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WIN WIN APPROACH FOR WASTE PROBLEM IN SUSTAINABLE WAY

On the month of January Elon University and


Colombo University organized a conference in
Colombo. HELP-O got an n opportunity to share
the experience about waste management and we
explained how waste became a profitable thing
and how people can find sustainable solution to
waste problem with win win approach. The theme
of the speech is “Sustainable Solid waste management
with win win approach” The sharing experience
speech conducted by Mr. Chathura Welivitiya
Chairman – HELP-O
On this time he explained about the three examples of
various places of the country. First he explained about
the example of Karapitiya Teaching Hospital. Also he
explained why we involve in this sector? As you all
know, waste is a leading global environmental
problem generating multiple crisis to the mankind.
Therefore today, Governments, Researchers and many
organizations are searching for sustainable solution for
this growing issue.
We studied the traditional ‘’Biogas Plants’’ for safe disposal of waste, reducing GHG emissions
and financial benefits are given to users. The HELP-O tested this concept by implementing the
first pilot project at a government leading Hospital in the country; the Karapitiya Teaching
Hospital. At that stage Municipality had stopped collecting waste mixed with hazardous
clinical refuses, collected waste stocks in the Hospital affected some wards to be closed and
neighboring community had to take legal action for this matter.
The second example he explained to the guests is about the community biogas program we
have implemented with the UNDP and CEA. With the success of first project we decided to
examine its application in Domestic, public and private sectors. The Galle city having a total
waste collection of 55 tons a day was selected for the second pilot named ‘’community based
biogas program’’ jointly with Galle Municipality under the support of UNDP and Central
Environment Authority (CEA). Through building 9 units under the program the daily waste
amount reduced to near 20 tons per a day while significantly dropping open burning of
polythene-plastics. The community was benefited with alternative fuel; biogas, liquid fertilizer
for cultivation and extra income by marketing sorted recyclables.
Currently, the HELP-O has wider experience through implementing biogas driven waste
management programs all over the country under different climatic conditions, in Hospitals,
Municipal councils, Hotels, Prisons and community level etc… Observing the success of this
program the Environment Ministry also has recognized ‘’biogas units’’ as an effective tool in
solid waste management.
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INNOVATIVE EFFORT OF GRASS ROOT LEVEL COMMUNITY
Under the USAID SARI Energy Program HELP-O is
implementing very success program in ground level of
Galle District. The innovative effort is people requesting
biogas units under the loan basis. At the moment two
biogas units are under construction in Kalupe and
Waluwatta. Both biogas units are constructing under
loan basis. The owner expects to sell the biogas to other
houses. Now this waste became a huge marketable item
and people are using renewable energy source step by
step.

Not even that we conducted one awareness program to the community of China Garden about
the effective and benefits of the biogas because we have identify that area is highly waste
generation area. The community aware about the effective of the biogas and what are the
benefits they can get through the biogas. Also we explained about the renewable energy sources
and under that he explained about the biogas and its history of Sri Lanka. Even they aware
about the climate change and global warming and also discuss with them that how that will
effect to their family. We strongly recommend that every individual person has strong
responsible to separate the waste and keep environment clean.
Under the USAID SARI Energy program we have
organized an experience exchange program for the grass
root level people. The objective is to share the experience
of other beneficiaries who use the biogas already. Most of
people could able to get a biogas unit under the USAID
Energy Program. Through this program they discover that
there are many people in the city use biogas for their daily
needs. Old biogas beneficiaries explained how they
implement this program and what the challenges they had
to face are. Also they explained about the important of an environment fund. Also they
explained how they use this environment fund for small repairs of the biogas. One lady
explained through this environment fund they expect to construct another biogas unit under
loan basis.

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ANOTHER STEP OF ECO-FRIENDLY ULUGALLA RESORT TO
BEAUTIFY THE ENVIRONMENT
 

Ulagalla Resort is one of the attractive and favorite tourist


destination and resort where nestled in a village in the ancient
kingdom of Anuradhapura, with calm and eco-friendly
environment. Ulagalla resort is the latest luxury boutique hotel in
Sri Lanka and it provides luxury facilities for customers.
It collides a previous era with the modern comports of the
present. Tucked away in the lush landscape by the Ulagalla
Wewa, Ulagalla resort is a historic mansion transformed in to a
modern heaven combining tradition with technology. In their eco-friendly way The HELP-O
was invited to implement a Biogas unit for organic waste. Through this program they are able
to have biogas and organic fertilizer.
This is actually a great opportunity to HELP-O to take hand with private sector to conserve for
environment. 15m3 biogas unit is to be implemented there. It will be an inimitable act taken by
the resort. They expect to get the eco friendly electricity from the biogas that is their final
expectation from their waste even they have planned to cultivate with using the organic
fertilizer of the biogas. This is a good step that private hotel taken to recycle their own waste in
profitable way.

A GREAT OPPERTUNITY TO PARTICIPATE IN ‘’DAYATA KIRULA’’


NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT EXHIBITION
‘’DAYATA KIRULA’’, the national development exhibition in Sri Lanka will held on 4th-10th
February in this year at Buththala, Sri Lanka. The exhibition site extends over 160 acres, a large
number of state and privet sector stalls have been set up in the exhibition site. Impact it is a
great opportunity to HELP-O to participate in this great exhibition to exchange our ideas and
new experiments with national and international sectors. It is organized by the ministry of
Finance & planning Sri Lanka. There are 800 stalls and 3.5 million people are to be visited this
great exhibition.
We are proud to mention that we have got an opportunity to participate to this occasion
because of our great conservation for nature. In present the whole world is searching for
environment friendly ways for living. Because whole world has to face various climatic
changes, global warming through these problems, people are suffering from a lot of diseases.
Sometime doctors are unable to find out the illness. Natural disasters are often happened. In
HELP-O side, we have sustainable solution for waste problems which harms to our nature.
That is why we are offered this opportunity to participate as a nature lover to not only
motherland but also whole world. People are rewarded lots of benefits through this program.
This program linked with the Central Environment Authority because they have an eco house
in the exhibition premises. We exhibit a model domestic biogas unit and we have planned to
generate the biogas from that model. We hope to aware the people about effective of the biogas
and its benefit too.

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NEW MILESTONE OF DONBOSCO TSUNAMI HOUSING SCHEME

Don Bosco Tsunami village is located at Negombo and it is one of


commercial cities of the country. Being a commercial city, it has a
huge waste problem there. There are about 210 families and also
they don’t have proper way to solve this huge waste problem.
They had to dump waste in their land because local authority
didn’t collect waste in proper way. Bad smell which came out from
waste was high and also people are suffering from this.
Meanwhile HELP-O involved implementing a sustainable solution
with the financial support of CITYNET. Up to now our
construction team has already implemented one biogas unit, its
capacity is 22m3 and also 500kgs of waste can be dumped. At this
moment 95% of all construction finished in this biogas unit.
During the last month we conducted awareness programs for them
to improve the knowledge and interests about the biogas.
Awareness program has been done to them on how to monitor this, what are the benefits can be
taken and under more topics. Another awareness program is to be held on 3rd of February. The
target group of the program is Municipal Council officers and Grass root level people and we
wish to begin our next biogas construction as soon as possible. Community can dump their
waste to these units, can use organic fertilizer for their fertilizer needs and for cultivation also it
is a great conservation for the environment. Global warming, environment pollution, methane
gas emission can be reduced through this better solution.

NEW EXPECTATION OF MUTHTHU THAMBI VIDYALAYA IN JAFFNA


Muththu Thambi Vidyalaya is located in Thirunelwely
of Jaffna district and one of government leading schools
in the area. More than six hundred and fifty students are
being educated there. Meals are given to students and
school has to prepare meals for them. Therefore they
have to spend much money on firewood; waste is also a
huge problem to them. They are used to taking firewood
which was cut down from forests. They had destroyed
small trees for this. It is mainly effect to decrease our
forest generation. It is a huge disaster for community as
well as environments. On the other hand they use
polythene and plastics to make fire and that is huge environment issue. They don’t have an idea
about the POP gas and its bad effective.
Forests generation are endangered now due to unthinkable behavior of mankind. After war
background there is speedy development too. Environment pollution is one of bad side effects
come out this development. People of this area use more fire wood for their day today cooking
meals and other activities. So that UNDP Jaffna Office needed to implement a sustainable
program as a model project for this matter.

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This program is a timely a good solution for the energy
and waste problems which was found by HELP-O for
future generation. School had to find solution for
economizing. Through this program they can have lots of
benefits. Among them biogas and organic fertilizer can be
visible benefits. Because through this, global warming,
climatic changes, methane gas emission can be reduced.
Up to now an awareness program has been already done.
This program is totally funded by UNDP Jaffna Office.
Realizing this is cost effective, profitable program; UNDP
Office of Jaffna as respectable carriers of nation always tries to give utmost support for
developing human living background. This is one of their great efforts taken by them for the
betterment of both community and environment. HELP-O is proud to be an active partner for
this great task.
Conducting awareness
program for the students
and teachers about
maintain and
management of biogas
unit in proper way.
Through this program we
aware them about how to
carry this biogas unit in
proper way.

ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY ACTION OF WELIKADA PRISON


Welikada prison is located in Colombo District and it gives
great contribution to rehabilitate prisoners for the
betterment of country. There are many prisoners in this
prison and foods are given for them. Most of foods became
waste in the prison. Also they use firewood and LP Gas for
cooking purpose. With the support of Waste Management
Authority we could able to implement a biogas program
inside of the prison.
Through this biogas unit
we can’t provide the solution for all wastes of the prison.
They have a huge waste problem too. They were searching for
a sustainable solution for this huge waste problem. Otherwise
they use firewood for cooking because they have to prepare
lots of meals for prisoners. They spend much on fire wood.
Not only spending on firewood is the problem but also
through this, huge disaster is happened. The prison didn’t
have any solution for this matter and they were searching a better solution for massive problem
and finally met biogas.

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Forest generation is being decreased by mankind in huge
quantity. With the financial support of Western Province
Waste Management Authority, HELP-O involved to
implement a sustainable solution for this matter. There,
18m3 a biogas unit has been constructed by our
construction team and 175kg-250kg of waste can be
dumped. Through this unit prison is able to reduce Rs.20,
000/= spending on firewood and also by using organic
fertilizer they can start cultivation or they can use them for
their flower beds. Having a huge waste due to being a
large prison, this capacity isn’t enough to dump whole waste. 5% of waste of prison can be
dumped in to the unit. Through this program we can conserve to our nature in a great deal and
silent protection for environment is happened by reducing methane gas emission, global
warming and climatic changes.

CLIMATE CHANGE & SRI LANKA  

Sri Lanka also affect by the Climate Change, during the last
few decades people didn’t feel this much. But during the past
month people felt this very much. In January 2011 many
districts had to face huge floods and landslip. According the
records of the Disaster Management Centre of Sri Lanka, On
3rd February, Polonnaruwa received the heaviest rainfall
(232.4 mm), followed by Trincomalee (156.1 mm), Vavuniya
(132.2 mm), Anuradhapura (114.4 mm), Batticaloa (84.7 mm)
districts, while on 2nd February, Batticaloa District received
the heaviest rainfall (187.9 mm), followed by Trincomalee (161.4 mm), Polonnaruwa (151.9 mm)
and Ampara (104.1 mm) districts of Sri Lanka.
Over one million persons have been affected, a total of 139,391 persons (37,673 families) have
been displaced in 430 temporary evacuation centers in 11 districts across the island. There are 6
deaths and 2 missing are reported. Moreover, there are 895 houses were fully damaged and
6,787 hoses were partially damaged (Source: Situation report 04th February 2011, 18.00 hrs
DMC / District Secretariats)
Many people badly affected from this and their many things
were destroyed by the flood and landslips. Government and
other organization are trying to help them sometimes they
can’t reach for the affected areas because of the heavy floods.
Now people need to think one thing that is we have to face the
bad effect of the climate change.
So we have to reduce our Co2 emission and methane gas
emission to air. Every individual man and women have very
strong responsible for this. This effort can’t do along to
government and people also should contribute from their sides by reducing the burning
polythene and plastics, minimizing the methane gas emission to air.

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INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF WASTE MANAGEMENT  
Linking Community-based Composting into Municipal Waste Management Policies in
Surabaya: Lessons Learned
Dickella Gamaralalage Jagath PREMAKUMARA, Researcher, IGES
Toshizo MAEDA, Senior Researcher, IGES

1. Introduction
Solid waste management (SWM) is a serious environmental issue confronting local
governments in Asia. The severity of this challenge will continue to increase in the future given
the trends of rapid urbanisation and growth in urban populations. This has led to strong
appeals to develop more sustainable and innovative methods for dealing with municipal solid
waste, in contrast to the traditional “end-of-pipe” approach. A decrease in the amount of solid
waste to be disposed of by enhancing resource recovering activities is, therefore, of prime
importance. Recycling of non-organic materials from municipal solid waste is often carried out
on different scales by the informal sector in the region. Reuse of organic material however, often
contributing to more than 50% of the total waste amount, is still fairly limited, but has potential
recovery options. This paper therefore, aims to share the lessons of Surabaya city in Indonesia
in reducing its waste generation by more than 20% within a short period of time by promoting
community-based composting activities with other cities in Asia and enabling further
replication. The findings in this paper are based on information available from Kitakyushu city,
Kitakyushu International Techno-cooperative Association (KITA), Pusdakota, and the Institute
for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES).1
2. SWM in Surabaya City
Surabaya, the second largest city in Indonesia located in eastern Java, serves as an important
commercial and industrial capital of the province. The city of three million people (2009)
generated over 1,500 metric tons of waste a day in the following sectors: residential (68%),
markets (16%), commercial/ industrial (11%), streets and open spaces (5%).2 Since introduction
of the community primary collection (Copricol) law in 1980, the city’s waste collection and
disposal activities are managed by a two-tiered system. Waste collected from households and
transported to transfer depots falls under the responsibility of households. The city government
is in principle only responsible for waste at transfer depots, which is then transported to final
disposal areas.
Surabaya, like other cities in Indonesia, is divided into neighbourhood units called kampongs.
Each kampong is responsible for collecting waste
generated within its area. In all kampongs, a Rukun
Warga (RW), a neighbourhood association,
organises the waste collection scheme in the area
collecting fees from households, hiring waste
collectors, providing pushcarts, and paying salaries
to waste collectors for their services in collecting
and transporting waste from household units to
transfer stations. The Cleansing and Landscaping
Department of the municipality is in-charge of
transporting the waste accumulated at transfer
depots to the final disposal site. In addition, they
are responsible for collecting waste from
commercial and institutional establishments.
However, large waste generators such as industries
arrange collection separately, often contracting out
to the private sector. Figure 1: Benowo landfill site has reached full
capacity. The city is facing difficulties in finding a
The residents pay two separate user fees for new site for dumping.
waste collection services. One is to the RW for c Photo: Maeda, IGES

collecting waste from households, and the other is
to the city office for transportation and disposal. The monthly fee for the collection of waste
from household is decided collectively by the community members, which is about US$ 1.1-3.2
per month and is usually paid together with other community fees, such as security and
environmental improvement. Waste producers pay monthly fees of about US$ 0.55-1.5 for

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transportation and disposal services of the city office, based on the income level of the
residential area. This fee is paid together with the monthly water supply bill. Residents who are
not connected to the municipal water supply system are required to pay their fee directly to the
sub-district office of the city. Annual user fees collected by the city amount to only half of the
6% city budget allocated for waste management.
The city’s waste collection coverage is 70%; the remaining 30% is left in the streets, ditches,
and open spaces, which blocks the drainage system, contaminates water resources and results
in increased insect and rodent populations. This situation is at its worst during the rainy season,
particularly in low-lying areas where most of the urban poor reside. Furthermore, the city has
calculated that the final disposal site at Benowo has a remaining lifespan of five years, and is
facing difficulties in finding a new site due to a scarcity of public land. As a practical solution
for the growing SWM issue, Surabaya city pursued different avenues to reduce the amount of
disposed waste by promoting composting activities at the community level.
3. Community-based Composting in Kampong Rungkut Lor

Kampong Rungkut Lor is a low-income


neighbourhood located adjacent to the largest
industrial area in the city. About 200 families live in
small rented rooms and the issue of solid waste has
often ignited arguments. Since its establishment in
2000, Pusdakota, a local non-governmental
organisation (NGO) at the University of Surabaya, has
been involved in improving the environmental
conditions in the area. Through their initial
observations, field research and focus group
discussion, Pusdakota has found that the issue of
SWM in Rungkut Lor was not only a technical matter,
Figure 2: Community composting center using
but also a social issue.
the Takakura Method
Hence, c Photo: Maeda, IGES

they
started to work with the residents in Rungkut Lor
and educated them about separating organic and
non-organic household waste at source, before
putting the waste out for collection. The organic
waste is then collected by Pusdakota twice a week.
The collected waste is transported to the nearby
composting centre, where it is processed using the
open windrow method.5 However, the programme
faced typical constraints, such as a lack of
Figure 3: Takakura Home Method for households community participation and community
○c Photo: KITA
willingness to separate waste at source, and the
length of time (more than three months) required for this particular composting method to
decompose the waste, which also produced a severe foul odour. The residents in the
surrounding areas raised complaints and demanded that the composting programme cease
immediately.
In 2004, under the city-to-city cooperation agreement between Surabaya and its partner
Kitakyushu, KITA provided technical assistance to Pusdakota to improve the situation by
developing a composting technology called the Takakura Method (named after composting
expert, Mr. Koji Takakura from Kitakyushu city). It was introduced after six months of trial and

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error, based on the traditional windrow composting method adopted at Pusdakota’s
composting centre. The Takakura Method introduces fermentative microorganisms as seed
compost, which were originally cultured from local fermented foods, such as soy sauce,
yoghurt, fruits and vegetable peels, rice bran and rice husks.7
Using the Takakura Method, Pusdakota’s composting centre gradually started to produce good
quality compost in large quantities within one or two weeks, rather than the three months
required for the open windrow method. Pusdakota further worked with the team of experts
from Kitakyushu city to modify the technology so that it could be applied at the household
level. The new household composting method, later popularly known as the Takakura Home
Method (THM), was designed in a simple way to treat organic waste at the household level.
Each household is provided a THM kit, which includes a composting basket, rice chaff to be
used as a filter, and fermentative microorganisms as seed composting. People were educated
about the way to cut their kitchen waste into small pieces, and put them into the compost
basket. In two to three weeks, the organic 40 25,000
waste is converted into compost that is Number of distributed
19,200
20,000
35 16,700
commonly used for fertilising household household compost baskets
12,900 15,000
gardens. As a result of Pusdakota and 30
10,000
Surabaya city’s educational and public 25 4,100
campaigns, as well as the actual visible 10
1,500
5,000
Number of
benefits observed on the ground, the mind-set 20 composting centres
0

of community members changed, which led 15 13


14 -5,000

to increased participation in the programme, 11 -10,000


10
discouraged outside dumping, and resulted PUSDAKOTA's
composting centre 6 -15,000

in greener and cleaner neighbourhoods. The 5 2 -20,000


1
city-to-city cooperation further provided 0 Figure 4: Distribution of compost baskets and -25,000
training to the officials of Surabaya city and established
2004 2005 composting
2006 centers
2007 at the2008city level
2009
Source: Pusdakota, Kitakyushu City, and Cleansing and
Pusdakota to learn more about the benefits of Landscaping Department of Surabaya City. Compiled
waste separation, recycling at source, and by Maeda, 2009
management of recycling stations.

Linking Pilot Experiences to Municipal Waste Management Policies and Practices


Based on the success of the pilot project in Kampong Rungkut Lor, Surabaya city made a
policy decision to implement community-based solid waste management at the city level. In
partnership with Pusdakota, Pendidikan
Kesejahteraan Keluarga (PKK), a local women
organisation for family welfare, and other local
NGOs, the city adopted the Takakura Method
through a grassroots approach. A system of
environmental cadres (one cadre for every ten
households) was established to share information on
the new waste management system, assist new
families in starting household composting, and
Figure 5: Urban neighbourhoods have become educate them about the benefits of keeping the
cleaner and greener where communities can be environment clean and green. Further, these cadres
proud of their achievements were involved in following-up with monitoring of
○c Photo: Maeda, IGES
household composting and troubleshooting by

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helping families with their composting activities. In 2009, there were about 26,700
environmental cadres, covering all 8,800 communities.8
The households who have a general knowledge of the functions of using the THM compost
bins were selected to receive free bins from the city. To date, the city has already distributed
about 19,000 composting baskets9, which are purchased from Pusdakota (one basket costs about
US$ 10) as support for their voluntary activities. In addition to household composting, 14
community-based composting centres have been established throughout the city to process
waste collected from markets, streets and parks. These composting centres have produced
about 300 metric tons of compost per month, which are used for city parks and street greening
programmes.

In 2005, Surabaya city held city-wide competitions (Cleanest District Award, Green and Clean
Competition, and Free from Waste Competition) in partnership with Unilever Peduli
Foundation (UPF), an NGO affiliated with Unilever Indonesia and several media partners (Jawa
Pos, JTV (local TV), Suara Surabaya (local radio), Radar Surabaya (local newspaper) to motivate
and strengthen community participation in the city’s new waste management system, and
encourage them to improve the neighbourhood environment. The city later issued local
regulation No.1/2006 on community-based solid waste management and incorporated this new
strategy in the preparation of the midterm development plans of 2006-2010.

In summary, the results achieved by Surabaya city within a short period of time are
encouraging; the city has seen a significant reduction of waste to be transported to the final
disposal site, as much as 20% (1,150 tons a day in 2008, compared with 1,500 tons a day in 2005).
About 1,797 neighbourhood groups in the city are actively involved in promoting home
composting activities. This has provided additional income earning opportunities for low-
income families as they are able to sell their own compost (average price for composting is US$
0.07 per kg). The incomes of the community composting centres are mostly used for
neighbourhood environmental improvement activities. The city has also increased the size of
green spaces in housing areas from 269.29 acres in 2006 to 274.44 acres in 2007, and some
neighbourhoods have become popular for their efforts in growing popular plants (Orchid
Kampong, Adenium Kampong, Aloe Vera Kampong, etc.). About 15 small-and-medium scale
recycling businesses have been promoted by the UPF, creating new job opportunities for low-
income people, motivating them to
separate waste at source and gain
some extra income by selling
recyclable waste.

The social capital within


communities has been strengthened
by the active involvement of
community members to achieve a
common vision and goal. In addition
to the above benefits that have
emerged at the local level, this activity
has also resulted in a number of global
benefits, such as the generation of Figure 6: Approximately 20% waste reduction within three years
Source: BAPPEKO. Compiled by Maeda, 2009
greenhouse gases in landfills, which
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were calculated to have reduced about 8,000 tons of CO2 equivalent in 2009.10 Recognising its
achievements in improving the environment, Surabaya has received a number of international
awards, including in the water and environmental category of Energy Global Award (EGA)
Austria, 2005, Green Apple & Green Organization, London, 2007, and urban environmental
improvement from the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the
Pacific (UNESCAP) in 2007.

4. Expansion to other cities


The success of Surabaya’s community-based composting model has brought the city to
national and international attention. Community-based composting is positioned as one of the
key strategies in the National Solid Waste Management Law prepared by the Indonesian
Government in 2008. Moreover, the Surabaya model is being replicated by other cities in
Indonesia. For example, Pusdakota has expanded its community-based composting activities to
other cities in partnership with local NGOs. The UPF has also increased the number of recycling
enterprises in seven cities and provinces in Indonesia through its expansive network in the
public and private sectors. The Ministry of Public Works cooperating with other agencies under
assistance provided by the Japan International Cooperative Agency (JICA) is starting a similar
project in five other cities in order to develop a national programme for community-based solid
waste management. The international community is also replicating the model through intercity
networks. Kitakyushu city, KITA, and the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES)
are now aligned to expand the replication of this community-based composting module in
Bangkok (Thailand), Bago, Cebu, Talisay, and Puerto Princesa (Philippines), Sibu (Malaysia),
and Lalitpur (Nepal).

5. Conclusion and Recommendations


In recent days, waste reduction at source has been considered an effective strategy for
sustainable SWM. This places importance on successful composting activities at the household
and community level. In this, the Surabaya case has provided some important lessons for the
region. It revealed that in contrast to larger scale, centralised and highly mechanised
composting plants, promoting household composting and small scale, community-based,
decentralised community composting centres are more effective for cities in Asia and the Pacific
region to reduce waste generation with low financial costs. Simple, low-cost, easy-to-follow
methods and technologies are generally well accepted at the grassroots level and have great
potential to be automatically transferred, adapted, and replicated in other cities even without
much outside resources. Community participation is essential for the successful implementation
of community-based solid waste management programmes, and it may be enhanced by
adopting community awareness programmes and organising competitions to encourage
participation. Building partnerships with relevant stakeholders, such as NGOs, the private
sector and the media is also an effective strategy to mobilise outside resources to up-scale and
replicate successful community composting programmes at the city level. Most of all, enabling
the role of the local government is important as facilitator for changes and formulating strategic
plans, creating effective organisational systems, and introducing appropriate policies to
integrate community-based composting into the municipal waste management system. City-to-
city cooperation and partnerships with existing community networks are effective in replicating
good practices and policies among the cities in the region.

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6. Acknowledgement
The authors wish to express their appreciation to Kitakyushu city, KITA and Pusdakota for
sharing their information and to Ms. Christine Pearson for her extensive editing work.

Notes and References

™ For more information, please contact the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies
(IGES) Kitakyushu Urban Center, 2F, 1-1-1, Hirano, Yahatahigashiku, Kitakyushu, 805-0062,
Japan. Tel: +81-93-681-1563, Fax: +81-93-681-1564

™ Silaban, T.A., Solid Waste Management in Surabaya, Paper presented at the Solid Waste
Management Seminar, Kitakyushu, 19-20 September 2002.

™ Silas, J., Waste Management Policies in Surabaya: An Integrated Approach, Accessed on 27 April
2010, http://www.kitakyushu.iges.or.jp/successful_practices/solid_waste_management.html.

™ For more information about Pusdakota and its activities, please refer to
http://www.pusdakota.org.

™ The windrow method is a traditional composting method used in many countries in which
organic waste is placed in a pile of about one meter in height, sometimes after shredding
and mixing with soils or other materials, and is left to decay naturally for a few months. It is
simple, require less capital, use less energy, and generally rely more on land, labour and less
on machinery.

™ Mr. Koji Takakura is a professional environmental engineer at JPec Co. Ltd, a private
consultancy firm in Kitakyushu, which was contracted by KITA to improve the composting
method used by Pusdakota.

™ For more information about the Takakura Compost Method, please refer to “Waste
Reduction Programme through the Promotion of Organic Waste Composting by KitaQ
System: Information Kit,”
http://www.kitakyushu.iges.or.jp/publication/Takakura/Takakura_Method_Full.pdf.

™ Syah, H, Waste Management Practices in Surabaya City, Workshop Report, Workshop-Study


tour on Community Based Waste Management with PESAMAS Cities, 4-5 November 2009.
™ IGES, Kitakyushu Initiative for a Clean Environment – Final Report, 2010.

™ For more information, please refer to Maeda, T., “Reducing waste through the promotion of
composting and active involvement of various stakeholders: Replicating Surabaya’s solid
waste management model,” Policy Brief 9, IGES, Japan, 2009.

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CLOSE TO THE PEOPLE – THROUGH PEOPLE’S MOVEMENT 

As a result of the community requirement for a common net work in Galle & Matara areas,
People’s movement has established specially with the victims of Tsunami disaster. Now it has
spread alone with the community & they get the advantages of financial & other social benefits
from this.
In present the grass root level community got the leadership in their village level & do savings
provide loans for their members & give much contribution for common work through the net
work. Now on time our people’s movement expands day by day & they all are working with
the main aim to do some special thing with the use of their man power which will help for the
process of development for the betterment of all.
In here we are trying to tell you that some great works which took place on the month of
January 2011 among that people’s movement branches.

NEW YEAR CELEBRATIONS OF PEOPLE’S MOVEMENT  

The Year 2011 many of our people’s movement


branches started their work with their members, with
the great expectation to expand & give assistance for
their members more & more.
All of the members of the branches came with savings
on that day to start their branch work for the New
Year. According to the Sinhala tradition they stated
their branch work after boiling the milk in their office
premises. Thotagamuwa, Walawwaththa,
Chinagarden & all other people’s movement branches
came forward & more than Rs.40, 000.00 were saved on
Village leaders do traditions that day. Some small gifts have been disbursed for the
customs savers on that day, in branch level for to encourage the
savings concept also.
All the branch leaders explained their members about
the important of such kind of net work & encourage
their members to go forward with the people’s
movement with new plans in this year. Further more
they all remind their members about the services that
have provided by mobilizing savings in village level
especially in the process of empower the women of the
society through giving leadership in village level. The
chairmen & wise chairmen of the People’s movement
visited the other branches & wish them all for the
Village Peoples ready to save the
success of their branches for this 2011. Now people are
money in Branch saving the money within the branch because now their
attitude has been changed. This is good turning point of people movement.
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OUR GRATE EXPECTATION IS “CHILDREN FUTURE MUST BE 
BRIGHT” 
Milliduwa People’s movement has established on
last December 2010 & now it’s functioning well
through the fully participation of the community.
All members of the branch are Muslim Community
& they are well performing with our other people’s
movement branches in present.

In the beginning of the year 2011 they have done a


great work with the help of many members of the
branch. A drop out girl of grade three & a grade
one who were the children of one member of their
branch, didn’t have an opportunity to go school
due to their family financial situation. . Though the
Education is free of cost in our country some basic needs we
have to fulfill our selves. Fathima Ieesha mother of these two
children was so poor even to buy school books & other
essential things even.

The all members of the Milidduwa branch discussed the


problem together & after analyzing the situation, the
secretary of HIRU small group Fawriya came forward &
presented school bags for the children. The secretary of
ROSA small group Radika presented the two school
uniforms for them. The school books were donated by the
other members of the branch as per their need. In this way all
the members of the branch gave a contribution as per their
capacity to send these children back to school.

This is one of the best example that to understand


the mutual relationship alone with all members of
this branch. More than financial assistance these
kinds of great helps will occur to be sustains these
net works for ever. Now Fathima Nafra & Fathima
Nawasiya is going to school with other children
with happy face.
This is one of good social impact of People’s
Movement branch. They always ready to help
others any time. With this assistant two school kids
could able to go school on the other hand this is
secure their child rights.

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GIVE WATER GIVE LIFE 

Thotagamuwa is a village situated in Hikkaduwa DS


division & it was fully affected by the Tsunami disaster in
year 2004. Now the community of the area trying to build
step by step alone with the People’s Movement strongly by
getting help, for their financial & other needs though this
net work. There are 16 groups in our Thotagamuwa
people’s movement & Mrs. Nayana Ranjini who is the
treasure as well as one of the director board members of
people’s movement give leadership for the branch to lead
the members for common aim of development through net
work.

After the Tsunami Kitusewana flats has build in


Thotagamuwa, for the homeless community of the village.
But they didn’t get water supply for it. Some of the
community in this flat was the member of our
Thotagamuwa people’s movement & this water problem
forward to the branch through the small groups. Then after
the request came to people’s movement director board &
they forward it to CLAPNET for to get financial assistance
for it.

Loan was approved & it was disbursed on last week. They


disbursed loans for six members of the branch. This is a
very effective for them. Rs.116, 610.00 were given in 18%
reducing rate for the one year period in the range of loans
are Rs.15, 000 to Rs.30, 000 for each person. This loan was
disbursed through the group promise as collateral those
who had well discipline in their group & branch works.

As they are spending the life though day today business they didn’t have capacity to pay large
sum of money at once to get the water supply. So now members are very happy as they could
able to satisfy one of their basic needs through the assistance of their Thotagamuwa people’s
movement. Finally they expressed their ideas that “they never forget this help & will give their
contribution as per their capacity to expand the service of the movement for all”.

This is another case study how people help to their own people because they didn’t get the
water but when they join with the people’s movement they could able to get the water. Water is
one of main needs of the human. They were suffering from the waster but now they are not
suffering from water. Their living standard has been increased.

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PEOPLE’S MOVEMENT MARKETING STEP “A COMPFORT FOR 
COMMUNITY” 
HELP-O has developed the People’s movement with the
community of the urban & rural areas of Southern part
of the Country to give them financial & other assistance
especially marginalize poor community. Now many of
the members have taken the financial assistance & have
develop their business, but sometimes they are suffering
with marketing problems for the products. After
recognized & analyze the situation HELP-O started
consumer marketing program to exchange the goods
among our community with the idea of to give them a
value & market for it.
As the first step of the program last 27th January 2011 we
started a marketing stall in Kalupe People’s Movement
branch. The goods such as dried fish, Bakery products,
Spices, Coir products & some other consumer products
of our members in the nearest branches, are selling in
this stall for low price than outside shops. This is
innovative step that taken because many people don’t
have a proper market for their goods. This is one of
reason for loan default because many people get loans
but can’t find a proper market for it. So HELP-O
involved to this for solving this problem. Now members money doesn’t go out and it revolve
within the village and within their products. As Thotagamuwa, Malawanna, Hikkaduwa &
Kalupe branches are situated very close each other it’s much cost effective in providing the
goods for the stall also. Through this program especially we were successes to come out with
these aims such as

¾ Got a market in local level for the products


¾ Micro enterprises encouraged for production process
¾ Customers able to have fresh & good products
¾ Village money remains & rotate among villages

Now on time the people’s movement is disbursing


consumer loans in their branch level & here after we are
planning to disbursed goods instead of money through
this program. Further more people’s movement has
design to start other stalls for ready made garment,
handlooms in their village level & we hope to improve
& encourage our members to do their self employments
more. In future they will have a good market in local
level & this way they are planning to become sustainable
very soon with profit oriented ways.

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MICRO FINANCE CLIENTS & SERVICE 

“Provide small loans & other financial assistance specially those who has excluded from formal
financial systems” is one definition about the Micro Finance. Now on time this is more famous
& has spread all over the world by targeting marginalize community of the society. To take
advantages of economic opportunities, invest in future & protects again economic shocks these
poor community also need such type of financial service. They can draw down their savings or
get loan facility in case of emergency rather than sell their assets for those who are the member
of these MFIs.

With the main aim of providing financial assistance these all MFI’s has designed & now on time
it’s in competition to reach the poor with the viability of these organizations. They have
diversified the products for savings, Loans, Insurance & also for foreign remittance even to face
the competition. As the MFIs targeting the marginalize community more than financial
assistance, they should provide to bring these community to society also.

But situation is different in people’s movement because through our branches in village level
provide these all services to the community. In village level as it designed for the grass root
level people to come out with their needs. Through the Small group system we are trying to
close with the community by giving assistance for their financial & other social needs. As they
are in 5-10 members in the group it’s much easy to empower them step by step to come out
from their traditional thinking styles even. The branch with content with more than 5 groups is
the platform of the village level to come out for this community. By giving the leadership for
them we empower & aware them to sustain in village level through mobilizing savings as well
as through credit facility. Now not only financial support they get the leadership of the village
early they were in kitchen but now they became village leaders. Even they organize the village
and they are working to empower other members.

Now on time the people’s movement has designed with all these branches in one net work to be
close each other as a formal institution. The director board also selected from these branch
leaders & indeed this is the big opportunity for all grass root level community to raise their
voice for their financial & other social needs. The majority came from the grass root level
community.

Please send your comments and suggestions …………………


Editor,
HELP-O News Letter,
No. 364/18 A, Samagi Mawatha,
Dangedara,
Galle.
Sri Lanka.
T.P / Fax - +94-91-4380121 / 222-6818
E-mail – helpogn@wow.lk URL – www.helpo-srilanka.org

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