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WIN WIN APPROACH FOR WASTE PROBLEM IN SUSTAINABLE WAY

On the month of January Elon University and Colombo University organized a conference in Colombo. HELP-O got an n opportunity to share the experience about waste management and we explained how waste became a profitable thing and how people can find sustainable solution to waste problem with win win approach. The theme
of the speech is “Sustainable Solid waste management with win win approach” The sharing experience speech conducted by Mr. Chathura Welivitiya Chairman – HELP-O On this time he explained about the three examples of various places of the country. First he explained about the example of Karapitiya Teaching Hospital. Also he explained why we involve in this sector? As you all know, waste is a leading global environmental problem generating multiple crisis to the mankind. Therefore today, Governments, Researchers and many organizations are searching for sustainable solution for this growing issue. We studied the traditional ‘’Biogas Plants’’ for safe disposal of waste, reducing GHG emissions and financial benefits are given to users. The HELP-O tested this concept by implementing the first pilot project at a government leading Hospital in the country; the Karapitiya Teaching Hospital. At that stage Municipality had stopped collecting waste mixed with hazardous clinical refuses, collected waste stocks in the Hospital affected some wards to be closed and neighboring community had to take legal action for this matter. The second example he explained to the guests is about the community biogas program we have implemented with the UNDP and CEA. With the success of first project we decided to examine its application in Domestic, public and private sectors. The Galle city having a total waste collection of 55 tons a day was selected for the second pilot named ‘’community based biogas program’’ jointly with Galle Municipality under the support of UNDP and Central Environment Authority (CEA). Through building 9 units under the program the daily waste amount reduced to near 20 tons per a day while significantly dropping open burning of polythene-plastics. The community was benefited with alternative fuel; biogas, liquid fertilizer for cultivation and extra income by marketing sorted recyclables. Currently, the HELP-O has wider experience through implementing biogas driven waste management programs all over the country under different climatic conditions, in Hospitals, Municipal councils, Hotels, Prisons and community level etc… Observing the success of this program the Environment Ministry also has recognized ‘’biogas units’’ as an effective tool in solid waste management.

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INNOVATIVE EFFORT OF GRASS ROOT LEVEL COMMUNITY
Under the USAID SARI Energy Program HELP-O is implementing very success program in ground level of Galle District. The innovative effort is people requesting biogas units under the loan basis. At the moment two biogas units are under construction in Kalupe and Waluwatta. Both biogas units are constructing under loan basis. The owner expects to sell the biogas to other houses. Now this waste became a huge marketable item and people are using renewable energy source step by step. Not even that we conducted one awareness program to the community of China Garden about the effective and benefits of the biogas because we have identify that area is highly waste generation area. The community aware about the effective of the biogas and what are the benefits they can get through the biogas. Also we explained about the renewable energy sources and under that he explained about the biogas and its history of Sri Lanka. Even they aware about the climate change and global warming and also discuss with them that how that will effect to their family. We strongly recommend that every individual person has strong responsible to separate the waste and keep environment clean. Under the USAID SARI Energy program we have organized an experience exchange program for the grass root level people. The objective is to share the experience of other beneficiaries who use the biogas already. Most of people could able to get a biogas unit under the USAID Energy Program. Through this program they discover that there are many people in the city use biogas for their daily needs. Old biogas beneficiaries explained how they implement this program and what the challenges they had to face are. Also they explained about the important of an environment fund. Also they explained how they use this environment fund for small repairs of the biogas. One lady explained through this environment fund they expect to construct another biogas unit under loan basis.

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ANOTHER STEP OF ECO-FRIENDLY ULUGALLA RESORT TO BEAUTIFY THE ENVIRONMENT
 

Ulagalla Resort is one of the attractive and favorite tourist destination and resort where nestled in a village in the ancient kingdom of Anuradhapura, with calm and eco-friendly environment. Ulagalla resort is the latest luxury boutique hotel in Sri Lanka and it provides luxury facilities for customers. It collides a previous era with the modern comports of the present. Tucked away in the lush landscape by the Ulagalla Wewa, Ulagalla resort is a historic mansion transformed in to a modern heaven combining tradition with technology. In their eco-friendly way The HELP-O was invited to implement a Biogas unit for organic waste. Through this program they are able to have biogas and organic fertilizer. This is actually a great opportunity to HELP-O to take hand with private sector to conserve for environment. 15m3 biogas unit is to be implemented there. It will be an inimitable act taken by the resort. They expect to get the eco friendly electricity from the biogas that is their final expectation from their waste even they have planned to cultivate with using the organic fertilizer of the biogas. This is a good step that private hotel taken to recycle their own waste in profitable way.

A GREAT OPPERTUNITY TO PARTICIPATE IN ‘’DAYATA KIRULA’’ NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT EXHIBITION
‘’DAYATA KIRULA’’, the national development exhibition in Sri Lanka will held on 4th-10th February in this year at Buththala, Sri Lanka. The exhibition site extends over 160 acres, a large number of state and privet sector stalls have been set up in the exhibition site. Impact it is a great opportunity to HELP-O to participate in this great exhibition to exchange our ideas and new experiments with national and international sectors. It is organized by the ministry of Finance & planning Sri Lanka. There are 800 stalls and 3.5 million people are to be visited this great exhibition. We are proud to mention that we have got an opportunity to participate to this occasion because of our great conservation for nature. In present the whole world is searching for environment friendly ways for living. Because whole world has to face various climatic changes, global warming through these problems, people are suffering from a lot of diseases. Sometime doctors are unable to find out the illness. Natural disasters are often happened. In HELP-O side, we have sustainable solution for waste problems which harms to our nature. That is why we are offered this opportunity to participate as a nature lover to not only motherland but also whole world. People are rewarded lots of benefits through this program. This program linked with the Central Environment Authority because they have an eco house in the exhibition premises. We exhibit a model domestic biogas unit and we have planned to generate the biogas from that model. We hope to aware the people about effective of the biogas and its benefit too.

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NEW MILESTONE OF DONBOSCO TSUNAMI HOUSING SCHEME
Don Bosco Tsunami village is located at Negombo and it is one of commercial cities of the country. Being a commercial city, it has a huge waste problem there. There are about 210 families and also they don’t have proper way to solve this huge waste problem. They had to dump waste in their land because local authority didn’t collect waste in proper way. Bad smell which came out from waste was high and also people are suffering from this. Meanwhile HELP-O involved implementing a sustainable solution with the financial support of CITYNET. Up to now our construction team has already implemented one biogas unit, its capacity is 22m3 and also 500kgs of waste can be dumped. At this moment 95% of all construction finished in this biogas unit. During the last month we conducted awareness programs for them to improve the knowledge and interests about the biogas. Awareness program has been done to them on how to monitor this, what are the benefits can be taken and under more topics. Another awareness program is to be held on 3rd of February. The target group of the program is Municipal Council officers and Grass root level people and we wish to begin our next biogas construction as soon as possible. Community can dump their waste to these units, can use organic fertilizer for their fertilizer needs and for cultivation also it is a great conservation for the environment. Global warming, environment pollution, methane gas emission can be reduced through this better solution.

NEW EXPECTATION OF MUTHTHU THAMBI VIDYALAYA IN JAFFNA
Muththu Thambi Vidyalaya is located in Thirunelwely of Jaffna district and one of government leading schools in the area. More than six hundred and fifty students are being educated there. Meals are given to students and school has to prepare meals for them. Therefore they have to spend much money on firewood; waste is also a huge problem to them. They are used to taking firewood which was cut down from forests. They had destroyed small trees for this. It is mainly effect to decrease our forest generation. It is a huge disaster for community as well as environments. On the other hand they use polythene and plastics to make fire and that is huge environment issue. They don’t have an idea about the POP gas and its bad effective. Forests generation are endangered now due to unthinkable behavior of mankind. After war background there is speedy development too. Environment pollution is one of bad side effects come out this development. People of this area use more fire wood for their day today cooking meals and other activities. So that UNDP Jaffna Office needed to implement a sustainable program as a model project for this matter.

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This program is a timely a good solution for the energy and waste problems which was found by HELP-O for future generation. School had to find solution for economizing. Through this program they can have lots of benefits. Among them biogas and organic fertilizer can be visible benefits. Because through this, global warming, climatic changes, methane gas emission can be reduced. Up to now an awareness program has been already done. This program is totally funded by UNDP Jaffna Office. Realizing this is cost effective, profitable program; UNDP Office of Jaffna as respectable carriers of nation always tries to give utmost support for developing human living background. This is one of their great efforts taken by them for the betterment of both community and environment. HELP-O is proud to be an active partner for this great task. Conducting awareness program for the students and teachers about maintain and management of biogas unit in proper way. Through this program we aware them about how to carry this biogas unit in proper way.

ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY ACTION OF WELIKADA PRISON
Welikada prison is located in Colombo District and it gives great contribution to rehabilitate prisoners for the betterment of country. There are many prisoners in this prison and foods are given for them. Most of foods became waste in the prison. Also they use firewood and LP Gas for cooking purpose. With the support of Waste Management Authority we could able to implement a biogas program inside of the prison. Through this biogas unit we can’t provide the solution for all wastes of the prison. They have a huge waste problem too. They were searching for a sustainable solution for this huge waste problem. Otherwise they use firewood for cooking because they have to prepare lots of meals for prisoners. They spend much on fire wood. Not only spending on firewood is the problem but also through this, huge disaster is happened. The prison didn’t have any solution for this matter and they were searching a better solution for massive problem and finally met biogas.

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Forest generation is being decreased by mankind in huge quantity. With the financial support of Western Province Waste Management Authority, HELP-O involved to implement a sustainable solution for this matter. There, 18m3 a biogas unit has been constructed by our construction team and 175kg-250kg of waste can be dumped. Through this unit prison is able to reduce Rs.20, 000/= spending on firewood and also by using organic fertilizer they can start cultivation or they can use them for their flower beds. Having a huge waste due to being a large prison, this capacity isn’t enough to dump whole waste. 5% of waste of prison can be dumped in to the unit. Through this program we can conserve to our nature in a great deal and silent protection for environment is happened by reducing methane gas emission, global warming and climatic changes.

CLIMATE CHANGE & SRI LANKA  
Sri Lanka also affect by the Climate Change, during the last few decades people didn’t feel this much. But during the past month people felt this very much. In January 2011 many districts had to face huge floods and landslip. According the records of the Disaster Management Centre of Sri Lanka, On 3rd February, Polonnaruwa received the heaviest rainfall (232.4 mm), followed by Trincomalee (156.1 mm), Vavuniya (132.2 mm), Anuradhapura (114.4 mm), Batticaloa (84.7 mm) districts, while on 2nd February, Batticaloa District received the heaviest rainfall (187.9 mm), followed by Trincomalee (161.4 mm), Polonnaruwa (151.9 mm) and Ampara (104.1 mm) districts of Sri Lanka. Over one million persons have been affected, a total of 139,391 persons (37,673 families) have been displaced in 430 temporary evacuation centers in 11 districts across the island. There are 6 deaths and 2 missing are reported. Moreover, there are 895 houses were fully damaged and 6,787 hoses were partially damaged (Source: Situation report 04th February 2011, 18.00 hrs DMC / District Secretariats) Many people badly affected from this and their many things were destroyed by the flood and landslips. Government and other organization are trying to help them sometimes they can’t reach for the affected areas because of the heavy floods. Now people need to think one thing that is we have to face the bad effect of the climate change. So we have to reduce our Co2 emission and methane gas emission to air. Every individual man and women have very strong responsible for this. This effort can’t do along to government and people also should contribute from their sides by reducing the burning polythene and plastics, minimizing the methane gas emission to air.

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INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF WASTE MANAGEMENT  
Linking Community-based Composting into Municipal Waste Management Policies in Surabaya: Lessons Learned Dickella Gamaralalage Jagath PREMAKUMARA, Researcher, IGES Toshizo MAEDA, Senior Researcher, IGES 1. Introduction

Solid waste management (SWM) is a serious environmental issue confronting local governments in Asia. The severity of this challenge will continue to increase in the future given the trends of rapid urbanisation and growth in urban populations. This has led to strong appeals to develop more sustainable and innovative methods for dealing with municipal solid waste, in contrast to the traditional “end-of-pipe” approach. A decrease in the amount of solid waste to be disposed of by enhancing resource recovering activities is, therefore, of prime importance. Recycling of non-organic materials from municipal solid waste is often carried out on different scales by the informal sector in the region. Reuse of organic material however, often contributing to more than 50% of the total waste amount, is still fairly limited, but has potential recovery options. This paper therefore, aims to share the lessons of Surabaya city in Indonesia in reducing its waste generation by more than 20% within a short period of time by promoting community-based composting activities with other cities in Asia and enabling further replication. The findings in this paper are based on information available from Kitakyushu city, Kitakyushu International Techno-cooperative Association (KITA), Pusdakota, and the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES).1 2. SWM in Surabaya City Surabaya, the second largest city in Indonesia located in eastern Java, serves as an important commercial and industrial capital of the province. The city of three million people (2009) generated over 1,500 metric tons of waste a day in the following sectors: residential (68%), markets (16%), commercial/ industrial (11%), streets and open spaces (5%).2 Since introduction of the community primary collection (Copricol) law in 1980, the city’s waste collection and disposal activities are managed by a two-tiered system. Waste collected from households and transported to transfer depots falls under the responsibility of households. The city government is in principle only responsible for waste at transfer depots, which is then transported to final disposal areas. Surabaya, like other cities in Indonesia, is divided into neighbourhood units called kampongs. Each kampong is responsible for collecting waste generated within its area. In all kampongs, a Rukun Warga (RW), a neighbourhood association, organises the waste collection scheme in the area collecting fees from households, hiring waste collectors, providing pushcarts, and paying salaries to waste collectors for their services in collecting and transporting waste from household units to transfer stations. The Cleansing and Landscaping Department of the municipality is in-charge of transporting the waste accumulated at transfer depots to the final disposal site. In addition, they are responsible for collecting waste from commercial and institutional establishments. However, large waste generators such as industries arrange collection separately, often contracting out Figure 1: Benowo landfill site has reached full to the private sector.
capacity. The city is facing difficulties in finding a new site for dumping. The residents pay two separate user fees for c ○Photo: Maeda, IGES waste collection services. One is to the RW for collecting waste from households, and the other is to the city office for transportation and disposal. The monthly fee for the collection of waste from household is decided collectively by the community members, which is about US$ 1.1-3.2 per month and is usually paid together with other community fees, such as security and environmental improvement. Waste producers pay monthly fees of about US$ 0.55-1.5 for

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transportation and disposal services of the city office, based on the income level of the residential area. This fee is paid together with the monthly water supply bill. Residents who are not connected to the municipal water supply system are required to pay their fee directly to the sub-district office of the city. Annual user fees collected by the city amount to only half of the 6% city budget allocated for waste management. The city’s waste collection coverage is 70%; the remaining 30% is left in the streets, ditches, and open spaces, which blocks the drainage system, contaminates water resources and results in increased insect and rodent populations. This situation is at its worst during the rainy season, particularly in low-lying areas where most of the urban poor reside. Furthermore, the city has calculated that the final disposal site at Benowo has a remaining lifespan of five years, and is facing difficulties in finding a new site due to a scarcity of public land. As a practical solution for the growing SWM issue, Surabaya city pursued different avenues to reduce the amount of disposed waste by promoting composting activities at the community level. 3. Community-based Composting in Kampong Rungkut Lor

Kampong Rungkut Lor is a low-income neighbourhood located adjacent to the largest industrial area in the city. About 200 families live in small rented rooms and the issue of solid waste has often ignited arguments. Since its establishment in 2000, Pusdakota, a local non-governmental organisation (NGO) at the University of Surabaya, has been involved in improving the environmental conditions in the area. Through their initial observations, field research and focus group discussion, Pusdakota has found that the issue of SWM in Rungkut Lor was not only a technical matter, Figure 2: Community composting center using but also a social issue. the Takakura Method Hence, c ○ Photo: Maeda, IGES they started to work with the residents in Rungkut Lor and educated them about separating organic and non-organic household waste at source, before putting the waste out for collection. The organic waste is then collected by Pusdakota twice a week. The collected waste is transported to the nearby composting centre, where it is processed using the open windrow method.5 However, the programme faced typical constraints, such as a lack of Figure 3: Takakura Home Method for households community participation and community c ○ Photo: KITA willingness to separate waste at source, and the length of time (more than three months) required for this particular composting method to decompose the waste, which also produced a severe foul odour. The residents in the surrounding areas raised complaints and demanded that the composting programme cease immediately. In 2004, under the city-to-city cooperation agreement between Surabaya and its partner Kitakyushu, KITA provided technical assistance to Pusdakota to improve the situation by developing a composting technology called the Takakura Method (named after composting expert, Mr. Koji Takakura from Kitakyushu city). It was introduced after six months of trial and

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error, based on the traditional windrow composting method adopted at Pusdakota’s composting centre. The Takakura Method introduces fermentative microorganisms as seed compost, which were originally cultured from local fermented foods, such as soy sauce, yoghurt, fruits and vegetable peels, rice bran and rice husks.7 Using the Takakura Method, Pusdakota’s composting centre gradually started to produce good quality compost in large quantities within one or two weeks, rather than the three months required for the open windrow method. Pusdakota further worked with the team of experts from Kitakyushu city to modify the technology so that it could be applied at the household level. The new household composting method, later popularly known as the Takakura Home Method (THM), was designed in a simple way to treat organic waste at the household level. Each household is provided a THM kit, which includes a composting basket, rice chaff to be used as a filter, and fermentative microorganisms as seed composting. People were educated about the way to cut their kitchen waste into small pieces, and put them into the compost basket. In two to three weeks, the organic 40 25,000 19,200 waste is converted into compost that is 20,000 Number of distributed 16,700 35 household compost baskets commonly used for fertilising household 12,900 15,000 gardens. As a result of Pusdakota and 30 10,000 Surabaya city’s educational and public 25 4,100 5,000 1,500 campaigns, as well as the actual visible 10 Number of 0 benefits observed on the ground, the mind-set 20 composting centres -5,000 14 of community members changed, which led 15 13 11 -10,000 to increased participation in the programme, 10 PUS DAKOTA's discouraged outside dumping, and resulted -15,000 composting centre 6 in greener and cleaner neighbourhoods. The 5 -20,000 2 1 city-to-city cooperation further provided 0 Figure 4: Distribution of compost baskets and -25,000 established composting centers at the city level 2004 2007 2009 2005 2008 2006 training to the officials of Surabaya city and Source: Pusdakota, Kitakyushu City, and Cleansing and Pusdakota to learn more about the benefits of Landscaping Department of Surabaya City. Compiled by Maeda, 2009 waste separation, recycling at source, and management of recycling stations. Linking Pilot Experiences to Municipal Waste Management Policies and Practices Based on the success of the pilot project in Kampong Rungkut Lor, Surabaya city made a policy decision to implement community-based solid waste management at the city level. In partnership with Pusdakota, Pendidikan Kesejahteraan Keluarga (PKK), a local women organisation for family welfare, and other local NGOs, the city adopted the Takakura Method through a grassroots approach. A system of environmental cadres (one cadre for every ten households) was established to share information on the new waste management system, assist new families in starting household composting, and educate them about the benefits of keeping the Figure 5: Urban neighbourhoods have become environment clean and green. Further, these cadres cleaner and greener where communities can be proud of their achievements were involved in following-up with monitoring of c ○ Photo: Maeda, IGES household composting and troubleshooting by

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helping families with their composting activities. In 2009, there were about 26,700 environmental cadres, covering all 8,800 communities.8 The households who have a general knowledge of the functions of using the THM compost bins were selected to receive free bins from the city. To date, the city has already distributed about 19,000 composting baskets9, which are purchased from Pusdakota (one basket costs about US$ 10) as support for their voluntary activities. In addition to household composting, 14 community-based composting centres have been established throughout the city to process waste collected from markets, streets and parks. These composting centres have produced about 300 metric tons of compost per month, which are used for city parks and street greening programmes. In 2005, Surabaya city held city-wide competitions (Cleanest District Award, Green and Clean Competition, and Free from Waste Competition) in partnership with Unilever Peduli Foundation (UPF), an NGO affiliated with Unilever Indonesia and several media partners (Jawa Pos, JTV (local TV), Suara Surabaya (local radio), Radar Surabaya (local newspaper) to motivate and strengthen community participation in the city’s new waste management system, and encourage them to improve the neighbourhood environment. The city later issued local regulation No.1/2006 on community-based solid waste management and incorporated this new strategy in the preparation of the midterm development plans of 2006-2010. In summary, the results achieved by Surabaya city within a short period of time are encouraging; the city has seen a significant reduction of waste to be transported to the final disposal site, as much as 20% (1,150 tons a day in 2008, compared with 1,500 tons a day in 2005). About 1,797 neighbourhood groups in the city are actively involved in promoting home composting activities. This has provided additional income earning opportunities for lowincome families as they are able to sell their own compost (average price for composting is US$ 0.07 per kg). The incomes of the community composting centres are mostly used for neighbourhood environmental improvement activities. The city has also increased the size of green spaces in housing areas from 269.29 acres in 2006 to 274.44 acres in 2007, and some neighbourhoods have become popular for their efforts in growing popular plants (Orchid Kampong, Adenium Kampong, Aloe Vera Kampong, etc.). About 15 small-and-medium scale recycling businesses have been promoted by the UPF, creating new job opportunities for lowincome people, motivating them to separate waste at source and gain some extra income by selling recyclable waste. The social capital within communities has been strengthened by the active involvement of community members to achieve a common vision and goal. In addition to the above benefits that have emerged at the local level, this activity has also resulted in a number of global benefits, such as the generation of greenhouse gases in landfills, which

Figure 6: Approximately 20% waste reduction within three years
Source: BAPPEKO. Compiled by Maeda, 2009

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were calculated to have reduced about 8,000 tons of CO2 equivalent in 2009.10 Recognising its achievements in improving the environment, Surabaya has received a number of international awards, including in the water and environmental category of Energy Global Award (EGA) Austria, 2005, Green Apple & Green Organization, London, 2007, and urban environmental improvement from the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) in 2007. Expansion to other cities The success of Surabaya’s community-based composting model has brought the city to national and international attention. Community-based composting is positioned as one of the key strategies in the National Solid Waste Management Law prepared by the Indonesian Government in 2008. Moreover, the Surabaya model is being replicated by other cities in Indonesia. For example, Pusdakota has expanded its community-based composting activities to other cities in partnership with local NGOs. The UPF has also increased the number of recycling enterprises in seven cities and provinces in Indonesia through its expansive network in the public and private sectors. The Ministry of Public Works cooperating with other agencies under assistance provided by the Japan International Cooperative Agency (JICA) is starting a similar project in five other cities in order to develop a national programme for community-based solid waste management. The international community is also replicating the model through intercity networks. Kitakyushu city, KITA, and the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) are now aligned to expand the replication of this community-based composting module in Bangkok (Thailand), Bago, Cebu, Talisay, and Puerto Princesa (Philippines), Sibu (Malaysia), and Lalitpur (Nepal). Conclusion and Recommendations In recent days, waste reduction at source has been considered an effective strategy for sustainable SWM. This places importance on successful composting activities at the household and community level. In this, the Surabaya case has provided some important lessons for the region. It revealed that in contrast to larger scale, centralised and highly mechanised composting plants, promoting household composting and small scale, community-based, decentralised community composting centres are more effective for cities in Asia and the Pacific region to reduce waste generation with low financial costs. Simple, low-cost, easy-to-follow methods and technologies are generally well accepted at the grassroots level and have great potential to be automatically transferred, adapted, and replicated in other cities even without much outside resources. Community participation is essential for the successful implementation of community-based solid waste management programmes, and it may be enhanced by adopting community awareness programmes and organising competitions to encourage participation. Building partnerships with relevant stakeholders, such as NGOs, the private sector and the media is also an effective strategy to mobilise outside resources to up-scale and replicate successful community composting programmes at the city level. Most of all, enabling the role of the local government is important as facilitator for changes and formulating strategic plans, creating effective organisational systems, and introducing appropriate policies to integrate community-based composting into the municipal waste management system. City-tocity cooperation and partnerships with existing community networks are effective in replicating good practices and policies among the cities in the region. 5. 4.

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Acknowledgement The authors wish to express their appreciation to Kitakyushu city, KITA and Pusdakota for sharing their information and to Ms. Christine Pearson for her extensive editing work.

Notes and References For more information, please contact the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) Kitakyushu Urban Center, 2F, 1-1-1, Hirano, Yahatahigashiku, Kitakyushu, 805-0062, Japan. Tel: +81-93-681-1563, Fax: +81-93-681-1564 Silaban, T.A., Solid Waste Management in Surabaya, Paper presented at the Solid Waste Management Seminar, Kitakyushu, 19-20 September 2002. Silas, J., Waste Management Policies in Surabaya: An Integrated Approach, Accessed on 27 April 2010, http://www.kitakyushu.iges.or.jp/successful_practices/solid_waste_management.html. For more information about Pusdakota and its activities, please refer to

http://www.pusdakota.org.

The windrow method is a traditional composting method used in many countries in which organic waste is placed in a pile of about one meter in height, sometimes after shredding and mixing with soils or other materials, and is left to decay naturally for a few months. It is simple, require less capital, use less energy, and generally rely more on land, labour and less on machinery. Mr. Koji Takakura is a professional environmental engineer at JPec Co. Ltd, a private consultancy firm in Kitakyushu, which was contracted by KITA to improve the composting method used by Pusdakota. For more information about the Takakura Compost Method, please refer to “Waste Reduction Programme through the Promotion of Organic Waste Composting by KitaQ System: Information Kit,” http://www.kitakyushu.iges.or.jp/publication/Takakura/Takakura_Method_Full.pdf. Syah, H, Waste Management Practices in Surabaya City, Workshop Report, Workshop-Study tour on Community Based Waste Management with PESAMAS Cities, 4-5 November 2009. IGES, Kitakyushu Initiative for a Clean Environment – Final Report, 2010. For more information, please refer to Maeda, T., “Reducing waste through the promotion of composting and active involvement of various stakeholders: Replicating Surabaya’s solid waste management model,” Policy Brief 9, IGES, Japan, 2009.

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CLOSE TO THE PEOPLE – THROUGH PEOPLE’S MOVEMENT 
As a result of the community requirement for a common net work in Galle & Matara areas, People’s movement has established specially with the victims of Tsunami disaster. Now it has spread alone with the community & they get the advantages of financial & other social benefits from this. In present the grass root level community got the leadership in their village level & do savings provide loans for their members & give much contribution for common work through the net work. Now on time our people’s movement expands day by day & they all are working with the main aim to do some special thing with the use of their man power which will help for the process of development for the betterment of all. In here we are trying to tell you that some great works which took place on the month of January 2011 among that people’s movement branches.

NEW YEAR CELEBRATIONS OF PEOPLE’S MOVEMENT  
The Year 2011 many of our people’s movement branches started their work with their members, with the great expectation to expand & give assistance for their members more & more. All of the members of the branches came with savings on that day to start their branch work for the New Year. According to the Sinhala tradition they stated their branch work after boiling the milk in their office premises. Thotagamuwa, Walawwaththa, Chinagarden & all other people’s movement branches came forward & more than Rs.40, 000.00 were saved on that day. Some small gifts have been disbursed for the savers on that day, in branch level for to encourage the savings concept also.

Village leaders do traditions customs

All the branch leaders explained their members about the important of such kind of net work & encourage their members to go forward with the people’s movement with new plans in this year. Further more they all remind their members about the services that have provided by mobilizing savings in village level especially in the process of empower the women of the society through giving leadership in village level. The chairmen & wise chairmen of the People’s movement visited the other branches & wish them all for the Village Peoples ready to save the success of their branches for this 2011. Now people are money in Branch saving the money within the branch because now their attitude has been changed. This is good turning point of people movement.

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OUR GRATE EXPECTATION IS “CHILDREN FUTURE MUST BE  BRIGHT” 
Milliduwa People’s movement has established on last December 2010 & now it’s functioning well through the fully participation of the community. All members of the branch are Muslim Community & they are well performing with our other people’s movement branches in present. In the beginning of the year 2011 they have done a great work with the help of many members of the branch. A drop out girl of grade three & a grade one who were the children of one member of their branch, didn’t have an opportunity to go school due to their family financial situation. . Though the Education is free of cost in our country some basic needs we have to fulfill our selves. Fathima Ieesha mother of these two children was so poor even to buy school books & other essential things even. The all members of the Milidduwa branch discussed the problem together & after analyzing the situation, the secretary of HIRU small group Fawriya came forward & presented school bags for the children. The secretary of ROSA small group Radika presented the two school uniforms for them. The school books were donated by the other members of the branch as per their need. In this way all the members of the branch gave a contribution as per their capacity to send these children back to school. This is one of the best example that to understand the mutual relationship alone with all members of this branch. More than financial assistance these kinds of great helps will occur to be sustains these net works for ever. Now Fathima Nafra & Fathima Nawasiya is going to school with other children with happy face. This is one of good social impact of People’s Movement branch. They always ready to help others any time. With this assistant two school kids could able to go school on the other hand this is secure their child rights.

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GIVE WATER GIVE LIFE 
Thotagamuwa is a village situated in Hikkaduwa DS division & it was fully affected by the Tsunami disaster in year 2004. Now the community of the area trying to build step by step alone with the People’s Movement strongly by getting help, for their financial & other needs though this net work. There are 16 groups in our Thotagamuwa people’s movement & Mrs. Nayana Ranjini who is the treasure as well as one of the director board members of people’s movement give leadership for the branch to lead the members for common aim of development through net work. After the Tsunami Kitusewana flats has build in Thotagamuwa, for the homeless community of the village. But they didn’t get water supply for it. Some of the community in this flat was the member of our Thotagamuwa people’s movement & this water problem forward to the branch through the small groups. Then after the request came to people’s movement director board & they forward it to CLAPNET for to get financial assistance for it. Loan was approved & it was disbursed on last week. They disbursed loans for six members of the branch. This is a very effective for them. Rs.116, 610.00 were given in 18% reducing rate for the one year period in the range of loans are Rs.15, 000 to Rs.30, 000 for each person. This loan was disbursed through the group promise as collateral those who had well discipline in their group & branch works. As they are spending the life though day today business they didn’t have capacity to pay large sum of money at once to get the water supply. So now members are very happy as they could able to satisfy one of their basic needs through the assistance of their Thotagamuwa people’s movement. Finally they expressed their ideas that “they never forget this help & will give their contribution as per their capacity to expand the service of the movement for all”. This is another case study how people help to their own people because they didn’t get the water but when they join with the people’s movement they could able to get the water. Water is one of main needs of the human. They were suffering from the waster but now they are not suffering from water. Their living standard has been increased.

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PEOPLE’S MOVEMENT MARKETING STEP “A COMPFORT FOR  COMMUNITY” 
HELP-O has developed the People’s movement with the community of the urban & rural areas of Southern part of the Country to give them financial & other assistance especially marginalize poor community. Now many of the members have taken the financial assistance & have develop their business, but sometimes they are suffering with marketing problems for the products. After recognized & analyze the situation HELP-O started consumer marketing program to exchange the goods among our community with the idea of to give them a value & market for it. As the first step of the program last 27th January 2011 we started a marketing stall in Kalupe People’s Movement branch. The goods such as dried fish, Bakery products, Spices, Coir products & some other consumer products of our members in the nearest branches, are selling in this stall for low price than outside shops. This is innovative step that taken because many people don’t have a proper market for their goods. This is one of reason for loan default because many people get loans but can’t find a proper market for it. So HELP-O involved to this for solving this problem. Now members money doesn’t go out and it revolve within the village and within their products. As Thotagamuwa, Malawanna, Hikkaduwa & Kalupe branches are situated very close each other it’s much cost effective in providing the goods for the stall also. Through this program especially we were successes to come out with these aims such as Got a market in local level for the products Micro enterprises encouraged for production process Customers able to have fresh & good products Village money remains & rotate among villages Now on time the people’s movement is disbursing consumer loans in their branch level & here after we are planning to disbursed goods instead of money through this program. Further more people’s movement has design to start other stalls for ready made garment, handlooms in their village level & we hope to improve & encourage our members to do their self employments more. In future they will have a good market in local level & this way they are planning to become sustainable very soon with profit oriented ways.

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MICRO FINANCE CLIENTS & SERVICE 
“Provide small loans & other financial assistance specially those who has excluded from formal financial systems” is one definition about the Micro Finance. Now on time this is more famous & has spread all over the world by targeting marginalize community of the society. To take advantages of economic opportunities, invest in future & protects again economic shocks these poor community also need such type of financial service. They can draw down their savings or get loan facility in case of emergency rather than sell their assets for those who are the member of these MFIs. With the main aim of providing financial assistance these all MFI’s has designed & now on time it’s in competition to reach the poor with the viability of these organizations. They have diversified the products for savings, Loans, Insurance & also for foreign remittance even to face the competition. As the MFIs targeting the marginalize community more than financial assistance, they should provide to bring these community to society also. But situation is different in people’s movement because through our branches in village level provide these all services to the community. In village level as it designed for the grass root level people to come out with their needs. Through the Small group system we are trying to close with the community by giving assistance for their financial & other social needs. As they are in 5-10 members in the group it’s much easy to empower them step by step to come out from their traditional thinking styles even. The branch with content with more than 5 groups is the platform of the village level to come out for this community. By giving the leadership for them we empower & aware them to sustain in village level through mobilizing savings as well as through credit facility. Now not only financial support they get the leadership of the village early they were in kitchen but now they became village leaders. Even they organize the village and they are working to empower other members. Now on time the people’s movement has designed with all these branches in one net work to be close each other as a formal institution. The director board also selected from these branch leaders & indeed this is the big opportunity for all grass root level community to raise their voice for their financial & other social needs. The majority came from the grass root level community.

Please send your comments and suggestions ………………… Editor, HELP-O News Letter, No. 364/18 A, Samagi Mawatha, Dangedara, Galle. Sri Lanka. T.P / Fax - +94-91-4380121 / 222-6818 E-mail – helpogn@wow.lk URL – www.helpo-srilanka.org

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