Distributed Computing

Dr. Ajanta De Sarkar
Reader, CSE Dept. BIT Mesra, Kolkata Campus

Distributed system, distributed computing

Early computing was performed on a single processor. Uni-processor computing can be called centralized computing. A distributed system is a collection of independent computers, interconnected via a network, capable of collaborating on a task. Distributed computing is computing performed in a distributed system.
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Characteristics
– – – – – – –

Concurrency
Collaborative and cooperative problem-solving (interdependencies)

Independent failures of components
Autonomous but interdependent - requires coordination, graceful degradation

Lack of global clocks
Local (component) clocks and relativity of time when distributed

Heterogeneity
Hardware/software (programs, data) variations in component systems

Openness
Modularity, architecture and standards allow extensibility

Security
Protection (internal and external) against malicious use or attack - integrity

Scalability
Accommodation of increased users and resource demands over time

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Transparency

Hide separation of components (hidden by middleware)

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Distributed Computing Introduction, ADS : M. Liu

Distributed Systems

work stations

a local network

The Internet

a network host

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Distributed Computing Introduction, ADS : M. Liu

Examples of DS - The Internet
– –

Interconnected computers/intranets, which communicate over backbone/medium via messages using the IP (Internet protocol) Medium: wired: copper circuits, fibre optic; wireless: satellite, RF, IR

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Distributed Computing Introduction, ADS : M. Liu

Examples of DS - Intranets

– –

Locally owned interconnected computers – may be a component of a DS, e.g., the Internet – if so, the intranet is connected via a router Typically composed of LANs, with firewall (if connected to the Internet) for filtering incoming/outgoing transmissions

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Distributed Computing Introduction, ADS : M. Liu

Examples of DS - Mobile and Ubiquitous
Computing
– – –

Supported/spurred by advances in embedded system design – device miniaturization and wireless networking Mobile computing – access to intranet resources/services on-the-move Ubiquitous computing – transparent/intimate use of several, distributed and communicating small computing devices in a given physical environment (anywhere, anytime accessible) like office, hospital, home, classroom, …

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Distributed Computing Introduction, ADS : M. Liu

A small state-of-the practice DS

to/from cable headend

cable modem

router/ firewall Ethernet wireless access point

wireless laptops

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Distributed Computing Introduction, ADS : M. Liu

Computers in a Distributed System

Workstations: computers used by end-users to perform computing Server machines: computers which provide resources and services Personal Assistance Devices: handheld computers connected to the system via a wireless communication link.
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Centralized vs. Distributed Computing
terminal mainframe computer

workstation

network link

network host centralized computing distributed computing

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Distributed Computing Introduction, ADS : M. Liu

Monolithic mainframe applications vs. distributed applications
based on http://www.inprise.com/visibroker/papers/distributed/wp.html

The monolithic mainframe application architecture:

– –

Separate, single-function applications, such as order-entry or billing Applications cannot share data or other resources Developers must create multiple instances of the same functionality (service). Proprietary (user) interfaces Integrated applications Applications can share resources A single instance of functionality (service) can be reused. Common user interfaces
1/17/2011 Distributed Computing Introduction, ADS : M. Liu

The distributed application architecture:
– – – –

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Why distributed computing?

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Economics: distributed systems allow the pooling of resources, including CPU cycles, data storage, input/output devices, and services. Reliability: a distributed system allow replication of resources and/or services, thus reducing service outage due to failures. The Internet has become a universal platform for distributed computing. Distributed Computing
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Strengths of Distributed Computing

The affordability of computers and availability of network access Resource sharing Scalability Fault Tolerance
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Weaknesses of Distributed Computing
The disadvantages of distributed computing:  Multiple Points of Failures: the failure of one or more participating computers, or one or more network links, can spell trouble.  Security Concerns: In a distributed system, there are more opportunities for unauthorized attack.
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Basics of Operating Systems
    

Program & process States of a process Concept of Java programming Use of threads Concurrent Programming
– – –

Multiple computers Single computer Process based (thread)
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Network Basics

Protocols: set of rules which specify:
– –

how the exchanged data is encoded How the events are synchronized

  

Network Architecture: OSI & TCP/IP Internet host & router Network architecture Protocols:

TCP/IP, UDP, FTP, SNMP, HTTP
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Connection-Oriented Vs. Connectionless
    

Addressing Connection overhead Addressing overhead Data delivery order Protocols

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Domain Name System (DNS)

DNS – A symbolic name to identify the host

Domain Name com edu gov mil net org country

Meaning

Commertial Educational Government Military Major Providers Non-Profit 2-letters code
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Domain Name Hierarchy

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