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An ordinary verniercaliper has jaws you can place around an object, and on the other side jaws made to fit inside an object. These secondary jaws are for measuring the inside diameter of an object. Also, a stiff bar extends from the caliper as you open it that can be used to measure depth. The basic steps are as follows: 1. Preparation to take the measurement, loosen the locking screw and move the slider to check if the vernier scale works properly. Before measuring, do make sure the caliper reads 0 when fully closed. If the reading is not 0, adjust the caliper¶s jaws until you get a 0 reading. If you can¶t adjust the caliper, you will have to remember to add to subtract the correct offset from your final reading. Clean the measuring surfaces of both verniercaliper and the object, then you can take the measurement. 2. Close the jaws lightly on the item which you want to measure. If you are measuring something round, be sure the axis of the part is perpendicular to the caliper. Namely, make sure you are measuring the full diameter. An ordinary caliper has jaws you can place around an object, and on the other side jaws made to fit inside an object. These secondary jaws are for measuring the inside diameter of an object. Also, a stiff bar extends from the caliper as you open it that can be used to measure depth. 3. How to read the measured value: 1), Read the centimeter mark on the fixed scale to the left of the 0-mark on the vernier scale. (10mm on the fixed
(6mm on the fixed caliper) .caliper) 2). Find the millimeter mark on the fixed scale that is just to the left of the 0-mark on the vernier scale.
Look along the ten marks on the vernier scale and the millimeter marks on the adjacent fixed scale.3). until you .
simply add this found digit to your previous reading. (0. To get the correct reading. (10mm + 6mm + 0.25 mm) .25mm= 16.find the two that most nearly line up.25mm on the vernier scale) 4).
The reading is therefore 3. Two such instruments that are based on a vernier scale which you will use in the laboratory to measure lengths of objects are the vernier callipers and the micrometer screw gauge. while the vernier scale reading is the mark on the vernier scale which exactly coincides with a mark on the main scale (0. the vernier scale (below) is divided into 10 equal divisions and thus the least count of the instrument is 0.7 mm). .1 mm.7 mm. The main scale reading is the first reading on the main scale immediately to the left of the zero of the vernier scale (3 mm). Both the main scale and the vern ier scale readings are taken into account while making a measurement. In figure 1 below. These instruments have a main scale (in millimetres) and a sliding or rotating vernier scale.Using the verniercalipers and micrometer screw gauge The precision of length measurements may be increased by using a device that uses a sliding vernier scale.
02 mm. . Figure 3: The verniercalipers To measure outer dimensions of an object. which are then moved together until they secure the object. The screw clamp may then be tightened to ensure that the reading does not change while the scale is being read. The first significant figures are read immediately to the left of the zero of the vernier scale and the remaining digits are taken as the vernier scale division that lines up with any main scale division. Figure 1 : The reading here is 15.8 mm.7 mm. Some examples: Note that the important region of the vernier scale is enlarged in the upper right hand corner of each figure.Figure 1 : The reading here is 3. The verniercalipers The verniercalipers found in the laboratory inco rporates a main scale and a sliding vernier scale which allows readings to the nearest 0. and depths (using the stem). the object is placed between the jaws. This instrument may be used to measure outer dimensions of objects (using the main jaws). inside dimensions (using the smaller jaws at the top).
In figure 4 above. i. Thus the reading is 37. Figure 5: The reading is 34. 60 on the vernier scale. i.60 mm. the first significant figures are taken as the main scale reading to the left of the vernier zero.46 mm. Note that the zero must be included because the scale can differentiate between fiftieths of a millimetre. . The remaining two digits are taken from the vernier scale reading that lines up with any main scale reading. The remaining two digits are taken from the v ernier scale reading that lines up with any main scale reading. 34 mm. In figure 5 above. i. 46 on the vernier scale. i.e. Therefore the reading is 34.60 mm.e.e.46 mm.Figure 4: The reading is 37. the first significant figures are taken as the main scale reading to the left of the vernier zero. 37 mm.e.
Figure 7: The reading is 30.00 mm.88 mm .00 cm. In figure 6 the zero and the ten on the vernier scale both line up with main scale readings. Try the following for yourself. therefore the reading is 40.Figure 6: The reading is 40.
Note that the ratchet knob must be used to secure the object firmly between the jaws. the object is placed between the jaws and the thimble is rotated using the ratchet until the object is secured. otherwise the instrument could be damaged or give an inconsistent reading. The rotating thimble is subdivided into 50 equal divisions. Figure 10: The micrometer screw gauge In order to measure an object. The lock may be used to ensure that the thimble does not rotate while you take the reading. The thimble must be rotated through two revolutions to open the jaws by 1 mm.10 mm Figure 9: The reading is 121.50 mm (two full turns ar required to close e the jaws by 1.00 mm). This includes a friction clutch which prevents too much tension being applied. The micrometer screw gauge also uses an auxiliary scale (measuring hundredths of a millimetre) which is marked on a rotary thimble. The manufacturer recommends 3 clicks of the ratchet before taking the reading. The micrometers in our laboratory have a pitch of 0.68 mm The micrometer screw gauge The micrometer screw gauge is used to measure even smaller dimensions than the vernier callipers. .5 mm.Figure 8: The reading is 8. Basically it is a screw with an accurately constant pitch (the amount by which the thimble moves forward or backward for one complete revolution). The jaws can be adjusted by rotating the thimble using the small ratchet knob. The thimble passes through a frame that carries a millimetre scale graduated to 0.
72 mm. In figure 12 the last graduation visible to the left of the thimble is 7.38 mm.5 mm plus the thimble reading of 0.The first significant figure is taken from the last graduation showing on the sle eve directly to the left of the revolving thimble. Figure 11: The reading is 7. Note that an additional half scale division (0. therefore the reading is 7.38 mm). Figure 12: The reading is 7.72 mm.5 mm. The remaining two significant figures (hundredths of a millimetre) are taken directly from the thimble opposite the main scale. therefore the reading is 7. . In figure 11 the last graduation visible to the left of the thimble is 7 mm and the thimble lines up with the main scale at 38 hundredths of a millimetre (0.38 mm.22 mm.5 mm) must be included if the mark below the main scale is visible between the thimble and the main scale division on the sleeve. giving 7.
56 mm.46 mm. the reading is 3. .5 mm division is visible below the main scale.06 mm = 3.46 mm. therefore the reading is 3. In figure 14 the 0.46 mm.5 mm + 0.Figure 13: The reading is 3. In figure 13 the main scale reading is 3 mm while the reading on the drum is 0. Try the following for yourself.56 mm. therefore. Figure 14: The reading is 3.
Figure 15: The reading is 5.09 mm Figure 17: The reading is 0.80 mm Figure 16: The reading is 3.29 mm Taking a zero reading .
0204 mm . This is because when you close your calipers.0163 mm When you remove the object and read th verniercalipers with the jaws closed.42 mm and 100% sure that the reading is not 37. Your actual measurement will then be the difference between your open reading and your zero reading.e.46 mm. Recording the result of your vernier measurement Let us say you take a reading with an object between the jaws of averniercalipers and you see the following: Say that you decide that the best estimate of the reading l 1 is 37. you might decide e that the best estimate of the "closed" reading l0 = 0. a reading with the instrument closed. you might decide that you are 100% sure that the reading is not 37. What about the standard uncertainty u(l 1) in this reading? Using a triangular probability density function. you will see that very often (not always) it does not read zero. Then mm = 0.Whenever you use a verniercalipers or a micrometer screw gauge you must always take a zero reading i. Only then open the jaws and place the object to be measured firmly between the jaws and take the open reading.04 mm with standard uncertiantyu(l 0) = 0.50 mm.
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