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Individual Written Assignment
LESSONS LEARNED FROM CASE STUDIES ON THE EFFECT (OR LACK THEREOF) OF INNOVATION IN ATLEAST FIVE CORPORATIONS.
Prepared by Raunak Kabra - A0076886H
Division of Engineering & Technology Management
Table of Contents
ABSTRACT.................................................................................................................................... 2 SEGWAY CASE STUDY ................................................................................................................... 3 NINTENDO WII CASE STUDY ....................................................................................................... 12 FACEBOOK CASE STUDY ............................................................................................................. 19 TATA NANO CASE STUDY............................................................................................................ 26 GE CASE STUDY .......................................................................................................................... 33 SUMMARY ................................................................................................................................. 38 REFERENCES .............................................................................................................................. 39
RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H
ABSTRACT Innovation can be seen as the process that renews something that exists and not, as is commonly assumed, the introduction of something new. Innovation can be seen as a change in the thought process for doing something, or the useful application of new inventions or discoveries . It may refer to incremental, emergent, or radical and revolutionary changes in thinking, products, processes, or organizations. In an organization innovation is the multi-stage process whereby organizations transform ideas into new/improved products, service or processes, in order to advance, compete and differentiate themselves successfully in their marketplace . In this paper five varied and diverse innovations will be discussed. This will give us a good picture of just not only the type of innovation but the consequences and the after effects of it, whether it was a success or a failure and where it does presently stand. We begin with the Segway transporter which was a technological marvel but failed in the market due to poor marketing and launch. Then we discuss two disruptive innovations, Nintendo Wii and the TATA Nano. For Segway and TATA Nano the product development using stage gates  has been discussed and its SWOT analysis  has also been done. We have discussed Wii’s product development with the use of innovation funnel. Facebook the biggest internet innovation has been discussed in details in terms of its SWOT analysis . Lastly GE’s Reverse Innovation health care products have been discussed, in terms of its product development using the innovation funnel . Basically the SWOT analysis  has been done to summarize the lessons learnt from each of the innovation. Some key important take away points have been also highlighted. Apart from these Buyers Utility maps  have been made to further highlight the essential utilities and functions. All the case studies have been analyzed and thought upon keeping in mind the STP’s .
RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H
1. SEGWAY CASE STUDY Segway Inc., a US-based international company, is named after its flagship product, the Segway Personal Transporter (PT), the first self-balancing transportation device in the world . The company was founded by Dean Kamen in 1999 with the vision to develop highly- efficient, zero-emission transportation solutions using “dynamic stabilization”  technology. Segway went on sale for the first time to the public on Amazon.com in 2002. As of 2007, Segway had a worldwide distribution presence in 60 countries. As of 2008, over 1,000 police and security agencies are using Segway PT’s in their patrolling operations worldwide . Current revenue figures for Segway is unavailable, however, in 2003, the company’s revenue was about US $25 million and the sales volume was 6,000 units, falling short of the 50,000 to 100,000 expected unit sales from management . In September 2006, the company had to recall 23,500 units sold to date due to a software flaw that could cause the scooters’ wheels to instantly reverse direction and potentially injure riders . When it was launched in December 2001 the annual sales target was 40,000 units, and the company expected to sell 50,000 to 100,000 units in the first 13 months . Segway Inc.’s investors were optimistic. Dean Kamen predicted that the Segway "will be to the car what the car was to the horse and buggy"  and John Doerr, a venture capitalist who invested in the company, predicted that Segway Inc. would be the fastest company to reach US$1 billion in sales . However, only about 30,000 Segways were sold from 2001 to 2007 . More recently sales rose to an all-time high in 2008 due to the rising fuel cost prompting corporate consumers such as universities, police force, security companies, and large retailers to switch from cars and scooters to Segway to save on fuel. Company officials expected sales of the second quarter of 2008 to jump 50% from a year earlier, versus a 25% year-over-year increase in the first quarter . Critics point to Segway Inc.’s silence over its financial performance as an indication that the company is still not profitable, as about US$100 million was spent developing the Segway .
Figure 1.1  RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 3
but rather on electricity. The first issue was that consumers need a vehicle that does not take up space like a car to in order to reduce congestion . "but it makes no sense at all for people in cities to use a 4. Also. were extremely maneuverable and could operate on pedestrian sidewalks and pathways . consumers want to minimize the hassle in parking large vehicles such as cars in crowed public places. "Cars are great for going long distances. hence Segway needed to be light weight and small so that consumers can carry with them inside the destination. Thus Segway was designed to occupy minimal space. Based on the problems a business model and hence a value proposition was made. Segway needed to be small enough to get around crowded warehouses where tight corridors make it difficult to use bulkier vehicles or crowed pedestrian areas such as airports or amusement parks where larger vehicles are not allowed in." In the future he envisions. cars will be banished from urban centers to make room for millions of "empowered pedestrians"  ." Kamen said. Decision on Business Case and Development RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 4 . Thus Segway must be designed not to run on fuel. piece of metal to haul their 150-lb. Initial Screen and Preliminary Investigation The concept of Segway as a human transporter came to Dean Kamen when he saw a special opportunity to create a new discovery to replace the car and solve the problem of congestion.000-lb. air pollution and dependency on fuel in urban living. consumers could save on additional expenses caused by the rising fuel costs. That led him and his company to focus on creating devices that took up a minimal amount of space.Figure 1.2  Based on the above let us analyze the Segway innovation product development on the same lines. Additionally. Second Screen and Build Business Case To generate the concept for Segway. to solve this problem. Also. by not consuming gasoline. bodies around town. The second issue was that consumers being environmentally conscious want a vehicle that does not consume fuel like the bicycle . slightly larger than a person. the company identified the consumer problems and tried to solve them .
The different design functions that Segway has include: Figure 1. known only by the codenames 'Ginger' or 'IT' . Thus the team decided to concentrate at first on major corporations. Full Production. or 50. Based on the testing and validation the first issue was of Segway not being taken seriously by consumers who regard this invention as simply a high-end toy. looking to spend money to improve transportation costs. and the environment. driver protection measures. and chances of vehicle breakdown and collision. according to the founder Dean Kamen. The other issue was that of safety whereby traffic regulators question the level of safety of this new vehicle in terms of its accident probability.3  Post Development review & Testing and Validation Segway concept of post development analysis was done to check its scores in potential technical accomplishment and commercial accomplishment. Segway’s design centers mostly on technology as the company claims that it develops systems. The technology is all designed for ease of manufacture. They wanted to be certain of their customer base and they understood that the typical consumers will be cutting edge. established institutions--rather than dive straight into the consumer marketplace . universities and government agencies--large. Shrouded in secrecy. not individual components. before selling a single Segway. for almost a full year before it was revealed to the public. Thus Segway must be equipped with three computerized keys that set speed and performance limits to ensure safety on pedestrian pavements . a jet ski on wheels for the riches with money to splurge on . the device was the subject of unprecedented speculation RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 5 . meeting customer needs.000 units per week.000 units a year . Market Launch & Post Implementation Review In 2000. Segway was one of the most eagerly anticipated pieces of new technology in history . Based on the development and the offering. These businesses rely heavily on time saving measures and may be conscious of factors such as environmental friendliness and fuel reduction . efficiency-oriented businesses. solid.An important part of concept development is design . he predicted that his company would sell 10. differentiation.
Based on the post implementation analysis and review the following Buyer Utility Map  can be created for Segway. Kamen later described the information leak about Segway as ‘the single worst thing that has ever happened to me in business' . just 23. Segway never got a chance with consumers afterwards.. six years later. nothing in the world could ever meet the expectations that people had for it” said Dean Kamen  in defending the subsequent under performance of Segway. Coupled with the high price. Lessons Learned Reasons for the failure of the Innovation Based on the above case study and the sales data and figures available for Segway one can surely come to the conclusion that Segway was a failure. Thus when Segway was revealed to the US. functions. Marketing studies conducted for Segway before the launch estimated that the device would sell 31 million units during its first 10 to 15 years. a technological success but a commercial flop.500 machines had been sold worldwide .. it was an anti-climax . “I think that the hype it got was going to doom it. The perceived buyers thought and opinion about the products offerings. Following are the reasons for the failure of Segway based on the STP’s : Operational Perceptive RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 6 . This basically highlights Segway’s qualities. This is similar to the case of Motorola Iridium Global Telecom Network .about what it might be. utilities from the buyer’s point of view. or do. Statements from business and technical luminaries who were among the privileged few to have actually seen Ginger fuelled wildly imaginative conjecture about a technological miracle from the pages of science fiction. It surely hasn’t been discontinued but what the company aimed to achieve has been far from achieved.
Daymak Inc. As a kind of electric human transporters. Since it wasn’t done the way it should have been promoted. This surely would have helped in managing the launch of Segway better. In fact even these companies didn’t do well since such a product was of not much value but still in terms of value proposition on the basis of price and technology they were better off. There were software flaws which made driving unsafe and caused accidents . the management team should have had more diverse in expertise and professional background. finance. etc.. World Wide Scooters. It was not taken by consumers as a utility vehicle. Much more aggressive marketing in terms of advertising and promotions should have been enforced by the management team to prepare for the launch. E-scooters. There are many companies selling both electric scooter and electric bicycles such as Xtreme Motions. AMAZON. Big Picture Perceptive As mentioned above this is a classic example of technological success but marketing and management failure.. the true competitors of Segway were those electric scooter companies. marketing. E-bikes Daymak Inc. This was because of poor testing and implementation and hence the product had to be recalled. Instead partial preview of the new Segway should have been offered to the public in several stages to control the excitement and also to educate the public on what Segway was all about. especially after the hype. including sales. Structural Perceptive More market research and consumer research would have certainly helped the management team to understand the concept more and how to succeed. Functional Perceptive The product was initially not taken seriously by the consumer. E-motorcycles US. E-bikes. The secrecy about the invention should not have been kept for such a long time because the media blew it out of proportion and shaped the public expectation to an almost insurmountable level . not just engineering and technology.com  is a crucial cause for the failure. operations.The channel of distribution chosen. Overall. selling it online was an extremely poor decision. On top of that they didn’t have any contingency plan to alter public perception or to promote the actual product once again . It looked more like an unrequired innovation. The following is the comparison between Segway and two key competitors . and so on . Since the hype couldn’t be controlled it was an anti-climax when the product launched. Alberta and Both eastern and Ontario area south Ontario western Canada Page 7 RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H . This surely affected the brand value of the company and the products reliability. Instead of various distribution or dealer shops where one could actually test drive the product. rather taken as a high end toy . the consumers never understood the value of the innovation. Generic Perceptive Simpler and cheaper products with the same utility could be achieved or were available in the market. E-scooters. Board Brotherz Inc. Segway Product Place E-scooters Board Brotherz Inc. a push innovation  which was like a solution to a problem the customers could never identify with.
better forecasting methods should have been used to realistically predict the potential sales of Segway in its initial years. It has many patents  and its design and development is highly complex making it a technical marvel. Segway should have identified more customer problems and seriously thought about how to address them. Hence Segway needed to position itself much more aggressively as a cost saving. SWOT Analysis for the organisation and product  Strengths Technological Marvel. However. legal restrictions. Due to the growing hype the company should have tried for faster testing and launch. In fact a good enough product with almost the same performance and very little cost can actually disrupt its small existing niche market. zero emission transportation solution using ‘dynamic stabilization’  technology. many other factors must have been considered in order to have an accurate forecast such as consumer perception. Also they promoted their products by direct marketing such as direct mail or direct response television. Minimizing time to market the product and rapid market penetration could have helped in avoiding the anticlimax amplitude in the market. Highly efficient. Scientific Perceptive It is a highly technologically advanced product. The problems of pricing should have been solved by offering better financing options to purchase the vehicle such as leasing and instalments. With this and the miscalculated launch.Price Key Benefit $3500-$5500 $500-$1500 $700-$2500 High tech and high Economic price and High performance performance easy to carry and convenience The strategies of these two companies were very similar. There seemed to be a gap or misfit of new product attributes and customer requirements. First ever self-balancing human transport system . The management team was perhaps over optimistic about the potential sales because of the great hype built in the media before the launch. forecasting and marketing strategy the products value was further diminished. environmentally friendly and convenient alternative to cars and bicycles in order to attract new customers. Temporal Perceptive With regards to concept evaluation. Quantitative Perceptive High price of the product was one of the most crucial points which killed its sales and on top of that even shipping was expensive . Such an advanced product is not required by the masses. RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 8 . willingness to buy. But there is a gap between the customer requirement and the value proposition. level of disposable income available. Continuum Perceptive In terms of concept generation. They used interactive marketing which allowed consumer to view the information or purchase online. Thus better market research should have been executed to ensure the forecast was not far off from reality and also to reduce waste from over production . etc.
People are more likely to buy those high technological products now. People in North America are more health conscious than ever before. Also. Looking at the innovation it looks that the product development was done in terms of ‘what’ need the product should address and not in terms. The marketing strategy if changed drastically. Apart from just the online sale. dealers and distributor centres must be established and test ride should be offered.  Purchase price may be prohibitive for many potential users. Technology is developing very fast. The actual value of the product as an environmental friendly zero emission transport system has been ignored. Hence Segway can be promoted on those lines. though the cost is partially offset long term by nominal upkeep. The number of points of sale must increase in order to reach the consumers better to push sales and profits. Opportunities Most important. Wrong distribution channel chosen. of a technology ‘how’. Still not widespread marketing or publicity. They are concerned about health and natural environment in which they live. Minor inconvenience: rubber plug-in protectors on the machines seemed a bit loose. inconsistent with generally excellent build standards and small software failures and flaws . the cause for the failure of Segway. Obviously. The problems of pricing can be solved by offering better financing options to purchase the vehicle such as leasing and instalments . a health and fitness vehicle! They may also pay attention to the effects of the product on nature environment. The weakness for Segway’s human transporters is the laws regarding legal riding areas which include either sidewalks or streets. Convenient small vehicle with fuel independence using minimal space. So after so many years it is re-launched things might change if the right strategies are adopted. Diffusion rate for any technology or innovation might take time .e. the communication style is influenced by technological trends . And Segway is really a high-tech product which provides more convenience and safety. There are many methods that can help companies deliver messages to customers. Weaknesses We have discussed most of the weaknesses above. Segway makes less pollution than those e-bikes and emotorcycles . Based on it we can consolidate with reference to the present scenario of the product and the company. Able to manoeuvre and use on roads and pavements. to hope to solve a problem . The target market of Segway should also focus on urban people. People can get the information about Segway from everywhere. more people are interesting in outdoor activities. better financing options for aspiring consumers must be provided. i. Threats RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 9 . As a result.. And it allowed interactive communications between customers and companies through internet and database system. Different countries vary in laws and regulations on having the transporters on the roads or sidewalks. If it aims and focuses on the population concentrated in urban markets it will help. flopping around a bit on the more rigorously used machines. It’s being actually used in amusement parks as a joy or fun ride .
For instance General Motors have come up with a two seat electric car on the lines of Segway called ‘EN-V’ . The same is applicable in many countries as well. The other major threat against the Segway is government related. The same is applicable for Segway as well. In North America.5  RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 10 .4  Figure 1. It might be cheaper with the same performance value. Technology keeps evolving and there soon might be a better offering which might disrupt the existing product. where it is considered as a threat to the pedestrians . New invention comes with competition. Products evolve from existing product. various states have different laws and regulations that outline how and where Segways may be used. Figure 1.
value proposition and time might be wrong. Appropriateness of contingent action approach depends on the opportunity cost of time and the rate at which uncertainty can be reduced via incremental steps Stick to the “what-not-how” principle.Take away from this case study Plan for realistic growth. One has to be flexible and adaptable to changing situations and scenarios. independent of the technology one thinks will best apply to that need . Requires a lot of market study. Forecasting has to be very practical taking into account the worst case scenarios. accounting for the likely incubation period. In developing and launching new-category products/services/systems. Also the cost. one has to assume things will be wrong. including which market segments will adopt the product and why . What is the need your new-category product addresses. Higher the value and lower the cost innovation is a success Testing. RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 11 . validation and post implementation review are very crucial steps of an innovation development. Innovation fails if no perceived differentiation and usefulness. customer base and is full of uncertainties . Push Innovation  is not an easy to implement case. A lot of attention and time needs to be given to it. Always be ready for surprises and try to adapt and react quickly.
by 3. Considering that Nintendo was behind Sony and Microsoft in the race for the top spot in the gaming race. This is of importance because of the fact that Nintendo’s previous products that were in the market were always lagging behind the competitors’ products in the fifth (1994-2002) and sixth (1998-2006) generation of gaming technology .2. NINTENDO WII CASE STUDY Nintendo Wii . young and old. 2006 . at sixth position. As a seventhgeneration console. the Wii primarily competes with Microsoft's Xbox 360 and Sony's PlayStation 3. Thus the seventh generation saw the change in the scene. PlayStation 3. Nintendo has been keeping gaming alive since 1985 with the release of the original Nintendo (Famicom in Japan) and still keeps the true spirit of gaming alive today . Fig 2. In 2007. This move gave them a headstart which proved to be advantageous. Microsoft’s Xbox 360 kick-started the console war in the seventh generation in 2005 . at 4.this innovative hardware has really changed the way people. a year ahead of its two competitors. Nintendo Wii finished second in terms of worldwide video console game hardware sales.69 million units. The Wii is a home video game console released by Nintendo on November 19. Sony’s PlayStation 3 followed in 2006 and Nintendo’s Wii RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 12 .29 million units . surely an extraordinary feat.1  Let us analyze and study the Wii innovation with regards to the above Innovation development funnel. The Nintendo N-64 and Game Cube. It outsold the highest performance machine. The nearest competitor was Microsoft Xbox 360 in third position.62 million units sold . the product during those times were inferior to the Sony PlayStations and the Microsoft X-Box. look at gaming. behind its own Nintendo DS. with 6. with Wii it just went straight on top by capturing the major share of the market.
Sony PlayStation 3 and Microsoft Xbox 360 are examples of such video consoles . women. New and easy to use controller (Operational and Functional Perspective)  – Mastering complex controllers. With sound and reliable R&D capabilities. The Wii meanwhile. was on par with the other competitors. “…There is the TV set. is having a huge success despite being the lowest performance machine among the three . Reaching beyond Existing Gamers (Big Picture and Functional Perspective)  – Besides the existing supporters. Nintendo planned to move beyond the obvious market in the gaming technology. and make gaming part of their life. On the generic. Sony and Microsoft are the key advocates in this aspect. Capabilities & Market Assessment and Forecasting Nintendo. and the general non-gamer people. With highly innovative and fun games Nintendo planned to change people’s perspective on video games. For example. not typically drawn to this form of interactive entertainment. Even the Game Cube was a good console but never had the same mass appeal and gaming diversification that Sony offered with its PlayStation. These people include housewives.was released a week later . here is the controller. It anticipates the next-generation video games console to have better and flashier graphics. triggers and joysticks have already stopped many novices or non-gamers to be interested in games . in terms of its capabilities. Nintendo has to carry out bold and brand-new moves. Nintendo planned to tap into the previously untapped consumers of the video games market. This would lead to better gaming experience for a wider audience. This industry depends on discontinuous disruptive innovation. As a result. on the big picture perspective . on the functional and operational perspective . Satoru Iwata. based on the market assessment. Discontinuous Innovation The alternative belief is to use existing technologies and focus on developing unique user interface. to prevent loss in market share. We should not hesitate to crash through the system Nintendo itself created…”. PlayStation 3 struggled due to its relatively hefty price tag. festooned with buttons. Wii “has been designed to appeal even to people who are not interested in games” . functional and scientific perspective there are two different video game industries: Sustaining Innovation The mainstream video game industry believes that better technology leads to better games. 2. The industry recognizes that games should not be limited just to interactions using the game controller. Nintendo designed RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 13 . Nintendo is one of the players in this industry . in the generic perspective . The following describes the strategies adopted by Nintendo: Product/ Market Strategy 1. and older consumers. the elderly. Hence it was clearly understood by Nintendo that with its existing capabilities it needs to come up with a break through innovation. This is mainly because it introduces a totally new and innovative game play system. Therefore. video games can now be played and enjoyed by the whole family. They focus on pursuing faster processing speed and better graphics in their game consoles. Nintendo targets to open a mass market of first-time game players. This industry relies highly on sustaining innovation. Despite arguably being the highest performance machine. according to Nintendo’s President. (held) in both hands. structural perspective. Usually perceived as toys for boys. In order to achieve that. In fact its products were quite superior prior to the fifth generation.Satoru Iwata. President of Nintendo  Nintendo aims to let people rethink about gaming.
Nintendo Wii –wireless controllers. Shortening the Game Time (Temporal Perspective) . For instance. The Budget Console (Quantitative Perspective) . Thus. playing games involves investing enormous amounts of time. Nintendo launched Wii as a budget alternative (US$ 250)7 to Sony PS3 (US$ 500)8 and Microsoft Xbox (US$ 400)9 in the 7th generation consoles . which can be wielded as a weapon or for various sports equipment during game play. Wii Remote is the wireless controller. etc. It has around 97 patents  registered for Wii. gamers used the new controller as they would in reality which allows them to pick up instinctively . Nintendo designed simple games.Nintendo’s competitors consider both processing power and beautiful graphics as key elements to success. 3. such as “Wii Sports”  that only require play time of a few minutes per game. The shortened game time may appeal to non-gamers or casual gamers. easy-to-use controller. 2. while playing “Wii Sports” (golf.). totally different from the conventional one. Moving Closer to Mixed Reality (Generic and Functional Perspective)  . This ease of use has given Nintendo a great advantage over their rivals .consoles with a new. which can be used as a handheld pointing device and can detect acceleration in three dimensions. For example.2  RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 14 . Figure 2. Do it differently (Operational and Functional Perspective)  . consumers are not keen to try epic games which usually take dozens of hours to complete. but rely on real-life.To many people.Consumers want great entertainment experiences and products that are value for money. Nintendo aims to provide both. 4. With hectic lifestyles. bowling. tennis. It attracts new gamers with its innovative but not quite cutting-edge console.Games with Nintendo Wii are no longer escapist scenarios. Capability Strategy 1. Also the features that distinguish Wii from its competitors are Wii Remote and WiiConnect24 . WiiConnect24 enables it to receive messages and updates over the Internet while in standby mode . The technological advancement Nintendo has been able to show is because of its capabilities. but Nintendo defers.
The above figure shows how Nintendo has moved in terms of performance and advancement on the S curve. Consumers want great entertainment experiences and value for money. which Nintendo wants to compete in. Wii defined a new set of rules. “Our competitors are stuck in an old paradigm. president of Nintendo America. articulated this. and we provide both. They think that processing power and beautiful graphics is the path to success. Reggie FilsAime. ” The following generic comparison proves the above statement : Business strategy RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 15 . While Sony and Microsoft move on the existing technology curve Nintendo preferred to movie up the technology ladder and hence achieve a breakthrough. Instead of competing in terms of performance. We disagree.
female and older players). it displaces the market incumbent. Nintendo invites them to develop the video games for the Wii. Nintendo’s objectives. 2. and sustains its continuous effort in R&D. Wii Remote. and sell them over the WiiShop channel. Nintendo sources talents from its users. here is the following Buyers Utility Map  for Nintendo Wii.1. and improve profit margin with WiiWare . Wii can be described as a disruptive innovation . RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 16 . Nintendo has acquired its own particular strategic positioning.In order to obtain a continuous stream of innovations. Nintendo can minimize risk. In general. By examining the innovation model of Wii. Clayton Christensen defined disruptive innovation as innovation of lower cost and performance. promoting good enough concept and providing a better sensation of virtual reality. some of the factors and strategies that enabled Wii to overcome its competitors have been studied. planning and management are based on the above. From the strategies in the three aspects mentioned above. However. By tapping into the creativity of the crowds. by producing game consoles which can appeal to players in different demographics. Wii targets a different market segment of the nontraditional gamers (i. Meanwhile. Apart from its functionality and the use it also highlights the advantages and the plus points of the product over the other generic competitor products. Operational and Generic Perspective) – For introducing Wii it seems Nintendo tried to adopt a business strategy to disrupt its competitors . As shown previously. Based on the information collected and the accumulated knowledge of the innovation. the performance and cost are lower. Nintendo ensures its profit by providing less costly consoles. Wii has successfully beaten the incumbent to become market leader by using existing technologies. It is called WiiWare program. which targets a new market segment and by successively moving up-market through performance improvement. In fact. to achieve the effects of a disruptive innovation .e. Structural. Open Innovation (Structural Perspective)  . Nintendo has mainly centered its innovation and strategies on the console’s wireless primary controller. Disruptive Innovation model (Functional.
Not stopping so soon (Big Picture Perspective)  .With the strategy to broaden the gaming population. there were signs that the Japanese market was starting to shrink . Fitness Industry (Functional Perspective)  – This is something which is a cutting edge feature from Nintendo Wii. This is huge market potential. the females and the elders a user of their product and they plan to further expand on the above lines. hula-hoop. 3. Wii Bowling . This is especially so because Nintendo users include the very young gamers. The game itself contains around 40 different activities which include yoga. Nintendo could develop games that are tailored to the needs of education purposes. as this is a largely untapped market . Nintendo is no longer fighting against Sony and Microsoft. This is one area where Nintendo can explore in the long run. As emphasized by Iwata. This undermines the prospects for future growth. Its real enemy is the indifference that many people still feel towards gaming. The industry has reached a crossroad. Developing Video Games for Education (Functional and Operational Perspective)  . and other exercise. etc.The utilization of games in education as a mode of learning has been long debated but till now there are no fruitful outcomes. The idea of the game is to let family members exercise together while having fun at the same time. The Wii Balance Board is a peripheral which users step-on while playing the game. push up. by designing products for existing gamers and neglecting non-gamers . Nintendo has already got a reputation of keeping the people active with its Wii Tennis. 2. This is another one of their strategies to make the young children. Lessons Learned SWOT Analysis  RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 17 . Wii Fit game uses yet another innovative controller called the “Wii Balance Board” . It went a step ahead and created Wii Fit  as a full-fledged Gaming cum fitness equipment. all in the comfort of their living room. The gaming industry has always been stigmatized with the statement of “Computer games have been implicated in obesity and inactivity in young people“.Post Project Learning and Improvement 1. President of Nintendo. The board can also measure user’s weight and center of gravity. Nintendo needs something radical to change the situation and continue its effort to tap into the nongamer market.
Take Away from this case study Relying on the company capabilities and studying the market is very essential. One can move beyond the obvious and can offer a product just not for the conventional use. Innovation is not a success if no perceived differentiation and usefulness. RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 18 . Higher the value and lower the cost innovation is a success. Exploring new opportunities and new customers is very important. Also the cost. one has to come up with incremental and disruptive features to expand further into the existing market . Certain demand can be created by studying the latent users . place to place. It’s just not about sustaining. perceived buyers can be crucial factors. Each user has its own perceived expectations for a product. Open innovation along with horizontal integration seems better and it makes a company more diversified . It varies from person to person. value proposition.
commonly known to schools as Facebook . He added applications and expanded the networks to other schools. and text links for feature navigation.S. However.000 photo views .com. Zuckerberg’s social networking website. It targeted specifically the students within each university. Design and Core Features (Functional and Operational Perspective)  The design of Facebook is centralized around the profile of the users and other core features of Facebook which can be added on (such as Photo-Sharing. With endorsement from university students from reputable schools such as Harvard. Marine Corps . which randomly paired photos of undergraduates and invited visitors to determine who was “hotter”. The design is simple. and to work networks such as employees from the Central Intelligence Agency.1 million monthly unique U. Harvard did not offer such a directory and the administration insisted that they were unable to aggregate the information required. Facebook. one night. These features appealed to students. it shall be analyzed keeping in mind the various STP’s Lessons Learned Strengths The Untapped Market (Big Picture Perspective)  Unlike other social networking sites which had been targeting the older demographics or teenagers (in the case of MySpace). After four hours. While the emphasis is on the lessons learnt from a successful innovation. remember our co-workers' birthdays. bug our friends. saying. and the U. Students needed such directory services and Facebook provided a better site than that of schools. was opened to the public . Thus. It uses common graphical user interfaces. Harvard administration disconnected Zuckerberg’s internet connection and took down the site. Eventually in September 2006. A January 2009 Compete.S.7 billion photos on site and more than 14 million uploaded daily. Entertainment Weekly put it on its end-of-the-decade "best-of" list. which is about one person for every fourteen in the world. college sophomore Mark Zuckerberg wanted to build an online version of student directory with basic information. As of July 2010 Facebook has more than 500 million active users. This following part examines the SWOT analysis  of Facebook and to understand and illustrate the different technological and management concepts. Zuckerberg hacked into Harvard’s student records and created a basic site called Facemash. McDonald’s. which was made on him and his innovation . FACEBOOK CASE STUDY In 2004.0 which college students like. As users invest great amount of effort in building up their profiles. 450 visitors. Facebook is a social network service and website launched in February 2004 that is operated and privately owned by Facebook. Inc. and use of the core features (such as uploading high volume of photos) actively. The site is largely unobtrusive and easy for students to use. "How on earth did we stalk our exes. and 22.com study ranked Facebook as the most used social network by worldwide monthly active users. Stanford and Yale. Organization by classes and groups allows students to adequately represent and express themselves. Video and Event applications) . Such is the success story of Mark Zuckerberg that recently in October 2010 a movie named The Social Network released. visitors. Facebook was designed by college students for college students.3. which ranked number one on the Web with more than 2. . Zuckerberg continued with this new project as he believed that information should be available to all students. and play a rousing game of Scrabulous before Facebook?” Quant cast estimates Facebook has 135 . it creates a high switching cost for the users to other RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 19 . They provided interactivity of Web 2. students from universities in other countries were also keen to join after Facebook added their schools in . followed by MySpace.
PHP). As such. Revenue Model (Quantitative Perspective)  Apart from the venture capitalists   and the various other finance sources. these specifications are clearly documented. Facebook’s open architecture also allows existing Web businesses to plug directly into their social infrastructure with their own Facebook applications. the success of these core features resulted in the lock-in of users to the Facebook platform . Strategic Partnership (Functional Perspective)  In August 2006. the number of prior adopters is a term in the value available to the next adopter. The Network Effect (Operational Perspective)  Network effect is a characteristic that causes a good or service to have a value to a potential customer which depends on the number of other customers who own the good or are users of the service . Facebook has its innovative source of income from the website. harnessing the efforts of the community . RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 20 . the expansion and maintenance of Facebook applications is almost autonomous. Colleges such as Stanford University and National University of Singapore have started to offer modules on Facebook programming . It defines its own interfacing language. in return for giving US$900 million in guaranteed payments through 2010 . this will also further popularize the development of third party Facebook applications among students. Furthermore. MySQL. Microsoft signed a deal to be the exclusive seller and provider of banner advertising and sponsored links for Facebook . after losing out to rival Google on the deal. In other words. and increasing at 140 new applications per day. Technically. The value of such networking sites to the users is in the form of being connected to more users. By working on the dynamic relationship among competitors and complementary service providers. Structural and Scientific Perspective)  Besides the thirteen basic Facebook applications. a free and open source software stack. Hence. Hence the participation of large number of users will encourage more users to join the site. the Facebook Markup Language (FBML). The resultant third party applications developed allow users to interact (adding and removing of modules) with them in very similar manner. Facebook continued to ride on the network effect to attract more users . Facebook was able to benefit from the strategic partnership. This highlighted the academics’ perspective on the importance of the Facebook API for social networking platforms. by opening the social network to the greater online community. This presents advantages for the users as well as Facebook .000 third party applications built on the Facebook Platform. and opened up the Facebook API to anyone interested in developing Facebook applications. it had already established a critical mass of users in schools and organizations. Prior to the public launch of Facebook. Apache. it is important to have a critical mass of users.social networking sites. The youthful demographic that Facebook attracts is highly prized amongst advertisers. the source of revenue for Facebook. As these third party applications are hosted on their own servers. For social networking sites. it means that there is a continuously growing pool of applications available for Facebook users. and other than its core services. Modular and Open Architecture (Functional. Thus. it is possible for third party developers to build new applications as Facebook is based on a modular architecture design and operates on LAMP (Linux. the site has over 15. On the other hand. MySpace and Google signed a deal for Google to provide search and contextual ads to MySpace.
Stickiness is also a result of all the rich features/apps and user interface making it very easy to use and explore different applications. someone writing a wall message. Operational and Continuum Perspective)  Unlike other social networking software.000 for three months. The cost of each sponsored group is US$300. These advertisements are filtered according to targets’ gender. age. Besides the common banner advertisements. Other applications offer something similar. Facebook seems to have found that right balance of privacy. In the former sponsorships. Email was a thing of yesterday. Features like "status" and the tracker feed make it really sticky. There were 186 sponsored groups in September 2007 . Facebook allows users to make their own advertisements known as Facebook Flyers at low prices based on number of clicks. advertisements are displayed in the News Feed section of Facebook users’ pages which most users pay attention to. Semi-synchronous messaging (Operational and Functional Perspective)  Instant messaging/chat requires your full attention to maintain a meaningful conversation. Sponsorship  – This is in the form of homepage sponsored stories and sponsored groups. rich user data and implicit targeting make it extremely powerful. but Facebook provides a much easier way to get notified and get visibility into what others are doing. Facebook offers wall messaging that allows sending short messages quickly to different people. Stickiness (Temporal and Operational Perspective)  Facebook is addictive. Privacy Settings (Functional. people want their friends to know what they are doing. The click-through rates of such advertisements are higher than normal banner advertisements by ten to twenty times. Gifts – Users can purchase limited edition virtual gifts for other Facebook users at US$1 per item . other people can read them and are notified when a wall message is written to someone else. super addictive. add request on Facebook forces one to logon to Facebook. and regional networks . friends know when other friends message each other. For revenue generating applications. Facebook provides them with a peer-to-peer network and provides them with a platform to launch their application. friends know when one has added pictures. NBA Finals Trivia Challenge) are personal environments for users to gather and interact. People want to know what their friends are doing. These groups (such as Apple Students. Friends know when something changes. transforming the brand into a participant of Facebook. Display advertisements – Example of revenue from this is through outsourcing advertising deal. PINK Victoria Secret. It's almost an excuse to get onto Facebook. Facebook notifications. RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 21 . are applied with a premium. Depending on privacy settings. Sponsored groups are groups in Facebook created for particular brand of goods. education status. The levels of filtering (such as by gender or location) for targeted users. Partners and 3rd party applications (Operational and Functional Perspective)  There are companies that are betting their entire business on Facebook. Direct advertisements accounts for majority of Facebook’s revenue. Users can choose what their personal privacy settings and at the same time their friends (and possible people in their Networks)  know exactly what's going on.
change it and jump back to another application or profile. Consistency and Experience (Scientific. It’s a painful task to add applications. Also. They have a developer kit that's fairly straightforward.0 world. Facebook really has the opportunity to provide some thought leadership here. Weaknesses Application Availability. drive a standard. how to configure it. Instant Messaging is poor (Operational Perspective and Generic Perspective)  While they have semi-synchronous messaging. there's no guarantee in a web 2. While this model has a number of benefits. Arguably this is a bad step because it could mean more people signing up for other social networking sites. they should have a feature.Momentum (Temporal Perspective)  Facebook is one of the hottest things on the Internet and they know it. because these applications are hosted elsewhere. one of the difficulties is managing consistency. Lack of profile compatibility (Big Picture Perspective)  There are efforts going on to create a profile standard of sorts. but it's not that appealing and doesn't match up with other Instant Messaging applications in the market. like the Google Talk. Navigation and Use of the applications (Functional and Operational Perspective)  Related to the point above. they are getting a lot of attention. There's an application for instant messaging. While Facebook does review some of these applications. Sometimes it’s difficult to know how to go to a particular app. Opportunities Expansion to Mobile Platforms (Functional and Operational Perspective)  In 2007. that offers the linking of different profiles across social networking (or related) applications. it could experience downtime. In the last few years it has tied up with the other devices as well. Facebook tied up with T-Mobile to add its platform to Research in Motion (RIM) BlackBerry devices . the experience is different. Most importantly. On the flip side. Google and other big hitters interested in getting a piece of the pie. some individuals and companies have profited tremendously from this model and Facebook has increased its stickiness and relevancy. Yahoo Messenger. but this is inevitable and it's important for them to consider a leadership role here. This might be a weakness but it offers a great opportunity as well. Mobile platforms RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 22 . finding the right application or an application that's relevant when there are thousands of useless applications out there. They give themselves an eleven figure valuation With Microsoft. with new developments. They keep getting better day by day. Their feature of being able to import from address books is great. they have the attention of 10s of millions of users – these users aren't going anywhere any time soon. Functional and Operational Perspective)  Facebook allows different companies/individuals to build applications. updates and changes for the users . they don't quite have a good instant messaging provision. Facebook has become the portal for many applications and experiences. Because these applications are developed by different companies.
Facebook can link these entities of interest (such as book titles or movie titles) directly to the internet shopping web sites (such as eBay or Amazon) of these items. by connecting to trends and integrating with services. Facebook is one of these many interactive applications (such as eBay. etc. This illustrated the potential size of the market and suggested that regions which with higher adopting rate of mobile Facebook may be the areas with high personal computer penetration. Users browsing these profiles are more motivated to click-through these links than those in advertisements. Thus. in Japan. Looking Outside Social Networking (Generic. Blogger.6 million) was almost equal to the number users doing so using personal computers (estimated 53. As college students are very familiar with the Facebook RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 23 .). Operational and Functional Perspective)  The modular architecture of Facebook can be applied to fields outside social networking. it predicted a rise of 18 percent of online sales to US$259.0 platform" or better yet a new category altogether.0 has changed the average user’s web browsing experience tremendously. the number of users using mobile phones to access the Internet (estimated 53.7 million) .0 technology. By relating brand preference more prominently to the users’ profiles. In a 2007 Forrester report. There is a trend of increasing online sales. Facebook can think big as well.0" social computing apps . profile. Beyond the Facebook Platform (Scientific and Structural Perspective)  Web 2.1 billion . They need to build and position themselves as a real platform vs. an application. Corporation with More Brands (Functional and Quantitative Perspective)  Brands can make use of Facebook as a tool to get closer to the consumers (offering latest products and news) and gathering feedback (for improvement or observing trends) on their products. Facebook will become the de facto service provided of users’ web content (such as photos. Facebook applications such as “Books iRead” capture the users’ interests. It has enabled users with relatively average computer know-how to publish more content to the World Wide Web. They've done decent job thinking through the technology and marketing elements thus far. By thinking like a platform and positioning themselves to be the "Social (Peer-to-Peer) Platform" or "Web 2. Connecting to Trends (Operational and Quantitative Perspective)  The Facebook users’ profiles are source of information on users’ preferences and background.present opportunities for Facebook to meet users’ needs away from the desks. In a study released by Comscore in June 2007. it's important for them to continue investing in the technology as well as the marketing and evangelism. and enable users to easily integrate the full array of Web 2. etc.0 applications . ultimately leading to one universal experience for social interactions. Facebook can produce a business model for them to mutually benefit (such as sharing profit of directed sales for internet shopping). Besides pushing the advertisements to users through contextual-aware advertising. Wikipedia. They need to differentiate themselves and create a new category altogether. they have the opportunity to separate themselves from the other "Web 2.) using Web 2. They will have essentially created a next generation web platform that businesses and technologies rely on. it is likely that users in the same community will try these brands as well. if it can expand beyond its core website. Facebook will be able to secure more sponsorship and provide value-add to users at the same time. The Facebook architecture and open APIs lend themselves to be pluggable and scalable. One such example is using it as a teaching tool. To be successful. Through customizing and marketing such opportunities to more brands. videos.
developing a brand culture is the key to sustaining success. RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 24 . Along with focusing on the platform angle. applications and experiences delivery. with 12. Be it physical goods or digital media. Facebook has a real opportunity to partner with companies like eBay. ex. Functional and Operational Perspective)  Peer-to-peer business models can be developed using Facebook. Beacon proved to be controversial as security researcher from Computer Associates found out that it tracked users' off-Facebook activities even if those users are logged off from the social-networking site .interface. Facebook. could give eBay a run for their money. Hi5. Similarly. Friendster. Amazon and Apple to drive peer-to-peer. Facebook provides a platform for easier access and is centred on people. users will be able to identify with products of same family (such as in the case of Apple with the “i” products. Loyalty will be with Facebook as long as they innovate and provide a great experience. iPhone. and MySpace and certainly more will come up. Facebook can become the new way content. New Business Models  (Structural. Facebook Brand Culture  (Structural and Operational Perspective)  As seen in many successful brands. etc. iPod. or take a piece of the pie from them. Facebook can either create their own. Google OpenSocial is a more open cross-platform alternative when compared with Facebook API as it supports other social networking sites such as Bebo. for example. The Facebook platform collects large sets of personal information. Operational and Big Picture Perspective)  It is one of the current major issues for Facebook. Orkut. schools can make use of the Facebook Platform to be interactive tools for instructional purposes. Orkut. Facebook can continue to target other markets by developing a brand culture and products from its initial success . LinkedIn. People can start selling their "stuff" on Facebook. It implements the OpenSocial API which is Google’s equivalent of the Facebook API for third party developers to build applications. Through customization based on profiles of other targeted market. Threats Privacy (Functional. mySpace. Facebook can launch hybrid versions of its current social networking site and other products using its brand culture (such as sites for the older demographic). LinkedIn. they have to learn from other failures and not lose the confidence of their customers. Apart from that there are a number of social computing sites out there today: Friendster. Competitors  (Generic Perspective)  There is a threat from Google’s ambition in the area of social networking. With the success of one single product. new users may not understand how their information is used and how to control their privacy settings.). Facebook launched an advertising system known as Facebook Beacon . they need to make sure they continue to innovate.4 million unique visitors in October 2007. OpenSocial is Google’s solution for open and modular architecture. It allows Google to strategize for higher market share through Orkut or assist mySpace to compete more competitively against Facebook . It allowed users to share information from other websites for distribution to their friends on Facebook. community-to-community services. Google’s social networking site. etc. is the most popular in Latin America. Although Facebook provides one of the best privacy management tools amongst social networking sites. to connect businesses with users and targeting advertising to the audiences they want. In November 2007.
In fact for the case of Facebook if the server crashes it might just create havoc worldwide.1  Fig 3. Fig 3. the "framework" needs to be worked on and as Facebook becomes a popular framework. Incremental innovation is the need of the hour for such services. For such a fast growing innovation the technical team has to be at toes to come up with something unique all the time. bad applications must not surface and real work needs to be done to navigate. but this scenario has never occurred till now. Take Away from this Case Study Performance and Scalability are very essential for a fast growing organization like Facebook since the users are always expecting something new and different  .Tackling the Application Problem (Functional and Operational Perspective)  Already mentioned in the weaknesses section. it could leave a sour taste in a user's mouth . Choosing the perfect demographics is a key point. complex and no easy to use applications. Sustaining/ continuous innovation is advisable for an offering like this since there is stiff competition in the market.2  RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 25 . Hence this is true for any new product/innovation/service. Based on the success it became bigger and better. Incremental growth is what it all started with. As part of the platform. Reputation management is important for brands like these since they have loyal customers and a strong brand value in the market . of unwanted. find and rate applications. if there is too much. Facebook must figure out how to make the functionality better so it continues to be a clean and fun place against over-crowded and frustrating. Especially if youngsters are the target market then word of mouth plays an important role for the popularity of the product . Relevant applications must surface.
Based on the Stage Gate New Product Process by Robert G Cooper  let us analyze the NANO innovation product development on the same lines.”  People wanted to move from 2 wheelers to cars but it was the affordability problem which was limiting them. his young kid standing in front of him. Tata is targeting a price of 100. The completion of this project changed the name of the Indian Automobile globally. Unveiled on January 10. the Tata Nano is a small. that could change fast.wheelers -. 2008 at the 9th annual Auto Expo at Pragati Maidan in New Delhi. Initial Screen and Preliminary Investigation A dream is born – says Ratan Tata. Widely perceived as the "People's Car" and as the “Cheapest car in the world” available for Rs 1 lakh. Second Screen and Build Business case RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 26 . If four wheels cost as little as two wheels. It has received an overwhelming response as soon as it was unveiled. TATA NANO CASE STUDY The name Tata Nano is in itself a project of pride to Indians. After four years the car was displayed retaining the same price tag. He announced the Rs 1 lakh price of the car much before the work on the car started. At a time when the demand for fuel efficient and low-cost cars is high.000 rupees and 70. It is being hailed as the brightest idea in the recent times for automotive industry of the world . About 7 million scooters and motorcycles were sold in India in 2008. the entry of Tata's much publicized proposed small car Nano into the Indian car market is being widely seen as a ray of hope .parts made in foreign lands.600 . Mr.3 million passenger vehicles were sold in India in the fiscal year ending March 2006 . Add to that the slippery roads & Night time too. “I observed families riding on two.the father driving the scooter. to a place where innovations and research can happen and even reach new heights. It sounds practically impossible in the West but this is three times the per capita income in India . typically for prices between 30. the chai rman of the Tata Motors . There was a huge gap in the time that Tata had announced the price and it was launched. from an industry where people just fixed the auto.000 rupees one lakh which is equivalent to $2500. about $675 to $1. It is downright dangerous. Ratan Tata first thought of gifting the India’s middle class society a car that will carry a price tag of a two wheeler and features of a four wheeler. Indian car buyers today represent a tiny slice of a potentially giant market. affordable. affordable city car not only aimed primarily at the Indian car market but also the global markets . his wife seated behind him holding a little baby.000 people . The Nano concept popped up into his mind when he saw a family traveling somehow scrambled in a two wheeler in rain. it has set many hearts fluttering in many countries. the Tata Nano is a dream come true for Ratan Tata. That means a billion Indians buy about the same number of cars in a year as 300 million Americans buy in a month . Ratan Tata in 2004 spoke of a dream car.4. but the price remained the same. Ever since Tata Nano was showcased in 2008. Mr.000 rupees. It led me to wonder whether one could conceive of a safe. but just 1. Tata Nano has made innovation and price limit synonymous with each other. all-weather form of transport for such a family. India's auto industry has grown an average of 12% for the past decade. India has just seven cars per 1. The very site of this urged him to build a car that will suit the need of middle class family. Mr Tata said that a “Promise was a promise” .
The car should be built on a different platform than conventional ones. 1 lakh on road . adhere to regulatory requirements. What makes Nano so less expensive can be well understood from the diagram on the next page. the lower middle class it was realized that four wheels had emotional.rickshaw? A four wheeled car made of Engineering Plastics? A Four wheeled rural car? Rolled up Plastic curtains in place of windows? Openings like Auto rickshaws from the side A four wheeled open car with safety side bars? But the market wanted a car and if they build a people’s car it should be a car and not something that people would say. was still dismal . much higher performing is convenient to use and brings radical changes. Tata gave three requirements for the new vehicle: It should be low-cost. Post Development Review. the common man. The innovation wasn't in technology. even a bigger engine.” All this they wanted to come up with such a product they believed that it will redefine the definition of low-cost . The car must be a beacon for the Indian Automobile industry and prove to the world that we are capable to take any challenge and come out worthy winners.Based on the first investigation more thought was given to build a business case based on the requirements and the needs of the common man. no conventional design would work as the costs shall be higher and so the entire car has to be redesigned. which boosted the power by nearly 20 per cent. Since the car had to be built within a cost of Rs. and achieve performance targets such as fuel efficiency and acceleration capacity . Everyone from manufacturers to vendor development teams were asked to be a part of decision-making . Decision on Business Case & Development After having spoken to the prospective customers. It must be meeting all the safety and regulatory requirements. It was closer to a quadricycle than a car. The car has to be designed so that it can be exported to other countries as the domestic demand may not materialize as per projections. 1 Lac. not just practical appeal. it was in a mindset change. The car was to cost Rs. RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 27 . But failure didn’t stop them they quickly realized it was necessary to bring everyone on board. Testing & Validation The design team initially came up with a vehicle which had bars instead of doors and plastic flaps to keep out the monsoon rains. The questions pertaining to the idea were on coming up with what kind of a product : A scooter with two extra wheels at the back for better stability? An Auto-rickshaw with four wheels? A three wheeled car like a closed auto. The design has to question the need of each and every component from the point of view of its necessity of existence and also the minimum requirements of its functionality. TATA used the concept of Disruptive Technology  which was cheaper than existing Technology. and the first prototype. “Ah! That’s just a scooter with four wheels or an auto-rickshaw with four wheels & not really a Car. Thus the new product was now to be developed.
Get the suppliers to establish base near the factory. Use alternate materials. The product launch was done using innovative marketing. must support the final cost of Rs.The Guiding factor was that the cost has to be minimized for each component yet maintaining its basic functionality. Fig 4. Get the tax advantages on infrastructure development.1  Hence after the development of the prototype and its testing and validation the above was chosen to be the final design. In short select a manufacturing location where all the advantages could be achieved. The Alternatives are : Reduce Consumption of Material being used. All components were well justified and accepted by all. 1 Lakh. It was commercialized in whole of India with the target market of the middle class and the lower middle class . on materials and manufacturing. Alternate Suppliers to get same material at cheaper prices. The decisions were : Establish factory in a tax free zone. The Guiding factor was that the tax structure. It was launched in April 2009. Full Production and Market Launch Not just the development procedure TATA was quite smart when it came to the setting up of the production facilities. Get special concessions from State Govt. Tata sell its ultra-cheap new car through its own retail and electronics megastore outlets as well as auto RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 28 .
” – print media instead of the conventional style of using TV campaigns . the lowest end car. Apart from that it’s working on compressed air engines. RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 29 . The new-car market has been affected. The innovation hasn’t stopped since it’s still working to develop further models on the lines of Nano. Initial projections were at about 500. The perceived buyers thought and opinion about the products offerings. dropped by 20% and used models by 30%  immediately prior to the Nano’s introduction. the second-cheapest car in India. The same might not have been achieved because diffusion rate for any new product is high but still with so much of hype and advanced booking for the car it is doing extremely well. utilities from the buyer’s point of view. Based on the product the buyers utility map  has been made for NANO. In the late 2009 they came up with a better and expensive model Europa keeping the western market in mind. Post Implementation review The reviews have been good for the new product up till now. TATA plans to move across the Indian market and exports it to the West as well.000 cars per year . The Rs 1 lakh car. Sales of new Maruti 800s. Even with so many small car launched in the past 18 months in India Nano has been selling actively . opted for “cost-effective and innovative use of media. functions. engineering and production processes. This basically highlights NANO’s qualities. which broke new ground in design. the electric version E-Nano and the hybrid models . It was estimated that the demand for the people’s car shall be at least twice the demand for Maruti 800.dealerships.
The Nano is constructed of components that can be built and shipped separately to be assembled in a variety of locations. In effect. – are missing. patented components and remix them in ways that more effectively serve the needs of large number of customers. pollution and safety standards as well. tailor the products and services to more effectively serve their needs. power brakes. etc. It is lighter to the comparable models as a result of efforts to reduce the amount of steel in the car (including the use of aluminium engine) and the use of lightweight steel where ever possible. It might not have many patents but measuring progress by patent creation misses a basic dimension of innovation: Some of the most valuable innovations take existing. Three innovations in products and processes come together to support ‘Open distribution’: RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 30 . A lot of features that Western consumers take for granted – air conditioning. applying what some analysts have described as ‘Gandhian engineering’ principles or frugal engineering – deep frugality with a willingness to challenge conventional wisdom . and add value to the core product or service through ancillary services. ‘Open distribution’ innovation  (Operational & Structural Perspective)  Tata have called this ‘open distribution’ innovation because it mobilizes large number of third parties to reach remote rural consumers. assembled and serviced by local entrepreneurs – the idea of dispersing wealth. It started by looking at everything from scratch. It offers more seating capacity compared to the other small cars as a result of design choices. the Nano is being sold in kits that are distributed. radios. Quantitative and Scientific Perspective)  Tata motor made a car so inexpensively. The top speed might be 65mph but it has a fuel efficiency of 50miles to the gallon . have a cell phone and scooter and would be assigned to a set of customers. Operational. The service person would be like an insurance agent who would be trained.Lessons Learned SWOT Analysis based on the STP’s    Key Points which contributed to the success Thinking out of the box (Functional. A modular design revolution  (Structural and Operational Perspective)  Tata motors did not draw a lot of attention to what is perhaps the most innovative aspect of Nano: its modular design. It meets all Indian emission. More fundamentally the engineers worked to do more with less.
The Rs 1 lakh car. (Nano wasn’t big on advertising. Nano chat rooms on the Net. Disruptive Innovation  (Functional and Operational Perspective)  As already mentioned. There was be no TV campaign. which broke new ground in design. Tata is innovating in all three dimensions simultaneously . leading to significant insight into unmet needs and creative approaches to addressing those needs . Unlike most small cars. institutions in rural areas to more effectively reach target customers Creative use of information technology. with the strengths and advantages of this product. Nano is also a disruptive product. it might create a demand for itself against the 2 wheeler bikes. Open architecture approach pioneered by certain companies may offer much greater opportunity to deliver more tailored value to customers than closed architecture. Find ways to help customers and others on the edge to tinker with the products. cute and brief. As already discussed about the disruptive innovation in the Nintendo Wii. Increased modularity (both in product and processes) Aggressive leveraging of existing third party. Pay attention to institutional innovation. online Nano games. Nano breaks on radio.” say people with knowledge of the Nano marketing strategy . production. to encourage and deliver even greater value Modular designs combined with creative leverage of local third party institutions help participants to get better faster. engineering and production processes. more standardization and fewer business partners put in efforts to reach the customers. with its ‘good enough’ features and being offered at such a cheap price it will surely disrupt the existing car manufacturers. Nano pop-ups on major websites and Nano conversation on Facebook. In the relentless quest for operating efficiency. According to people in the ad industry with direct knowledge of the Nano’s marketing strategy. As Page 31 RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H . radio and other media. The Nano’s overall marketing strategy was to use conventional media in an unconventional manner. has opted for “cost-effective and innovative use of media.’ it’s a totally word-of-mouth campaign . often non-commercial. materials.’ The idea is to make the Nano part of one’s everyday lingo like ‘see you after a nano. It won’t only disrupt the car market. carefully integrated with social institutions. Far higher returns may come from investing in institutional innovation. The Tata team is working on Nano news in papers. logistics and sales. purchasing. development. Western executives often become too narrowly focused on product or process innovation. only innovative use of print. Nano appearing in the form of messages or ticker news on TV. the campaign is cost-effective and innovative so that Nano becomes synonymous with anything ‘small. particularly the web. Innovative Marketing  (Functional and Operational Perspective)  Tata is selling its ultra-cheap new car through its own retail and electronics megastore outlets as well as auto dealerships.redefining the roles and relationships that bring together independent entities to deliver more value to the market. Modular and open product designs help engage large numbers of motivated users in tailoring and pushing the performance boundaries of the products. Take Away from this case Organisations should try innovative cost saving in all departments ranging from design. Rethink distribution models. Orkut and blog spaces) . term coined by Clayton Christensen .
by displacing the existing market products. they will demand more tailoring and value added service to meet their needs.2  RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 32 . Fig 4. But the same thing can happen to the one which causes the disruption. customers gain more power. hence for TATA as well the innovation process should never stop. As mentioned above an open design architecture allows much greater opportunity of developing a more tailored product for users Disruptive innovation  can surely cause unrest among the incumbents. Companies that innovate on this dimension are likely to be richly rewarded .
In May 2009. Obstetrics and General Radiology.500  patents and the firm's scientists have been awarded two Nobel Prizes and numerous other honours . GE has adopted this mainly in the health care sector at the moment and plans to expand it to the other divisions and products as well. But the expensive. General Electric announced that over the next six years it would spend $3 billion to create at least 100 health care innovations that would substantially lower costs. medical systems. This process of developing the two machines and taking them global is known as ‘Reverse Innovation’ . GE CASE STUDY Founded in 1878 by Thomas Edison. a new concept which GE is following these days which is not only a success but giving good returns all over the world. a hundred years later. where they’re pioneering new uses for such machines.5. Let us analyze and study the Reverse innovation with regards to the Innovation development funnel . PC-based ultrasound machine that sells for as little as $15000 – are revolutionary. would qualify as a Fortune 500 company. in addition to its core businesses in power generation. household appliances. A century later. This gave GE the idea to approach the market in a different way altogether. and lighting. distribution. and diesel locomotives . and not just because of their small size and low price . This is the topic of discussion here. if listed separately. similar to the case of Nintendo Wii Lessons Learned Capabilities & Market Assessment and Forecasting Fig 5. The staggering size of General Electric becomes even more evident through the revelation that each of the company's 11 operating units. and use of electric power to become. GE operates in more than 100 countries worldwide and generates approximately 45 per cent of its revenues outside the United States. bulky devices sold poorly in China . increase access. The price was over $100K and sophisticated hospital imaging centres were the typical customers. RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 33 .1   In the 1990s GE served the Chinese ultrasound market with machines developed in the U. General Electric has amassed more than 67. Two products it highlighted at the time – a $1000 handheld electrocardiogram device and a portable. the company is also engaged in businesses as diverse as aircraft engines. and improve quality . Here a product won’t be discussed. Over the course of its 110-plus years of innovation. They’re also extraordinary because they were originally developed for markets in the emerging economies (the ECG device for rural India and the ultrasound machine for rural China) and they are now being sold in the United States. They were technologically superior to the local products which couldn’t even satisfy the basic functionalities but being so exorbitantly priced it didn’t do well. Its typical uses were for Cardiology. one of the world’s leading diversified industrial companies. General Electric grew from its early focus on the generation.S and Japan.
followed by portability and ease of use. or both. very basic and portable. the same functions. these products can create brand new markets in the developed world – by establishing dramatically lower price points or pioneering new applications (Functional and Operational Perspective) . Developing nations are following the same path and could actually jump ahead of the developed countries because of their great willingness to adopt breakthrough innovations. and service them LGTs must have the right (and support) to draw from the company’s global resources Once tested and proven locally. GE had offices in China and India. The priorities weren’t the same because the health-care infrastructure if India and China were different from that of rich countries. establishing lower price points. The strategies based on it are : Reverse innovation requires a decentralized. The reality here is. and even cannibalizing higher-margin products. disruptive innovations The last point is worth noting. the market needs for the basic needs made them a bigger customer (Generic and Temporal Perspective) . basically ‘good enough’ GE is disrupting itself. The growing population. it is difficult for an established organization to execute. Products that address developing countries special needs can’t be sold in developing countries because they’re not good enough to compete there . Based on the above GE planned to adopt the Reverse Innovation strategy. and in general the emerging market. how to make. in China.which is cheaper. With healthcare products coming out from Reverse Innovation . local-market focus Most if not all the people and resources dedicated to reverse innovation efforts must be based and managed in the local market Local Growth Teams (LGTs) must have profit and loss responsibility (this is a key hurdle for American multinationals) LGTs must have the decision-making authority to choose which products to develop. but are not always. The strategy is worth noting because here GE plans not only to disrupt the competitor or local products but its own conventional products. Whether an innovation is reverse. have. companies must overcome resistance to shifting power and RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 34 . products developed using reverse innovation must be taken global which may involve pioneering radically new applications. the only requirement was to adapt to the emerging market rather than getting products from the US. sell. More than 90% of China’s population  relied (and still relies) on poorly funded. disruptive. It understood that in wealthy countries performance mattered most. low tech hospitals or basic clinics in rural villages. Instead of a sales centre they evaluated that setting up R&D centres in these countries would help in the long run (Big Picture and Operational Perspective) . GE with its worldwide presence could easily expand in these markets. For reverse innovations. price mattered most. Reverse innovations can be. Product/ Market Strategy When GE faced a setback in the 1990s with its Ultrasound device it understood that the market strategy needs to be altered. Instead of an internationally developed product the need of the hour was a home grown model. followed by features.Since Glocalization/Globalization concept didn’t work GE evaluated the whole scenario Emerging economies will largely evolve in the same way the wealthy economies did . For instance GE’s conventional ultrasound costs $100K-$350K whereas the new portable ultrasound costs $15K-$100K .
Phase 2 — Glocalization — In this phase.control away from headquarters. reverse innovation benefits the communities where GE does business. and then the new offerings were distributed everywhere. and how to provide ongoing service — all depend on a deep knowledge of how a culture operates and does business. The following is how the development happens these days : Phase 1 — Globalization —Multinationals built unprecedented economies of scale by selling products and services to markets all around the world. multinationals recognized that while Phase 1 had minimized costs. At GE. For disruptive innovations. Innovation still originated with home-country needs. but products and services were later modified to win in each RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 35 . they weren’t as competitive in local markets as they needed to be. that means all resources and people devoted to such a project must be located and managed within that market . The creation of thousands of jobs in the GE Shanghai and Bangalore research centers are testament to this local benefit.2  For reverse innovation to work. how to make and sell them. GE attracts top talent in growth markets. hence shifting the center of gravity of development to the new centers. Capabilities Strategy Fig 5. even if they do invest. make the decisions. Innovation happened at home. So local teams create the necessary structures. GE has tremendous capabilities and core competency and there are no two thoughts about it. companies must overcome the initial resistance to prioritizing an investment that does not interest mainstream customers. they focused on winning market share by adapting global offerings to meet local needs. In turn. Therefore. they must overcome the fear that the new product will eventually cannibalize the existing business . a company needs a thorough understanding of human needs within an emerging market. And. The decisions involved — which products to pursue. and they must be willing to reshape the organizational models and expectations of in-country teams . and own the responsibility for their products’ success. Now based on the requirement GE is setting up R&D centers in the emerging countries. while developing human capital within sophisticated realms of management and technology.
Built for markets in India and South Africa. low-fat dried noodles originally created for rural India and position the same product as a healthy alternative in Australia and New Zealand. Phase 3 —Local Innovation — In this phase. and scaling them up for worldwide use.” Phase 4 is “in country. Progress has been uneven. global resource base. the innovation has generated dramatic growth in the developed world by pioneering new applications where portability is critical or space is constrained. the company enables them to remain connected to. In the midst of a severe global recession. GE’s businesses in China will grow 25% this year—largely because of LGTs . they are starting with a zero-based assessment of customer’s needs. the vast majority of their resources are still devoted to initiatives for developed ones. While some businesses—notably. for country. And though GE’s R&D centers in China and India have increased their focus on the problems of developing countries. Post Project Learning and Improvement Today the portable machine is the growth engine of GE’s ultrasound business in China. and to benefit from. for the world. non-smartphone devices to access Web sites such as Twitter.market. however. Page 36 RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H . where the compacts are used to diagnose problems like pericardial effusions (fluid around the heart). Nestle learned that it could sell its low-cost. others have been less enthusiastic . health care and power generation and distribution—have taken the ball and run with it. it's called Tata Europa (already discussed in the case before this). Phase 4 — Reverse Innovation — If Phase 3 is “in country. such as at accident sites. Procter & Gamble found that a honey-based cold remedy created for Mexico also had a profitable market in Europe and the United States. Six years after their launch. the first half of the reverse innovation process.” They are taking a “market-back” perspective. Tata Motors is planning to sell an upgraded version of the Tata Nano in western markets. Examples of reverse innovation can be found across various industries and geographies  (Generic Perspective) : Nokia is testing new business models for classified ads in Kenya. GE now has more than a dozen local growth teams in China and India. it has also created new features in its hand-held phones sold in the US. and in operating rooms. As teams develop products for the local market. So there is still a long way to go. Even more exciting. adapting them. there is surprising potential for these apps as a low-cost cloud computing platform. where they are employed to identify conditions such as ectopic pregnancies.” Multinationals complete the reverse innovation process by taking the innovations originally chartered for poor countries. portable ultrasounds were a $278 million global product line for GE. Facebook. for country. rather than assuming that they will only make alterations to the products they already have. It’s way too early to declare victory. where they aid anesthesiologists in placing needles and catheters . one that was growing at 50% to 60% a year before the worldwide recession hit . based on observations of how phones are shared in Ghana. Microsoft is creating new phone app services for "dumb" phones which allow users with existing. multinationals are focusing on developing products “in-country. Someday every general practitioner may carry both a stethoscope and a compact ultrasound device embedded in his or her PDA. That is. To meet the budgets of customers in poor countries. they sometimes de-featured existing products. in emergency rooms.
Take away from this case Reverse innovation is regarded as something bigger than a business strategy — it’s a unique vantage point into human need. is any innovation likely to be adopted first in the developing world. This augments the ability to determine and address real human needs — creating local jobs and developing human capital in the process . Traditionally. in fact more on the lines of the product developed by Reverse Innovation. A reverse innovation. RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 37 . the buyers’ utility map  has been made (similar to the ones made in the above cases). Rather than just selling to a growth market. illustrations of reverse innovation are also illustrations of disruptive innovation . global corporations must be just as nimble innovating abroad as they are at home . A disruptive innovation has a particular dynamic that endangers incumbents . To compete. but not all. Many tremendous rich-world business opportunities will arise first in poor countries. In other words: Some. reverse innovation allows companies to participate in the market directly. There is an overlap between reverse innovation and disruptive innovation but not a one-toone relationship. very simply. global companies have developed high-end products and adapted them for emerging markets. instead building local technologies within developing regions. and an important aspect of corporate citizenship . then distributing them globally. reverse innovation turns this model around.Based on the health care product. convenience of use and collective productivity. Here it is clearly evident that the product scores high in the simplicity. However.
TATA NANO. has to be a success. so it has to be given a very serious thought before actually being implemented.). maximum performance. The cases were approached with improved problem solving. a good enough product or offering . If we look at the cases on the functional and generic perspective there are strong common factors binding all the successful innovations. SWOT . These factors are just not applicable to the above cases but in general most of the innovations – Low cost. Hence apart from having a value proposition. GE Health care products (Reverse Innovation products) had all this in common. Similarly Facebook might not be accurately having the same offering but since it’s a social networking site which has the best features of all other social networking sites. without any cost. On the other hand Segway with its exorbitant price was a failure. is good enough and gives the best performance. Buyer Utility Map . which attributed to its success. The type of innovation an organisation plans to bring upon depends on its study and marketing strategy but innovation is like oxygen today – without it it’s hard to survive in the market and the cut throat competition. compared to its competitors. etc. Nintendo Wii. Concept Maps . perceived differentiation and usefulness the innovation will be surely a success with .  RAUNAK KABRA –A0076886H Page 38 .high value and low cost.SUMMARY Five varied and diverse innovation case studies have been discussed at large. The cases gave good insight to technology and innovation management as well. Based on the innovation and its consequences and its after effect some lessons have been noted. systems and critical thinking abilities  using the various evaluation tools (STPS’s . even though it was a technological marvel. Innovation implies change not just for the customer but for the organization as well.
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