43 513. 523. 514. 513.67-68.71. 514. 542. 523. 514. 513.43 513. 1776) Romanichthys valsanicola Dumitrescu et Banarescu & Stoica. 541.17.1.1.85.4243. 542.62.23-25. 513.64-65. 513.11. 514.32.2-4. 532.71-72. 541.63-65. 523.15.1. 513.62-64.71-73.1-2. 531. 517. 516.13-14.72. 517.31-34.28.7a. 1784 513. 515. 523. 514. 523.1.74.63-65. 513. 513.51-53.82.21. 515. 523.43. 523.2.4. 517.51. 523. 542.61-66. 513.23.21-23. 516. 513.11-13. 516. 514. 523. 542. 523.21-23.1-2.61.11. 526. 533. 526.21-22. 523. 513. 1957 Sabanejewia aurata (Filippi.14.57.62. 523. 524.23-24. 1758 Phoxinus phoxinus Linnaeus.23-29.411.12-14.72.32.1-2.6. 542.34.43. 513.71-72.34. 514.73. 532. 514.73.5-7.55-57. 523. 513. 541.55. 523. 517.54-57. 522. 533. 513.11-12. 513. 514.12-14.12. 515.3.1. 513. 523. 514. 533. 533. 523. 523. 523.53.11-15. 517. 516.41-42 513.64.2-3.71-74. 513.51-53. 513.51. 514. 533.62.71.1-3. 514. 514.44-49.2-3.54-57.31.22-23. 542 523. 531.55.67-69.2. 514. 514. 513.51. 523.72-74. 514. 541.8.411-412. 513.3.1. 522. 522. 533.7a 513. 525.1. 513.24. 523. 514.1-3.61-66.411. 522. 1814 Rhodeus sericeus (Pallas.51-52.67.31-34. 514.25-26.21-23. 533. 513.73. 516. 513.41-42 513.12.85. 516.46.22-23.8.11-12. 514. 542.85. 522.53. 516. 513. 517.64. 517. 533.12-14.43 513. 1943 Thymallus thymallus Linnaeus. 514.55.64-65. 542.38 Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Fishes and Lampreys Species Cottus poecilopus Heckel.11. 542.64.1-3.21-23. 523.9. 514.3.55-57. 523. 514. 514. 542.1.12-13 514.4143.

Higher taxa (classes) are presented in systematic order. some new species were introduced by the author. PLRB '92. 1994). As the number of invertebrate experts is still limited. SURB’84 = (Borodin ed. I–V (Razowski 1990–1997). Moreover. PLRL '92 EX (also EXP) E V R I LR (CD) O I II III IV V Categories accepted for Ukraine SURB '84 UARB '94 O I II III IV / V VI New–WCU status EX + EW CR EN / VU LR (NT) The systematic nomenclature accepted in the present Carpathian List of Endangered Species was based mainly on the “Checklist of Animals of Poland” vol. species) are presented in alphabetical order. apart from Lepidoptera which were arranged according to “The Lepidoptera of Europe. However. PLRL’92 = (Głowaciński ed. only species classified as E or V (according to the earlier classifiation of IUCN) were selected from national red lists. The large number of invertebrate species requires well–trained experts in each Carpathian country. Approximated relation between threat categories in different Carpathian countries (after national or regional red data books or red lists: CSRB’92 = (Škapec ed. Razowski 1996). UArB’94 = (Shcherbak ed. 1992). 1992). Table 4.1992). 1984). A distributional checklist” (Karsholt. former classification concerning Carpathian species in the previously published national red data books or lists were transformed into new IUCN categories of threat (Table 4). PLRB’92 = (Głowaciński ed. Old–IUCN status accepted in CSRB '92. while lower taxa (genera. the data col- .Invertebrates by Jerzy Pawłowski In order to develop a Carpathian List of Endangered Species. and only species classified as E were selected from regional (provincial) red lists according to evaluations on the country scale.

Any conclusions based on the initial material presented here could be misleading.. Wiadomości entomologiczne. It is particularly evident when data collected by the author is compared in different countries. Jena.. 113 pp.. T. 1992. Łabędzki A. 2000.. 1984. Red List of Threatened Animals in Poland: 49–58. Głowaciński (ed. Głowaciński (ed.) Red List of Threatened Animals in Poland: 97–101. Red List of Threatened Animals in Poland: 105– 109. Fauna Karpatskogo zapovednika. Supl. Głowaciński Z. Głowaciński Z. Owady prostoskrzydłe Orthoptera. Untersuchungen über die Zoogeographie der Karpathen (unter besonderer Berücksuchtigung der Coleopteren). 1998. Dąbrowski J. Negrea Ş. Animal Kingdom]. Рідкісні і зникаючі види комах України в ентомологічних колекціях Державного природознавчого музею [Rare and vanishing species of insects from Ukraine in collection of State Museum of Natural History]. Pawłowski J. Data to the molluscs fauna of the Carpathian Biosphere Reserve. Raporty Opinie. Коновалова І. Komissia An SSSR. Czachorowski S. Yanytsky T. A. In:] Z. 20 January 1998.). Warszawa.. PWRiL. 14 (20): 471–546. (ed. T–PVS (98) 9. Roczniki Bieszczadzkie 1998 (7): 37–58. References Bajdashnikow A. Pawłowski J. [Red List of Upper Silesian beetles (Coleoptera)]. – Red Data Book of Ukraine. Katowice. Zasobów Naturalnych i Leśnictwa. 2000.G. [In:] Z. Głowaciński (ed. Katowice. 2000. Suggested additions to the invertebrate species listed in appendix II of the Bern Convention – Final report to the Council of Europe. The invertebrate fauna of the Carpathians. [W:] Polskie Towarzystwo Entomologiczne Poznań. Pelbárt J. Poznań. 1 mp.). Haslett J. Jażdżewski K. Том первый. 1992...). Liana A. 1998. still needs a fundamental inventory in order to draw any solid conclusions about the list of species. [In:] Z. Motyle Lepidoptera. Borodin A. Konferencja naukowa “Ochrona owadów w Polsce u progu integracji z Unią Europejską”. Державний природозначий музей. 1994. 1: VI+202 pp.13. Streszczenia (abstrakty) referatów. Ocena stanu poznania bezkręgowców polskiej części Międzynarodowego Rezerwatu Biosfery “Karpaty Wschodnie” [Present knowledge of the invertebrate fauna in the Polish part of the International Biosphere Reserve “Eastern Carpathians”].. 2: 95–120.Р. Acta zoologica cracoviensia. supl. Miscellanea Zoologica Hungarica.).). Tończyk G. 1999.Б. Pajęczaki Arachnida. Різун В.. 1992. 3: 8–68. p. Raporty Opinie. Widelnice Plecoptera. 6. Wiedeńska J. Głowaciński (ed.. Pszczoły Apoidea. Czerwona lista motyli dziennych (Rhopalocera) Górnego Śląska [Red List of Upper Silesian Butterflies (Rhopalocera)]. Kraków.–bot.M. [In:] Z. 1988.] 2000.43. Tvarynnyi svit. [In:] Z.).P. Geselschaft Wien. Głowaciński Z. divided among seven countries.. Centrum Dziedzictwa Przyrody Górnego Śląska. Pijawki Hirudinea.R. Moskva. Banaszak J. Abhandlungen zool. (ed. Fiałkowski W. 1969. Natura 2000 – Europejska sieć ekologiczna. Red List of Threatened Animals in Poland: 85– 91. Wyznaczanie zagrożonych gatunków owadów i innych zwierząt w świetle nowych kryteriów IUCN/WCU [Identification of threatened species of insects and other animals in the light of new IUCN criteria]. Red List of Threatened Animals in Poland: 93– 96.. Buczyński P. Głowaciński (ed. 1992.B.M. their distribution and threats. Red List of Threatened Animals in Poland: 65–83. Sterzyńska M. Cenne gatunki i zagrożone nisze lądowych bezkręgowców w polskiej części MRB “Karpaty Wschodnie” [Valuable and endangered niches of terrestrial invertebrates in Polish part of International Biosphere Reserve “Eastern Carpathians”]. Pawłowski J. 2: 15–26. Zagrożenia i ochrona owadów wodnych w Polsce [Threats and protection of water insects in Poland]. Moscow. 1992. [Chervona knyha Ukrainy. Buszko J. Buczyński P. 1910. Deubel F. Zagrożenia i ochrona ważek w Polsce [Threats and protection of dragonflies in Poland]. Convention on the conservation of European wildlife and natural habitats. Centrum Dziedzictwa Przyrody Górnego Śląska. Pawłowski J. Rafalski J. 18. Kubisz D.. Council of Europe – Conseil de l’Europe. [In:] Z. Червона книга України. Warszawa. 23–24 września 1999. Wiadomości entomologiczne. L’viv. 2000. [Fauna of the Carpathian Biosphere Reserve] – In: Flora i fauna zapovednikov SSSR. Kraków. 93 pp. Red List of Threatened Animals in Poland: 111–113.. Shcherbak M. 1995. Тваринний свiт.. 2: 233–249. Czerwona lista zwierząt ginących i zagrożonych w Polsce.). Polska czerwona księga zwierząt [Polish Red Data Book of Animals]. Witkowski Z. 1998. p.). Poznań–Kraków: 21–23.S.Głowaciński (ed.). Konovalova I. 1992. Poznań. supl. Kиїв . Formy ochrony owadów w Polsce w świetle doświadczeń innych krajów i zaleceń Unii Europejskiej [Forms of insect conservation in Poland in the light of experience of other countries and recommendations of European Union]. Jażdżewska T. 1992.Б. Głowaciński (ed. Наукове видання Національна академії наук України. Czerwona lista chrząszczy (Coleoptera) Górnego Śląska. Видавицтво “Укрaїнськa eнциклопедія”. Sowa R. Strasbourg. Kuśka A.B. Holdhaus K. Ukraine (Mollusca).). 1992. Lack of knowledge of Carpathian invertebrate fauna is not an exception — this problem can be found all over the world. 1992. 1999.40 Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Invertebrates lected for this list is dramatically insufficient. 85–90. [Rizun V. [Red List of Threatened Animals in Poland]. “Лесная промышленность ”.. 1999. 3: 69–82. (ed. Pancerzowce Malacostraca. 18 (1999). Poznań.(ed. Wiadomości entomologiczne. Roczniki Bieszczadzkie 1994 (3): 57–74. 18 (1999). Decou V. Aperçu zoogéographique sur la faune cavernicole terrestre de Roumanie. Яницький Т. Instytut Ochrony Przyrody PAN Kraków. [In:] Z. Ministerstwo Ochrony Środowiska. Красная книгa СССР [Krasnaya kniga SSSR – Red Data Book of USSR]. Śliwiński Z. Zakład Ochrony Przyrody i Zasobów Naturalnych PAN.

but hitherto not protected (or not threatened). 18.Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Invertebrates Skapec L. see Table 4 and chapter on How to Use This Book) Category of Threat for Entire Carpathians Class Ordo Species Category of Threat in Carpathian Countries RO UA SK CZ PL Protection in Carpathian Countries SK CZ PL Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Gastropoda Oligochaeta Oligochaeta Oligochaeta Hirudinea Crustacea Crustacea Abida secale (Draparnaud. 1851) Candidula unifasciata (Poiret. Poznań. 1824) Vertigo moulinsiana (Dupuy. 1883) Serrulina serrulata (L.. 95 pp.Pfeiffer.Bielz. Grill A. 1874) Trichia bakowskii (Poliński.Schmidt. 1913 Astacus astacus (Linnaeus. Mühlfeld. Supl. 1859) Balea perversa (Linnaeus. 1927 Fitzingeria platyura (Fitzinger. 16 January 1998. 1758) Astacus torrentium (Schrank.. 1849) Vestia elata (Rossmässler. Swaay Ch. 1992. 41 Carpathian List of Endangered Species – invertebrates. 1820) Chilostoma rossmaessleri (L. 1876) Lehmannia macroflagellata Grossu & Lupu. 1837) Pupilla sterri (Voith. 1820) Cochlicopa nitens (Gallenstein. Ślimaki lądowe Gastropoda terrestria. Chruściki Trichoptera. Szczęsny B.A.) Red List of Threatened Animals in Poland: 97–101. ? – species hitherto not found in the country. 1801) Helix lutescens Rossmässler. 1881) Trichia villosula (Rossmässler.v. Jętki Ephemeroptera. 1830) Perforatella dibothrion (M. 1961) Drobacia banaticum (Rossmässler. 1857) Argna bielzi (Rossmässler. [Red Data Book of Threatened and Valuable Plants and Animals of Czechoslovak Federal Republic. 1847) Pseudofusculus varians (C. Strasbourg. 2: 221–232. 1838) Truncatellina costulata (Nilsson. Riedel A. 1853) Oxychilus inopinatus (Uličný.Bielz) Trichia filicina (L. 1803) CR CR EN CR VU EN VU EN VU EN CR CR EN CR VU CR CR EN VU EN VU CR VU CR EN EN VU VU CR CR CR VU EN CR VU VU EN EN VU EN VU CR VU CR CR CR VU VU VU VU VU EN + + + + + VU CR + VU VU VU VU VU + + CR CR CR + + + + + + CR CR + Ex + + VU + + + CR + VU + + + CR CR + + + + + VU + + VU + CR + CR + CR + + + ? + CR + + + + CR + + + + + + II + I + + + + + + + II + + + + + + + + I + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Ex + + VU Ex VU + + + + + + + + + + + ? + + + + + CR + VU CR CR VU VU VU VU VU CR VU VU VU + CR VU VU VU VU VU + VU + + VU + VU CR CR + + + + VU + + + CR CR CR + + + + + ? + ? + + + + + CR Bern Convention Endemic Relic Alpine + + + + + + H .Pfeiffer. Bratislava. T–PVS (98) 8. 1992. 1840) Pupilla triplicata (Studer. 1925 Vertigo modesta (Say. 1992.) Red List of Threatened Animals in Poland: 31–38. but its presence is probable (for explanations. Warren M. Sowa R. 1822) Vertigo angustior Jeffreys. Głowaciński (ed. Wyznaczanie gatunków owadów zagrożonych wyginięciem [Distinguishing endangered insect species]. 1992.Pfeiffer. 1967) Trocheta bykowskii Gedroyć.).Pfeiffer. 1820) Semilimax kotulae (Westerlund.Pfeiffer. 1924) Trichia bielzi (E. 1887) Pagodulina pagodula (Desmoulins. 1952 Deroceras moldavicum (Grossu & Lupu.) Red List of Threatened Animals in Poland: 59–63. 1861) Macrogastra latestriata (A. [In:] Z. 1838) Gonyodiscus perspectivus (Megerle v. 1952) Allolobophora carpathica Cognetti. 1837 Hygromia transsylvanica (Westerlund. 1857) Nesovitrea petronella (L. Trojan P. 1848) Cochlodina fimbriata remota Ložek. 1841) Trichia lubomirskii (Ślósarski.Głowaciński (ed. Threatened Butterflies in Europe – provisional report.Pfeiffer. 1828) Pupilla alpicola (Charpentier. 1884) Prostenomphalia carpathica Baidaschnikov. 1801) Causa holosericum (Studer. (ed.. 3.Kimakowicz. Invertebrates]. 1830 Vertigo geyeri Lindholm. [In:] Z. 1836) Vestia ranojevici moravica (Brabenec. Príroda. 1833) Helodrilus cernosvitovianus (Zicsi. [In:] Z. 1758) Bielzia coerulans (M. 1962 Lehmannia nyctelia (Bourguignat. 1818) Granaria frumentum (Draparnaud. Wiktor A. 1836) Pseudalinda stabilis (L.Głowaciński (ed. + species recorded from the country. Council of Europe – Conseil de l’Europe. Červená kniha ohrožených a vzácných druhů rostlin a živočihů ČSFR. 1883) Clausilia cruciata (Studer. 1842) Chondrina clienta (Westerlund. 2000. 1985 Pseudalinda fallax (Rossmässler. Wiadomości entomologiczne. 1801) Alopia clathrata (Rossmässler. Bezobratli. 3. 1998.

1847) Harpatolithobius anodus (Latzel. 1925 Strigamia pusilla perkeo (Verhoeff. 1922 Egaenus convexus (C. 1822) Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli. 1870) Pardosa morosa (L.Koch. 1772) Argyroneta aquatica (Clerck. 1758) Eresus niger (Petagna. 1777) Arctosa maculata (Hahn. 1761) Isoperla obscura (Zetterstedt.Koch. 1870) Troglohyphantes kulczynskii Fage Uloborus valckenaerius Latreille. 1807) Leucorrhinia albifrons (Burmeister. 1767) Acantholycosa lignaria (Clerck.L. 1984 Palingenia longicauda (Olivier. 1888 Euscorpius carpathicus (Linnaeus.L. 1972 Choroterpes picteti (Eaton. 1905 Brachyptera braueri (Klapálek. 1843 Ephoron virgo (Olivier. 1855 Imnadia yeyetta Hertzog. 1788) Chirocephalus slovacicus Brtek. 1840) Nemoura dubitans Morton. 1939 Micaria formicaria (Sundeval. 1758) Arctosa cinerea (Fabricius. 1909 Baetis beskidensis Sowa. 1832) Nesticus fodinarum Kulczyński. 1971 Holopedium gibberum Zaddach. 1839) Ischyropsalis manicata L. 1956 Neobisium brevidigitatum (Beier. 1935) Beskidia jankowskii (Jawłowski. 1758) Atypus muralis Bertkau. 1936 Perla maxima Scopoli. 1787) Gnaphosa microps Holm. 1900) Capnopsis schilleri (Rostock. 1836) EN CR CR EN CR VU VU VU EN EN EN VU CR EN EN VU EN EN EN VU EN VU VU EN EN EN EN VU VU VU EN EN VU VU VU EN VU VU + H VU I + VU VU CR CR ? CR CR VU CR CR CR + CR CR VU CR CR CR/VU CR CR VU + + + + + + + ? + ? + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + ? + + + + ? ? + + ? + + ? + + + + ? ? + ? ? + CR + + + + CR CR + + + + + + + + + + + + + CR I + + VU + CR VU Ex VU VU + I + I + I + + + CR VU CR VU CR VU VU Ex VU VU VU CR CR VU CR/VU VU VU + VU + EN + VU EN + VU CR CR CR VU + EN CR VU CR VU + EN EN CR CR VU CR EN EN CR CR Ex? EN CR EN CR EN CR/EN EN EN CR/EN CR Ex? + + + + + + + + + + ? + + + + + + Ex? II + CR . 1935 Niphargus leopoliensis Jaworowski. 1947 Lithobius burzenlandicus Verhoeff. 1928 Polydesmus komareki Gulička. 1882 Ametropus fragilis Albarda. 1763 Xanthoperla apicalis (Newman. 1791) Isonychia ignota (Walker. 1925 Lithobius silvivagus Verhoeff. 1871 Rhitrogena germanica Eaton. 1806 Zelotes puritanus Chamberlin.42 Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Invertebrates Category of Threat for Entire Carpathians Bern Convention Endemic Relic Alpine + + + + + + + + + + + + CR CR CR CR CR CR VU CR CR CR/VU CR CR VU CR CR + + ? ? + + + + + + + + ? + + CR CR/VU + + + + + CR + + + + + + + CR CR + CR CR + + + + + + + + + + CR CR CR CR + + + + + + ? + + ? + ? + + ? + + ? + + + + + + + + ? + + + + + + + + + + Class Ordo Species Category of Threat in Carpathian Countries RO UA SK CZ PL Protection in Carpathian Countries SK CZ PL Crustacea Crustacea Crustacea Crustacea Crustacea Crustacea Crustacea Scorpionida Araneae Araneae Araneae Araneae Araneae Araneae Araneae Araneae Araneae Araneae Araneae Araneae Araneae Araneae Araneae Araneae Araneae Opiliones Opiliones Opiliones Pseudoscorpionidea Chilopoda Chilopoda Chilopoda Chilopoda Chilopoda Chilopoda Chilopoda Diplopoda Diplopoda Diplopoda Diplopoda Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Ephemeroptera Ephemeroptera Ephemeroptera Ephemeroptera Ephemeroptera Ephemeroptera Ephemeroptera Ephemeroptera Ephemeroptera Ephemeroptera Ephemeroptera Ephemeroptera Odonata Odonata Odonata Odonata Odonata Odonata Odonata Odonata Odonata Odonata Plecoptera Plecoptera Plecoptera Plecoptera Plecoptera Plecoptera Plecoptera Plecoptera Plecoptera Bathynella natans Vejdovsky. 1928) Dicellophilus carniolensis (C. 1871) Ecdyonurus aurantiacus (Burmeister. 1880) Lithobius biungulatus Loksa. 1894 Perla burmeisteriana Claasen. 1782) Calopteryx virgo (Linnaeus. 1890 Clubiona alpicola Kulczyński. 1798) Sympecma braueri Bianchi. 1833 Isoperla grammatica (Poda.Koch.Koch. 1878 Arthroplea congener Bengtsson. 1962 Polydesmus tatranus Latzel. 1908 Calopteryx splendens (Harris. 1839) Leucorrhinia pectoralis (Charpentier Ophiogomphus cecilia (Fourcroy. 1882 Branchinecta paludosa (Müller. 1881 Dolomedes fimbriatus (Clerck. 1785) Orthetrum coerulescens (Fabricius. 1938) Mastigophorophyllon serrulatum apiculatum Jawłowski.Koch. 1892) Isogenus nubecula Newman. 1893 Niphargus tatrensis Wrześniowski. 1915 Pardosa ferruginea (L. 1869 Siro carpathicus Rafalski. 1885 Aeschna subarctica Walker. 1758) Cordulegaster bidentatus Sélys. 1791) Rhitrogena alpestris Eaton.1839) Ephemera glaucops Pictet. 1931 Lithobius erythrocephalus schuleri Verhoeff. 1835) Oligoneuriella polonica Mol. 1839 Cordulegaster boltonii (Donovan.

1807) Pachyta lamed (Linnaeus.Müller. 1766) Chrysolina fuliginosa (Olivier. 1764) Osmoderma eremita (Scopoli. 1907) Duvalius bokori (Csiki. 1843) Deltomerus carpathicus (Miller. 1926) Ocypus olens (O. 1786) Ocypus biharicus (J. 1781 Carabus fabricii Duftschmidt. 1807) Cornumutila quadrivittata (Gebler.Müller. 1859 Nebria transsylvanica Germar. 1830 Phloiotrya subtilis (Reitter. 1950 Leptura thoracica (Creutzer. 1786) Platycleis grisea (Fabricius. 1841) Curimus decorus (Steffahny. 1902 Nebria tatrica Miller. 1793 Nanophyes gracilis L. 1781) Homocoryphus nitidulus (Scopoli. 1846 Carilia excellens (Brancsik. 1846 Carabus menetriesi Hummel.F. 1952 Saga pedo (Pallas. 1824 Netocia lugubris (Herbst. 1785) Chlorophorus sartor (O. 1859 Cerambyx cerdo Linnaeus. 1910) Duvalius microphthalmus (Miller. 1859) Duvalius subterraneus (Miller. 1801) Leistus montanus Stephens. 1868 Peltis grossa (Linnaeus. 1758) Cantharis pulicaria Fabricius. 1763) Ascalaphus macaronius (Scopoli. 1758) Patrobus quadricollis Miller. 1799) Limoniscus violaceus (Ph. 1812 Carabus hampei Küster. 1758) Lacon lepidopterus (Panzer. 1826 Nebria reitteri Rybiński. 1763) Dendroleon pantherinus (Fabricius.Müller. 1849 Nebria heegeri Dejean. 1758) Malthodes lobatus Kiesenwetter. 1789) Calosoma sycophanta (Linnaeus. 1767) Hydrous piceus (Linnaeus. 1758 Cerambyx scopolii (Fuesslin. 1787) Betarmon bisbimaculatus (Fabricius. 1825 Carabus planicollis Küster. 1775) Ceruchus chrysomelinus (Hochenwarth. 1852 Meloe variegatus Donovan. 1758) Phloiophilus edwardsii Stephens. 1859) Dictyoptera fiedleri (Reitter.Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Invertebrates Category of Threat for Entire Carpathians Bern Convention Endemic Relic Alpine + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + ? ? II ? + + + + + + + II II + ? + + + + + + + + + + + + + 43 Class Ordo Species Category of Threat in Carpathian Countries RO UA SK CZ PL Protection in Carpathian Countries SK + + CZ + + Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Orthoptera Mantodea Heteroptera Homoptera Homoptera Homoptera Homoptera Neuroptera Neuroptera Neuroptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Acrida hungarica (Herbst.Sahlberg. 1878) Mantispa styriaca (Poda. 1758) Lacon fasciatus (Linnaeus. 1874) Carpathobyrrhulus tatricus Mroczkowski.F. 1827 Carabus montivagus Palliardi. 1784) Aplocnemus tarsalis (C. 1803) Callimellum angulatum (Schrank.Redtenbacher. 1868) Dytiscus latissimus Linnaeus. 1758) Baris cuprirostris (Fabricius. 1822) Aromia moschata (Linnaeus. 1786) Aiolopus thalassinus (Fabricius. 1868) Deltomerus tatricus (Miller. 1771) Mantis religiosa (Linnaeus. 1763) Otiorhynchus perdix (Olivier. 1897) EN VU EN EN EN EN EN CR EN/VU EN VU CR VU EN CR CR EN VU EN CR CR VU EN CR/EN EN CR EN CR/EN CR VU VU VU VU EN/VU EN CR CR CR VU VU EN EN CR VU EN VU EN EN VU EN VU CR CR CR EN EN EN EN VU VU VU VU VU VU VU EN CR EN VU EN CR CR Ex? + CR + CR VU CR CR + Ex? CR Ex? + + + + + + VU + Ex? VU + + + + + + + + VU CR CR + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + CR CR + CR CR CR + CR CR + + CR + ? + + + + + ? + ? ? + + + + ? + ? + + + + + + + + + + CR + CR + CR CR VU CR VU CR + CR + CR CR + + + + + ? VU + + VU CR CR + + + + + ? + ? + + ? CR CR + CR + CR CR + + + CR CR VU + CR + + + II + + + + II ? + + + + ? II + + + + + + + II + + + + + + + + + + + + + + ? ? + VU VU VU CR CR CR CR + + CR Ex? + + + CR VU CR CR CR + + ? + + + + + ? + + + + + + + ? + + + + + + + + + CR + CR CR + + + + + CR VU + CR + ? + + + + + CR CR + CR + + + CR CR + + + + + + + CR VU + VU CR CR + + CR + CR ? + ? PL + + + + + + + H . 1827 Leistus ucrainicus Lazorko. 1850) Javesella salina (Haupt. 1924) Porphyrophora polonica (Linnaeus. 1821) Lucanus cervus (Linnaeus.W. 1758 Emus hirtus (Linnaeus. 1758) Aphelocheirus aestivalis (Fabricius. 1758) Eurythyrea austriaca (Linnaeus. 1803) Achorotile albosignata (Dahlbom. 1761) Akimerus schaefferi (Laicharting. 1957 Carpathobyrrhulus transsylvanicus Miller. 1781) Poecilimon fussi matisi Mařan. 1758) Tibicina haematodes (Scopoli.Müller.R.

1785) Polycentropus schmidi Nowak & Botoşặneanu. 1859 Trechus insolitus K. 1967) Andrena intermedia Thomson. 1889) Chimarra marginata (Linnaeus. 1834 Allogamus starmachi (Szczęsny. 1914 Anthidium montanum Morawitz.Villa.44 Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Invertebrates Category of Threat for Entire Carpathians Bern Convention Endemic Relic Alpine + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Class Ordo Species Category of Threat in Carpathian Countries RO UA SK CZ PL Protection in Carpathian Countries SK CZ PL + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Coleoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Phryganophilus auritus Motschulsky. 1808) Chazara briseis (Linnaeus. 1965 Rhadicoleptus alpestris sylvanocarpathicus Botoşặneanu & Riedel. 1845 Phryganophilus ruficollis (Fabricius. 1864 Apatania fimbriata (Pictet. 1803) Teredus opacus Habelmann. 1965 Rophitoides canus (Eversmann. 1834) Agapetus ochripes Curtis. 1851) Selatosomus depressus (Germar. 1787) Megascolia flavifrons (Fabricius.Villa & J. 1775) Callimorpha dominula (Linnaeus. 1767) Chamaesphecia maseriformis (Ochsenheimer. 1758) Apatura ilia (Denis & Schiffermüller. 1947 Purpuricenus kaechleri (Linnaeus. 1758) Rosalia alpina (Linnaeus. 1763) Chelostoma ventrale (Schletter. 1797) Brenthis daphne (Denis & Schiffermüller. 1764) CR CR CR VU EN EN VU VU CR CR VU CR EN CR EN EN VU VU VU VU VU VU CR EN VU EN VU VU VU VU VU VU EN VU VU VU VU VU VU VU CR VU VU VU VU VU VU EN VU VU VU VU VU VU EN VU EN EN VU VU VU VU EN/VU EN VU VU VU CR EN + + + CR + ? CR + + H ? + + + ? + CR CR CR + CR CR + + CR VU ? Ex/CR + + VU VU VU + VU VU Ex/CR + VU + VU VU VU VU I VU + VU VU VU VU + VU VU Ex? VU VU VU VU + + + + ? + + + + ? + + CR + ? + CR + + + Ex? CR CR ? + CR CR + ? + ? + + ? + + + + + + + + + + + CR CR + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + II + II + + + II CR + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Ex? Ex? ? + ? ? + + + + + VU VU VU VU ? + + + + CR + + II + II + + + + + + I I + + + + + + + + + + + + + ? VU + + + CR CR + II II II II II + + II + ? + II II II + ? + VU VU + + + + + + CR CR + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + CR CR I CR/VU + VU VU VU/CR + + + CR + + . 1872 Xylocopa violacea (Linnaeus. 1767) Harpagoxenus sublaevis (Nylander. 1822) Semiadalia alpina (A. 1758) Bombus veteranus (Fabricius. 1776) Boloria eunomia (Freyer. 1835) Sphenoptera antiqua (Illiger. 1859 Bombus distinguendus F. 1775) Apatura iris (Linnaeus. 1758) Catocala fraxini (Linnaeus. mastrucatus (Gerstaecker.Morawitz. 1798) Megachile rotundata (Fabricius. 1758) Acherontia atropos (Linnaeus. 1806 Bombus jonellus (Kirby. 1773 Xylocopa valga Gerstaecker.B. 1798) Pterostichus tatricus Kult. 1834) Oligopectrum maculatum (Fourcroy. 1837) Agapetus delicatulus McLachlan. 1854 Trechus amplicollis Fairmaire. 1868)] Camponotus vagus (Scopoli. 1805) Bombus pyrenaeus (Perez 1879) Bombus ruderatus (Fabricius. 1775) Bombus soroensis (Fabricius. 1938 Trechus montanellus Gemminger & Harold. 1787) Melliturga clavicornis (Latreille. 1793) Bombus wurfleini (Radoszkowski. 1806) Micrasema setiferum (Pictet. 1802) Bombus mesomelas Gerstaecker. 1859) [= B. 1758) Arctia festiva (Hufnagel. 1758) Sclerophaedon orbicularis (Suffrian. 1808) Hydroptila occulata (Eaton. 1873) Hylaeus rinki (Gorski. 1869 Bombus humilis Illiger. 1924 Andrena synadelpha Perkins. 1834) Batozonellus lacerticida (Pallas. 1781 Scolia maculata Drury. 1884 Agapetus laniger (Pictet. 1771) Bombus confusus Schenck. 1787) Xyleborus pfeili (Ratzeburg. 1869 Bombus pomorum (Panzer. 1852) Liometopum microcephalum (Panzer. 1849) Hoplitis andrenoides (Spinola. 1852) Scolia hirta Schrank. 1868 Velleius dilatatus (Fabricius. 1758) Catocala sponsa (Linnaeus. 1776) Bombus subterraneus (Linnaeus.Daniel. 1870 Andrena paucisquama Noskiewicz. 1906 Trechus matejkai Všetečka.

1840) Euplagia quadripunctaria (Poda. 1861 Eriogaster catax (Linnaeus. 1772) Pyrrhia purpurina (Denis & Schiffermüller.Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Invertebrates Category of Threat for Entire Carpathians Bern Convention Endemic Relic Alpine + + + + + 45 Class Ordo Species Category of Threat in Carpathian Countries RO UA SK CZ PL Protection in Carpathian Countries SK + + CZ + + Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Coeonympha tullia (Müller. 1775) Polyommatus daphnis (Denis & Schiffermüller. 1763) Hipparchia statilinus (Hufnagel. 1766) Iphiclides podalirius (Linnaeus. 1755) Limenitis populi (Linnaeus. 1775) Proserpinus proserpina (Pallas. 1771) Nymphalis vaualbum (Denis & Schiffermüller. 1761) Glacies canaliculata schwingenschussi (Wehrli. 1771) Sesia melanocephala Dalman. 1783) Hamaeris lucina (Linnaeus. 1758 Parnassius apollo (Linnaeus. 1763) Zygaena trifolii (Esper. 1789) Minois dryas (Scopoli. 1782) Scolitantides orion (Pallas. 1758) Marumba quercus (Denis & Schiffermüller. 1761) Cryphia fraudactricula (Hübner. 1767) Pericalia matronula (Linnaeus. 1785) Penthophera morio (Linnaeus. 1789) Zygaena laeta (Hübner. 1763) Tyria jacobaeae (Linnaeus. 1803) Daphnis nerii (Linnaeus. 1921 Zygaena purpuralis (Brünnich. 1758) Parocneria detrita (Esper. 1783) CR EN CR VU VU VU VU VU CR CR VU EN/VU EN/VU EN EN VU EN EN VU EN EN/VU VU EN EN EN VU EN/VU EN EN EN EN EN EN/VU EN EN EN VU VU VU CR EN VU VU VU VU VU VU EN VU VU CR CR CR + + + + Ex VU + + + + + + VU CR + + + + + VU VU VU/CR VU I VU + + +/CR Ex? VU CR/VU VU VU CR + VU + CR VU VU VU CR/VU CR VU CR/VU + VU CR/VU VU VU CR VU/CR CR + + VU CR CR/VU VU VU VU + VU VU CR/VU VU + CR + ExP + CR VU + VU VU + + ExP VU VU CR VU CR CR + ? + + + + + VU + + + VU + + + + + + + + + I + + + VU + VU VU VU + K + + + + I + CR VU + + + + + I I I + + + + + VU + + + + + + CR + + + + VU CR CR + + + + CR/VU VU + CR CR + + + VU + + + + + CR VU + + VU CR VU/CR I VU/CR VU VU + VU + + + + CR VU + + + VU + + CR VU VU + CR + + VU/CR VU + CR + + + VU VU + + CR + + + I + I ? + ? + Ex ? + + II + + + + CR + + + + + + + + + + II ? ? I + II + I CR CR CR CR VU CR VU VU + + Ex + Ex CR/VU + + + + + CR VU + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + II + + CR + ? + + + ? + + II CR/II II ? ? + ? + + + II ? II ? + + + + + EN/VU + CR CR EN + CR + EN VU/CR EN VU VU + CR VU + VU + VU + EN VU CR VU EN/VU + VU + CR CR CR + EN + CR + + + + + + + + + + ? ? + II ? + + ? ? PL + H . 1763) Lycaena dispar (Haworth. 1775) Melitaea diamina (Lang. 1758) Xestia rhaetica (Staudinger. 1758) Pharmacis carna (Denis & Schiffermüller. 1781) Polyommatus bellargus (Rottemburg. 1758) Hipparchia fagi (Scopoli. 1763) Neptis sappho (Pallas. 1898) Gynaephora selenitica (Esper. 1758) Euphydryas aurinia (Rottemburg. 1764) Colias myrmidone (Esper. 1755) Phyllodesma tremulifolia (Hübner. 1758) Drymonia querna (Denis & Schiffermüller. 1793) Lamellocossus tenebra (Denis & Schiffermüller. 1810) Pieris bryoniae (Hübner. 1790) Zygaena osterodensis Reiss. 1821) Thyris fenestrella (Scopoli. 1780) Colias palaeno (Linnaeus. 1761) Saturnia pyri (Denis & Schiffermüller. 1775) Elophos operaria (Hübner. 1758) Hemaris fuciformis (Linnaeus. 1758) Eupithecia undata (Freyer. 1775) Maculinea arion (Linnaeus. 1806) Plebeius optilete (Knoch. 1775) Satyrium w-album (Knoch. 1758) Lopinga achine (Scopoli. 1816 Syngrapha microgamma (Hübner. 1813) Erebia pharte (Hübner. 1919) Glacies noricana (Wagner. 1803) Maculinea alcon (Denis & Schiffermüller. 1763) Neptis rivularis (Scopoli. 1871) Zerynthia polyxena (Denis & Schiffermüller. 1780) Erebia sudetica Staudinger. 1808 Zygaena cynarae (Esper. 1758) Jordanita globulariae (Hübner. 1775) Zygaena angelicae Ochsenheimer. 1775) Saturnia pavonia (Linnaeus. 1758) Hemaris tityus (Linnaeus. 1804) Erebia pronoë (Esper. 1775) Euphydryas maturna (Linnaeus. 1780) Papilio machaon Linnaeus. 1775) Nymphalis xanthomelas (Esper. 1758) Parnassius mnemosyne (Linnaeus. 1758) Utetheisa pulchella (Linnaeus.

1781) Gonia foersteri Meigen. 1766) Atherix ibis (Fabricius. 1758) Xylomya maculata (Meigen. 1822 Stratiomys chamaeleon (Linnaeus. 1838 Oxycera pardalina Meigen. 1798) Dasypogon diadema (Fabricius.46 Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Invertebrates Category of Threat for Entire Carpathians Bern Convention Endemic Relic Alpine Class Ordo Species Category of Threat in Carpathian Countries RO UA SK CZ PL Protection in Carpathian Countries SK CZ PL Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Insecta Mecoptera Diptera Diptera Diptera Diptera Diptera Diptera Bittacus italicus (Müller. 1804) CR EN EN EN EN EN EN CR CR Ex? CR CR CR CR H + + + + + + + + CR CR CR CR CR CR CR + .

The list of top 20 alliances was created on the basis of occurrence of the endemic plants within alliances or endemic character of communities. Czech Republic.Plant Alliances by Viera Stanova Vegetation encompasses a very broad scale of synecologically and structurally distinct types — grasslands. forests. type of community on the basis of alliance in which a species occurs. a database was developed and used for the final evaluation. Ukraine and Romania. in order to obtain Carpathian communities in which the proportion of endemic species is significant. which have appeared in the literature of focal Carpathian countries — Slovak Republic. Selecting a more detailed phytosociological level (association) would make the data gathering process unrealistic within the time span. An attempt was made to compile a list of all available Carpathian plant communities on the level of alliances (syntaxon in the terminology of the Braun–Blanquet approach). Evaluation and results The total number of alliances provided by the countries was 190. aquatic vegetation. Methodology It was decided to gather data on the level of alliance. in alliances. alpine vegetation etc. because this phytosociological unit has a very good ecological characteristic. it was excluded. Since Austria holds only a small fraction of the Carpathians. distribution and threat. threats and management (information whether a given community requires any management to protect it effectively or not). Hungary. The second step was to collect data on the geographical distribution of Carpathian endemic plants (selected by Lydia Tasenkevich). Poland. The names were checked for nomenclature and a common database was designed. The following information was collected: species name. Experts within focal countries collected the data and country databases were sent to a Carpathian Ecoregion Initiative sectoral coordinator. The following information was collected: name of the alliance (with class and order). On the basis of national data. Ruderal plant communities were excluded due to an uneven level of information between the countries and due . distribution.

Alliances Abietion albae Březina et Hadač in Hadač 1962 Aceri tatarici–Quercion Zólyomi & Jakucs 1957 Adenostylion Br. 1949 Caricion remotae Kastner 1941 Caricion rostratae Balátová–Tuláčková 1963 Carpinion Issler 1931 Ceratophyllion Den Hartog et Segal 1964 Cirsio–Brachypodion pinnati Hadač et Klika 1944 Cratoneurion commutati Koch 1928 Cratoneuro filicini–Calthion laetae Hadač 1983 Cymbalario–Asplenion Segal 1969 em. Mucina 1993 Cynosurion R.–Bl.–Bl.–Bl.–Bl. 1950 Bromion erecti W. giving a final number of 129 plant alliances. 1968 Erysimo–Hackelion deflexae Bernátová et Obuch 1991 Fagion Luquet 1926 Festucion carpaticae Bělohlávková et Fišerová 1989 Festucion pictae Kraj.–Bl.–Bl.–Bl. Sokolowski et Walisch 1928 Alopecurion Passarge 1964 Androsacion alpinae Br. 1933 Juncion trifidi Krajina 1933 Juniperion nana Br. Tx. 1926 Caricion fuscae Koch 1926 em. 1925 Caricion davallianae Klika 1934 Caricion firmae Gams. Et Walas 1949) Coldea 1984 Genistion pilosae Duvigneaud 1942 Genisto germanicae–Quercion Neuhäusl & Neuhäuslová–Novotná 1967 Geranion sanguinei R. Muller 1961 Glycerio–Sparganion Br. Communities with marginal occurrence in the Carpathians were likewise excluded.–Bl. in Br. 1964 Festucion vaginatae Soo 1929 Festucion vallesiaceae Klika 1931 Festucion versicoloris Krajina 1933 Festuco saxatilis–Seslerion bielzii (Pawl. 1933 Festucion pseudovinae Soó 1933 Festucion rupicolae Soó 1940 corr. 1939 Koelerio–Phleion phleoidis Korneck 1974 Lathyro–Carpinion Boşcaiu 1974 Lemnion minoris de Bolós et Masclans 1955 Lemno–Salvinion natantis Slavnic 1956 CZ SK + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + RO HU + + + PL + + + + + UA + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + . 1978 Cardaminion amarae Maas 1959 Cardamino–Montion Br. Koch 1926 Calamagrostion arundinaceae (Luquet 1926) Jeník 1961 Calamagrostion villosae Pawl. 1962 Drapanocladion exannulati Krajina 1933 Eriophoro–Pinion sylvestris Pass. 1918 Alnion glutinosae Malcuit 1929 Alnion incanae Pawlowski in Pawlowski. here the Braun–Blanquet approach is quite new and additional communities may exist and even be described within different orographical units. 1948 Arabidion alpinae Beguin 1972 Arabidopsidion thalianae Passarge 1964 Arrhenatherion Koch 1926 Asplenio–Festucion glaucae Zólyomi 1936 Asplenion septentrionalis Oberd. Klika 1934 Caricion gracilis Neuhausl 1959 em. Lebrun & al. Balátová–Tuláčková 1963 Caricion lasiocarpae Vanden Berghen ap. 1937 em. in Br. 1926 Caricion curvulae Br. in Th.–Tul. In the countries concerned.–Bl. et Hoffm. et Jenny 1926 corr. 1928 Calthion R. where a different scientific approach was used. Tx. 1926 Achnatherion calamagrostis Br. et al. List of Carpathian plant alliances and their distribution in Carpathian countries. This is particulrly true of Ukraine.–Bl.–Bl.48 Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Plant Alliances to the fact that these communities are not important for evaluation of biodiveristy value. there is a difference in the levels of knowledge about communities studied using the Braun–Blanquet approach. et Jenny 1926 Androsacion vandelii Br. 1947 Cystopteridion Richard 1972 Dicrano–Pinion (Libbert 1933) Matuszk. There is a long history of such research in Western Carpathian countries. Bal. Br. Tx. et Sissingh in Boer 1942 Gypsophilion petraeae Borhidi et Pocs 1957 Hyperico perforato–Scleranthion perennis Moravec 1967 Hypno–Polypodion vulgaris Mucina 1993 Chrysanthemion rotundifolii Kraj. et al.–Bl. while in Eastern and Southern Carpathian countries it has a shorter tradition. 1938 Athyrio alpestris–Piceion Sýkora 1971 Berberidion Br.

in Br. Valachovič 1995 Papavero–Thymion pulcherrimi I. 1960 Spiraeion mediae Borhidi & Varga Z.Tx. Zólyomi 1966 Seslerion rigidae Zoly. Tx. Muller et Gors. . 1952 Symphyto–Fagion Vida 1959 Syringo–Carpinion orientalis Jakucs 1960 Thero–Airion Tx. Sutter 1969 Potentillo albae–Quercion petreae Jakucs in Zólyomi et al. 1926 Luzulo–Fagion Lohm.–Bl. Sýkora et Štursa 1971 Salicion triandrae Th. 455 endemic plant species were selected by Lydia Tasenkevich. 1932 Rhododendro–Vaccinion Br. Tx. 1939 Seslerion tatrae Hadač ex Hadač et al. Kopecký 1969 Phragmition communis Koch 1926 Piceion excelsae Pawlovski in Pawlovski et al. ex Marshall 1947 Potamion lucentis Rivas–Martínez 1973 Potamion pusilii Hejný 1978 Potentillion caulescentis Br. National experts commented on the original list.–Bl.–Bl. ex Oberd.–Bl. 1926 Rhynchosporion albae Koch 1926 Rumicion alpini Rubel ex Klika in Klika et Hadač 1944 Salicion albae Soó 1930 Salicion cinereae Th. 1926 Nardo–Agrostion tenuis Sillinger 1933 Nymphaeion albae Oberd. 1954 Lycopodio–Cratoneurion commutati Hadač 1983 Magnocaricion elatae W. 1957 Tilio–Acerion Klika 1955 Trifolion medii Th. 1949 Papaverion tatrici Pawlowski 1928 corr. 1969 Silenion lerchenfeldianae Simon 1957 Sphagnion magellanici Kastner et Flossner 1933 Sphagnion medii Kästner & Flössner 1933 Sphagno recurvi–Caricion canescentis Passarge 1964 Sphagno warnstorfiani–Tomenthypnion Dahl 1957 Sphagno–Utricularion Th. 1969 Seslerio–Festucion pallentis Klika 1931 corr. 1957 Oenanthion aquaticae Hejný ex neuhausl 1959 Orno–Cotinion Soó 1960 Oxycocco–Empetrion hermaphroditi Nordh.–Bl. et Pol. et Jenny 1926 Salicion incanae Aichinger 1933 Salicion retusae Horv. & Görs ex Passarge 1961 Salicion eleagno–daphnoidis (Moor 1958) Grass in Mucina et al. 1937 Polygono–Trisetion Br. in Br. 1950 Seslerio rigidae–Pinion Coldea 1991 Seslerio–Asterion Hadač ex Hadač et al. et R.Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Plant Alliances Loiseleurio–Vaccinion Br. Et al. 1928 Pinion mugi Pawl. Tx. 1993 Salicion herbaceae Br.–Bl. Muller et Gors. et R. 1955 Poion alpinae Oberd. 1967 Potentillo–Nardion Simon 1957 Prunion spinosae Soó 1947 Pulsatillo slavicae–Pinion Fajmonová 1978 Quercion petrae Zólyomi et Jakucs ex Jakucs 1960 Quercion pubescenti–petrae Br. 1998 Stipion calamagrostis Jenny–Lips ex Br. the final list includes 486 endemic plants recorded within the alliances. 1925 em. in R. Pop 1968 Petasition officinalis Sillinger 1933 em. 1949 Salicion silesiacae Rejmánek. 1950 Poion violaceae Horv.–Bl. Müll. 1936 Oxytropido–Elynion Br. Muller 1962 Trisetion fusci Krajina 1933 Utricularion vulgaris Passarge 1964 Vaccinion Bocher 1943 Veronicion baumgartenii Coldea 1991 Violion caninae Schwickerath 1944 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 49 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Endemic plant species Originally. 1958 Senecion fluviatilis R. 1928 Pino–Quercion Kozl. Koch 1926 Micromerion pulegii Boşcaiu (1971) 1979 Molinion coerulae Koch 1926 Nanocyperion Koch ex Libbert 1932 Nardion strictae Br. et Jenny 1926 em. Mat.–Bl. Altogether.–Bl.–Bl.–Bl. adding new species on the basis of the most recent data.

baumgartenii (Simonk. krajinae Domin Astragalus peterfii Jav. Acinos alpinus (L. Alchemilla virginea Plocek Alchemilla walasii Pawł. Alchemilla acrostegia Plocek Alchemilla aequidens Pawł. Artemisia absinthium L. ssp.ssp..) Jalas Aconitum moldavicum ssp.ssp.) P.) Moench ssp. brymii (Dostál) Soó Alyssum repens Baumg.Fröhner Alchemilla mollifolia Plocek et Zlinska Alchemilla moncophila Plocek Alchemilla multiloba Plocek Alchemilla obesa Plocek Alchemilla oculimarina Pawł. Alchemilla patens Plocek Alchemilla polonica Pawł.Fröhner Alchemilla crassa (Plocek) Plocek Alchemilla curtischista Plocek Alchemilla czywczynensis Pawl. ssp.50 Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Plant Alliances List of endemic plant species recorded within Carpathian alliances. sooi Palitz Alchemilla isodonta Plocek Alchemilla jasiewiczii Pawł. arachnoidea (Schott. calcigena Rehman Asperula carpatica Morariu Astragalus australis (L.. Alchemilla zmudae Pawł. Biscutella laevigata ssp. jacquinii (Rchb. ssp. Armoracia macrocarpa (W.. ssp. ssp.Sell Antennaria carpatica (Wahlenb. falcata Ciocârlan Barbarea lepuznica Nyár. polymorpha (Witasek) Tacik . Alchemilla anceps Plocek Alchemilla animosa Plocek Alchemilla aspera Plocek Alchemilla babiogorensis Pawl. Alchemilla bucovinensis Sytschak Alchemilla contractilis (Plocek) S. moravicum (Skalicky) Tasen. Campanula kladniana (Schur) Witasek Campanula rotundifolia L. hungarica Soó Bromus pannonicus Kummer et Sendtner ssp. Alchemilla stenoleuca Plocek Alchemilla suavis Plocek Alchemilla subconnivens Pawł. Nyman et Kotschy) Knuth Andryala levitomentosa (Nyár.) Baumg. var. Athamanta turbith (L. ssp.) Gayer Aconitum napellus ssp. Alchemilla thaumasia Plocek Alchemilla turculensis Pawł..) Favarger Armeria maritima (Mill. Alchemilla exaperta Plocek Alchemilla fusoidea Plocek Alchemilla giewontica Pawl.. Alchemilla grandiceps Plocek Alchemilla gruneica Plocek Alchemilla gymnopoda Plocek Alchemilla hyperptycha Plocek Alchemilla chalarodesma Plocek Alchemilla chilitricha Plocek Alchemilla intermedia Haller ssp. laguriformis (Schur) Tzvelev Alyssum montanum L. Alchemilla smaragdina Plocek Alchemilla smytniensis Alchemilla sojakii Plocek Alchemilla sokolowskii Pawł. ex Boiss.D. ssp.. Alchemilla ladislai Pawł.. Alchemilla pungentiflora (Plocek) Plocek Alchemilla reversantha Plocek Alchemilla rhodobasis Plocek Alchemilla rhodocycla Plocek Alchemilla sejuncta Plocek Alchemilla sericoneuroides Pawł. Achillea oxyloba (DC. Alchemilla pseudothmari Pawł.) Lam. Alchemilla bogumilii Pawlus Alchemilla boleslai Pawł.. Alchemilla gorcensis Pawl.) Broth.ssp.) Gayer Aconitum lycoctonum L. ssp.. firmum (Rchb. Alchemilla wallischii Pawł.. Campanula crassipes Heuff. Alchemilla kornasiana Pawł. subscaposa (Borbás) Soó Aquilegia transsilvanica Schur Arenaria ciliata L. hungarica (Borbás) Tutin Aubrieta intermedia Heldr. ssp. Alopecurus pratensis L. schurii (Schultz Bip. ssp. Alchemilla subsessilis Plocek Alchemilla subtatrica Pawł. Alchemilla laevipes Plocek Alchemilla laxa Plocek Alchemilla longidens Plocek Alchemilla lorata Plocek Alchemilla loxotropa Plocek Alchemilla ludovitiana Plocek Alchemilla marginata Plocek Alchemilla megalodonta Plocek Alchemilla microsphaerica S. Alchemilla amauroptera Plocek Alchemilla amblyodes Plocek Alchemilla amicorum Pawl. Alchemilla pseudincisa Pawł.)Todor Campanula carpatica Jacq. Aconitum napellus L.Silva Armeria pocutica Pawł. Alchemilla brachycodon Plocek Alchemilla braun-blanquetii Pawl.) S.) P. fussii (Griseb. Astragalus roemeri Simonk. pyrethriformis (Schur) Beldie Anthemis tinctoria L. Alchemilla zapalowiczii Pawł. Alchemilla kosiarensis Plocek Alchemilla kulczynskii Pawł. Alchemilla versipiloides Pawł..M.. vapincense (Vill. Alchemilla superata Plocek Alchemilla szaferi Pawł. Pawlowska Aconitum anthora L. repens Androsace villosa L.)Domin Aconitum lasiocarpum (Rchb.) Bluff et Fingerh. ssp. barcensis (Simonk. ssp.) Beldie Aquilegia nigricans Baumg. moldavicum (Hacq..ssp..... monocladus (Domin) P. ssp. Bupleurum falcatum L. et K. ssp. et Graeb.. hosteanum (Schur) Asch.) Willd. et Orph...) Heimerl Achillea tuzsonii Ujh. carpatica Anthemis carpatica Kit. Alchemilla tacikii Plocek Alchemilla tatricola Pawł.Sm.. tatrensis (Zapal.. Alchemilla stanislae Pawł. Alchemilla decurrens Plocek Alchemilla delitescens Plocek Alchemilla dostalii Plocek Alchemilla echinoglobosa Plocek Alchemilla eugenii Pawl. Astragalus pseudopurpureus Gusul.ssp..ssp. dilatatum Schur Bupleurum longifolium L.) Schultz Bip.

Festuca pachyphylla Degen ex Nyár.) Soó Cerastium arvense ssp.) Borbás Erysimum witmannii Zawadzki ssp. simonkaiana (Jav. Dendranthema zawadzkii (Herbich) Tzvelev Dentaria glandulosa W. melanocalathia (Borbás) Dostál Centaurea phrygia ssp.Dvorak) F. Dianthus spiculifolius Schur Dianthus tenuifolius Schur Doronicum carpaticum (Griseb. Draba dorneri Heuffel Draba haynaldii Stur Draba kotschyi Stur Draba lasiocarpa Rochel ssp. Dianthus plumarius ssp. ssp. rarauensis (Prodan) Dostál Centaurea phrygia ssp.) Jav.) Beldie Erigeron nanus Schur Eritrichium nanum (All. et D.W.. ssp. transsilvanicum (Schur) Brummitt Hesperis matronalis L. ssp. praecox (Kit.) Dostál Centaurea phrygia ssp...) Pawł. ssp.) Czerep. slovaca Euphrasia stipitata Smejkal Euphrasia tatrae Wettst. et Zahn Hieracium grofae Wol. tatrorum (Zapal. Bip ssp.et Zahn Hieracium breazense Nyár. et Schenk) Nyman Draba aizoides L. et Zahn) Chrtek jr. Dianthus lumnitzeri Wiesb. et K.) ssp. Festuca carpatica F. vrabelyiana (Schur) Soó Hesperis nivea Baumg Hesperis oblongifolia Schur Hesperis slovaca (F. ssp.Kern. Hieracium melananthum (Naegeli et Peter) P. ssp.Kern. Centaurea sadleriana Janka Centaurea trichocephala Bieb. klasterskyi (Chrtek) Chrtek Draba stellata Jacq. jankae (Simonk. phlogifolia (Schott et Kotschy) Tutin Gentianella amarella (L.) Schrad. Helictotrichon decorum (Janka) Henrard Hepatica transsilvanica Fuss Heracleum carpaticum Porc. moniliformis (Schur) Borza Hesperis matronalis ssp. ssp. saxatilis (Schur) Rauschert Festuca scoparia (A. Festuca bucegiensis Markgr. Delphinium oxysepalum Borbás et Pax Delphinium simonkaianum Pawł. Dianthus callizonus Schott et Kotschy Dianthus carthusianorum L. ssp. ssp. et Engl. trachycarpum (Soják) Holub Heracleum sphondylium ssp.West 51 . pallidiflorum (Jav. Erysimum wahlenbergii (Asch. et J.) ssp. Dianthus nitidus Waldst. et K. Heracleum sphondylium L. Cerastium transsilvanicum Schur Cerinthe glabra Mill subsp. Hieracium longifoliosum Nyár. Erysimum pieninicum (Zapal. Dianthus giganteus D’Urv. Erysimum witmannii ssp.Ball Erysimum witmannii ssp. ssp.) Hayek ssp. ssp.D. Nyman et Kotschy) Tutin Dianthus henteri Heuffel ex Griseb. tatrica (Pawł.) Rchb. ssp.Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Plant Alliances Campanula serrata (Kit. retezatensis (Prodan) Dostál Centaurea pinnatifida Schur ssp.. Festuca porcii Hackel Festuca rupicola Heuff. fatrense Ehrend. flaccida (Schur) Markgr.Löve Gentianella lutescens (Velen. glandulosum (Kit. Hieracium fritzeiforme Zahn Hieracium goemorense Borbás Hieracium grabowskianum Naegeli et Peter Hieracium grecescui Nyár. ssp. ssp.) Hendrych Campanula subcapitata Popov Campanula tatrae Borbás Campanula xylocarpa Kovanda Cardaminopsis halleri (L.) Pawł. et Zahn Hieracium dacicum Uechtr.. ssp. et Kit.) Pawł. fatrae A. Hieracium filarszkyi Jav.) Dostál Centaurea phrygia ssp.) Dostál Cardaminopsis neglecta (Schultes) Hayek Carduus collinus W.) Jav.) Soó ssp. Hieracium bucuranum Nyár . schurii (Klinge) Soó Daphne arbuscula Celak. tatrae (Ronniger) Holub Gypsophila petraea (Baumg. saxigenus (Shur) Jav. et Hackel) ssp. dominii Dostál Cephalaria radiata Griseb.Richter Festuca tatrae (Czako) Degen Festuca versicolor Tausch ssp. transsilvanicum (Schur) P. banaticus (Heuffel) Tutin Dianthus glacialis Haenke ssp. sooana (Borhidi) Soó Centaurea reichenbachii DC.Dvorak Hieracium amoenanthes Nyár. et Šipošova Galium baillonii Brandza Galium pawlowskii Kucowa Galium transcarpaticum Stoyko et Tasen.) Soó Carduus lobulatus Borbás Carex sempervirens Vill. Hieracium crassipedipilium (Pawł. lerchenfeldianum (Schur) Asch. oligosperma (Andrae) Prodan Gentiana cruciata L. nigriceps (Dobrocz. Hieracium chlorobracteum Degen et Zahn Hieracium jankae Uechtr. et Schenk Cerastium arvense L. Centaurea phrygia L. Ferula sadlerana Ledeb. Euphrasia exaristata Smejkal Euphrasia slovaca (Yeo) Holub ssp. et Zahn Hieracium carpaticum Besser Hieracium catenatum Sennik.) Borbás Cyclamen fatrense Halda et Soják Dactylorhiza fuchsii (Druce) Soó ssp. zmudae Zapal.Sell et C. ssp. et Schenk Cirsium grecescui Rouy Cochlearia tatrae Borbás Cotoneaster matrensis Domokos Crocus scepusiensis (Rehmann et Wol. tatrica Hadač Cirsium boujartii (Piller et Mitterp. lobulatiformis (Csuros et Nyár. Centaurea coziensis Nyár. Hieracium buianum Prodan Hieracium caesiogenum Wol. kerneri Carduus kerneri ssp. reussii (Tocl) Holub Gentianella austriaca (A. boujartii Cirsium brachycephalum Juratzka Cirsium decussatum Janka Cirsium furiens Griseb. Genista tinctoria L. Hieracium lomnicense Wol. gelidus (Schott. dominii Krajina Galium abaujense Borbás Galium anisophyllon Vill. vagicum (Holub et Tomsovic) Dostál Erysimum witmannii ssp. lutea K. ssp. ssp. Hieracium krasanii Wol. Hieracium czeremoszense Wol.Dietr Festuca nitida Kit. ssp.) Börn. sooana (Borsos) Borsos Dactylorhiza maculata (L. ex Willd.) Schultz.. simonkaiana (Hayek) Dostal Centaurea triumfettii All.-Dannenb. Carduus kerneri Simonk.et Zahn Hieracium atrellum (Zahn) Juxip Hieracium biharianum Prodan Hieracium bohatschianum Zahn Hieracium borzae Nyár. carpatica (Porc.G. Centaurea globurensis Nyár. et Graeb. Centaurea maramarosiensis (Jav. witmannii Euphorbia carpatica Wol.-Dannenb.

Hieracium pseudocaesiiforme Nyár.et Zahn Hieracium tomiasaeforme Nyár. ssp. ssp. Obuch Prangos ferulacea (L.) Soó Poa rehmannii (Asch. corona-sancti-stephani (Zapal. ex Hornem Hieracium stenodontophyllum Nyár.52 Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Plant Alliances Hieracium mukacevense Juxip Hieracium muscelii Prodan Hieracium napaeum Zahn Hieracium negoiense (Ravarut et Nyár.) Hayek var. Melampyrum ambiguum Soó Melampyrum herbichii Wol. Hieracium pisaturense Nyár. et Fletcher Primula elatior ssp. pocutica (Szabo) Ehrend. Poa granitica ssp. carpathica (Soó) Soó Poa granitica Br. ssp.)Holub Leucanthemum waldsteinii (Schultz Bip.) Nyár. transsilvanica (Sprengel) Hayek Knautia dipsacifolia Kreutzer ssp.) Lindley ssp. ssp.et Zahn Hieracium pelagae Degen et Zahn Hieracium pelesii Grecesc.) Hill.. et Forrest Primula elatior ssp. carpatica Jirasek Poa nobilis Skalinska Poa pannonica A. Rubus exornatus Nyár. Rubus bicolorispinosus Nyár. Oxytropis carpatica Uechtr.W. et Graeb. et Graeb. Minuartia verna (L.ssp. pienina (Zapal. Knautia dipsacifolia ssp. transsilvanica (Schur) Beldie Koeleria tristis Domin Lathyrus transsilvanicus (Sprengel) Fritsch Leontodon pseudotaraxaci Schur Leontodon repens Schur Leucanthemopsis alpina (L. ssp. carpatica (Fuss) W.West Hieracium slovacum Chrtek jr. Hieracium pojoritense Wol.et Zahn Hieracium pseudotranssilvanicum (Zahn) Zahn Hieracium pseudovagneri Zahn Hieracium rapunculoidiforme Wol.et Zahn Hieracium phaedrocheilon Zahn Hieracium pinetophilum (Degen et Zahn) Chrtek jr. banatica (Borbás) Novak Plantago atrata Hoppe subsp. tatrae (Vierh.) Wol.) Pawł. Pedicularis baumgartenii Simonk. ssp. Hieracium paltinae jav. Papaver alpinum L.Reuss) Zamels Pulsatilla subslavica Futák ex Goliášová Pyrola carpatica Holub et Krisa Ranunculus altitatrensis Paclova et Murin Ranunculus auricomus L. Klein et Zagulski Onobrychis montana DC.Sell et C. ssp. et Zahn Hieracium riumarense Nyar. carinata (Griseb.-Sokol. ssp. acuminatum (Schur) Zahar. Rubus grandiflorus Nyár.et Zahn Hieracium pseudoratezatense Nyár. Poa sejuncta Bernatova.Kern. Hieracium simonkaianum (Zahn) P. Chrysosplenium alpinum Schur Jovibarba globifera ssp. Poa margilicola Bernátová et Májovský Poa molinerii Balbis ssp. Rubus henrici-egonis Holub Rubus chloroclados Sabr.et Zahn Hieracium pseudocaesium Degen et Zahn Hieracium pseudonigritum Pax Hieracium pseudopaltinae Nyár. oxypetala (Wol. Hieracium perfoliosum Nyár. baumgarteniana (Degen et Moesz) Ludi Pulmonaria filarszkyana Jav.) Halliday Molinia horanszky Milkovits Molinia hungarica Milkovits Molinia ujhelyii Milkovits Myosotis transsilvanica Porcius Nigritella carpatica (Zapal. ssp. obscura Frohner Lychnis nivalis Kit. Onosma pseudarenaria Schur Onosma tornensis Jav.Schwarz Linum uninerve (Rochel) Jav. Hieracium trischistum Nyár.-Bl. lancifolia (Heuffel) Ehrend. et Derv. Hieracium pocuticum Wol. preissiana (Domin) Holub Jurinea mollis ssp. hungarica (Borbás) Soó Primula auricula ssp. turocensis (Borbás) Jav. . Rosa heterostyla Chrshan.) Teppner. Majovsky. Hieracium peterfii Nyár.) Tuzson Minuartia setacea (Thuill.) Hiern.-Harrison ex W. Primula elatior (L.Sm.) Heywood ssp. transsilvanica (Simonk. Hieracium speciosum Willd. pruinosa Nyár. carpaticum (Spring) O. subsp. tatricum Nyár. ssp.Sm. ex Gaudin) F. Micromeria pulegium (Rochel) Bentham Minuartia frutescens (Kit. Rubus doftanensis Nyár.et Zahn Hieracium subpojoritense Prodan Hieracium subserratosinuatum Zahn Hieracium tajanum K.) Willd.Kern.) Borza Papaver alpinum ssp.W. Rubus crispomarginatus Holub Rubus cuiedensis Nyár.et Zahn Hieracium virgicaule Naegely et Peter Hieracium vladeasae Prodan Hieracium vurtopicum Zahn Hylotelephium argutum (Haw. Schultz et Schultz Bip.D. scabra (Asch. Ophrys holubyana Andras. Melampyrum saxosum Baumg. Pulsatilla halleri (All. W. Rubus banaticus Nyár. leucophylla (Pax) H. ex Degen) Dihoru Primula auricula L.Maly et Zahn Hieracium telekianum Boros et Lengyel Hieracium tephroglaucum Naegely et Peter Hieracium tomiasae Nyár.) Holub Chenopodium wolffii Simonk. Peucedanum rochelianum Heuffel Phyteuma tetramerum Schur Phyteuma vagneri A. Rubus fagetanus Nyár. Knautia dipsacifolia ssp. Rubus cirlioare Nyár. ex Kiss Knautia kitaibelii (Schultes) Borbás Knautia slovaca Stepanek Koeleria macrantha (Ledeb.) Schultes ssp.) Pouzar Leucojum vernum L. Et zahn Hieracium pawlowskianum Nyár.) Soó Hieracium nyaradyanum Zahn Hieracium occidentale Nyár. disparilis (Nyár. ullepitschii (Blocki) Zahn Pinus nigra Arnold ssp. granitica Poa laxa Haenke ssp. ssp. glacialis Beldie Poa nemoralis L. binatus Jasiewicz Ranunculus carpaticus Herbich Ranunculus malinovskii Jelen. slavica (G. Hieracium scitulum Wol. Pilosella alpicola (Schleich. serratifolia (Rochel) Jav. Hieracium praebiharicum Boros Hieracium prodanianum Nyár. Ornithogalum orthophyllum Ten. Hieracium paxianum Nyár.) Jav. ssp. Luzula alpinopilosa (Chaix) Breistr. poloninensis (Domin) Dostál Primula wulfeniana Schott ssp.et Zahn Hieracium pseudeffusum (Naegeli et Peter) Nyár.

Trifolium pratense L. Thlaspi kovatsii Heuffel ssp. Rubus saxosus Nyár. Thlaspi dacicum ssp. heterotricha Dihoru et Roman Stipa danubialis Dihoru et Roman Symphytum cordatum Waldst. hungarica (Ujhelyi) Deyl Sesleria heufleriana ssp. ex Schultes) Schultes Trisetum macrotrichum Hackel Trollius altissimus Crantz ssp. Silene zawadzkii Herbich Soldanella carpatica Vierh. Salvia transsilvanica (Schur ex Griseb. fil. Rubus niveoserpens Nyár.) Simonk. wettsteinii Seseli gracile Waldst. Sesleria heuflerana Schur ssp. ssp. ssp. Soldanella hungarica Simonk. Syringa josikaea Jacq. carpaticum (Kotula) Osvacilova Thalictrum minus ssp. heufleriana Sesleria sadlerana Janka ssp. ex Rchb.) Karpati Stipa crassiculmis P.Pawlowska Soldanella pseudomontana F. dubia (Herbich) Zapal. transsilvanica S. schudichii Soó Thymus alternans Klokov Thymus bihoriensis Jalas Thymus comosus Heuffel ex Griseb. banaticum (Uechtr..) Jav. pulcherrimus Thymus pulcherrimus ssp. Salix kitaibeliana Willd. Rubus perrobustus Rubus persanimontis Nyár. Rubus longebracteatus Nyár. tatrae (Borbás) Pocs et Balogh Tulipa hungarica Borbás Viola declinata Waldst.K. Rubus subcoriaceus Nyár. barbata Nyár. tatrae (Degen) Deyl Silene dinarica Sprengel Silene nutans L. subtriphylla (Schur) Domin Sedum krajinae Domin Sempervivum wettsteinii Letz ssp. Rubus lipovensis Nyár.) Beauv.) Rchb. major (Neilr.) Soják Trisetum flavescens (L. Rubus teregovensis Nyár.A. dominii Soó Saxifraga moschata ssp. tatricum Chrtek Trisetum fuscum (Kit.A. ssp. Rumex arifolius All. ssp. Rubus slatinensis Nyár. Presl ssp. ssp. Rubus seciurensis Nyár. Rubus subvillicaulis Nyár. Rubus romanicus Nyár..) Dvorakova Thlaspi dacicum Heuffel ssp. subsp.Pawlowska Saxifraga moschata ssp. et Kit. Saxifraga moschata Wulf. Taraxacum pawlowskii Van Soest Taraxacum pieninicum Pawł.. moravica Holub Thalictrum minus L. ssp. Rubus rubristamineus Nyár. Rubus ocnensis Nyár. demissa (Schott et Kotschy) D.) Schur Saussurea porcii Degen Saxifraga carpatica Sternb. heterophyllum (Hazsl.) S. hazslinszkyana Soó Sorbus borbasii Jav. ssp.) Fritsch ssp. et Schenk ssp. ssp.Smirnow ssp. Rubus margaritae Gayer Rubus moestus Holuby Rubus neopyramidalis Nyár.) Letz Sempervivum wettsteinii ssp. Sorbus buekkensis Soó Sorbus dacica Borbás Sorbus javorkae (Soó) Karpaty Sorbus margittaiana (Jav. ssp. hungarica Soldanella hungarica ssp. et Kit. Taraxacum erythrocarpum Kirschner et Stepanek Taraxacum nigricans (Kit. pseudobanatica (Schur) Chrtek Scilla bifolia L. Rubus pseudodoftanensis Nyár. Rubus magurensis Nyár. ssp.Kern. banatica (Jav. 53 . Rubus vaccarum Nyár. et Csapody Scabiosa lucida Vill. et Kit. ssp. Thymus pulcherrimus Schur ssp. Rubus severinensis Nyár. Rubus petnicensis Nyár. Rubus opiparus Nyár.Mey Sorbus austriaca (Beck) Hedl. dacicum Thlaspi jankae A. kotulae S. pseudobanatica (Schur) Jav.Schmidt Tithymalus sojakii (Chrtek et Křísa) Holub Trifolium medium L. Tephroseris longifolia (Jacq. et C. ssp.) Pawł.Pawlowska Saxifraga mutata L.Webb Saxifraga wahlenbergii Ball Scabiosa columbaria L. Scabiosa lucida ssp. pseudominus (Borbás) Soó Thesium kernerianum Simonk. sarosiense (Hazsl. Rubus tenuispinosus Nyár. sudeticus (Lyka) P.Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Plant Alliances Rubus laetecoloratus Nyár. Sorbus pekarovae Majovsky et Bernatova Sorbus scepusiensis Kovanda Sorbus sooi (Mathe) Karpati Sorbus umbellata (Desf. carpaticus (Zapal. Thlaspi caerulescens J.) Karpati Sorbus paxiana Jav.) Griseb. banaticum (Heuffel) Hendrych Trifolium medium ssp.et Kit. kotulae (Pawł. tatrense (Zapal.

Alchemilla smytniensis. Alchemilla multiloba. Heracleum carpaticum. Poa granitica ssp. Poa rehmannii. Knautia dipsacifolia ssp. Antennaria carpatica ssp. dominii. Melampyrum saxosum. Trifolium pratense ssp. Rumex arifolius ssp. major Thesium kernerianum. Dendranthema zawadzkii. Festuca carpatica. Heracleum sphondylium ssp. hosteanum. lerchenfeldianum. zmudae. Soldanella hungarica ssp. oxypetala. tatricum. Nigritella carpatica. poloninensis. demissa. witmannii. Thlaspi dacicum ssp. tatrica. lobulatiformis. 1 Festuco saxatilis–Seslerion bielzii (Pawł. Leontodon pseudotaraxaci. Trisetum fuscum. Alchemilla subconnivens. Thlaspi dacicum ssp. flaccida. Alchemilla sericoneuroides. carpatica. Aconitum moldavicum ssp. kotulae. Primula elatior ssp. Festuca rupicola ssp. Campanula serrata. transsilvanica. baumgarteniana. 1928 — Wooly small–reed tall grass communities Aconitum moldavicum ssp. Androsace villosa ssp. daci. tatrensis. Dianthus spiculifolius. Minuartia verna ssp. Hieracium . Artemisia absinthium var. pulcherrimus. hosteanum. Alchemilla pseudothmari. tatrica. pocutica. Soldanella hungarica ssp. Thymus . Centaurea pinnatifida. Alchemilla stanislae. Dianthus callizonus. tatrorum. Draba aizoides ssp. Scabiosa columbaria ssp. Alopecurus pratensis ssp. Primula elatior ssp. Onobrychis montana ssp. carpaticus. Draba haynaldii. pulcherrimus ssp. Festuca carpatica. Campanula rotundifolia ssp. Gentiana cruciata ssp. Ranunculus carpaticus. Hieracium carpaticum. Cerastium transsilvanicum. Heracleum carpaticum. Festuca versicolor ssp. Alchemilla decurrens. dubia. Alchemilla czywczynensis. Aconitum napellus ssp. Koeleria macrantha ssp. praecox. the following 20 alliances were selected as the most valuable in the Carpathians. Poa granitica ssp. Thymus pulcherrimus pulcherrimus. major Thymus alternans. Carduus kerneri ssp. Alchemilla obesa. Dianthus plumarius ssp. oligosperma. Hesperis matronalis ssp. laguriformis. Pulmonaria filarszkyana. Sesleria heuflerana. Campanula serrata. Arenaria ciliata ssp. Alchemilla lorata. arachnoidea. Gentianella lutescens ssp. Primula elatior ssp. Alchemilla gorcensis. Festuca porcii. Festuca versicolor ssp. Leucanthemum waldsteinii. Campanula tatrae. Cardaminopsis halleri ssp. Cerastium arvense ssp. Gypsophila petraea. Silene nutans ssp. polymorpha. Alchemilla subtatrica. Alchemilla szaferi. Dianthus glacialis ssp. disparilis. Dianthus tenuifolius. Hieracium melananthum. Erysimum pieninicum. Campanula rotundifolia ssp. moniliformis. poloninensis. Cardaminopsis halleri ssp. Carduus kerneri ssp. Thymus comosus. polymorpha. Erysimum wahlenbergii. Dianthus nitidus. carpaticum. saxatilis. Trisetum fuscum 2 Calamagrostion villosae Pawł. Campanula rotundifolia ssp. kerneri.54 Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Plant Alliances Top alliances On the basis of the occurrence of endemic plants. firmum. Leontodon repens. Achillea oxyloba ssp. dominii. Trollius europaeus ssp. polymorpha. schurii. calcigena. Erigeron nanus. Alyssum repens ssp. Saxifraga mutata ssp. Campanula tatrae. dubia. gelidus. Genista tinctoria ssp. pseudobanatica. transsilvanicum. Alchemilla tatricola. Primula wulfeniana ssp. phlogifolia. carpatica. Leucojum vernum ssp. Erysimum witmannii ssp. transsilvanica. tatrae 3 Seslerion tatrae Hadač 1962 — West Carpathian alpine calciphilous grasslands Alchemilla braun-blanquetii. Dianthus spiculifolius. jacquinii. Silene nutans ssp. cum. Doronicum carpaticum. repens. banaticum. tatrae. Trisetum flavescens ssp. Carex sempervirens ssp. disparilis. Alchemilla tatricola. Oxytropis carpatica. Festuca pachyphylla. Scabiosa lucida ssp. barbata. Viola declinata. et al. Phyteuma vagneri. Festuca nitida ssp. Festuca tatrae. et Walas 1949) Coldea 1984 — Eastern Carpathian cushion sedge carpets Aconitum anthora ssp.

Aquilegia transsilvanica. dominii. Poa rehmannii. Hylotelephium argutum. Centaurea phrygia ssp. major Seslerion rigidae Zoly. serratifolia. Campanula rotundifolia ssp. Plantago atrata ssp. 1939 — East Carpathian [Sesleria rigida] grasslands Achillea oxyloba ssp. — Bl. Delphinium oxysepalum. Thalictrum minus ssp. schurii. hosteanum. dubia. Pyrola carpatica. hungarica. Pulsatilla halleri ssp. Alchemilla babiogorensis. Anthemis tinctoria ssp. Poa sejuncta. Ranunculus carpaticus. pocutica. Jovibarba globifera ssp. Astragalus pseudopurpureus. repens. Festuca rupicola ssp. subtriphylla. firmum. Helictotrichon decorum. Linum uninerve. Knautia dipsacifolia ssp. Rubus crispomarginatus. Hieracium pocuticum. Heracleum sphondylium ssp. Hieracium mukacevense. Rumex arifolius ssp. Soldanella carpatica. Silene zawadzkii. Symphytum cordatum 55 4 5 6 7 . Athamanta turbith ssp. Aquilegia transsilvanica. Alchemilla czywczynensis. Hieracium caesiogenum. Chrysosplenium alpinum. Dianthus spiculifolius. Silene nutans ssp. Primula elatior ssp. tatrae. Alyssum repens ssp. Aconitum moldavicum ssp. Thymus pulcherrimus ssp. Festuca carpatica. vapincense. Leucojum vernum ssp. Pulsatilla halleri ssp. Taraxacum pieninicum. Cerinthe glabra ssp. Hesperis matronalis ssp. Leontodon pseudotaraxaci. fatrae. Knautia dipsacifolia ssp. Ranunculus carpaticus. Campanula rotundifolia ssp. Trifolium pratense ssp. Poa granitica ssp. moldavicum. Galium transcarpaticum. Silene nutans ssp. Scabiosa columbaria ssp. Poa granitica ssp. transsilvanicum. subscaposa. kotulae Adenostylion alliariae Br. Saxifraga moschata ssp. Oxytropis carpatica. Achillea oxyloba ssp. carpatica. Dentaria glandulosa. Galium pawlowskii. lobulatiformis. polymorpha. Molinia ujhelyii. Heracleum carpaticum. pulcherrimus. Scabiosa lucida ssp. Aconitum moldavicum ssp. carpaticum. Astragalus roemeri. Soldanella hungarica ssp. carpatica. 1926 — Carpathian tall herb communities Aconitum lasiocarpum. sudeticus. pseudobanatica. carpatica. polymorpha. Poa molinerii ssp. Cephalaria radiata. laguriformis. dubia. fussii. Pulsatilla subslavica. Campanula carpatica. carpaticum. vrabelyiana. schurii. Trisetum macrotrichum Cystopteridion Richard 1972 — Middle–European calcareous fern cliffs Acinos alpinus ssp. leucophylla. Melampyrum saxosum. Pedicularis baumgartenii. Bupleurum longifolium ssp. Primula elatior ssp. Alopecurus pratensis ssp. slavica. disparilis. preissiana. Gentianella austriaca ssp. Thymus alternans Fagion Luquet 1926 — Medio–European acidophilous beech forest Aconitum lasiocarpum. Aquilegia nigricans ssp. Campanula kladniana. Pulmonaria filarszkyana. Hesperis matronalis ssp. saxigenus. Dianthus tenuifolius. baumgartenii. Centaurea reichenbachii. carpaticus. Scilla bifolia ssp. Aconitum lycoctonum ssp. Cardaminopsis halleri ssp. Asperula carpatica. tatrica. disparilis. Centaurea maramarosiensis. saxatilis. hosteanum. Poa nemoralis ssp. Primula auricula ssp. slavica. Festuca carpatica. pocutica. Cyclamen fatrense. Thymus pulcherrimus ssp. nigriceps. Knautia kitaibelii. Aconitum napellus ssp. Primula auricula ssp.Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Plant Alliances virgicaule. Euphorbia carpatica. Centaurea maramarosiensis. tatrica. Thymus comosus. witmannii. Sesleria sadlerana ssp. Phyteuma vagneri. Hesperis nivea. hungarica. Carduus kerneri ssp. Dianthus carthusianorum ssp. moniliformis. Melampyrum herbichii. Sorbus pekarovae. Hesperis nivea. Erysimum witmannii ssp. Leucanthemum waldsteinii. Sempervivum wettsteinii ssp. wettsteinii. glacialis. pseudobanatica. Hesperis oblongifolia.

Papaver alpinum ssp. poloninensis. Dendranthema zawadzkii. Dianthus lumnitzeri. Cardaminopsis neglecta. Taraxacum pawlowskii 11 Potentillo–Nardion Simon 1957 — Carpathian mat–grass swards Bupleurum longifolium ssp. repens. dubia. Pop 1968 — Alpine screes of Eastern Carpathians Alyssum repens ssp. Alchemilla versipiloides. Dianthus plumarius ssp. tatrorum. Bupleurum falcatum ssp. Viola declinata . hungarica. Centaurea phrygia ssp. pseudominus. Thalictrum minus ssp. dilatatum. Campanula tatrae. Primula elatior ssp. Cerastium arvense ssp. pseudominus 13 Cardamino–Montion Br. obscura. Barbarea . Poa sejuncta. Silene nutans ssp. falcate. polymorpha. Genista tinctoria ssp. Alchemilla wallischii. Centaurea phrygia ssp. disparilis. Dianthus glacialis ssp. Festuca carpatica. Centaurea reichenbachii. Campanula carpatica. 1926 — Montane soft water springs Aconitum napellus ssp. Luzula alpinopilosa ssp.–Bl. oligosperma. carpaticus. transsilvanicum. vapincense. Primula auricula ssp. Zólyomi 1966 — Dealpine calciphile pale fescue grasslands Anthemis tinctoria ssp. fussii. Thymus pulcherrimus 10 Salicion herbaceae Br. Bromus pannonicus ssp. Knautia kitaibelii. Alchemilla aequidens. corona–sancti–stephani. Biscutella laevigata ssp. Alchemilla zapalowiczii. Alchemilla tatricola. Poa granitica ssp. Draba lasiocarpa ssp. carpatica. Pulsatilla halleri ssp. Cotoneaster matrensis. schurii. granitica. Thalictrum minus ssp. Festuca nitida ssp. Phyteuma vagneri. Jovibarba globifera ssp. Leucanthemum waldsteinii. Thymus bihoriensis. kotulae. Sesleria heufleriana. obscura. Alchemilla tatricola. Thlaspi jankae 9 Papavero–Thymion pulcherrimi I. praecox. polymorpha. klasterskyi. Poa granitica ssp. slavica. 12 Seslerio–Asterion Hadač 1962 — West Carpathian subalpine calciphilous grasslands Biscutella laevigata ssp. Stipa crassiculmis ssp. Hieracium krasanii. Phyteuma tetramerum. dacicum. — Bl. Pulsatilla subslavica. Alchemilla szaferi. acuminatum. Poa margilicola. Rumex arifolius ssp. Chrysosplenium alpinum. hungarica. Thalictrum minus ssp. Centaurea phrygia ssp. melanocalathia. slavica. Campanula kladniana. lerchenfeldianum. Luzula alpinopilosa ssp. hungarica. Carduus kerneri ssp. Poa granitica ssp. Armeria pocutica. Thlaspi dacicum ssp. dubia. carpaticum. Carex sempervirens ssp. Soldanella hungarica ssp. Silene nutans ssp. Hesperis nivea. Silene zawadzkii. retezatensis. carpaticus. gelidus. Hieracium mukacevense. Aubrieta intermedia ssp. Ornithogalum orthophyllum ssp. Hieracium lomnicense. Pulsatilla halleri ssp. Rumex arifolius ssp. Prangos ferulacea ssp. moravicum. Oxytropis carpatica. hungarica. flaccida. Primula auricula ssp. Primula elatior ssp. Campanula rotundifolia ssp.56 Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Plant Alliances 8 Seslerio–Festucion pallentis Klika 1931 corr. Dianthus spiculifolius. Soldanella hungarica ssp. Daphne arbuscula. poloninensis. barbata. Campanula rotundifolia ssp. carinata. Erysimum witmannii ssp. monocladus. Daphne arbuscula. Doronicum carpaticum. Alchemilla stanislae. disparilis. major . kerneri. et Jenny 1926 – snow-bed communities of siliceous substrates Achillea oxyloba ssp. Leucanthemopsis alpina ssp. Alchemilla subtatrica. Alchemilla gorcensis. heterotricha. Scabiosa lucida ssp.–Bl. Seseli gracile. Festuca carpatica. Alchemilla stanislae. tatrae. Poa nobilis. preissiana. in Br. Alchemilla zmudae. major Trifolium pratense ssp. Ferula sadlerana.

Dianthus plumarius ssp. tatricum. Androsace villosa ssp. Trisetum fuscum. carpatica. Sorbus pekarovae. Festuca tatrae. glandulosum (Cerastium tatrae). schurii. Papaver alpinum ssp. Campanula tatrae. Leucanthemum waldsteinii. Thymus pulcherrimus ssp. Thesium kernerianum Trisetion fusci Krajina 1933 — Carpathian tall–herb meadows Alchemilla subtatrica. Soldanella carpatica. Dianthus nitidus. Festuca carpatica. Saxifraga carpatica Papaverion tatrici Pawł. tatricum 57 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 . Sesleria sadlerana ssp. Arenaria ciliata ssp. Pulsatilla halleri ssp. tatrorum. witmannii. Soldanella carpatica. Erysimum witmannii ssp. Andryala levitomentosa. Leucanthemopsis alpina ssp. Soldanella hungarica ssp. Cerastium arvense ssp. Pulsatilla halleri ssp. disparilis. Cerastium arvense ssp. Carex sempervirens ssp. tatrae Festucion carpaticae Bělohlávková et Fišerová 1989 — Carpathian fescue tall grass communities Carex sempervirens ssp. tatrae. Trollius altissimus ssp. Pulmonaria filarszkyana. pulcherrimus. Thymus pulcherrimus ssp. tatrae. Cardaminopsis neglecta. Dianthus spiculifolius. Sesleria sadlerana ssp. jankae. Draba kotschyi. Eritrichium nanum ssp. hungarica. tatrorum. Saxifraga moschata ssp. dominii. serratifolia. Festuca rupicola ssp. Galium baillonii. Symphytum cordatum Festucion versicoloris Krajina 1933 — West Carpathian garland grasslands Antennaria carpatica ssp. moldavicum. Delphinium oxysepalum. demissa. Ranunculus altitatrensis. tatrensis. slavica. Gentianella lutescens ssp. glandulosum. polymorpha. hungarica. Hepatica transsilvanica.Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Plant Alliances lepuznica. Silene nutans ssp. Poa granitica ssp. Cochlearia tatrae. Chrysosplenium alpinum. fatrae. Saussurea porcii Pulsatillo slavicae–Pinion Fajmonová 1978 — Western Carpathian calcicolous Scots pine forests Biscutella laevigata ssp. Valachovič 1995 — West Carpathian calcareous screes Arenaria ciliata ssp. sudeticus Gypsophilion petraeae Borhidi et Pocs 1957 — Eastern Carpathian calcareous cliff xero– heliophile communities Achillea oxyloba ssp. saxatilis. slavica. Trisetum flavescens ssp. tatrae. et al. Daphne arbuscula. Festuca carpatica. Pyrola carpatica. tatrae. Koeleria tristis. Dendranthema zawadzkii. flaccida. Dianthus tenuifolius. Campanula serrata. Saxifraga wahlenbergii. Festuca porcii. praecox. dubia. Delphinium oxysepalum. Leucanthemum waldsteinii. Campanula carpatica. 1928 corr. Campanula tatrae Symphyto–Fagion Vida 1959 — Trans–Carpathian beech forest Aconitum lycoctonum ssp. Campanula kladniana. Knautia slovaca. Gypsophila petraea. Campanula carpatica. tatrensis. Ranunculus carpaticus. Centaurea maramarosiensis. Silene zawadzkii. Gentianella austriaca ssp. arachnoidea. Festuca nitida ssp. Campanula rotundifolia ssp. Primula auricula ssp. Saxifraga mutata ssp. Phyteuma tetramerum. Campanula serrata.

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.. Kulczyński S. Uniw. Die Pflanzenassoziationen des Miętusia Tales und des Hauptmassivs der Czerwone Wierchy. Zemanek B. Mirek Z. – distribution and ecology. Zarzycki K. Pawłowski B. 2: 13–78.. (eds) 1993. 1989. 3: 4–132. Polish Bot. Wojewoda. H. Silvestria. Red list of threatened vascular plants in Poland. Rośliny naczyniowe Bieszczadów Niskich i Otrytu (polskie Karpaty Wschodnie). Nauk. The vascular plants of the Pieniny Mts. 12: 1–107. III Teil. 1933. K. Die Pflanzenassoziationen des Tatra Gebirges.. Zarzycki K. 2. Szafer W. Distribution and habitats. W. Pawłowski B. Zarzycki K. Die Pflanzenassoziationen des Tatra Gebirges. Klimek. I Teil.. Kraków–Warszawa. Die Pflanzenassoziationen des Chochołowska-tales. Zbiorowiska roślinne. Ser. 1–66. Piękoś–Mirkowa H.. Zesz. Winnicki T. Die Pflanzenassoziationen des kościeliska–Tales. Z. Teil. Nr. Jagiell. Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe. Zarzycki K. Monografie Bieszczadzkie 3: 1–249. Tatry i Podtatrze 3: 237–274. Zemanek B. Głowaciński.. (Western Carpathians). Przyroda Tatrzańskiego Parku Narodowego. Bulletin international de l`Academie Polonaise des Sciences et des Lettres. Classe des sciences mathématiques et naturelles. Rośliny naczyniowe Bieszczadzkiego Parku Narodowego. 2 (1926): 79–121. PROP. 87–98. Kraków (in Polish with English summary). Warszawa... P. Wyd.. Série B Suppl. Kaźmierczakowa R. Pawłowski B. Silv. Endemic vascular plants in the Polish Tatra Mts. Lasy Bieszczadów Zachodnich (polskie Karpaty Wschodnie). Bulletin international de l`Academie Polonaise des Sciences et des Lettres. Tatrzański Park Narodowy.. 1927. 1923. Szafer Institute of Botany and Institute of Nature Conservation Polish Academy of Sciences.. Mirek. Kulczyński S. List of threatened plants in Poland. 20: 1–185. W.Carpathian List Of Endangered Species Plant Alliances Pawłowski B. 1996. Mirek Z. Kraków. Série B Suppl.). Classe des sciences mathématiques et naturelles. 310. 1992. Piękoś–Mirkowa H. Zarzycki. Classe des sciences mathématiques et naturelles.. Stud. Prace Bot. Miechówka A. Nauk. Piękoś–Mirkowa (eds).. Szeląg Z. IV. 1999. Stecki K. 1981. Polska Czerwona księga roślin [Polish Plant Red Data Book]. Walas J. 61 . 1953. Szafer W. Warszawa. Kulczyński S. 1963. Heinrich (eds. Série B Suppl. In: Z. Rośliny polskie. Roślinność Babiej Góry. Szafer W. pp. Bulletin international de l`Academie Polonaise des Sciences et des Lettres. 1927.. Die Pflanzenassoziationen des Tatra–Gebirges. In: K. Instytut Botaniki PAN. Zakopane – Kraków. Z. Mon. 1996. Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe. Acta Agr.

WWF projects and political activities in the Danube River Basin began with 5 model projects located in natural areas critical for the survival of the river. That same year. WWF work in the region was expanded to include an additional focus on the Carpathian Mountains and ecologically sustainable forestry.WWF International Danube– Carpathian Programme and the Carpathian Ecoregion Inititiative About the WWF International Danube–Carpathian Programme WWF recognizes both the Carpathian Mountains and Danube as Global 200 Ecoregions. In 1998. WWF recognised its duty to create its own trans–boundary protection programme to protect the Danube and its threatened wetlands and floodplains. capacity building and crisis response. Before the Carpathians and Danube became Global 200 ecoregions. ecoregions in the world which best represent the breadth of biodiversity and ecological processes. restoration and sustainable management of nature. networking. influencing policy. The opportunity arose over a decade ago with the fall of the Iron Curtain. About the Carpathian Ecoregion Initiative The Carpathian Ecoregion Initiative (CEI) was launched in 1999 in response to increasing threats to the unique and valuable Carpathian Mountains ecoregion — an area of . This is achieved through an ecoregion planning approach based on model projects. communications. allowing WWF to become more active in the Central and Eastern European countries. in the Danube River Basin and Carpathian Mountains. the WWF International Danube-Carpathian Programme was officially established to co-ordinate WWF activities in the Carpathian Mountains and Danube River Basin. Today. In 1992. the mission of the WWF International Danube-Carpathian Programme is to support the conservation. These are the priority ecoregions identified by WWF as the most valuable. primarily of freshwater and forest resources. and sometimes most vulnerable.

cultural richness and diversity. at the same time. It is the first time a project of this magnitude has ever been attempted in the Carpathian region and the first time its conservation has been planned on a ‘natural scale’ across political boundaries. seeking to influence the development of the region over the next 50 years. according to criteria developed by the CEI. it is now possible to demonstrate the true value of the Carpathians for the first time and to prepare this Carpathian Red List of threatened species and ecosystems. • Carpathian carnivore reports published. • Small local sustainable development projects funded in the Czech Republic. • A report on the results of an independent NGO evaluation of the European Union’s SAPARD plans and processes. Poland. both national and international. Facilitated by WWF. Maintaining this diversity while sustainably using the natural capital of the region requires the adoption of an inclusive. As a result of an intensive two-year process. demonstrating the benefits of combining sustainable development and conservation on a local scale. 63 . • The Declaration on Environment and Sustainable Development signed by 14 Heads of State or their representatives through co–hosting the Summit on Environment and Sustainable Development in the Danube and Carpathian Region (April 2001). • 30 Priority Areas for Biodiversity identified across the region. Romania. Today the CEI is a unique international partnership achieving conservation of nature in the globally important Carpathian region and. long-term and in partnership with local people. • Commitment from major international donors to discuss the development of funding mechanisms for the region. supporting local economy and culture for the lasting benefit of the people living in the heart of Europe. eastern and western Europe. southern. funding.Carpathian List Of Endangered Species The Carpathian Ecoregion Initiative global importance stretching across seven countries and forming a mountainous link between the forests of northern. including a major data gathering exercise. large-scale. holistic approach to development planning involving all stakeholders. Hungary. • Agreement on basic themes for a Conservation and Action Plan for the region. in preparation for the creation of a Pan– Carpathian Large Carnivore Conservation and Management Plan. Slovakia and Ukraine. the CEI is an alliance of governmental. non-governmental. • The CEI has a number of achievements since its launch. • Detailed Status of the Carpathians report and mini–GIS CD–ROM summarising the results of the Initiative’s detailed assessments and GIS analysis. The unique character of the Carpathians is also tied to its heritage values. The CEI approach is new. Key ones include: • Agreed Carpathian Vision outlining long-term goals for conservation and sustainable development with a specific vision for a protected areas network. • Major progress towards the development of a legal structure for the region — working with UNEP on the drafting of a Carpathian Convention. scientific and academic organisations. • Four Model Project Areas identified. as well as key issues affecting biodiversity and sustainable development in the Carpathians — the first ever overall view of the Carpathians.

together with international donor agencies and national governments . large carnivore conservation and management strategy. vulnerability and opportunities in the region (including a comprehensive website: www. enhancing community participation.g. facilitating cross border co-operation and highlighting the region internationally. pilot projects demonstrating economic benefits • Sustainable forestry (including certification) • Sustainable agriculture • Integrated river basin management • Institutional development: strengthening legislation. Future activities The next stage of the Initiative will focus on the agreement and implementation of the Conservation and Action Plan.org). • Sustainable economic and social development: market mechanisms for sustainable production. The work of the Initiative will fall into 7 categories: • Biodiversity conservation: protected areas network. promoting flexible co–operation. comprehensive programme of workshops on Carpathians issues.carpathians.64 Carpathian List Of Endangered Species The Carpathian Ecoregion Initiative • A comprehensive range of communication materials to bring international attention to the importance. • A 2. effective management of protected areas. nature & culture based tourism strategy. “Green Carpathian Fund”. to feed into the developing Carpathian Convention.5 year. capacity building • Financial mechanisms: develop co–ordinated investment programme e.

+48 12 4225937. okarma@iop. Rejtana 16c. 73.pl Environmental Partnership for Central Europe – Czech Republic. +48 12 6320549 ext. +380 322 723120. +48 12 6320549 ext.krakow. +48 12 4225959. 79008.. 844 40 Bratislava. +48 12 6320549 ext. ul.123. 18 Teatralna Str. A. Mickiewicza 33. Austria sissi. Kossuth u. L’viv.pl University of Rzeszów.Detailed information on the contributors Holt Suzie Król Wiesław 28 Mill Street. Ukraine. A.pl Daphne – Institute of Applied Ecology. Czech Republic. 3525 Miskolc. PAS. Mickiewicza 33.cz Kaiserbrunnerstr.krakow.krakow. +48 12 4210348. al.lviv. tasen@mail. 3021 Pressbaum.at CEEWEB. A. Sebastiana 9.pl Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals PAS. 1594.ua Veronica Ecological Institute. Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences. fax +420 542422777.+48 13 4613203.krakow. Panska 7. Sw. krol@iop. icepas@mikrotech.sk Institute of Nature Conservation PAS.pl Kukuła Krzysztof Lasak Rastislav Okarma Henryk Pawłowski Jerzy Perzanowski Kajetan Ruzicka Tomas Samec Sissi Sandor Judit Seffer Jan Solarz Wojciech Stanova Viera Tasenkevich Lydia Vlasin Mojmir Witkowski Zbigniew J.fsnet. Poland.122. 844 40 Bratislava.pl The Carpathian Branch. al. Poland. +380 322 742307. .rzeszow. +421 7654121 33. Natural History Museum.sk Institute of Nature Conservation. Poland+48 17 8625628 ext. National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Hanulova 5/d.krakow. 38–700 Ustrzyki Dolne +48 13 4612255. EX 388 AW. tomas.ruzicka@ecn. +421 765412162.pl Daphne – Institute of Applied Ecology. kkukula@univ. +420 5 422 1 8351.sk State Museum of Natural History. pawlowski@isez. 31–049 Krakow. Mickiewicza 33. Mickiewicza 33. 31–120 Krakow. al. A. +420 542422771. 35–310 Rzeszow. 31–120 Krakow. Poland. +421 765412133 daphne@changenet. 602 00 Brno. Hanulova 5/d. Torrington. daphne@changenet. +36 46 352010. Devon. +36 46 413390.vlasin@ecn. witkowski@iop. 31–120 Krakow.co.org Daphne – Institute of Applied Ecology.uk Institute of Nature Conservation PAS.pan. United Kingdom ssuzie@carpathians. solarz@iop. 13. +421 765412162. +421 765412162. Poland. al. Hanulova 5/d. +420 5 422 10 561. mojmir. 31–120 Krakow. Beska 24. sandor@ceeweb.121. Hungary. Panska 7. 602 00 Brno. 844 40 Bratislava.com. International Centre of Ecology. +421 7654121 33n daphne@changenet.cz Institute of Nature Conservation PAS.samec@aon.

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11 514.42 523.63 523.65 513.12 514.71 514.5 533.3 516.11 515.24 522.7a 533.33 531.61 513.1 524.12 522.85 515.36 531.32 513.51 514.26 531.4 517.7 533.16 531.32 514.13 522.23 522.64 523.22 542.14 514.64 513.15 531.28 515.25 515.35 531.63 513.15 522.24 515.4 531.2 516.14 531.3 524.64 514.27 515.14 522.31 531.62 513.22 531.43 513.81 514.12 516.1 517.3 541.21 515.31 542.11 531.68 513.44 523.14 517.71 513.66 523.52 523.16 522.31 523.25 531.14 515.53 523.45 523.33 514.57 513.67 513.21 531.65 523.5 522.53 513.1 532.2 541.3 533.2 513.46 513.71 523.3 526.1 533.2 524.33 542.13 516.1 526.84 514.54 513.33 513.4 542.412 513.4 516.2 523.26 515.2 514.8 541.22 522.4a 516.62 514.43 514.17 515.34 542.55 513.34 531.31 514.11 522.72 514.46 523.5 524.82 514.2 Polana Bystricka vrchovina Veporske vrchy Stolice vrchy Slovensky Raj Volovske vrchy Branisko a Bachure Slovensky kras Cserehati dombsag Kosicka kotlina Sarisska vrchovina Krupinska planina Ipelska kotlina Lucenecka kotlina Rimavska kotlina Slanske vrchy Bukk Matra Cserhat-hegyseg Borzsony a Burda Grzbiety Sanocko-Turczanskie Bieszczady Zachodnie Skolivski Beskidy Verchno-Dnistrivski Beskydy Gorgany Pokutsko-Bukovynski Karpaty Polonyna Rivna Polonyna Borzava Polonyna Krasna Svydovec Czarnohora Hyrnjavski hory Muntii Maramuresului Depresiunea Maramuresului Muntii Rodnei Mestecanis Muntii Giumalaul-Raraul Pietros Budacu Ceahlau Muntii Giurgeului Muntii Hasmas Vihorlat Makovycja Buzora Tupyj Muntii Oasului Muntii Gutiiului Muntii Tiblesului Muntii Birgaului Muntii Calimani Muntii Harghita Muntii Baraolt Bodoc Muntii Persani Depresiunea Giurgeului Depresiunea Ciucului Depresiunea Brasov Obcinele Muntii Stinisoarei Muntii Tarcaului Dolina Trotuszu i Kotlina Darmanesti Muntii Ciucului Muntii Nemira Muntii Vrancei Muntii Buzaului Muntii Girbova Subcarpatii Moldovei Subcarpatii Munteniei 531.6 525.74 514.73 514.43 523.2 533.42 513.83 514.1 542.41 523.11 516.List of mesoregions ordered by codes 513.15 515.72 514.2 532.25 522.54 523.411 513.1 541.51 523.13 531.41 542.1 523.72 523.9 514.41 514.12 515.42 514.3 517.4 533.49 513.4 524.32 531.52 513.52 514.73 524.23 531.21 522.24 531.48 513.55 523.32 542.3 533.47 513.2 517.62 523.21 542.34 514.22 Rakusko-Jihomoravke Karpaty Stredomoravske Karpaty Podbeskydska pahorkatina Pogorze Slaskie Pogorze Wielickie Pogorze Wisnickie Bile a Biele Karpaty Javorniky Vizovicka vrchovina Hostynsko-Vsetynska hornatina Moravsko-Sliezke Beskydy Beskid Slaski Kotlina Zywiecka Beskid Maly Beskid Makowski Beskid Wyspowy Beskid Zywiecki Gorce Kotlina Sadecka Beskid Sadecki Cergov Kysucka vrchovina Oravska Magura Pogorze Roznowskie Pogorze Ciezkowickie Pogorze Strzyzowskie Pogorze Dynowskie Pogorze Przemyskie Kotlina Jasielsko-Krosnienska Pogorze Jasieskie Pogorze Bukowskie Beskid Niski Ondavska vrchovina Male Karpaty Nizke Tatry Kotlina Orawsko-Nowotarska Pieniny Pogorze Spisko-Gubalowskie Podtatranska brazda Trencianska kotlina Ilavska kotlina Bytcianska kotlina Zilinska kotlina Povazsky Inovec Strazovske vrchy Mala Fatra Chocske vrchy Zapadne Tatry Vysoke a Belianske Tatry Hornonitrianska kotlina Ziar Turcianska kotlina Liptovska kotlina Popradska kotlina Hornadska kotlina Levocske vrchy Tribec Vtacnik Pohronsky Inovec Kremnicke vrchy Velka Fatra Helpianska kotlina Breznianska kotlina Lopejska kotlina Bystricke podolie Zvolenska kotlina Ziarska kotlina Stiavnicke vrchy Javorie 515.69 513.17 531.56 523.42 542.53 514.57 523.45 513.23 515.6 533.47 523.51 513.26 523.23 542.44 513.1 525.34 513.61 523.56 513.63 514.37 532.12 531.31 513.13 515.2 525.43 Poiana Rusca Muntii Bucegi Leaota Piatra Craiului Muntii Iezer Muntii Fagarusului Depresiunea Lovistei Cozia Muntii Capatini Muntii Paringului Depresiunea Lotrului Muntii Lotrului Muntii Cindrel Muntii Sureanu Depresiunea Petrosani Muntii Retezatului Muntii Godeanu Muntii Tarcu Culoarul Cerna Muntii Vilcanului Muntii Mehedinti Subcarpatii Ardzeszu Subcarpatii Aluty Subcarpatii Oltenskie Culoarul Timis-Cerna Muntii Almajului Muntii Locvei Depresiunea Almajului Muntii Semenic Muntii Aninei Depresiunea Caras-Resita Dealurile Carasului Muntii Dognecei Podisul Somesan Podisul Transilvan Depresiunea Mures-Turda Podisul Tirnavelor Muntii Bihorului Muntii Zarandului Muntii Metaliferi Muntii Trascaului Muntii Codrului Depresiunea Beiusului Padurea Craiului Depresiunea Vad Muntii Muntele Ses Muntii Mesesului Depresiunea Simleu .29 516.13 514.1 513.

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