HDTV transmissions using PALplus coder, supplemented with digital residual signal.
Abstract: This paper discusses the design of a video encoder which will enable PALplus compatible HDTV transmissions, by embedding an analogue PALplus television signal. The design strategy includes a 2-D diagonal prefilter, to form a QMF band splitting filter pair, from which the residual is initially derived. The performance of these filters is reviewed, especially in respect of the errors introduced by aliasing and crosstalk distortion. A number of different digital modulation techniques are then examined for the transmission of the residual signal and a qualitative appraisal of the effectiveness is presented. Keywords: High definition television (HDTV), phase alternating line (PAL) I. INTODUCTION Currently there are a number of activities which are directed towards the launch of digital television services like airtel HDTV, dish TV, tatasky etc. During 1995, the PALplus standard was officially introduced in Europe as a straight forward, compatible extension to the standard PAL system, overcoming the inherent limitations and introducing a wider 16:9 picture format. PALplus is completely analogue and so is therefore less flexible for further extensions. This paper proposes an encoding scheme, which enables standard PALplus receivers to process HDTV signals without losing compatibility and more importantly with no additional band width requirements. A. HDTV: This can also be said as high definition television .in reality they are not television systems, but they are signals. These signals provide us with really good clarity in the picture. This format also supports the 16:9 aspect ratio formats. Basically, there are 3 types of HDTV formats available in the market. They are 1080i, 1080p (which are also called as full HD) and 720p. The 1080 or 720 number shows the vertical lines it is scanning and the alphabet represents the type of the scanning. These HDTV signals have a larger band width when compared to the normal television signals.
B. PALplus: PALplus supports 576 active lines that are to be scanned but PAL supports 432 lines of scanning and as PALplus system should also be compatible with the standard PAL systems. It should also support the 4:3 aspect ratios and 16:9 aspect ratios. PALplus is an extension of the already existing Phase alternating line broadcasting system.
Signaling bits: This is a particular signal that will help in proper function of the coder system and PALplus also helps in the cancellation of ghost interference. The low resolution signal is the PAL plus coded. 2 provides an insight to the proposed encoder. The incoming HDTV signal is initially diagonally filtered. It is closely based on the principles of a standard two dimensional sub band coding implementation. into a low and a high resolution component. The novel approach of a dual channel subband structure is proposed in this pre processing. whereas the residual undergoes further compression techniques and suitable modulation techniques before being integrated together with the PAL plus signal. Fig. further referred as the residual signal. which is subsequently PALplus coded and a residual signal necessary for generating the original resolution at the decoder. This signal is also called as the widescreen signaling signal and it also informs us about whether the input signal scanning is interlaced or whether it is progressive respectively and this is an important feature in PAL plus system. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PAL AND PALPLUS PALplus has 3 features as an extension of PAL.So this done using the decimation process (which is shown in the fig. the input signal is first decomposed into the standard resolution component. II. C. Aspect ratio: PALplus supports the 16:9 aspect ratio means it occupies the complete screen of the television. with the crucial difference that a 2-D diagonal prefilter is additionally employed to suppress all the oblique frequencies in the spatial
. PRE-PROCESSING As mentioned. before being subsequent band split for compatibility.1) where the 576 active lines are divided into two-432 lines which provide the actual picture and the 144 lines which are used to represent the vertical helper. Vertical helper: The unseen black bars on a TV screen represent this vertical helper.
Subjectively.plane. When the high resolution horizontal and vertical wedges are folded back after subsampling an overlapping occurs along the diagonal frequency components. By employing a 2-D QMF analysis bank to obtain the low pass band. The general case of a separable two dimensional QMF analysis section has been modified and due to the combination of the two highpass wedge shaped frequency components. 3c and the total number of subbands required for transmission is reduced to only two. Following sub sampling by a factor of two. The effect of this error upon the residual spectrum is indicated by the dark oblique criss-cross pattern The spectral effect of the diagonal filtering is illustrated in fig. and leads to a horizontal /vertical
The major source of crosstalk error is due to the non ideal response of the diagonal filter. since the probability of diagonal components occurring is generally much less than for either horizontal or vertical frequencies. the loss of such information is acceptable.4. these spectral components fold back into the same frequency range as the low pass band. so the requisite band width of the high pass sub bands becomes equivalent to that of the low pass signal as shown in fig. crosstalk effects occur upon both aliased and normal signal components. 3 where it is clear that the input in fig. 3b. the residual now consists of the two high pass wedged shaped frequency components shown in fig.
signal band width is halved without compromising either the horizontal or vertical resolution.
Additional colour carrier modulation. PALplus provides equally good potential for additional digital sub channels. III. in order to ensure that the data rate fits with the embedded digital channel. Further attenuation of this additional component however overcomes this problem. In contrast to the national television system committee. which is 25Hz frequency offset realized by alternating the helper carrier phase between 0 and 180 degrees from field to field. with the V. This switching results in different spectral locations for the two colour components in the three dimensional frequency plot of the television. which is used to carry the additional information to reconstitute the widescreen picture format. where the color difference signals I and Q are quadrature modulated. This degrades the overall visual quality of the signal-tonoise ratio for the helper and the standard signal part. FURTHER DATA COMPRESSION The bandwidth of the residual component is equivalent to that of the standard resolution signal bandwidth. also raise alias components. so the design of the band splitting filters has to balance the subjective picture quality with filter complexity. this distortion can be removed from the reconstituted signal at the receiver.frequency components to become crossed over and appear as vertical frequencies and vice versa. both frequencies can be additionally modulated by using the orthogonal component and provide two sub channels of 0. Using filter arrangements which conform to the QMF design rules. which is known as datacasting. B. as well as the residual spectrum. demodulation of this additional data will appear as extraneous noise at high vertical frequencies. Such aliasing is clearly visible in standard resolution pictures. Current activities focus upon employing additional digital transmissions together with television signals mainly for multimedia services. where the additional resolution is analogue modulated to be transmitted within theses channels.4 and these will encroach upon the normal resolution signal. coded using the colorplus technique and secondly the vertical helper. For the standard PALplus helper. PALPLUS CODING Previous activities in exploring sub channels in television signal have primarily been focused upon HDTV or EDTV compatibility approaches. results in different locations within the temporal spectral plane. The PAL plus signal consists of two different components which are suitable for further digital modulation. supplementary compression techniques are required.carrier modulated on its 90-degree phase and the U carrier on its0-degree. Hence. A. IV. Using the ubiquitous discrete cosine transformation (DCT). so when integrating this within a PALplus signal. denoted by the horizontal and vertical criss-cross pattern in fig. The finite transition bandwidth of the two band splitting filters.5 MHz bandwidth each. Additional helper modulation A specific sub carrier arrangement with a slightly different carrier frequency to that of the PALplus helper. this is defined in the joint
. PAL alternates
the phase of the colour carrier phase v-component between 90 and270 degrees from line to line. so a compression ratio between 10 and 40 must be achieved. which is PAL. Using an adaptive quantizing scheme the required compression ratio will not be achieved. the standard video signal. followed by the sub sampling process. The raw residual data rate is approximately 80Mbit/s.
PALplus coding has been explained and then different data compression techniques were also discussed. Of much greater promise are those data compression techniques or hybrid systems. However. when using lossy intrafield compression techniques. CONCLUSION.open.uk. V.org. because both the residual component and the standard resolution signal.Schmidt. Distortions introduced by the lossy nature of a compression algorithm can very easily compromise picture quality by introducing additional aliasing artifacts. raises the problem that the decorrelation property of the DCT has little or no effect on a differential signal input such as the residual. Considerably care has to be taken in general. the coefficient quantizing provides good potential to fit the spectral components to the perception of the human eye.oro.ac.wikipedia. L.picture
 “Digital image compression” by farrah hossain and sumeria taqui.S. which are based upon temporal methods and temporal sampling.P. It is not always the case that such distortion is visually perceived by the viewer.  www.
.Buchwald. This paper has presented the details of a coder design which enables PALplus compatible HDTV transmissions by supplementing the analogue TV signal with a digital residual.  “A PALplus compatible HDTV coder system” by G. REFERENCES  www.Dooley and W.
compression standard. however the subjective impression of the picture quality must be taken into account in the course of realizing any such algorithm. consist of spectral elements which are intended for alias compensation at the TV receiver.