Copywriting BMM-Semester-V By: M H Lakdawala

By: M H Lakdawala


Chapter 1. Copy INTRODUCTION
What is Copywriting? Copywriting is essentially selling with words. Copywriting is using words to convince readers they will benefit (come out ahead) by using a certain product or service and then motivating them to take action (buy). Copywriting is the words used in advertisements, TV commercials, and brochures. Whenever a business promotes itself (through a press release, a leaflet or a newsletter), it needs a copywriter. That’s why copywriting is everywhere - on big posters, local newspaper ads, and every clever slogan. And when you put a postcard in a newsagent's window, to sell your old hi-fi, you're using copywriting again. Copywriting is probably the most creative and demanding branch of writing. You start with a blank sheet of paper. You may have only a couple of days to meet the client’s deadline. And your work could be read by millions of people. Who needs copywriters? The market is vast. Every business, small and large, has to promote itself. Every company needs leaflets or direct mail letters. And every new product needs a pack that will entice us to buy it. These days all organizations need to communicate. That includes hospitals, local authorities and charities. So the opportunities for the copywriter are infinite. Because organizations constantly alter, their literature and ads need regularly changing, too. That keeps copywriters busy!

I. Attributes of a good copywriter
1. A good copy writer has an excellent and well-rounded portfolio - Take a look at a copywriter's past work. Is it professional? Do you see some good concepts? Are the projects high-caliber? You don't necessarily have to see work that is specific to your particular industry. A broad spectrum of work demonstrates a copywriter's talent and skill as well as the ability to adapt her knowledge to just about any market. A good portfolio will also show experience in a range of formats, such as print, web, outdoor, direct mail, press releases and corporate By: M H Lakdawala 2

communications. 2. has plenty of marketing and public relations savvy - Pretty words are, well, pretty. But they don't necessarily do what you want them to do for you. Look for a copywriter who has a rich background in marketing and public relations. That person will have a quicker and deeper grasp of what the copy needs to do and how to make it do it. 3. Listens to clients - When a copywriter listens to a client, wheels are turning. He's making observations about the "who, what, when, where and why" of your company, product or service. Questions come to his mind. He will have things he wants to discuss and find out more about. But first, he listens carefully to what you have to say. 4. Asks the right questions - You don't want an order taker; you want a copywriter who knows how to find out what she needs to in order to do the best job. What is your goal? Who do you need to sell to? Why should people care about your product or service? What sets you apart from your competition? What does your product or service does and how does it do it? How are you already reaching out to your audience with marketing and public relations? 5. Doesn't always take your word for it - Sure, it's important for a copywriter to understand the client's take on the situation. But a thorough copywriter will do a little digging on his own to find out things like how the competition brands itself, what's being said about your company, product or service and what is generally important to your customers' buying decision. 6. Brings ideas to the table - You tell your copywriter you want content for your web site, just your basic About Us, Products & Services and How to Contact Us. A good copywriter will make suggestions, like "Have you thought about featuring some case studies?", "Have you had a key word analysis yet?" or "How about doing a newsletter that will let you capture email information?" 7. Can develop concepts - The copywriter's approach to a project is often determined by the client's process. Sometimes a graphic designer has already created a look and feel, determined what the tone should be. Other times, the copywriter is called upon to help shape the message from the beginning. Find a copywriter who has experience developing concepts and you'll have someone who can make a broader contribution to the project. 8. A good copy writer is empathetic - Read something written by a good writer and you can tell that she truly becomes the customer, brings that person right into her head. When she writes about a new home, she imagines walking through her dream house. When the reader will be a business person who has been thinking seriously about going back to school for that MBA, the copywriter feels that person's restlessness and desire to move up.

By: M H Lakdawala


9. Offers flexibility - You need someone who will meet your time constraints and deadlines. Or maybe the copywriter will need to be proactive and persistent about getting information from some very busy, hard to reach people. Whether it's patience or persistence you require in your copywriter, she should be someone who can deliver. 10. Is someone you enjoy working with - In the end, when you've determined that a copywriter has what it takes--talent, skill, experience, savvy--it comes down to whether or not she is someone you respect and enjoy working with. The work will thrive if you're a good team.

1. Use Attention Getting Headlines For example – print ad for DHL uses only one word as it’s headline – “URGENT”, which is underlined in red, and is enough to attract anyone’s attention. Star TV print ad for The Big Fight does not use words, but uses a pair of boxing gloves as headline. 2. Expand Headline with Lead Paragraph Follow up the headline immediately with the first paragraph. If you ask a question, answer it. If you propose a thought, explain it. Don't leave them hanging too long; you may end up hanging yourself. The ad for Maruti N2N fleet solutions uses the headline “ Who says managing a huge fleet of company cars is hard work? This is followed by the lead paragraph which explains how Maruti N2N works 3. Draw the Reader In Avoid page and advertising layouts that are confusing or hard to read. Reading your message should be a pleasure to read. Keep your copy simple, clear and concise. Talk to your reader as you would a friend or family member. Be straight and sincere with them. Spell it out and explain points that need explaining. Don't leave your reader second-guessing your copy. 4. Focus on the Reader, not the Product By: M H Lakdawala 4

Of course your copy must contain information and facts about your product or service, but that is not your focal point. You must focus the reader. Use their needs, wants, desires, fears, weaknesses, concerns, and even fantasies to sell your product or service. The ad for Lakme Deep Pore Cleansing begins with the headline “There's a lot that shows on your face”. The body copy includes - Now, one-and-a-half minutes is all it takes to uncover the real you. Presenting the complete Deep Pore Cleansing Regimen from Lakme. Simply because your face says it all. Thus, not only does the ad talk about the product, it also focuses equally on the reader. Using words like “you” would make the reader feel good, rather than an ad that boasts about the product but says nothing about how to use it, how it could make your life better, etc. 5. Use the "That's Right!" Principle Get your prospect to agree with you. Tell them something they know already. Get them to say to themselves, "That's Right!" The print ad for JW Marriott starts with the headline -: Your mom knows exactly how you like your bed, your toast, and your coffee…. This headline will indeed make the target exclaim – that’s right! 6. Ask Provocative Questions: Leading into your copy or headline with thought provoking questions will grab the reader's interest and move them to read more for the answer. The ad for Deccan Chronicle uses an attractive female model asking a provocative question like – “Want to play the number Game?”. The ad actually talks about the impressive figures of circulation of the Deccan Chronicle. 7. Move Quickly from Intro to the Pitch: Don't waste your reader's time trying to "warm them up". If they got that far, there's blood flowing already. People are busy creatures. If you lose their interest, you neither sell nor profit. Get on with it! 8. Be Sincere: What's the number one fallback for sales on the web? Fear! Fear of being scammed or ripped-off. The more sincere you are the better your chance of building a "selling" relationship. The sincerity and genuineness of Air Sahara comes across in its ad where the body copy says – as hard as we may try at this time of the year (winter), there

By: M H Lakdawala


are chances of flight delays due to weather conditions. Every step is taken to help passengers get to their destinations on time. To make this process easier, we need your help too. 9. Don't Contradict Yourself: Double-check your copy. You would be surprised to know that many copywriters unknowingly contradict themselves leaving the reader suspicious, thus destroying your credibility with them. 10. Keep Your Focus Aligned The more focused your target group, the better your chance of meeting their needs. Don't try to sell everyone! 11. Make Your Product Irresistible Dress it up. Your product should sound like the cream of the crop. Focus on your selling point (price, quality, etc) and make it impossible for the reader to imagine another in comparison.

12. Use Fear as Motivation: Fear is both a weakness and strength, but also a powerful selling tool. Fear of injury, death or missed opportunity. If you sell a safety product you would use this fear to your advantage. If you're offering an opportunity, the fear of missing their chance is a strong seller. Many ads for financial services use fear to motivate their target. For example in the ad for New India Assurance – Shop Owners Policy, a shop owner imagines a riot occurring near his shop, which causes damage to his shop I.e. the physical property. Thus fear is used to motivate shop owners to get their shops insured under the policy offered by NIA. 13. Flattery will get you everywhere Yes, everyone likes to hear a little flattery. Keyword here is "little". Don't overdo it! 14. Be Personable Let them know that there is a kind, honest and real person behind the page. People would rather deal with people, not companies, corporations or conglomerates. Add the "Human Touch" to your copy. Ex: the institutional ad for Eureka Forbes which shows model Aditi Gowatrikar with her child has a human touch to it, what with the body copy saying – “…times have changed. Yet your dreams remain the same. So open up. Say ‘yes’ to life…” 15. Its Guaranteed

By: M H Lakdawala


in the Vim Bar TVC. This guarantee lends credibility to the offering and induces the viewer to act. 16. you're one step closer to a sale. By: M H Lakdawala 7 . 21. Using personal pronouns like "you". 20. Share a Secret People want to get the inside track. Examples of persuasive and attention-grabbing words Easy Genuine Immediate More Convenient Advantages Instant Biggest Exclusive Comfortable WANTED Oldest Indulge Dependable WARNING Original 17. Keep It Lively: There are many ways to keep your copy lively. Go with the Flow Writing copy requires the ability to make a smooth transition from one point to another. Telling a (brief) story is a strong technique for getting your message across. 19. 18. Certain words have proven to be movers and shakers in the advertising world. the anchor promises that if “your” detergent is better than Vim Bar. we and us will add a sense of warmth to your copy. Use Photo's to Demonstrate: Use photos to demonstrate your product or service. Use "Power"ful Words: "Power" words are words that move a buyer by enhancing and reinforcing your presented idea. Finding misspelled words in copy leaves the reader wondering how competent your product or service could be. learn to use transitional words. if you cannot take the time to be sure you spelled the words in your web copy correctly. For example. If you can convince your prospect that you have an exclusive message for them. Check Your Spelling Take the time and spell-check your work. you will get a year’s supply of your detergent free. Separating and highlighting key information or facts is another. Transitional words are used to go from one point to another.A guarantee reassures the reader that you are reputable and will live up to your promises. If used correctly a picture really is worth a thousand words. Rather than laying them out like a list.

Tell them to respond. fairness. Give them a reason they should respond now. Offer a bonus or freebie if they respond. Spell it out for them. icons and arrows can help direct the reader's attention to important details.Ads for cosmetics generally use photographs to demonstrate the benefits of using the product – smooth skin. Use Graphics to get Attention: Using buttons. If organized correctly they can also help sort facts or messages into categories. etc. 24 Create a Memorable Logo Create a simple. wood finishes paneling. etc. 26. captain seats. Visa – Go get it Pepsi – Yeh Dil Maange More Asian Paints – Merawalla…. Diana Hayden – Miss World 1996 offers testimonial for Loreal Hair color. but memorable logo or custom graphic that your visitor can easily relate to your product or service Examples: Nike swoosh Tata Mercedes McDonald Golden Arches 25. reputable testimonials. The ad for Toyota Qualis uses arrows to draw the readers’ attention to the unique features of the vehicle such as integrated bumper. 23. By: M H Lakdawala 8 . People want to hear what others have to say about your product or service. Offer Testimonials Offer short. easy to remember slogan that a reader will walk away with on his or her lips. Create an Unforgettable Slogan Use a short. Tell them why they should respond. Nike – Just Do It. 22. Get a response There are many techniques for getting a prospect to respond.

3999 only By: M H Lakdawala 9 . order today. for a short time only. Ex: Service – ICICI Bank – Two Wheeler Loans “Take Home Passion (Hero Honda Passion) by just paying Rs. last chance.This can be done by using words like – order now. etc.

if any. Supervisor Account Manager Staff Writer The client company representative (product manager) gives the brief to the client-servicing department of the ad agency. They look into legalities that might affect the ad and whether the ad meets the client’s brief and budget. The creative brief is given to the creative director who passes it on to the art director and the copywriter. The (rough) ad is then shown to the account management team consisting of the supervisor and manager. the creative department goes ahead with the actual production of the ad. By: M H Lakdawala 10 . are communicated to the creative department The (rough) ad is then shown to the client servicing dept. These two work in conjunction to create the ad.STAGES IN COPYWRITING/ THE APPROVAL PROCESS Product Manager of Client Legal Client Service (Agency) Creative Director Account Management Team Legal Art Director Senior Writer Acct. Once the approval is received. This brief is then broken down into creative and media brief. Changes. The ad is finally shown to the client for his approval. The dept. might also suggest changes.

Developing an Advertising Plan: An advertising plan is a document created with the goal of matching the most effective message to your audience Definition: An outline of what goals an advertising campaign should achieve. Creative Strategy: Planning and Development I. how to accomplish those goals. An Advertising Plan Matches the Right Audience to the Right Message and Presents It in the Right Medium to Reach That Audience Advertising Plan Definition: An outline of what goals an advertising campaign should achieve.Chapter 2. Marke By: M H Lakdawala 11 . and how to determine whether or not the campaign was successful in obtaining those goals. how to accomplish those goals. and how to determine whether or not the campaign was successful in obtaining those goals. Advertising P Developing an Advertising Plan An advertising plan is a document created with the goal of matching the most effective message to your audience.

The Creative Pl Executive Summar Situation Analysis The Media Plan Advertising Proble The Com mOpport Advertising unic 12 Introduction III. • VI. V.• Key Strategy Deci Sales prom otion • • • Advertising Object Public relations Target Audience .Typical Advert Plan Out IV.• II.• By: M H Lakdawala I.

Advertising Creativity: The five stages of creativity. while innovation is the process of both generating and applying such creative ideas in some specific context.II. In imagining new possibilities that were not conceived of before 4. Advertising Creativity involves two processes: 1. 2. Creative Thought Process. Thinking. In producing or bringing about something partly or wholly new 2. In seeing or performing something in a manner different from what was thought possible or normal previously. Young's Crea Immersion Immersion Digestion Digestion Gett Get Imm Imm to G to G 13 By: M H Lakdawala Rum Rum Turn Tur . producing. or new associations of the creative mind between existing ideas or concepts More than 60 different definitions of creativity can be found in the psychological literature Definitions of creativity are typically descriptive of activity that results: 1. Distinguishing between creativity and innovation Creativity is typically used to refer to the act of producing new ideas. approaches or actions. What Is Creativity? Creativity is a mental process involving the generation of new ideas or concepts. In investing an existing object with new properties or characteristics 3.

Components of the Creative Strategy: 1.III. Advertising C Successful Long Miller Miller AMUL AMULor Brand Lite Company Lite Nike The central me The central me comm comm in all of the var in all of the var B C J 14 “ Taste of Thumps up “ Taste of By: M H Lakdawala India” India” Hallmark cards “ The T “ The Driv Driv W .

2. Major Sellin Use a Unique Positioning the Use a Unique Positioning the Brand Selling Position Brand Selling Position Approaches to the See See Uniqu Uniqu Ma Ma Prop Pro Benefit Benefit By: M H Lakdawala U U 15 Positioning Positioning .

” 16 By: M H Lakdawala The creativity sales The creativity sales .” that is the brand image. Creating a Used when competing brands Used when competing brands “Everyis difficultcontribute “Every addifficult to find or must to find or similar it isad must contribute c similar it to the complex unique attribute symbol to the complex unique attribute symbol that is the brand image.Perspectives of Great Ad David Ogilvy David Ogilvy Brand image or Brand image or personality is particularly personality is particularly important when brands important when brands are similar are similar 3.

Appeals and Inherent Inherent Drama Drama M M in i H H 4. emotional and moral appeals: By: M H Lakdawala 17 F F w w d d e e .Approaches to Idea: Inherent D 4. A. Advertising appeals Appeals are broadly classified as rational.

and not merely because of their taste or fashion. he is exhibiting a rational motive. They make purchase decisions in line with the technical specification of the product.Rational appeals are those directed at the thinking process of the audience. a person. (ii) Low Price: Many people buy low-priced locally made air conditioners for their homes because they believe that these products will show a product performance similar to. however. point out that some of the best ads are totally irrational. too. thinks his reason will be accepted as a "good" one by his social group. Rationality has come to be equated with substance. (iv) Performance. or style. as of a ballpoint pen that won't release excessive ink or skip under any circumstances. that of nationally reputed brands at higher price. Although there may be some disagreement regarding which motives are rational and which are emotional. such as clothing. Many two-wheeler vehicles claim a better mileage per litre consumption of fuel than similar other vehicles. as of a car tyre that will give 30. Industrial buyers are most responsive to rational appeals. In this case. as of a screwdriver with a magnetized tip which clings to the metal head of the screw. Most industrial buyers are knowledgeable about the product class. electric gadgets. Volkswagen built itself on the proposition it's ugly but it works. or a timer in the kitchen mixer which switches off automatically after a pre-determined time period. etc. But. Nine per cent of the human psyche is irrational. Porsche car ads listed such irrational benefits. before its utility has been exhausted. considered rational under ordinary circumstances: (i) High Quality: People buy television.. product quality. (vi) Re-sale Value. (vii) Economy. as of a two-wheeler scooter. kitchenware and a host of consumer durables for their high quality. as long he believes this to be true. Whether this is true or not. They attempt to show that the product would yield the expected functional benefit. in the operating expenses of some brands of refrigerator is greater because they consume less electricity. They involve some sort of a deliberate reasoning process. We should. beverages. or slightly inferior to. food items. stereophonic music systems. refrigerators. which are normally. "Bajaj" has a better re-sale value than any other make. furniture. trained to By: M H Lakdawala 18 . what is irrational can be made to seem rational. which a rational person can understand. Gary Goldsmith is not content with just a rational benefit but expects the benefit offered to be such. the following are some buying motives. Rational appeals: A rational ad becomes believable and effective. (v) Ease of use. (iii) Long Life. etc. Many consumer goods.000 kms. which a person believes would be acceptable to other members of his social group. are bought for their quality.

name the negative appeals first. Strong emotional propositions need rational underpinnings. an advertising campaign to get the target audience to buy fire insurance may stress the positive aspect -low cost relative to other investment. Emotions are those mental agitations or excited states of feeling which prompt us to make a purchase. an emotional icon. which are not preceded by careful analysis of the pros and cons of making a buying. industrial buying decisions are made after a thorough comparison of various offers and after evaluating the various benefits of different makes. Positive appeals use the strategy of "reducing" a person's anxiety about "buying and using" a By: M H Lakdawala 19 . or it may stress the negative aspect of not getting insurance . he is unwilling to admit it to others because he feels that it would be unacceptable as a "proper" reason for buying among his associates and colleagues. or even if he is fully aware that such a motive is operating. Emotional motives may be below the level of consciousness. Those who buy Playboy or Debonair are likely to say they buy them for the articles. For example. But it also emphasizes in-flight service that other airlines talk about. Consumer durables of high value 'are also often bought on the basis of rational appeals. That is why we like to give socially acceptable reasons for our buying decisions. Levi's is youthful. are listed below.the danger of losing one's possessions or the ravages of fire. and may not be recognized by a person. One has to balance between rational and emotional arguments. But it offers rational benefits like strength too. the services the insurance company provides. Most of us want others to regard us as rational human beings. which are particularly important from the advertising point of view. Following several motivation research studies. Emotional appeals are designed to stir up some negative or positive emotions that will motivate product interest or purchase. Different emotional appeals. Singapore Airlines presents the Singapore girl. Emotional appeals: Emotional appeals are those appeals. which is a rational proposition. early settlement of claims. We shall also. Often.recognize value and are responsible to others about their choice. Negative Emotional Appeals: An advertiser may try to induce a particular behavioral change by emphasizing either positive or negative appeals. We feel that rational motives will raise our status in the eyes of our associates and colleagues. or a combination of both. and so on. it has been found that negative emotional appeals are more effective than positive ones. Even when decisions are made on emotional grounds. People are ready and willing to give rational motives if asked why they have made a particular [purchase. All brands have rational and emotional credentials. therefore. rebellious and sexy. people like to rationalize their decision~ to show that they are based on sound rational grounds.

Precautions while using the Emotional Route: 1. while negative appeals use the strategy of "increasing" a person's anxiety about "not using" a product or service. For example. There should be a natural flow of feelings. Different emotional appeals. a positive appeal stresses the positive gains to a person from complying with the persuasive message. he is unwilling to admit it to others because he feels that it would be unacceptable as a "proper" reason for buying among his associates and colleagues. All brands have rational and emotional credentials. early settlement of claims. and so on. If the product needs attribute-based rational advertising. Singapore Airlines presents the Singapore girl. while negative appeals use the strategy of "increasing" a person's anxiety about "not using" a product or service. and may not be recognized by a person. In general. Negative Emotional Appeals: An advertiser may try to induce a particular behavioral change by emphasizing either positive or negative appeals. it has been found that negative emotional appeals are more effective than positive ones. or it may stress the negative aspect of not getting insurance . a positive appeal stresses the positive gains to a person from complying with the persuasive message. The level of emotionality should not exceed that experienced by the consumer. By: M H Lakdawala 20 . an advertising campaign to get the target audience to buy fire insurance may stress the positive aspect -low cost relative to other investment. In general. Following several motivation research studies. which are particularly important from the advertising point of view. the negative appeal stresses his loss if he fails to comply. The advertising should have relevance.the danger of losing one's possessions or the ravages of fire. Positive appeals use the strategy of "reducing" a person's anxiety about "buying and using" a product. But it also emphasizes in-flight service that other airlines talk about. We shall also. 3.product. Execution should not be exaggerated. emotional appeals should be avoided. or a combination of both. Emotions are those mental agitations or excited states of feeling which prompt us to make a purchase. 2. the services the insurance company provides. or even if he is fully aware that such a motive is operating. the negative appeal stresses his loss if he fails to comply. One has to balance between rational and emotional arguments. name the negative appeals first. therefore. But it offers rational benefits like strength too. an emotional icon. Emotional appeals are designed to stir up some negative or positive emotions that will motivate product interest or purchase. which is a rational proposition. rebellious and sexy. Levi's is youthful. are listed below. Emotional motives may be below the level of consciousness.

and then suggest the use of a specific brand of toothpaste to get rid of such fears. A recent ad of "Promise" shows a boy weeping because of severe toothache. The more carefully fear is built. and also the most effective. Fear appeals are at times used in ad messages in connection with getting people to stop doing the things they shouldn't do. Fear is the higher level of tension. the fear appeal of the type illustrated above can be effectively employed. which successfully employ fear appeals to induce a particular buying behavior. Then there are products designed to protect an individual from loss of property (automobile or home). However. mouthwash. these two should be compatible. friendship. Preferably. job. and so forth. When products are designed to protect an individual from some loss of health (medical or life insurance).4. There is a difference between a consumer's emotions associated with the product / brand and a consumer's emotional reaction to the ad copy itself. the greater is the tension resulting in a greater drive from within to reduce the tension. directly or indirectly. Research studies have proved that extremely great fear appeals ate less effective than moderate ones in motivating people to adopt the product and eliminate fear. Fear Appeals: The fear appeal is most important among emotional appeals. involved in the avoidance of a fearful situation. and then suggests the use of "Promise" to avoid a recurrence of toothache.) fall in this category. They present the fear of tooth decay or unhealthy gums or bad breath. Think of ads wherein the housewife's anxieties are fully exploited to get the message across to the target audience. position. Then there are many products that are. such as loss of status. deodorants. even though this is a statutory warning and advertisers themselves would not like to include it is the ad on their own. A large number of advertisements employ the fear appeal in their ad messages of products. The advertisements relating to prohibition. The use of fear appeal in getting people to start doing things they should is very common. Many ad messages of toothpaste employ this appeal. which relate to more subtle social and psychological motivations. shave lotions. but anxiety has been used to promote the sale of a large number of instant foods. very weak fear appeals By: M H Lakdawala 21 . cosmetics. Personal-care products (soaps. It is said that the message's effectiveness increases with the level of fear it generates. other food products and home appliances. prevention of losses and conservation of energy fall in this category. A fear appeal of this kind is used in a wide variety of product categories. etc. The warning on the cigarette packet that smoking is injurious to health is a typical example.

the underlying concept that every message should promise to relieve. But if an excessively strong fear is pictured. Khaitan presents a simple. Therefore. The evaluation of these campaigns clearly showed that the fear appeal created a great deal more awareness of the value of the nutritive food. The negative proposition aroused immediate reaction because of the fact that an unpleasant bang is more likely to make one sit up than the melodious strains of soothing music. the chances of dampness are eliminated.positive or negative-would work better in getting a nutritive food accepted. They may even take the view that the solution recommended in the ad may be inadequate to deal with so great a fear. efficient and inexpensive answer. And this prevents cockroaches and other insects from breeding in your kitchen. different levels of the fear message should be set for the various segments of the audience. The positive appeal was love of children and the negative one was fear of the consequences of malnutrition. CARE (an American conducted a methodical study in rural north India (mainly UP) ad agency) to discover which of the two appeals . may disagree with this view. symbolizing the disease and misfortune arising from wrong food habits. the recent advertisement of Khaitan Kitchen fans employing a negative appeal. it should be strong enough to heighten the drive of the people to buy a particular product. However. A general principle of "not too much and not too little" is most relevant in the selection of appropriate fear appeals.’ It drives out smoke." By: M H Lakdawala 22 . in a believable way. Not only that. and brings in fresh air. however. ‘The Khaitan Fresh Air Fan. It makes her irritable and saps her energy.are not effective either in evoking the desired response. But fear appeals are seldom composed entirely of negatives. and tries to avoid the ad. Take. Some authors and experts in the field of advertising. The "fear" approach created a frightening devil (rakshas). These campaigns were run for a full year in two different areas. However. smells and heat. it is possible that people would exhibit a defensive behavior. some researchers have found cases where strong fear appeals have worked beautifully. They feel that buyers have different tolerances for fear and that therefore. The warnings generally pave the way for positive advice and exhortation. The "love" campaign featured a proud mother rearing her thriving child on the prescribed food. The headline states: "Are you cooking or being cooked?" It goes on: "Every housewife knows how miserable she feels when she cooks. a selection of the appropriate fear level is important. and in this form the negative appeals appear to be just as effective on the average as positive appeals. the fear it arouses should be the ultimate guide in the selection of the levels of fear appeals. for example. and may not be prepared to accept the threat. thanks to the continuous inflow of fresh air.

The rider himself may By: M H Lakdawala 23 . As a stimulus. Fear Appeal and Market Segmentation: We have just now stated that. Aaker and Myer. On the level of fear. fear appeals are effective. Furthermore. to threaten someone close to the prospect rather than the prospect himself. Such is the most common form of the advertising message . in some cases. fear appeals fail in the case of the cancer hazard of cigarette smoking. The net result of these two factors is to make the relationship between anxiety level and message effectiveness non-monotonic. Take the case of life insurance. For individuals whose aroused fear or anxiety about the product is low. the use of low levels of fear is the logical strategy. the fear appeal can be particularly effective if these individuals have been previously exposed to positive arguments. lastly. Even in cases where the product fulfils a generally recognized need. and those who would not normally search for information about the product. That is why it has been recommended that both the market segment and product category groupings should be taken into consideration before designing appropriate fear appeals. it tends to be positive. While advertising a helmet for scooter-riders. and an ad about smoking and cancer. And. Let us take an in-depth look at the use of fear appeals and their relationship with the market segment. with maximum effectiveness occurring at the intermediate levels of anxiety. We have also given examples of an ad about dental health. where the level of fear is low. and too much anxiety tends to make the stimulus aspect predominant. for this will provide a valuable insight to advertisers. Fear appeals are still required to sell policies. apart from the differences in product categories.The headline and the initial part of the body of the copy effectively create fear. too little anxiety tends to provide an insufficient drive. the fear of injury to the head is the most appealing to the wife and to someone close to the rider. Advertising Management. which is often rejected by most smokers. It has been found that it is better to put fear first in the order of presentation. in others. its effect tends to be negative. Furthermore. the age and personality differences in the target audience vary the effectiveness of each level of fear appeal. rightly state that fear or anxiety has two kinds of possible effects on message reception and yielding. so far as appeals to fear are concerned. It is important to note that although people generally prefer positive arguments. where the degree of associated fear is high. big doses of fear are recommended. but the latter part of the copy presents the solution and the positive appeal of the product. However. a fear appeal can make an advertisement stand out from others. this approach is useful for products that are of little interest to consumers when rational appeals are employed. whereas. in their book. and as a drive.first building up fear and then offering a solution with other positive appeals of the product advertised.

" It further. when the advertiser shows as much care for a child as its mother does? Advertisers have also successfully used messages communicating the joy and thrill (all." Is this positive appeal not effective. A humorous message attracts more attention and creates more liking and belief in the source. Dinesh etc. believes that humour has been over-used: "People are amused by clowns . Because Johnson & Johnson care for your baby almost as I much as you do. though it reduces comprehension. as illustrated by people who build an ultra modem home in an area of traditional homes. Other emotional motives are illustrated in the following list: (i) Desire to be different. they become a useful tool in market segmentation. Most baby food products have a mother's love appeal.they don't buy from them…So many people in advertising are compulsive entertainers who seek applause rather than sales. humor. prestige and joy." Mother's love for the baby has been appealed to in ad of Johnson's baby soap." In the closing sentence. employ emotional motives. The appeal of intense fear might be best for people who tend to be of low-anxiety and high self-esteem people. the ad appeals by saying: "Give your family the Loving Care of Dettol Soap. who exhibit a copying behavior. "Suitings for the Connoisseur. prestige or exclusiveness are often used in ads of suitings. Digjam. In fact.. is an example of appealing to those individuals who are experts in matters of taste and choice of clothing. Love for family is perfectly employed in an ad of Dettol soap that has been called "The Love & Care Soap. designed to arouse emotion in a group or audience.not accept the idea promptly because of self-esteem and of ego consciousness. For example. They are love. Fear appeals are appropriate for breaking into new market segments. By: M H Lakdawala 24 . and who find the product to be of low relevance. goes on to say: ''Johnson's Baby Soap. if appropriate fear appeals are defined. those soft drink. Thus. A careful analysis of those potential fear appeals." Other positive emotional appeals involving price. It says: "Gentle as a kiss on your baby's tender skin." a Digjam ad campaign. There are many who have a low vulnerability to fear and anxiety. Positive Emotional Appeals: Positive appeals highlight product benefits and attributes capable of influencing consumer behavior. the susceptibility to fear appeals is one more approach to the market segmentation process. life insurance companies find that fear appeals work beautifully with those who feel that they do not need coverage for their lives. Advertisements of suitings by Raymonds. wherein all ads addressed to this audience will incorporate such fear appeals. should be made a part of advertising strategy. David Ogilvy. pride. ads) associated with using the product. a well-known personality in the advertising profession.

A woman may want to buy a new home in posh locality because it will improve her family's social status and because it is within walking distance of a good school for her children. By: M H Lakdawala 25 . .(ii) Desire to confirm. Many WHO experts are critical of these corporations that promote bottle-feeding against breast. social forestry. There are messages that appeal for generous donations for flood victims and for famine relief operations . In fact.feeding. and so on. social responsibility projects of corporations. The most controversial ad campaigns are by multinational companies marketing baby food products. and then brand recall is a measure of effectiveness.creating awareness may be the objective. The following summarizes the research studies in this context.) he can afford in order to impress his friends. Sex appeals in contraceptive ads have become explicit. adult literacy. and are more visual than verbal. as shown by a person who buys the most expensive automobile (Mercedes. as in the case of teenage boy and girls who want to be "in jeans" because all their friends wear jeans. Research shows that non-sexual illustrations are more effective than sexual ones while undergoing brand recall. as shown by a teenage girl who buys a new cosmetic in order to make her skin more beautiful. The advertising objective may be to make the consumer buy . rural development. antismuggling and hoarding. These are often used in messages to arouse a favorable response to social causes. Favorably disposed people to the use of sex had a higher brand recall of brand names that used sex appeals in their ads. and depends upon a number of factors. Negatively inclined people to sex had a lower brand recall. (iii) Desire to attract the opposite sex. consumer protection. In making purchases. etc. Effectiveness of ads is measured in terms of the objectives . employment generation. siding weaker sections of society. Does sex really sell? Or is it a negative influence on consumer? The answer is not either affirmative or negative for these questions. such as prohibition. Men remember the sexy illustration and neglect the brand. equal rights for women. many combine both rational and emotional motives. Many commercial advertisements are criticized on moral grounds. Moral appeals are those appeals to the audience that appeal to their sense of right and wrong.these are often based on moral buying intention is a measure of effectiveness. Toyota. (iv) Desire for prestige. Sex Appeals in Advertising: Sex appeal is being increasingly used in Indian advertising to overcome the culture in the print as well as broadcast media and to grab attention. a blend of buying motives usually is the basis of a purchase: An engineer may take up a management course at any of the prestigious schools because he feels it will make him look important in the eyes of his associates and help him in securing a better job in the industry and business.

They may not go well with industrial products. Fantasies are also used as sex appeals. A lipstick ad showing a female model that is seductive may grab the attention of the male-audience rather than the targeted female audience. alcohols. the sex of the models and the target segment also affect the effectiveness of the ad. panties. lead to a higher recall. Recently Seven's research shows that explicit sex appeals do not interfere with the ability to recall brand names. The relevance of the appeal to the product is very important. For Calvin Klein. Marketers promoting perfumes. bras. and swimsuits. faith. To a young girl. undergarments. Even an act of kissing has both sexual and non-sexual content. Media clutter may be one reason that leads to the explosion of sexual imagery in advertising. country to country. and society to society. gloves. are associated with lowest quality product and least reputable company. jeans. The small boy gets it for nothing. Even the same person reacts to them differently at different stages of his life cycle. to a married woman. Inappropriate sex appeals have lowest recall. yet it is absolute bliss to two." We tend to agree with him. It has also been observed that visual which is highly sexual interferes with the cognitive processing of the message since readers tend to spend more time on the ad as a whole. watches and cars are resorting to this route. Blatant references to sex are suddenly the inthing in American advertising. the hypocrite's mask. The sexual appeals are justified in case of products like personal products. person to person. Connotative sexual appeals like symbolism are more acceptable than explicit appeals. Females may find the sexual ad offensive and so its use for a female-targeted product runs a risk. sex has always been a favorite selling point." Sex appeals are interpreted differently from time to time. "Of no use to one. Functional sex appeals have highest recall and so also symbolism. The baby's right. There is a thin line between nudity and crudity. Appeal that are consistent with the product. the lover's privilege. Ads of perfumes have traditionally focused on the sensuous. charity. art must be so prepondering as to throw the obscenity into the shadow. region to region. The late Justice Hidayatullah had ruled "where obscenity and art are mixed. the young man has to steal it and the old man has to buy it. There might be gender-related responses to sex appeal. By: M H Lakdawala 26 . Information transmission is definitely adversely affected by sex appeal. The manner of sex portrayal. hope and to an old maid.Research also shows that nude illustrations of female are least appealing.

in fact. For many years (yes.Humour Humour has always been a great way to sell. And of course the Government thought that the entire populace was a morose mass of morons who did not have a sense of humour. Nokia. these days. For one. On a more practical level. they should put on a black hat. especially if used tastefully. Hutch and Nokia have discovered the joys of entertaining customers not just with their products but also with their advertising. Conventional wisdom had it that you don't use humour to sell serious products like insurance or products where the technology and value proposition seemed to be the hero. when others don't have the guts to use it. hold a sickle in their hands and act as if the grim reaper had come to collect the insurance premium from the hapless customers. That's why Centre Shock and Alpenliebe successfully used humour and other `serious' service industries didn't.) The fantastic animation and humour packaged tightly with superb art direction for Amaron Batteries. rejuvenating and has great repeat value. As they say. Paresh really brings the RIM commercial to life with his persona. wish that recognised songs are not directly lifted and used. you have forgotten all the serious stuff about technical specs and the like. Well. humour is a great differentiator. "you can think like only you can". one has traditionally seen humour being used to sell either FMCG or durables. Remember any advertising for batteries? Odds on. the joke is on those who did not dare to use humour. humour is light. more so. A recent TV commercial has an animated family that is `shrunk' to watch movies on their handsets. the advertisement is a winner all the way. That's entertainment for you. Dominos and Reliance Infocomm have been using the amazing width of expression that Paresh Rawal can bring to any role he graces to keep their audiences smiling. The Standard Furukawa advertising where the campaign used humour in small-sized print advertising (Why is a Standard battery like a mother-in-law? Because it goes "on and on and on". From the `sing-song' narrative to the `ting-tong' sign off. By: M H Lakdawala 27 . One would of course. private insurers have been advertising for about four years now) insurance companies thought that since they dealt with `morbid' subjects like death and injury. had another memorable commercial where an army of clowns scrambles to put a smile on a dreary customer's face. elevating.

' All in all. Tata AIG has also decided that a smile is a good policy and has created its second TVC in the `smile genre. ICICI Prudential deserves to be congratulated for leading the charge in the right direction. only money for ICICI and Lowe in persisting with this lighter approach. the message seems to be clear.Fortunately. The fact that its `Chintamani' advertisement in its TV and print versions is doing an encore this year proves that there is no `chinta'. Pros and Cons Advantages • Aids attention and awareness • May aid retention of the message • Creates a positive mood 28 By: M H Lakdawala . they seem to be breaking out of that mindset now. Make the customer smile and you can laugh all the way to the bank.

which is a rational proposition.Use o All brands have rational and emotional credentials. 4. One has to balance between rational and emotional arguments. B. rebellious and sexy. an emotional icon. But it also emphasizes inflight service that other airlines talk about. But it offers rational benefits like strength too. Singapore Airlines presents the Singapore girl. Advertising Execution Techniques Execution style – the way the particular appeal is turned into an advertising message presented to the consumer • • • • • • FAVORABLE TOWARD HUMOR Creative personnel Radio and television Consumer non-durables Business services Products related to the humorous ploy Audiences that are: – – – – Younger Better educated Up-scale Male By: M H Lakdawala 29 . Levi's is youthful.

Demonstration Demonstration 4. is a sales promotion device that compares the products or services of one undertaking with those of another.Testimonial Testimonial 30 By: M H Lakdawala .Scientific Scientific 2. Comparative copy: Comparative advertising. differentiating it from other products. The advertisement clearly explains the features of the product such as its USP and features.Scientific Scientific 1. Demonstration Demonstration 3. The technique consists of a straightforward and clear presentation of the product and its benefits. Scientific / technical: the presentation focus on the scientific and technological aspect of the product.Testimonial Testimonial 5. Straight-Sell Copy: A type of body copy in which the text immediately explains or develops the headline and visual in a straightforward attempt to sell the product.Comparison Comparison 4. All comparative advertising is designed to highlight the advantages of the goods or services offered by the advertiser as compared to those of a competitor. since the benefits a little less dramatic than TV demonstration ads can also work in print. Demonstration: Demonstration advertising is designed to illustrate the key advantages of the product/ service by showing it in actual use or in some staged situation. 2. Demonstration executions can be very effective in convincing consumers of a products utility or quality and of the benefits of owning or using the brand. In order to achieve this objective. 3.Comparison Comparison 5. the message of the advertisement must necessarily underline the differences between the goods or services compared by describing their main 3. as a special form of advertising. Straight sell Straight sell 1. TV is particularly well suited for demonstration executions. or with those of other competitors. Straight sell Straight sell 1. 2.Ad Execution 1. Example while promoting digital cameras the focus is on picture quality and the mega pixel.

The testimonial must be based on actual use of the product or service to avoid legal problems and the spokesperson must be credible. 4. The people giving the testimonials in the ads are from various walks of life. consumers may make informed and therefore efficient choices.) Comparative advertising which aims to objectively and truthfully inform the consumer promotes the transparency of the market. (These statements are true only if the comparative advertising is objective. Testimonial executions can have ordinary satisfied customers discuss their own experiences with the brand and the benefits of using it. Based on this information. where a person praises the product or service on the basis of his or her personal experience with it. Comparative advertising improves the quality of information available to consumers enabling them to make well-founded and more informed decisions relating to the choice between competing products/services by demonstrating the merits of various comparable products. Testimonials: Many advertisers prefer to have their messages presented by ways of testimonials. An international television and print ad campaign directed users to a website where various myths about the Mac platform were dispelled. Comparative advertising can stimulate competition between suppliers of goods and services to the consumer's advantage.Switch was an advertising campaign launched by Apple Computer on June 10. Market transparency is also deemed to benefit the public interest as the functioning of competition is improved resulting in keeping down prices and improving products. Function of comparative advertising Comparative advertising should enable advertisers to objectively demonstrate the merits of their products.characteristics. The television commercials were directed by Errol Morris. 2002. Slice of Life: Advertising-copy technique where a real-life problem is presented in a dramatic situation and the item being advertised becomes the solution to the problem. The comparison made by the advertiser will necessarily flow from such a description. By: M H Lakdawala 31 .Apple Computer made effective use of testimonials as part of its “Switch” campaign. 5. This approach can be very effective where the person delivering the testimonial is someone with whom the target audience can identify or who has an interesting story to tell. It featured what the company referred to as "real people" who had "switched" from the Microsoft Windows platform to the Mac. which features computer users from various walks of life discusing why they switch from Windows-based machines to Macintoshes.

A good example is the Kellogg’s Coco Pops adverts. The human mind goes through a thought process of depicting meaning from an animated aesthetic. When harnessed well. The personality symbol can take the form of a person who is used as a spokesperson. They relate well to cartoon-like imagery therefore commercials that utilise animation grab their attention easily. They depict an imaginary island inhabited by eccentric animals. The fact that these concepts can be portrayed successfully and can make it easy for the consumer to grasp your idea or concept without any kind of explanations is unparallel tool in the advertising industry. Cosmetic companies often use By: M H Lakdawala 32 . Animation is an inherently creative medium. It instigates thought in the way that advertisers can use to their advantage by inspiring thoughts of desire. Animation is extremely effective when marketing a product aimed at children. with a product offered which can solve this problem. Personality symbol—this type of execution involves the use of a central character or personality symbol to deliver the advertising message and with which the product or service can be identified. animation is one of the most multipurpose tools for increasing sales of any product or business or simply getting a message across. The ads usually portray a family scene occurring (a "slice of life") during a typical day. Imagery / Fantasy—this type of appeal is often used for image advertising by showing an imaginary situation or illusion involving a consumer and the product or service. Generations of children have found this to be extremely appealing. 6. 8.This is where animation steps in. These types of advertisements connect with consumers on a personal level. This execution is a combination of the demonstration and the testimonial executions. An example is a housewife who is having trouble cleaning her kitchen floor. animated characters or even animals. When dealing with concepts that can not be expressed in words or with illustrations can be extremely frustrating for advertisers and marketers .Detergent manufacturers rely upon this advertising format heavily. 7. this execution shows a real life problem and what the person in the ad does to overcome it. Animation: This technique used animated characters or scenes drawn by artists or on computer. These advertisements create a positive feeling about specific products in the minds of consumers because they can relate to these everyday situations which they too face. Widely used in print advertising formats. Ads for consumer products use this method effectively.

Note how often kids will say "When I grow up. slice-of-life ads are often used to demonstrate a product or make brand comparisons. any individual "feel good" ad must be put into a wider context. “That was a By: M H Lakdawala 33 . 12. Feel good Ads: "Feel good" ads are those ads which do not have a specific call for a response: to buy something. a copy which they want to read from beginning to end. Dramatizations often use the problem/solution approach as they show how the advertised brand can help resolve a problem. The need to stimulate interest and desire seemed to be fully satisfied by "Reason-Why" ads. or create a feeling of warmth and pleasantness. as Smith knows. Combinations—many of these execution techniques can be combined in presenting an advertising message.In advertising. 10. so that it is easier to understand than to misunderstand it. "reason-why" advertising was the appropriate method of implementing a strategy of product differentiation. The copy says unexpected things in elegant ways. so that we know and like the product or the company... As this term is used here. For example. But fine words alone don’t make for good fundraising copy. Fund raising copy:The fund raising copy is all about inspiring potential donors to believe in a cause. the growing importance of national advertising of branded products produced a perfect condition for growth of "reason-why" adverting. and like. "True 'Reason-Why' copy is logic plus persuasion plus conviction. "feel good ads" can describe the many different ads and sponsorships which generate good will. I'm going to get a . but also to build long-term good will for "later" because kids will grow up to be adults. Dramatization—this execution technique creates a suspenseful situation or scenario in the form of a short story. Ads had the task of pointing out the distinctive characteristics of a brand and explaining its superiority. most ads targeted at kids not only seek an immediate response (kids or their parents buy something.fantasy executions although the technique has also been used in advertising for other products such as automobiles and beer.’ 9. For example. to take action. which moves readers and stirred thier emotions. "Reason Why" was the answer of Kennedy to what makes people purchase a particular good. which angered them or made them proud. to do something. 11. which aimed to present the consumer with convincing arguments to purchase the advertised brand. as a small part of a larger ad campaign. all woven into a certain simplicity of thoughtpre-digested for the average mind. now). It’s how you use them that count. In this sense.. ‘When Cauis spoke in the Senate the people said."People buy from people they know.In addition. Remember the old Roman aphorism. 13. or to vote.

remarkably fine speech”, but when Marcellus spoke they shouted, “Let us now march on Byzantium!”.’ For Marcellus’ powerfully put words had moved his listeners not to sympathy but to action. You need to know to write more clearly, more convincingly and more accessibly with clarity and precision.

IV. Combining Creativity and Strategy:
In advertising, different creative strategies are used in order to obtain consumer attention and provoke shoppers to purchase or use a specific product. Advertisers use different ways of thinking to create catchy slogans that capture consumer attention. Creative strategies promote publicity, public relations, personal selling and sales promotion. These ways of thinking are divided into three basic descriptions: Weak strategies, mid-strength strategies and strong strategies. The strategies labeled "strong, mid-strength, and weak are generic phrases used in the text books referenced below to help students understand the intensity of each different type of advertising strategy. Advertisements, weak, mid-strength, and strong can be found in television, radio, and magazines/print. Since the beginning of advertising, strategies have been created, starting with the simplest (weak) strategies in the 1940s.

V. Organizing the Creative Task
Strategy and Creativity? Strategy: What is an advertising strategy? Basically, it is the formulation of a message that communicates to the market the benefits or problem solution characteristics of the product or service. What you are trying to convey through your advertising and state in your strategy is what your product offers to meet the consumer's need; how your product has more beneficial characteristics than the competition's; and what the beneficial characteristics are.

By: M H Lakdawala


The advertising strategy is a direct result of the market strategy. The market strategy focuses on the improvement of operations and the positioning of the storefront, while the advertising strategy concentrates on reaching out to the marketplace and conveying what the market strategy has accomplished internally. The first step in formulating an advertising strategy is to determine the product or service you have to offer to the marketplace and the objective of the campaign. Creativity: Creativity is simply the ability of a person to create. To understand creativity one can simply refer to a person with unique ideas and willing to bring new things into the life. Usually creativity is considered as the natural ability of a person. However, the creativity can also be developed in a person. Weak strategies Generic and Pre-emptive strategies describe the two weakest forms of advertising that were most popular through the 1940s.

A generic strategy gives a product attribution. An example of this would be how the Milk industry chose to advertise their product. With their slogan, “Milk, it's good for health, have it with dinner,” consumers aren't learning anything new about the product. The Milk slogan simply states milk as a dinner item. It enhances the product in no other way.

A pre-emptive strategy is a form of advertising that makes a generic claim stronger. An example of a pre-emptive strategy can be found in Folgers Coffee. As many of us know, most all coffee is grown in the mountains. Folgers took that fact and claimed it as their own with their slogan, “Folgers: Mountain Grown Coffee.” Middle-strength strategies Secondly, are the mid-strength strategies: 1. 1. Unique positioning strategy 2. Brand image and 3. Positioning? 1. A unique positioning strategy is proving that something about your product is truly unique. This is commonly found when producers take an average product and add a new, unique element to it. An example of Unique Positioning Strategy would be in Dove soap. Dove added the unique feature of moisturizing cream in their product to differentiate it from other brands of soaps.

By: M H Lakdawala


A downfall in Unique positioning strategy advertising is that if a unique feature increases sales on one product, many other brands are likely to adopt the “unique” feature, making the end product not so unique. 2. Brand Image is another very common way companies choose to advertise. In brand image, an advertiser is not trying to create rational thinking. This type of advertising strives to create emotion and give a brand a personality. A common way of doing this is by using a celebrity as a spokesperson. A great example of brand image is found in Proactive Acne Solutions. In each of their commercials they have celebrities sharing their Proactive experiences, giving the brand a face people want to be. 3. Positioning is one of the most common forms of advertising. It was developed in the 1970s and is still widely used today. In positioning one brand will take its product and “position” it against a competing product. An example of positioning can be found in the rental car company “Avis'” store slogan. With “Hertz” car company being the leader in rental car services, Avis took their number two position and used it to their advantage by creating the slogan, “When you're number two, you try harder.” Positioning Positioning is another basic concept in strategy design. Position is defined as the perception that the targeted consumers have of a firm's products or services relative to competitive products or services. Positioning is based on product or service attributes or characteristics that are potentially relevant to the audience. One methodology suggests that positioning strategy may be approached via one of six positioning trait sets, shown in Table 2. We'll look briefly at each of these.

Positioning Trait Sets 1. By Attributes 2. By Price and Quality 3. By Use or Application 4. By Product User 5. By Product Class 6. By Competitor

By: M H Lakdawala


Gatorade. a soft drink product. It was only with its repositioning as an alternative to cola drinks that Seven-up was able to shake its position as a mixer.Positioning by Attribute Positioning by attribute is probably the most often used positioning approach. Positioning by Price/Quality This may be thought of as a set of attributes. was positioned at its introduction as a mixer for alcoholic cocktails. By: M H Lakdawala 37 . The relationship of the price/quality judgment made by consumers about products creates the positioning on these specialized attributes. For example. positioning is established by attributes or characteristics of the product's use. positioned itself as "for use during strenuous workouts" when it was introduced. a fruit-based drink. Attempts to position it as a soft drink were not successful. what about the Thai potato chip company who depicted Hitler eating their chips. but they are of such importance to all consumers that they probably should be considered their own category for positioning purposes. are often priced higher. An attribute is a characteristic feature or benefit of the product or service. then becoming transformed into a good person? Some ideas are just bad. usually in pairs. These attributes can be anything as long as the consumer of the products or services perceives the attribute as an important characteristic of the product or service. Higher prices tend to signal a higher quality of product or service. It became established in the market for this use and is still primarily seen as a workout thirst quencher and bodily fluid replenisher. For example. The price/quality set reflects a perception in consumers' minds that brands which offer more features. Seven-up. The downside to this application-specific type of positioning is that later attempts to reposition the product or service to another application may fail because of deeply entrenched consumer positioning. Positioning by Product User This is product positioning by a specific type of user or class of users. To use this method. you begin by defining a relevant set of attributes. Or. and/or better service performance. Positioning by Application In this process. Some kinds of cosmetics for women associate themselves with well-known models and are positioned in the minds of consumers as appropriate for women who want to be associated with that type of beauty.

As an example. If an advertiser can create a campaign that certain target markets identify with. Avis Rent-A-Car was made famous for its advertising campaign based on the positioning against a well-established competitor." commercials by Hertz.Positioning by Product Class This is a rare and potentially dangerous product positioning technique.. Their recognition with soccer moms makes “Tide” a favorite pick among women with children who are very involved in activities. By: M H Lakdawala 38 . Positioning by Competitor An established image of a competitor can serve as the basis for positioning. For example. By creating a friendly. rather than against other brands of margarines. then resonance advertising has been achieved. An example of resonance advertising is in “Tide” detergent ads. a brand of margarine called "I can't believe it's not butter" positions itself against butter. Lastly. consumers tend to trust what the Zoozoo is saying and find humor in his actions. The nowfamous "We're number two so we try harder" advertising slogan established Avis in the minds of consumers as second largest firm. funny Zoozoo as a spokesperson. Many times mothers are busy doing laundry in between sports practices and driving their children around in mini vans. This is difficult to do. Here the product is positioned against competing products in other associated classes. Hertz. but often humor and an honest character can make affective advertising possible. Making people feel really good about a product is called affective advertising. honest. but one from whom the consumer could expect better service. Strong strategies The third and strongest form of creative strategy includes affective advertising and resonance advertising. resonance advertising is a way of identifying with consumers. A great example of affective advertising is found in the “Vodaphone” commercials. The some notion is now used in the "not exactly. This creates a good feeling about the actual service “Vodaphone” offers..

psychographic. why. emotional appeals are directed at the consumer’s psychological. a document that serves as the creative team’s guide for writing and producing the ad. what. Why? Does the consumer have specific wants or needs that the ad should appeal to? Advertisers use two broad categories of appeals.VI. Rational appeals are directed at the consumer’s practical. approach or tone will the campaign use? And generally what will the copy say? The answers to these questions help make up the copy platform. By: M H Lakdawala 39 . What product features satisfy the consumers’ needs? What factors support the product claim? What is the product’s position? What personality or image – of the product or the company – can be or has been created? What perceived strengths or weaknesses need to be dealt with? 4. and/or behavioristic qualities. 3. demographic. If it doesn’t. social. the writer must start again. where. functional need for the product or service. How should this be communicated? What style. when and how of the ad: 1. 2. When and where will the messages be communicated? What medium? What time of the year? What area of the country? 5. The copy platform is the written strategy statement of the most important issues to be considered in the ad or campaign – the who. Who is the most likely prospect for the product? The copy platform must define the prospect in terms of geographic. After writing the first ad. the copywriter needs to create a copy platform. or symbolic needs. CREATIVE PROCESS Writing the Creative brief or Copy platform In developing the message strategy. the copywriter should review the copy platform to see if the ad measures up.

Specify Target Au 3. Specify Target Au By: M H Lakdawala 40 . Supporting Inform 5. Selling Idea or Ke 4.Who is a creative person? Creative Strategy: Components of the Creative Strategy. Selling Idea or Ke 3. Creative Strategy 5. Creative Strategy 4. Supporting Inform 6. Putting the Strategy in writing: CREATIVE BRIEF (Copy Platform) FORMAT Building a Co 6.

Chapter: 3 Phases of campaign creation: Understanding Campaigns By: M H Lakdawala 41 .

By: M H Lakdawala 42 .storming sessions. The team throws up the ideas. These ideas ultimately make up the strategy. despite the poor creative work. It analyses the research data and decides positioning of a brand.Three Phases of Campaign Creation There are three phases involved in the creation of any campaign. They found that clients did not want to buy strategy from an ad agency. (i) Strategy Development Phase. right strategy and creative campaign is a winning combination. AI Ries and Jack Trout started focusing on the strategy side of advertising business in the late 60s when they first started writing about positioning. The strategy formulation is in modern day's agencies a team effort. If the strategy is right. There are brain. Everybody else was talking about creativity. The creative persons form a part of this team not as creative persons but as a mind. no amount of creativity will help. one can sell due to right strategy. whereas they decided to talk about strategy. If the strategy is wrong. (ii) The Briefing Phase and (iii) The Creative (i) Strategy Development Phase This phase decides the objectives and contents of communication. The brilliant in the team pick up one or two ideas from the total ideas generated and develop them. It is essential that advertising professional should appreciate the importance of strategy development phase. Our strategy should give us a competitive edge. However.

Mere creativity and no strategy never work. To agency should tell what they are trying to achieve in their communication. The strategist is the left-brain oriented, very linear in thinking, very logical in deduction. The strategy formulation leads to an advertising brief. If you want to catch fish, you have to think like a fish. If you want to catch a consumer, you have to think like a consumer. That's the first principle. What most companies do is they think like themselves. They spend all their time with themselves' (AI Ries and Jack Trout). Bob Isherwood, creative director, Saatchi & Saatchi, Australia emphasizes that a good effective ad has to be married to the right strategy, if it has to sell. He is also a strong believer of the theory that a creative director is as important a member of the strategizing team as the account director is especially if it involves a product launch. II. Advertising Brief to the Creative As a matter of fact, the client has to brief the agency about the strategy. However, most of the time this does not happen. The agency is supposed to brief itself. The strategy formulated is communicated to the creative people. They are briefed about how to create the advertising the product needs. The strategy should be communicated with clarity. The strategist should be a good motivator for the creative team. Proper briefing is going halfway as far as creativity is concerned. Bad brief to the creative team results into bad work. Good brief ensures good work. Within the creative team, the copywriter and visualiser work together and it is difficult to attribute the final product to either of them. Yes, when they are working, there are sparks of creativity. Please appreciate that briefing completes half the job. Creative campaigns are creative due to a good brief. It is critically very important to question the brief. Very often, a brief is a set of clichés. We have to get the real situation. Creative brief of strategy contains a key consumer insight. If the brief acquaints you with the consumer, and how his mind works, it has the seeds of creativity in it. It gives stimulus to creative team. Success or failure of the advertisement is largely dictated by the brief. It is the job of a client to tell the agency what he wants to say and it is the agency's job to decide how to say it. Great briefs inspire great work. Briefs should have clarity and single-minded objective. They should aim at a target person. The idea is to have the desired response. All briefs must suggest a benefit or a product plus. III. The Creative Phase

By: M H Lakdawala


Here the lateral thinkers come on the scene. They leap from a single unidirectional idea of the strategist to an advertising idea that will add value to the product/brand. The creative persons are supposed to be right-brained - lateral thinkers, irrational thinkers as against the accounts director who is left brained, i.e., logical. They make connections that had not existed before. They rearrange the order of things. They create abruptions in the consumer mind. There should be a beautiful marriage between the strategy and the lateral thinking by the creative people. The creative director's post has become a more responsible one. He does not remain content with a clever copy or stimulating visuals. He is required to understand the product and its market completely. He is now an overall ad man, an all-rounder. He participates in research and has active role in positioning. He does not follow a policy of art for the sake of art any more. He sits at briefings alongside the client servicing people. Creative are involved in the whole campaign - right from the concept to the commissioning stage. Spink of the Lowe group says "Strong creatives are probably the cheapest competitive advantage that a company can have." The best creatives are derived from a complete understanding of the product and the benefits it offers. But a thorough understanding of the target audience provides an edge. Norman Berry of O & M says, "It is the sensitive understanding of the audience that takes one's creative from logic to magic."

By: M H Lakdawala


I. Understanding the psychographics of target audience
Psychographics are a way to measure consumers’ beliefs, opinions, and buying habits. Rather than demographics which use age, income, gender and other quantitative data, psychographics provide a way to understand more qualitative data. Psychographics can be extremely helpful to predict differences in buying patterns and stimulating ideas for communicating with the target group.

Psychographics of various audiences and writing Copy for them 1. Copy for Youth Youth Marketing is a term used in the marketing and advertising industry to describe activities to communicate with young people, typically in the age range of 12 to 34. More specifically, there is the Tween Marketing, targeting people in the 8 to 12 year-old range, Teen Marketing, targeting people age 13 to 19, College Marketing, targeting college-age consumers, typically ages 18 to 21, Young Adult Marketing, targeting young professionals, typically ages 22 and above. The youth market is critical because of the demographic's buying power and its members' influence on the spending of family members. In addition, teens and young adults often set trends that are adopted by other demographic groups. The youth market is viewed as a difficult group to connect with and sell to, based on the fragmented media landscape and young people's keen ability to identify and reject marketing messages that lack credibility. Nonetheless, many brands market to youth by offering relevant products and services while communicating a brand message in an appropriate voice and tone. Successful brands marketing to youth have a foundation in or association with key interests and drivers among youth: music, sports, fashion, video gaming and technology, among others. Youth marketing strategies commonly include television advertising, magazine advertising and online marketing. Today young people expect to be able to learn By: M H Lakdawala 45

By: M H Lakdawala 46 . The use of SMS and the Internet as media of cutting edge communication are avenues that the youth market is very comfortable with. In essence. Marketers must emphasize the elements within their product that evoke these emotions when communicating to this market. this is by far one of the most pressing issues confronting them in daily life. the most important factor is the never-ending desire to be accepted. 6. Other common youth marketing tactics include entertainment marketing. So how can one use these factors to drive sales? Take mobile phones as an example. 2. it is a fear of not belonging that drives the youth market to adopt the consumer patterns that are unique to their demographic group. Among the youth market. give them the confidence to take control. Those companies that understand this inherent desire for acceptance have in their back pocket one of the keys to success within the youth market. product or service receives. music marketing. Essentials for writing copy for youth: 1. interact and be entertained by with brands or services targeting them online. In the youth marketplace more so than any other. event marketing. For many members of Generation Y (now aged around 12–20 years). The key to tapping into this coveted market is to understand why young consumers choose one product over another in the first place. confidence and independence—emotions highly sought by young people. it is also important for marketers to analyze their product placement when pitching to this demographic. 7. As well as promoting the emotional aspect of a product or brand that gives the user the desired feelings. sports marketing. independence and important information. school and college programs. 5. They are tools that give the user control. product sampling and influencer marketing. mobile phones are an absolute necessity.about. viral marketing. Marketers should be aware of the impact these desires have on this demographic’s decision to purchase a product or service. to belong. 4. Marketing to the younger members of the consumer world is based around the age-old concepts of wants and needs. being seen on the cutting edge has a major impact on the attention that a brand. 3. The flow-on effects of having a sense of belonging and control are the feelings of empowerment. Empower your market. provide them with a sense of belonging and don’t forget to stand on the cutting edge.

assure her that the mechanic would not just be courteous. By: M H Lakdawala 47 . Women have very strong need to enter into relationships. I hate you -kind. She needs to be listened to. The way a woman narrates happenings in a day with the finest of details to anyone close to her holds a significant lesson to those connected with marketing. she will be relieved if she can talk to someone. and they will shower you with their favors. They take extra-ordinary efforts to satisfy their needs. even if they are of -I love you. The reality is that marketing to women is just smarter marketing strategy.2. “Brand Lite” isn’t the answer: Many companies make the mistake of thinking they need to create a separate brand to reach women. Women simply care more for these things than men do. if only she can speak what is on her mind and be understood. Your services need to reassure a woman that you will be around in a predictable way when she needs help. or a pretty hairclip. Small things matter to women. She does all this to feel herself. Few men will take such efforts on their own. She will be happy to be waited on. And let’s be honest. to be fussed over. coordination of accessories. modern women It's no secret that men and women have different communication and decision making styles as well as different priorities and preferences. a texture. If she needs her washing machine repaired. If she tries your spices and the dish doesn’t taste quite the way she expected. Copy for women. dry fruits. This is a basic expectation. Women have different needs as compared to men. A woman needs attention. A woman will take whatever it takes to get such small things. A woman will travel to another end of town to buy something like rice. What do women need? At a fundamental level a woman yearns to be understood. A woman has an uncanny ability to spot what she wants amidst clutter and chaos.Homemakers. Your communications need to be sensitive to them. Take care of those small things. one that is softer and more accessible. Look at the way women go through the hustle and bustle of shopping areas. or vegetables if they believe that they are getting something special. These could be matching of colors. but that he would come home at her convenience with tools and cleaning cloth. they’re also afraid that feminizing the core brand will alienate the guys. Factors to keep in mind while writing copy for women 1. Assure her that he would leave only after he clears the mess. She might forgive you for some mistakes.

” the “Volvo for Life” slogan conveys the two umbrella messages that are especially important to women: safety and dependability. The Power of the Purse. If your marketing message doesn’t match up with your product performance and your retail experience. This “mom marketing” no longer fit with modern women and they were taking their kids and their dollars elsewhere. McDonald’s quest to “find the woman inside the mom” led them to the highly successful launch of Premium Salads. One of the best examples of a great company that gets it right with women is Apple. easier-to-fold-away rear seats and easier-to-load trunks. No need to invest money in making and marketing her Pod when iPod is pretty damn great the way it is. leading to such improvements as color coding of fluid lids under the hood. But rather than make its marketing message an endless list of “look at all our cool stuff. A willingness to solicit and listen to women’s input and understand that women didn’t see themselves only through the “mom” lens allowed McDonald’s to redefine its relationship with its most important consumer. 4. healthier Happy Meal options and a revamping of Play Places to include comfortable seating and wireless internet access. 2. Embrace high standards Women are suckers for quality and.552 percent increase in its stock price over the last decade. Online research and a visit to the dealership reveal all the terrific features Volvo has developed to back their message up. and a passionate lifestyle brand message hold strong appeal for women and for consumers overall. you’ve lost her trust and she’ll go somewhere else. Understand that she’s always watching: Women are great at detecting inconsistencies.grounded in meeting and exceeding high standards and consistently delivering on your brand promise. 3. Consider Whole Foods. Respect her In Fara Warner’s new book. 5. Terrific design. more importantly. Up until that point. easy-to-use technology. ultimately winning her business back. Affectionately nicknamed “Whole Paycheck” by some. when the company was forced to realize that it was still talking to women as if it was 1955. Communicate product value instead of listing features: Sounds simple. the company had viewed women mainly as a conduit to kids. Whole Foods is able to charge higher prices in a notoriously low margin industry because they have created a lifestyle brand that delivers on By: M H Lakdawala 48 . she chronicles the substantial shift McDonald’s began making following a 2002 sales slump. when they find it they’re willing to pay for it. Volvo has made gaining women’s input a key part of its development process since the late 1980s. but many organizations develop and market products without ever asking their female customers what features they think are most important and why. which has enjoyed a 1.

Women constitute about half of the market. 6. They wish they could do without help from men. and movie theaters where women can not walk between two rows without feeling embarrassed. launched in 1995 to better serve the needs of women business travelers with improved services and amenities. a coconut oil bottle that drips with oil despite all the fancy packaging. An Activa rode in with nicer looks. a cell phone requiring complex menu navigating abilities and that comes with complicated telephone bills. Activa became a runaway success without so much of bragging and boasting by Honda. When you consider that. Whole Foods has transformed something uninspiring and mundane into a premium experience. With high quality. By: M H Lakdawala 49 . They wish to be themselves. If their influence in buying decisions is considered women control much more than half the market. Women no doubt can manage all above creations by men. a tin with tough metal seal that requires a hacksaw for cutting. 7. cars with too low roofs requiring crawling to get inside. The reason? It goes both ways. hard-to-find products. Few manufacturers care. Wyndham Hotels recently celebrated the ten-year anniversary of its award-winning Women On Their Way initiative. courteous sales people. according to the Center for Women’s Business Research. But you would earn their gratitude and loyalty if you free them from such men-made mess. They will enthusiastically recommend your products to many other equally enthusiastic women. and decent fuel efficiency. Today that number has increased to over 35 percent. They wish to be independent and mobile. better brakes. They do it with minimum fuss. a pleasant atmosphere. Be willing to commit There it is. a sachet of shampoo that requires a pair of scissors. When the program began women accounted for 19 percent of Wyndham’s business travelers. These were mere happy coincidences on a long road littered with products born to insensitive design and brought to customers by arrogant marketing. Kinetic Honda was a huge success. and even chair massage in some locations. good power. A Kinetic Honda came around with electric start and gearless driving.its promise. 86 percent of women entrepreneurs say they use the same products and services at home as they do in their business it’s clearly no accident that women also now make up 50 percent of Wyndham’s customer base overall. such as healthier menu options and a courtesy call announcing room service. This isn’t a market you can just dip your toes into. It looked feminine. knowledgeable. the dreaded “c” word. They wish to be themselves: Women crave to look good. There are many more examples –a ketchup bottle with a crown cap which needs a man to open.

sharing.8. Needs of women –bonding. Writing copy for children Marketers pay special attention to children. Marketer tries to draw children’s attention through various means like TV. In addition to the direct money that children spend and the money they influence. Factors to keep in mind while writing copy for children By: M H Lakdawala 50 . Magazines. force their parents for product purchase. Young children. they influence their parents' buying decisions and they're the adult consumers of the future. children also represent a third major market and perhaps the most significant and that is the future market. who are considered as the most vulnerable audiences because they enjoy advertisement to the maximum extent. What do young children need? To feel safe To be allowed the freedom to explore To play Girls & boys have different patterns of growth & development (genetic factors) Freedom of expression through art (Avoid asking “What is it?”) Opportunities to exercise autonomy Why Marketers target Children? Children represent three different markets. Stickers. and dreaming about all this 3. Advertisers recognise that brand loyalties and consumer habits formed when children are young and vulnerable will be carried through to adulthood. Children represent an important demographic to marketers because they have their own purchasing power. in particular. guilt can play a role in spending decisions as time-stressed parents substitute material goods for time spent with their kids. Children initially take advertisement as entertainment and having soft heart. Industry spending on advertising to children has exploded in the past decade. etc. have difficulty in distinguishing between advertising and reality in ads. and ads can distort their view of the world. This is called as a ‘Nag Factor’. Parents today are willing to buy more for their kids because trends such as smaller family size. looking and feeling beautiful. As well. dual incomes and postponing children until later in life mean that families have more disposable income.

Two points to remember • The two skills that are most useful for facilitating behavior change without damaging a child cognitively. "Pester power" refers to children's ability to nag their parents into purchasing items they may not otherwise buy. 4. Compared to adults. Marketing to children is all about creating pester power. emotionally or socially are: a. Nagging can be divided into two categories—"persistence" and "importance.1. "Pester power”: Today's kids have more autonomy and decision-making power within the family than in previous generations. Use Fear appeal: Fears and worries are powerful emotions and marketers who can help comfort a child by resolving a fear will have gained a loyal patron. thus blurring the distinction between programming and advertising and taking advantage of the affection children feel for those characters. 7. since it's the adult who will be forking over a credit card. kids are less capable of processing product information: They have lesser product experience to realize in their decisionmaking process. Keep the positioning simple and childlike: Keep the positioning simple and childlike: The communication message must be based on simple ideas and appeal to the kids’ imagination 6. Host selling: Advertisers not only feature cartoon or other characters from children's television programmes to gain their endorsement for their products (known as host selling) but they sometimes even place those advertisements in the breaks of the television programmes about those characters. because advertisers know what a powerful force it can be. 2. 5. so it follows that kids are vocal about what they want their parents to buy. 8. Using three-part “I” messages a. From an ethical standpoint marketers are reminded constantly that offers need to specifically address parents. Speak to both kids and parents: The conventional wisdom for reaching children is to frame a marketing message in a manner that speaks to both kids and parents. They search for bits and pieces of information that they can make sense of and tend to develop brand loyalty based on these. Communicate empathic understanding By: M H Lakdawala 51 ." This latter method appeals to parents' desire to provide the best for their children. Communicating empathic understanding b. and plays on any guilt they may have about not having enough time for their kids 3." Persistence nagging is not as effective as the more sophisticated "importance nagging.

Special needs 2.” (your action) • • “When I see you writing with you pencil it makes me so happy I just want to say hurray for you!” To discourage negative behavior o “When I see you… (child’s action)” o “It makes me feel… (your feeling)” o “I just want to cry. Three-part “I” message • To reinforce positive behavior o “When I see you… (child’s action)” o “It makes me feel… (your positive feeling)” o “I just want to say hurray for you.” (your action) “When I see you hit Sally.Communicating with children use empathic understanding to touch the child’s feelings so they may become independent in their thinking – Child: Teacher what do you think of my picture? – Teacher: Wow. Spare time But how can copy effectively target senior market? 1. you must really like it. Research shows that some attitudinal or psychographic segments in the mature market are more brand loyal than others and their loyalties are to specific classes of products. The characteristic of senior citizens are: 1. not to all products across the board The mature market is extremely varied and will only reward marketers who are willing to deal with its complexities and pursue a targeted strategy. "The key elements are to keep message direct: The over-50s are experienced consumers. You also need to give them a lot of information. you are really excited about your picture. High discretionary incomes 3. it makes me so sad I just want to cry. Copy writing for the mature market Growing old is a physical as well as an emotional condition. Seniors have a lot of time on their hands and so you must be prepared for answering many more detailed questions than you would for 20-year-olds. By: M H Lakdawala 52 .” • • 4. 2. b. so they don't want to read flowery language.

8. they have reached a level of financial comfort and a time in their lives where they can feel freer to spend money on themselves . selfish reasons and self-interested motives. Even as Matures spent. It's been that way for millions of years. Marketers can reach this practical. satisfied and secure. Play to the notion that this generation overcame daunting odds to achieve their successes. This is the most important strategy if you want to successfully sell to an By: M H Lakdawala 53 . After working hard and sacrificing for so many years. . Why? Because people are people. jerk their tears. 5. But they won't turn into recklessly wasteful spendthrifts in the mold of their Boomer children.wisely and responsibly. Matures will begin to spend more money on themselves. press their hot buttons. 1. 9. however. And much of this spending was for others anyway. Not selling. but they don't want to go overboard. Be prepared. 6. Copy writers commonly err by emphasizing the biological age of their consumers. because they've earned it. Don't be loud or brash. you're only telling. tug at their heartstrings and nudge them into taking action.3. Their style of spending. especially their children. and they plan to do so . Your job is to express your offer in terms that trigger their emotions. [Matures'] interest in pleasurable or exciting experiences for their own sake is low. Nevertheless. As they age. Copy writers must avoid depicting older consumers in negative ways Even Matures who are not as active and healthy as they would like to be dislike advertising assaults that remind them of their problems. Focus instead on themes that leverage the way Matures are motivated to buy. Period. . reflected the more cautious. They want to enjoy life. If not. disciplined values of their savings-focused outlook. they actually saved a lot of money. Writing copy for Executives An executive always buy for personal desires. 4. The overriding attitude here is that they have enough money to enjoy their retirement. hard-working generation as they enjoy their retirement but not by selling products for "old people They have to be smarter than that. they already get the point.

Business people are often so tied to their businesses or products that they get tunnel vision and fail to look at their copy from their readers' perspective. Avoid details. Be excited about your offering. Most executives get to the point very quickly and expect others to do the same. right in front of them. selfish reasons. because your job is to transfer that excitement into the minds of your buyers. The average senior-level businessperson has at least 52 hours of uncompleted work on their desk at any given time. Appeals to Their Ego: Executives people are still the ones Okaying the deal. they usually have only one or two of unscheduled time in a typical week. including the enjoyment of the benefits of your offer. 10. 9. Research the company before your meeting. Have A Relevant Message. Follow the "3 C's" Rule: Express your offer as Clearly. Be direct. Deliver a Real Solution that Solves a Critical Challenge. You need to make them feel important. of course. Copy using convoluted. in a comfortable. When executives can visualize the process of doing what you want them to do. And executives always buy for personal. Be energetic. 12. and to the point.executive. Be benefit-rich. conversational manner By: M H Lakdawala 54 . 3. Plus. whipping out their credit cards or signing the checks. 5. pretentious language doesn't sell product to executives. The most precious commodity to an executive is time. concise. as convincingly and as compellingly as possible. Respect their time. Gain as much information as you can before writing copy for executives. Be enthusiastic. phrases and imagery that help paint vivid mental pictures. 8. be ego-driven when describing those benefits. 6. Executives are big picture thinkers so be prepared to discuss your product/service on a macro level. complex. 2. you drive their actions almost instinctively. 4. Use words. The majority of executives are not interested in the details. 7. Write as if you were speaking with your prospect. 11. But more important.

Purchase Logic is an understanding of customer motivation that goes far beyond industry or demographic classifications. Purchase Logic defines what an individual customer wants and how he or she sorts among different alternatives. how it should be presented. When you do. broad claims. 15." "cheapest" and other. Being different is important. 14. The decision is simple. First. your copy will imply that you understand them. Purchase Logic: The Foundation of Marketing Strategy The foundation of a successful marketing strategy is an understanding of what product/service should be offered. The complexity of Purchase Logic increases as any of the following variables Increase: • The number of needs and wants to be satisfied • Length of commitment to or longevity of the product/service • Number of people involved in the decision • Number of alternatives • Price Two examples illustrate how Purchase Logic becomes complex. Focus on how that uniqueness directly benefits executives. have half an hour to spend and have no plans to meet anyone. the more complicated Purchase Logic becomes. Because the worst thing you can do. Purchase Logic is marketing’s primary tool for coming up with the answers. Small. Determining these three things is the essence of the marketing function. You are hungry. Forget things like "best. even to the point they can almost taste it. make sure you express those claims in your sales message in a way that directly benefits your buyer and appeals to her ego. is to express those claims broadly. What Determines Purchase Logic: The more factors involved in a purchase decision. II. 16." "fastest. think about buying a meal for lunch at work. second to making broad claims. and to whom. you feel for them and their "suffering" (for which you have a solution). What is Purchase Logic? Definition: Purchase Logic is the description of how and why someone buys a particular product or service. You run By: M H Lakdawala 55 . But don't focus on how better or unique you are. If you want to tell people how better or different or superior or unique your offering is. and you're ready to nurture and take care of them.13. routine purchases have simple Purchase Logics.

the more complicated Purchase Logic becomes. Now think about buying a meal on Saturday night. This latter scenario is still quite straightforward compared with most purchase decisions. you have many more options. a purchase decision is made. COMPONENTS OF PURCHASE LOGIC A systematic approach to examining Purchase Logic will look at each of its four components: Benefits. You have four people’s tastes to blend and will spend a significant amount of money. Further. Benefits must be addressed first. They represent the order in which alternatives are sorted and decisions are made. Even if you are not aware of it. it is time to address barriers to purchase. Hunger is only one need to satisfy. Sellers need to understand each step of Purchase Logic in order to make sure they are talking about the right thing at the right time. a seller will benefit by understanding what is on the buyer’s mind and how he or she is approaching the purchase decision. Barriers. it is important to take a systematic and formal approach to looking at Purchase Logic. Because you are going out with your family. You also seek some kind of entertainment or atmosphere. Clearly. PURCHASE LOGIC IS A PROCESS Every purchase decision involves a number of steps. in order to succeed in selling a product or service. BENEFITS By: M H Lakdawala 56 . This choice was easy because you had few options and a very simple need to satisfy your hunger and perhaps also take a little break. you sort through many more factors to arrive at a decision about where to go. Trade-offs and Price. Next come trade-offs and price. The price was also insignificant. After an individual weighs all these factors. These steps may not be clearly discrete or particularly conscious. Purchase Logic also defines the sequence in which issues must be confronted. Purchase Logic reveals how a prospect will react to what is offered. The more factors involved in a purchase decision. but they do exist.downstairs to the cafeteria and pick up a sandwich for four dollars. Thus. After the benefit ts have been established. you use a fairly complicated Purchase Logic in selecting the restaurant.

the “one that can not be criticized. Sometimes barriers may seem irrational or unfair. Because people want to avoid conflict. they usually do not offer objections and criticism freely. They can be at least as important as the desired benefits. BARRIERS Barriers to purchase are those factors that may prevent a customer from purchasing.” Usually that is the brand leader. demonstrating By: M H Lakdawala 57 . Think about purchasing a watch. benefits are what we seek. One highly motivating barrier in business-to-business situations is the fear of criticism. the buyer will not mention them. In this situation. We need to design our products or services so that they overcome these barriers. This fear causes buyers to select the safest choice. However. thus. frequently they are not even conscious of some of them. The desire for prestige or some other very emotional need or want justifies the choice of a Rolex over some much lower priced alternative. The seller needs to know what they are in order to address them. Both do an equally good job of satisfying the basic need—to tell time reliably. Barriers to purchase can be hard to discover. Overcoming barriers can become the most important benefit. Even if we have a specific idea of what features will deliver them. Benefits fulfill needs and wants. wants are usually most influential in a buying decision. Purchase Logic defines all relevant needs and wants.We all buy benefits. Often they are emotional and may appear irrational. Purchase Logic allows us to understand how important each benefit is to an individual buyer and why it is so important. Buyers are often reluctant to share their wants with a seller. Wants can be particularly tricky to identify. Nevertheless. barriers must be dealt with.

By: M H Lakdawala 58 . the seller must also provide evidence that the buyer can use to defend his choice.product superiority is not enough. functions or benefits. They choose among services or products that offer bundles of benefits. TRADE-OFFS Trade-off analysis is the process of assessing the relative value of different offerings. The trade-off is a comparison of these different bundles. What a customer concludes from the trade-off evaluation directly determines how that customer will react to different prices. In order to win. Customers do not buy individual features.

Cheaper acceptable alternatives put limits on how high a price a customer will pay. Cost does not determine price unless you are selling a commodity. Price is a function of the benefits provided. However.PRICE Price is the mechanism by which sellers capture some of the economic value of the product or service being offered. By: M H Lakdawala 59 . what a customer will pay is very much influenced by the relative value of alternative products or services. The value of those benefit is to a specific customer determines the maximum price that a customer will pay.

Since nothing is perfect.PURCHASE DECISION As the customer completes the Purchase Logic process. which minuses am I willing to live with? Part 2. Is the value of one choice enough to justify a higher price? 3. Identifying Qualified Prospects and 4. Why Should You Care About Purchase Logic? There are four specific areas in which a seller can apply an understanding of a Purchase Logic to enhance the likelihood of success: 1. What is the relative value of the options I am still considering? 2. In addition. you will have a deeper understanding of what your current customers seek. COMMUNICATING No matter what communication vehicle is used. knowing your prospects Purchase Logic will help you talk about the right topic at the right time. Altering Offerings for Stronger Appeal. You will know what benefits to stress in order to motivate purchase. By: M H Lakdawala 60 . the answers to three questions determine the final purchase decision: 1. 2. This gives you power to change your offering or approach. Communicating. Analyzing the Market. Also. you will know how to “position your product” for greater appeal versus others in its market. 3. ANALYZING THE MARKET You will gain a clearer picture of the kinds of people who are likely to be interested in what you have to offer. and thereby strengthen or defend your position.

then they have no hope in being able to change their ways in the last few feet. psychological or financial. The second illustrates how understanding Purchase Logic can increase the power of your communications. How Is Purchase Logic Turned Into Positive Action? Understanding precisely what your customers want and why they want it is a powerful tool for managing the marketing of your product or service. Once you have identified the Purchase Logic(s) in your marketplace. they can be environmental. The first focuses on how Purchase Logic may be used to redefine product offerings. Purchase Logic can also help you revise or improve your products and services to give them stronger appeal. We close with two brief examples of how an understanding of Purchase Logic can make a difference. In some cases you may even be able to construct selling messages that will prompt buyers to self select and identify themselves to you. such as not being able to find or locate the product. your understanding of Purchase Logic enables you to choose the most compelling features. Clear understanding of your market’s needs and wants and their relative importance will give you the guidance you require to make effective changes. Some of the barriers may not be brand related. or makes it standout against the others around it. as the name suggests are the various barriers that the consumers have to overcome in order to buy a service or a product. ALTERING OFFERINGS FOR STRONGER APPEAL As we have already suggested. It always makes sense to list down By: M H Lakdawala 61 . but increasingly it will be the last 3 feet that delivers the reasons to buy. These choices become clear because Purchase Logic defines what products and services to offer and how to talk about these offerings. Part 3. • Understand the barriers to purchase Unless brands owners know what is preventing people from buying their brand in store. Barriers to purchase. Maybe the packaging and product design does not reflect the premium image the brand claims. Specifically. marketing programs and sales message. The barriers can be physical.IDENTIFYING QUALIFIED PROSPECTS From Purchase Logic you can pull out some salient questions or characteristics that will help you identify good prospects. Or has the brand failed to deliver its benefits sufficiently to the shopper thereby not arming them with the reasons why it should be chosen over competitors. the direction in which you need to move will be evident. Marketers used to rely on advertising to do this work for them.

or inspire to talk about you -. Understanding the passions. Marlboro & Harley Davidson. elegant and fashionable. you can dismantle them one by one and make it easy for the clients. A brand is a set of memories. As in every successful marketing campaign. A sweet spot is met when the relevant benefit fuses By: M H Lakdawala 62 . there is also a sweet spot like in sports. expectations. however these memories don’t even need to be your own memory for you to be able to identify a brand as associations can be thought. then delivering an in store campaign that helps the shopper to understand why they should buy is the way forward. but its not just what it does to you. Why should I buy it? 2. Marketers (and those of us who serve them) need to take a close look at what's going on in the consumer's vital. brands need to align their assets to overcoming these barriers in way that best leverages what they know about how the shopper is shopping. Developing an ear for ‘human insights’ What is a brand? ‘We live in a brand world.2 brands and 6 times higher than no.g. How the to overcome the Barriers to purchase: Influencing barriers to purchase is not always a case of running a brand or price promotion. are consistent in spirit and have anchored themselves on powerful universal human emotions or insights. but if the barrier is “I don’t know what it’s for or don’t see the point”.’ According to experts no. Even when you have never been in Paris. it’s important to know that strong brands have unique personalities. So what’s different? 3. Its not worth the price 5. needs and desires of the people you want to talk to -. Once you know the barriers. as they go beyond the product like the Marlboro man or the Singapore girl. 1. Sweet spot In marketing. 3 brands. Apple. 1 brands have (on average) 3 times higher gross margins than no. where’s the buzz III. e. To understand brands. It sound too good to be true 4. The ultimate feeling one could have with a brand is a feeling of unification: ‘I am Harley Davidson. We need to listen.the various barriers that your clients may have to overcome in order to reach you. If the barrier is “I don’t believe in this brand” then some sort of brand in store campaign that talks about brand benefits might be a good idea. actionable human insights are critical to its success. but how it makes you feel’. you still could recognize it by just seeing the words romantic. It’s almost impossible to copy strong brands. In short. and this is what makes a consumer relate to a brand.

but with a local flavour. They talk to the parent through the child. McDonalds brings out the child in you and focused on the knowledge between parents and children. in order to have effect. They have difficulty to relate and fall regularly into clichés. An insight makes advertising meaningful. with many different cultures. It is a revelation about human behavior or human emotions that can be leveraged to build a brand. languages. if you don’t know whom you write it for. and don’t know a thing about how or where their target group lives. Understanding Indian Living in India everybody knows that it is very diverse. To understand India the single biggest problem is that the many professional people who create Indian advertisements have not been exposed to the diverse Indian culture. relevant and helps connect with the target. the localised commercials had a sense of humour and value to them that was very different for each country. Forget globalization and take a completely localized approach. Brands like McDonald’s and Pepsi approach Asian countries with universal human insights.with the right consumer insight. and what you see is not what you get. On the other hand. it’s a personal truth about a consumer. can we appeal to all Indian through one communication? There are two solutions to communicate with Asians: 1. Important to bare in mind is that it springs from an understanding of people. Take for example the powerful insight on chocolate: women who are depressed like chocolate. India is extremely complex and paradoxical. not products. Leverage universal human insights but localize them to fit each region. geography and races. ‘it puts a smile back on her day’. Golden rule is that one cannot write creative. Understanding Malays • Rustic simplicity • Unhurried approach to life • Family orientation • Sensitive sophistication • Gentleness • Focus on play rather than work • Graciousness rather than frantic pace Understanding Indians • Spirituality over materialism By: M H Lakdawala 63 . Much research is done by people whom have a different value system from the target group. 2. So what makes India different? Is there a common set of values for the whole of India? And very important. The insight can be slightly below the surface.

By: M H Lakdawala 64 . Universal human insights. but with a local flavour. . but their values can still be conservative. Do look beyond the surface.. there are some common Asian values that would make it possible to create an Asian localised’ commercial or advertisement: • Harmony and order • Institution above individual • Respect for elders • Strong family and community ties • Fear of losing face / honour • Team above self • Consensus based approach • Strong traditional anchors • Premium on relationships rather than objectivity One should not be misled by appearances. joy and passion • Mythology over history • Fatalism • Stronger individuality compared to the rest Understanding Chinese • Materialism over spirituality • Pragmatism over sentimentality or abstractions • Action orientation over intellectual orientation • Premium on face value • Ambition / success orientation • Hard work ethic Even though the Asian people are very different. An insight makes advertising meaningful. relevant and helps connect with the target. And last. what you see is not what you get! People may look westernized with miniskirts etc. but not least you can’t talk to Indian if you don’t master “the nuance”. .• Sentimentality and drama • Respect for elders • Intellectual orientation • Family honor before personal honor • Spontaneity... Never underestimate the sophistication of Indian culture.

another type of idea generation process. The method is meant to promote fuller input from more people. visualize. Many software companies are now selling versions of Mind or Thought Mapping tools which supposedly aid in facilitating and recording this process. Applied Imagination. There are various different techniques for generating ideas. It is a visual aid in organization. with brainstorming arguably being the best known and most often utilized. a hand-drawn diagram used to represent words. This graphic version of the classic brainstorming method is used to generate. Today the term brainstorming is often generically applied to the many differing forms of advertising creativity processes based upon this original concept. from free association to mind mapping. which is closest to classic brainstorming. Edward de Bono. each idea triggering the next until ultimately reaching a potentially useful one. is meant to generate multiple associations of the one original trigger so it can be more fully explored. The key point is a “hat” represents a direction to think rather than a label for thinking. The results of a brainstorming session can be a complete solution to the problem or a list of ideas resulting in a plan. and decision-making processes. and the process supplies and training materials can only be written and authorized by Dr. ideas. de Bono. recording the flow of ideas that come to mind. How to get an idea What does “Idea Generation” really mean? The term idea generation is a blanket description referring to any means of creating or developing ideas. problem solving.IV. Alex Osborn’s book. 2. In de Bono's words it "separates ego from performance". The criticism of Six Thinking Hats is it has to be learned and practiced. Brainstorming is a group creativity technique for generating ideas to solve a problem. structure and classify ideas. 3. tasks or other items linked to and arranged around a central key word or idea. There are six metaphorical hats and the thinker can put on or take off one of these hats to indicate the type of thinking being used. Six Thinking Hats was a method developed in the 1980’s by Dr. Free Association. Serial Association starts with a trigger. Brainstorming originated in 1957 with advertising executive. Centered Association. 1. 4. but more often than not is a list of potential ideas.serial and centered. depends largely on a mental ‘stream of consciousness’ of which there are two major varieties. By: M H Lakdawala 65 . Mind or Thought Mapping are the various processes based upon a mind map.

then they must be alike in other respects. to represent something else. Analogies and metaphor: Used to see new patterns or relationships. Convergent thinking: Problem solving technique in which ideas from different fields or participants are brought together (synthesized) to find a single optimum solution to a clearly defined problem. 6. The problem with any of these idea generation processes is the lack of understanding. emblem. symbol. Divergent thinking uses exploration to search for all possible alternatives 7. The knowledge and problemsolving expertise required make idea generation successful are often simply not available within the organization. By: M H Lakdawala 66 . • Choosing the idea that effectively communicates the emotional/rational benefit Chapter 4: Brief A brief is one of the most important aspects of Client servicing executive. Thus it’s a form of logical inference or an instance of it. So what should we ask for? More often than not we are not given a written brief from the client instead we need to extract a brief. based on the assumption that if two things are known to be alike in some respects. open-ended thinking aimed at generating fresh views and novel solutions. At the important initial meetings we listen and ask a lot of questions to help us establish the full scope of the project.5. This can be painful and pointless if we are not asking the correct questions and more importantly the correct person. or regarded as being used. Critical to the creative process is developing a clear understanding of our clients' needs and expectations. Divergent thinking: In contrast to convergent thinking. An analogy means Similarity in some respects between things that are otherwise dissimilar. A comparison based on such similarity. budget parameters and timelines. time or focus of participants. (which aims at solving a specific problem) divergent thinking is creative. Metaphor means something used.

This is our opportunity to shape a vision for the project and to set out the means for achieving it. we like to include careful market analysis through customer and competitor research. If they don’t have a web site ask them to send you a brochure before your meeting. how big they are. It’s information like this that the smart client servicing executive gathers without thinking. Its essential that highest quality work is delivered. departments and divisions. You might even be able to see a picture of a previous stand. • Product Brief: The product brief (initial information provided by the contracting company that dictates what they require from me). try starting at the beginning. and how many people work for the company and how many offices they have. If they are a foreign owned company it is quite possible that the decision will be made abroad. how much and where. This helps us to fully understand where our clients are coming from and where we can help them go Creative Concepts This is the stage when all the groundwork produces the first buds of creativity and culminates in our first major presentation. Together we discuss and agree which of our ideas are worth developing. This can be done before the appointment via the web where you might find out what they do. we develop and polish our ideas into carefully crafted final Creative strategy. Initial Proposal Inspiration is what our clients expect so we spend time refining the initial brief and make sure our proposals will deliver it. as well as realistic deadlines for every stage. Following client feedback. Development and Application Even the greatest ideas require careful implementation to achieve their full potential. You can pick up product ranges. A product brief is a document designed to focus on specific benefits and attributes of clients’ products. Strategy and Research If appropriate and practical. It helps to find out about your customer. By: M H Lakdawala 67 . Whatever the required deliverable.Before you get into asking the usual questions of how big.

a) Where are we? (situational analysis . both internally and relative to its competition.but both sides need to agree on the brief before the work can commence. You want everyone to be clear about the job at hand. Step 4 State your goals and objectives. Follow these tips to create a marketing brief so all parties involved will know what work is expected of them. Know the individual jobs of each player and include these job expectations in your creative marketing brief. etc.• Marketing brief: The purpose of marketing brief is to help assess client’s current situation. objectives & strategy) c) How are we going to get there? (actions. so that everyone knows the purpose of your project. Know the prices of each part of the project and the total cost. The details elicited in marketing brief provide the foundation for refining clients marketing message and revising and updating their marketing and advertising program. Include all areas and all players who will be involved in the project. Have a date for the final project. trends.) b) Where are we going? (opportunities. Step 2 Outline the expectations of each party involved. competitive analysis.creative or marketing .the market. A marketing brief is the best way for the marketer to clearly lay out a framework for the creative team. The marketing team can clearly define what they want the creative team to create. The process can be driven by either side . Know who is completing what and when it should be completed. Step 3 Include the dates of each part of the project. plans & controls) Instructions for creative Marketing brief: Step 1 Write a summary of the project including any background information. By: M H Lakdawala 68 . It’s the starting point for any work agency do for their customers. Marketing brief is a document outlining the expectations by a company's marketing team regarding a finished project. You have a better chance of succeeding if everyone is clear on this point.

Remember. Aims What are the required results of your marketing campaign? Confirm your expectations and aims. regarding your needs.Step 5 Know your target group. product/service knowledge. 10 Point Marketing Brief (Brief) 1. Step 6 Write your brief in project format with clear headings and sections for each part of the project. you can tailor the project to that group. Include plenty of white space between sections so readers can scan for information. Objectives Will your objective be: o Raising awareness of your products or service? o Changing preconceived attitudes Your objectives must be comprehensible. Target Market Know exactly who you want your message aimed at. The more you know about the target. We will have little or no knowledge of your market and will have to understand the key elements that need to be focused on by the marketing campaign. details of your previous campaigns and the results. 3. 5. The target audience can be portrayed in terms of current market behaviour. Research Include any and all relevant research that could support the marketing campaign. you are the expert in your field. Background you have to supply enough detailed information. the more successful your project will be. 2. as they will present the principal concept for your campaign. 6. Once you know the target group. They should be conceived in simple detail. degree of awareness. specific and quantifiable. favoured method of receiving info and clients/customers enthusiasm /obstruction to take notice of and accept the information. 4. Previous Marketing Material If you have tried marketing and advertising previously. provide full details of the targeted markets. By: M H Lakdawala 69 . the greater the prospect of a successful campaign. The more comprehensively you recognise your target audience.

not driven by ego and private agenda. By: M H Lakdawala 70 . Timescale Provide an approximate schedule for the campaign. if the campaign is highly successful. you will not know if it was successful and if your money was well spent. This document will serve as a broad-based reference tool for both focus and direction of your marketing efforts. 9. The agency must really understand clients issues. its product and the vision clients want to communicate. 8. The agency brief document purpose is to involve advertisement agency within clients marketing strategies –from the beginning until the end. It is fundamental to a healthy client-agency relationship that the agency be seen as a fully engaged partner with client. An unclear message may result in an ineffectual strategy and an unsuccessful campaign. in outline form. The oft-used word.7. Results will take time and we need to know the timescales we are working to. then both sides must take mutual accountability A good advertisement agency will ask client for a briefing. Budget Define your marketing budget. A briefing is crucial for good advertisement. is a good benchmark for defining the relationship between agency and client. and the commitment by both client and agency to see the creative process as one of collaboration. prompt response to requests. Evaluation If you do not build in a stratagem to appraise the campaign. essential questions and topics of discussion necessary for informing outside agency about clients marketing communication needs. who cares where the idea emanated from? If the campaign is less than successful. If you do not specify a budget in your brief then a marketing strategy may be proposed that exceeds what you had in mind. evaluation will help identify where things went wrong • Agency brief This comprehensive guide provides. By partnership we mean complete and thorough disclosure. if the campaign doesn’t produce the required results. Equally. partnership. both short and long term. 10. Key Message Be clear and concise concerning the purpose of your marketing campaign. What’s fascinating is that this is true. At the end of the day.

Media to be used. Target Audience: Whom are you trying to attract? Be specific. Communication objectives d. • Converting into creative brief Once an effective appeal is found. By: M H Lakdawala 71 . Benefits to promise e. Try to keep Creative Brief as concise as possible. typically covering one or two pages. its recommend that a team complete this briefing. the advertiser should prepare a creative brief. Target audience c. Note boxes will expand to accommodate verbiage.. concise description of project – keep brief. and it should include: a. A single person would provide the agency with just one view that may be skewed by his or her specific discipline. Key message b. Supports for the promise f. (Client Name) Creative Brief Format Agency/Graphic Designer: ____________________________________ Agency Phone:______________ Fax: _____________ Email: ______________________ AgencyAddress: ______________________________________________________________ Street City State Pin Code Project Summary: Clear.Since agency brief is very detailed and goes into great depth. it is an elaboration of the positioning statement.

obstacles. active? Project Timeline: Indicate major milestones.) Desired Message Tone: How do you want the message perceived -. fun. specific internet links etc.Key Messages: One or two key “thrusts” – those most important to the project’s success.creative. key contact information. key visual images. By: M H Lakdawala 72 . Communication Strategy: Indicate any specific elements to be included (logos.key words and phrases. market realities. Key Benefits: What’s in it for the audience? Background/Competitive Positioning: Briefly discuss the competition. warm. etc.

e.Anticipated Budget: Other: Add any key information not covered under the above items. Prepared by : _________________________________________Date:___________________ _____ Accepted by: Agency/Graphic Designer Signature: ______________________________ Title: ______________________________ Date: ______________________________ Chapter: 5 The BIG IDEA A BIG IDEA can be used to provide a basis for the campaign.g. a “hook” that you can use for multiple executions. The Creative Strategy is built around a theme that By: M H Lakdawala 73 . Does the ad position the product simply? … and with unmistakable clarity? Does this ad bolt the brand to a benefit? Does this ad contain a power idea? Does this ad have brand personality? Is how the Advertising meets its promotional objectives given its audience and constraints? Translates the ads purpose into its Creative Strategy (how it will do what it is supposed to).

” David Ogilvy’s Quotes 1 It takes a big idea to attract the attention of consumers and get them to buy your product. You are constantly engaged in changing your tone of your voice as you speak. The appeal taps into the audiences’ motives to initiate and guide behavior / learning. raise an alarm. involving way. or evoke fear? What sort of voice will make the reader of your ad eventually respond as you want him or her to respond? Tone of Voice is a crucial element in designing communication message. Unless your advertising contains a big idea. She is your wife. it will pass like a ship in the night. and listen. I admire people with gentle manners who treat other people as human beings. brings the subject to life. joins the product benefit with consumer desire in a fresh. look. Chapter: 6 By: M H Lakdawala 74 . The theme is the ad’s context. What sort of feelings do you wish to inspire in the housewife’s heart? Should you inspire confidence. and evoke pity. So when you communicate through an ad. or to impel action. first decide when Tone of Voice you wish to use when talking to your target audience. Tone of Voice Tone of Voice often communicates so much more than even the expression on your face. David Ogilvy’s Quotes 2 The consumer is not a moron. and makes the reader or audience stop. use Tone of Voice to generate a mood. or setting. Big idea—“The flash of insight that synthesizes the purpose of the strategy. Never insult her intelligence You will never win fame and fortune unless you invent big ideas Creative Strategy The search for the “BIG IDEA. I abhor quarrelsome people. You admonish a naughty child in on tone. You can use Tone of Voice to give orders.contains an appeal. I abhor people who wage paper-warfare.” The concept or central theme that will bind the campaign together. and use another if the child is frightened and needs comforting. In short.

It may be determined as:  A statement or part of a statement The Business Standard ad uses a statement the headline:” Its tough being a Business Standard reporter”.the headline. To capture attention. or the page will be turned and the possible sale lost. the attention and interest of the potential customer must be caught by the headline. The ad for Intelligent Investor. get it! – Visa Ad for Star News that has a headline. would awaken the interest of the readers. subhead. which just says By: M H Lakdawala 75 .Writing for Print Media. 3. from headline to closing should follow the 4 steps in the selling process – “A-I-D-A” in a logical progression.  A question Onida TV ad. 2. Ex: Axe effect – red lips creating a sensuous appeal are a very attention seeking ad and the visual acts as the headline. To select the special readers who might have a specific interest in what you are selling. hence the headline – “Perhaps the first ad written with the belief that a media planner is human.Headline – “should the new Onida TV be banned?” Surf excel – sample laaney ki kya zaroorat hai  A command. The headline has 3 functions: 1. and not a counting machine”. To awaken the interest of the reader in learning more about the product. which uses the headline “Why being a regular reader of Intelligent Investor is such a healthy habit”. Once the dominant selling point and copy appeal have been determined. body copy WRITING THE COPY The elements of the copy. there are several grammatical forms the headline can take. THE HEADLINE PROVIDES THE “A” AND “I” In copywriting. Eanadu Pradesh ad targets media planners.Parts of a press ad.

Just Released.“Don’t!” Sub-headline – “don’t just envy the Ondia TV.. If your product or service offers something newsworthy... Ask them the top 3 reasons for purchasing your product or service.. most widely used type of headline...... And for it to be as effective as possible.. announce it in your headline.“Stop” Onida TV – headline . Headlines may be classified by performance as follows: Headline Types Benefit News and Information Command Provocative Question Reason why Caution headline How-to-type Selective headline • Solution to problem Advice headline Gimmick headline 1) Promise of a Major Benefit This is the safest. Newsworthy is usually the introduction of a new product or the improvement of an existing product. or postal mail. At Last. Now Available. it must display the #1 benefit your prospect will receive buy purchasing your product or service.. The most effective way to determine this benefit is to survey your customers .. Announcing.. News or Information: Conveys real news or important information about a product. Now. Examples: By: M H Lakdawala 76 .by phone. 2. buy it” What a headline contains is more important than the form in which it does it. It's a good idea to offer your customers an incentive for providing you with this information..... Finally. Here are some words you can use in your News Headline: New. Introducing. email. and have them rank them in order.

The Command Headline tells your customer what to do. You need to know what your prospect is thinking. are very powerful words. Deccan Herald : 147538 copies” 3. The Command Headline. you must really know your market. “ The Times of India: 301927 copies. Examples: • “7 Reasons Why IBM Provides You With a More Reliable System” 7. The Question Headline should focus on your prospect’s self interest and ask a question they want to know the answer to.000 book titles start out with How To. “Reasons why” headlines don’t need to include the words “reason why”. If you know your target audience this well. With the “Reason Why” headline. Examples: ♦“Trade In Your Old Motor cycle for-Bye to Maintenance Headaches!” 4. what their anxieties are. Here again.Eg. The “Reason Why” Headline. to use this headline.) How To Headlines promise your prospect a source for By: M H Lakdawala 77 . Effective Command Headlines start out with action verbs. These two words -. The best type of questions to ask are questions that get your prospect involved. “Reason Why” headlines are effective because they contain facts and specific numbers. you give our prospect specific reasons why they should read your ad. and what they’re hoping to accomplish. You can never go wrong using a How To Headline. The Question Headline. Your command should encourage action by offering your prospect a benefit that will help them. Examples: ♦ “What Does the Space Shuttle Have To Do With LaZer Runner’s 7 Year Premium Protection Warranty?” ♦ “Can Half of All Laser Tag Owners in America Be Wrong?” ♦ “What Do The Giant Entertainment Companies Know That You Don’t?” 6. The Times of India ad that boasts of the circulation of TOI as compared to that of Deccan Herald.“how to”. (Over 7. Provocative 5. then the Question Headline is an effective headline to use. The How-To Headline.

If you ever get stumped for a headline. advice.” Media planer ad of Eenadu Pradesh. Example: "Now You Can Melt at Least 3 Inches of Fat from Your Waist in 30 Days or Less . which addresses advertisers. and solutions to their problems. Use a flag headline to attract your target audience . 10) The Flag Headline A flag is a phrase calling for the attention of a particular person or works! Examples: ♦ “How To Expand Your Customer Base and Increase Your Profits” 8. Selective Select a specific audience with specific language and words. Example… Attention: Newborn Journal Readers! New. 9) Solution to a problem This type of headline is a slight variation of the #1 benefit headline.Guaranteed! By: M H Lakdawala 78 . The Malaya Manorama ad. Exercise Safely Burns the Fat You Gained During Your Pregnancy in Less than 60 Days .Guaranteed!" This headline presents the benefit of reducing fat in the waist as the #1 solution to the problem of having excess fat in the waist area.information. use the How To Headline -. The problem solved by your product or service is the #1 benefit . For example… Attention: New Mothers! New Exercise Safely Burns the Fat You Gained During Your Pregnancy in Less than 60 Days . The print ad starts with the headline which says – “A few commandments to advertisers this's just presented in a problem/ solution format.those most likely to buy your product or service.Guaranteed! You can also use the flag headline to increase response by catering your offer to readers of the publication you're advertising in.

giving it added validity. or it won't have the desired effect." The quotes around the headline signify that it's an actual quote from a customer. There are a few ways to use this approach. The following example uses both of these techniques. It must make a significant claim related to a major benefit of your product or service. it's important that the testimonial has a strong impact. When using this method. Or you can use the warning to flag a specific audience. without changing my exercise routine. more of India’s companies choose us”. Here's an example: "Big Boulder Protein Powder helped me pack on 11 pounds of muscle and reduce my body fat by 6. Your headline can propose a warning to read your message before making a purchase. 14. if so then it is called Horn-Blowing. and I'm convinced it can do the same for you too. Don't just use an "average" testimonial.4% in only 37 days. Advice or Promise: By: M H Lakdawala 79 . It should not be overly blatant and boastful. 13.11) The Warning Headline This type of headline can yield tremendous results when use properly. Claim: Insist that this product has an outstanding record or performs in a certain way. Horn blowing – the Asian Paints yamaraj ad – this ad just exaggerates the durability aspect of the paints which kind of sounds boastful. DHL: “when sending shipments to the US. * Warning: Dieters * Don't eat another reduced calorie meal until you read this startling message… Why Your Current Eating Habits May be Doing More Damage to Your Body Than Good! 12) The Testimonial Headline This is simply a satisfied customer testimonial used as a headline.

The “bad night – Goodknight” ad with Lisa Ray ……. 16. Ex: Don’t get a credit card from us and you may end up with the wrong one in your hands .timesofmoney. Provocative: It must provoke the reader into probing further. If a provocative headline is used it must be pertinent to the product. Eg. If it presents a question. the answer must lie in the subheadline or body copy and in the product’s characteristics. Visuals are as much a part of headlines as are verbal concepts. Toyota. A picturesque scene of girl relaxing supports this 17. It means startling or interrupting in order to capture attention. An over line is a sub-head that leads into headline. Eg. There are over lines and ad. There are exceptions: Those messages where a headline and very descriptive visuals are able to tell the whole story. with the explanation provided in the body copy. By: M H Lakdawala 80 . Logo Or Slogan: Stress the reputation of the company behind it. Sometimes it presents a contradiction or an apparent paradox to the reader. features.Promise a real benefit if the product is used. which uses the headline –“The earth is mostly water. The advertisement for HLL looking for baby models – Headline – “Nude models wanted” Ad for Amitasha Foundation – Her parents cursed the day she was born” 18. An underline is a sub-headline that follows the main headline and leads the reader into the copy test. So is the view from our hotel. 15.her face tells the whole story and there’s no body copy! Sub-headlines: Sub-headlines are sectional headlines. and performance. The JW Marriott ad. Mood-Setting: Set a mood to create receptivity in the reader. Tata both use their logos for most of the ads for their automobiles – Camry and Indica respectively.

In that case. various as they seem. Direct selling information By: M H Lakdawala 81 . the body copy attempts further to develop the interest of the potential customer. direct or rational approach LIC – The LIC ad states the benefits of the Komal Jeevan policy. It may also be used to bring out related but additional or different appeals. the eligibility. So what do you do? You can leave it out of the ad and hope that the ad will compel readers to seek more product information elsewhere (at the Web site. It allows you to fully convince the target audience of the benefits of the product. It can also be used to break up a lengthy copy. Once the headline and visual have attracted attention and aroused interest. And most people won’t read body copy--in fact.) But sometimes advertising is the most efficient way of communicating all the product information so you have to write good body copy. to awaken the desire to own the product." This is the first sentence of the body copy.Generally the purpose of the sub-headline is to support the main headline and complete the meaning of the headline. can be grouped into three categories: 1. etc. But unless you can get them to read it. etc. 80% of readers won't read it. Copy approaches. you must try to entice readers into the body copy. at the showroom. and to close with a “call to action”. it should draw the reader from the headline and into the text. Body copy can be extremely important to the success of an ad. And the best way to do that is with a great "lead. minimum sum assured. The copy approach is the way the copy and its appeal are presented. it's a huge waste of your time and your client's money. Several ways to work out this approach • a. Factual. Functions of Sub-headline: •Include important information not communicated in the headline • Communicate key selling points or information quickly • Stimulate more complete reading of the ad BODY COPY Body copy carries the selling message. No matter what style of copy you're writing.

of India by ratifying the seriousness of the Y2K Bug.Ads that offer information on products like music cassettes. he is offering testimony to the benefit offered by Boost. Closing The ad by Infosys seeking recruits starts with the Headline – “ We need Though Leaders who can assert our Domain Competence. someone will suggest that you find out for yourself how exquisite our personal care products are. Body copy developed for the factual approach: 1. provide direct selling information.e. Ratan Tata lends credibility to the plea made by Dept of Electronics – Govt. Amplification of headline in the lead (1st sentence (s) of body copy) 2. • b. Implied suggestion (“soft sell”) Amway – the ad does not urge you to “ buy today” or “hurry”. Infosys is at the cutting edge of IT development and a thought leader in business and technology domains…” 2. energy. Rather. the body copy does not state any contact address or number. it states – “ someday soon. which are sold by the newspaper/magazine in which the ads feature.” 1. For example – The Economic Times Entertainment 2001-2002 report. Amplification of headline – “As a global IT consulting and services organization. • c. Proof or evidence 3. i. When Sachin Tendulkar says – “Boost is the secret of my energy”. Besides. instead. books. 2. CDs. Proof or evidence: a seal is shown in the ad which states – Best employer to work for in India Business today – Hewitt Associates survey – Jan 2001 Software’s Best Employer Dataquest – NFO – MBL Study May 2001 By: M H Lakdawala 82 . etc. Additional details 4. since Amway products are made available through personal selling. Testimonial copy 1. it lays down the benefits of using Amway products in a subtle way.

Additional details: details about Domain Competency. Fictional testimony In the ad for Dove. . “Slice of life” – slice of life ads depict situations that one can relate to. ad for the Amitasha foundation .3. surakshith. the focus areas of the project. if you are a though leader who wants to fly high. He moves forward in a daze and recognizes his own image as an old man." They become the life of the party as.e." He dances together with his vision. with the headline – “Her parents cursed the day she was born.the MVO adds. 4. etc use this approach c. So does she. Aur apna bhavishya dekha. "Aatmanirbhar. Jeene ki azaadi. and enjoys the carefree moment. Descriptive or human interest story Most NGOs use this approach to elicit a favorable response from the readers. i. Independence. main apne aap se mila. Several ways to work out this approach: • a. women who have used Dove narrate the positive effects of using Dove in their lives. "Om Kotak Mahindra Life Insurance.. act now! Mail your resume… 2. McDonald. eligibility criteria are given. Closing: So.. Monologue or dialogue 83 • • By: M H Lakdawala . Cadburys dairy milk. Azaad." The ad uses the narrative approach to emphasize the USP of Om Kotak Mahindra Life Insurance. situations that could have occurred in anyone’s life. show the photograph of a girl in rags.” • b.Nurturing the girl child. "Ek din.. Narrative approach story board Ex: om kotak mahindra A man joins a party and is bewildered by what he sees. 5. d.. For example.

mahurat nikal na jaye 3. Projective or emotional approach This approach puts the reader realistically into the situation. interesting as well as memorable. But things change when she uses Fair and Lovely • Happy ending Not only does she become beautiful (fair) and confident. like – “jaldi kijiye”. • Transition to the product. The daufghter comes across an offer for the job of an airhostess.Hindustan Times • e. Then comes a rustic local. The ad . Body copy developed for the narrative approach: • Predicament Most fair and lovely ads start with a predicament – the girl faces problem/s because of her complexion. which end with words. only ends up cursing herself. but could not catch a single fish. etc. Example – Safal ad – jaldi kijiye . Thus. who applies Feviqwick at a few places on his fishing rod. The ad ends with the female taking her father out for coffee to a five star hotel. she even becomes an airhostess. has the same effect. Even the feviqwick ad where two men are shown fishing.a suave gentleman is shown fishing in a lake for hours. Humor Most of the Fevicol ads have used humor to make the ads noticeable. • Closing (suggestion to the reader) Ads. humor gave high noticibility as well as recall to the ad. like the ad in which the father wishes that he had a son and not a daughter. involving him emotionally through a projected “factual story” or through fictional story about By: M H Lakdawala 84 . but a after look at her dark complexion in the mirror. and the father proudly calling her ‘beta’ (son). dips it in the water and out comes with five fish stuck to his rod. hurry now.

g. data. Eg. Keep your line of thought on track.fictional characters. coupons. and the order blanks. As they look out. In the information age. BOXES AND PANELS Boxes and panels are great tools for the copywriter.. contest rules. This approach relies on the customer’s association with the characters in the story – as if it were happening to him. 2. His sister drags him to the window to show him something. By: M H Lakdawala 85 . Never oversell in your body copy 3. he spots a McDonald’s restaurant and. lingerie.. The father draws a Mac logo in the air. The emotional impact of this type is often felt in copy written about perfume. Boxes are useful for framing information that the prospect must read – e. To avoid having the ad’s text become a glut of testimonials.he recalls all the fun they had here.McDonald's mein hai kuch baat. copywriters segregate information of a secondary and supportive nature into boxes and panels next to the main body copy. Everything is being packed up and stashed away to be moved Saying good-bye to his best friend he gets into the car and they drive out. Cut to the new house. On the way. Address arguments before they arise. 6. 1. Quick tips for Body copy. the kid sees a McDonald's restaurant opposite and his gloom disappears. 4. A box is copy with a line around all four sides. special offers. The ad ends with the jingle . cars and travel. and off-the-issue discussions. This allows readers to first focus on the main issues and later study the detailed facts. The occasions celebrated and the good times come flashing back to him. cosmetics. writers can access huge amounts of information to support their product’s utility and demonstrate why customers need it. McDonald’s ad. A writer must put conviction into their own copy.. A little boy takes a last look around his old home.Write for your audience-not yourself. A panel is an elongated box that runs the whole length or width of an ad. Get quickly to the crux of your body copy message.

Example: ‘ A trusted household name for over fifty years’-Philips. Example: ‘The name you can trust’. Example: ‘when it’s Philips. perhaps a year or years together. Slogans can be based on the Quality of the product. Present your body copy in a logical sequence that relates to the rest of the text. Rasna.7. By: M H Lakdawala 86 . Slogans emphasizing International reputation of the product. Basis for writing a slogan: Techniques/factors 1. 3. It should be so designed that it can be repeated . preferably 5 to 7 words or even less than 5 words. 5. Slogans can place emphasis on Advanced technology of the company. they just come along but most often slogans are the result of hard work of days together put in by the creative marketing people/advertising people. 7. Sometimes. they don't come overnight. Slogans are not easy to create.British Airways.Slogans can be used to build Trust and confidence. 6.Mafatlal. Keep your copy user friendly 8. Example: ‘The best tobacco money can buy’-Rothmans. The words must be simple. whether on TV. Great slogans are like great ideas. 2. 9. The slogan should be such that it can be used in any media. press and outdoor. Ideally the slogan should be short. Slogan can be based on the Life of the company. you can be sure’. Example: ‘The world’s favorite airline’. Example: ‘India’s largest selling soft drink concentrate’. Use one of the twelve slogans for constructive persuasion. radio. SLOGANS A slogan is a small attractive phrase used in the ad to sum up the advertising message in a few words. Slogans emphasizing sales of the product.slogans to guard against substitutes. 4. clear and easy to remember.

Slogans can be full of alliterations Supremely Scottish Salmon Buy better. The writer’s choice The best pen you can buy. Example: Dunlop is Dunlop. 8. you can’t beat it. Slogans expressing Joy and happiness. Slogans emphasizing the comfort and convenience. 10. (headline: ‘Made for each other). It’s here. Example: ‘Only Vimal’ 15. In order to sell.Example: ‘In tune with tomorrow.’. Buy bigger. 12. 10. Slogans call for action 4. Affordable reliability in your pocket. 7.Lehar Pepsi. Slogans are in a world of their own. 13. Slogan are about you: Successful slogans tend to use the word ‘you’ some where in the copy. The twelve slogans of constructive persuasion: 1. Slogans are it: Go for it. Example: ‘A pocket doctor for aches and pains-Amrutanjan pain balm. Slogans expressing Love and Affection Example: ‘A gift for someone you love-Amul chocolates. 14. 5. 9. 9. Example: ‘Filter and tobacco perfectly matched’-Wills. Slogans emphasizing the use of the product. Slogan based on the headline of the ad. Slogan make promises 3. Example: ‘ Happy days are here again. 6. 2. Example: ‘Arrive in better shape’-Cathay Pacific. Owners’ pride’. Slogans create ideals: Zindagi ke saath bhi Zindagi ke baad bhi.-Thumps up 11. 8.Slogans based on pride and possession.Bush. Slogans emphasizing the choice of specific class. By: M H Lakdawala 87 . Enter a new world of writing. Slogans conveniently package everything in one sentence. by far. slogans don’t have to be clever. Slogan may rhyme: Top for shops. meals that appeals. real fast-Moov. Example: ‘Real relief. Example: ‘The choice of new generation’.Slogans emphasizing name of the brand company. always ahead’. Example: Neighbours envy.

repeatable and memorable positioning statement. Slogans repeat key word patterns. 8.11. By: M H Lakdawala 88 . To stress the quality of the product “ Greater Reliability through Better Technology”. The right price.the Answer.To build name and goodwill of the company. The one. To suggest the product’s special advantage or unique benefit. Slogans become a battle cry for the company. 3. To suggest increased use or frequency of use. The best quality. De Beers ads still use the slogan – “Diamonds Are Forever/Heera Hai Sada Ke Liye” Because of their use in positioning a company or product.” JK Tyre. " On time. 12.” DHL. they become standard statements. “ The world’s favorite airline. 2. not just in advertising but also for salespeople and company employees. Functions of Slogan: 1. “ World Champion Lubricants. ‘The’ slogan is king The best. To stress market leadership “ India’s No. every time. “ I love you Rasna”.” Castrol. 7. To emphasize international standards.” British Airways. many slogans are developed at the same time the product or company is conceived. To describe the use of a product. 6. 4.Express Hotelier & caterer Magazine. Aid memory recall: It should be easy and pleasant to remember. 5. Rane ( Madras Limited). “ The weekly update on the hospitality industry. The shape. Slogans have two basic purposes: to provide continuity to a series of ads in a campaign and to reduce an advertising message strategy to a brief. Many slogans – also called theme lines or tag lines – begin as successful headlines.1 Radial. Through continuous use.

logo styles also incorporate nuances about the company. They are actually called logotypes. and a host of other airline and travel agencies prefer their logotypes to move from left to right and underline the sense of motion through Italicised typefaces. and most important. rhythm.Slogans should be like old friends. They appear in all company ads and. It reposes in itself the collective pride of the company and is designed with great care to represent the personality of the company and its product. or more letters than one. SEALS. on note paper. In turn. simple. A seal is awarded only when a product meets standards established by a particular institution or organization. Sunsilk claimed that it had passed the rigid tests and had received the approval of Elida Hair Institute of Paris . like trademarks. valued endorsement for the advertiser’s product. Effective slogans are short. memorable and easy to repeat. Non-heraldic device chosen as company symbols or badge of organization and used in advertisements. Rhyme. LOGOTYPES AND SIGNATURES The concise Oxford Dictionary describes the word ‘Logo’ simply as ‘logo type’.recognized instantly year after year. Movement related corporations like Air India. The term Seal is sometimes interpreted to mean the company seal or trademark. Logotypes and signature are special designs of the advertiser’s company name or product name. their seals provide an independent. In other words. Apart from lending personality to the Company’s public image. the corporate logo embodies the company with a personality. cast in one piece. logotype is describe as: Word. Companies claiming to be ISO approved Since these organizations have credibility as recognized authorities. The company’s logo is the corporate signature. Captions: By: M H Lakdawala 89 . etc. a human quality and character. give the product individuality and provide quick recognition at the point of purchase. help differentiate the product or the company from its competitors. Indian Airlines. and reason – not to mention alliteration – are valuable tricks of the trade for slogan writing.

The signature tunes immediately conjure up their products. The mood briefs are generally given to the jingle singer by the Agency. Be Simple 3. For example. recording studio. singing and making it work is highly creative art. By: M H Lakdawala 90 .” A jingle with its repeat phrases has a far higher recall value than the visuals do. Be Concise 2. sing it. or ‘joyous’.Make it interesting 8. musician. Jingles make possible the association of memorable phrases with the product or with the company. Creative Tactics: Print Ad Layout 3. The music catches the attention of children and teenagers.Captions do form part of copy text. Make it believable 6. Be specific 4. Sometimes a story-board is given by the Agency to make the singer aware of the characters expected to be mouthing the jingle. They also give a profile of the target audience. which refuses to go away. Jingles These are catchy little tunes. like a refrain registered in our brain. As David Ogilvy once said. It is important to know the target audience when composing a jingle. Jingle composing. Be clear 7.Keep a surprise in the copy 10. composer. Be Personal 5. They tell whether a tune should be ‘peppy’ or ‘romantic’. voice over person and host of others. Jingle composing involves co-ordination with client. you must have come across such captions in the print ads of Tortoise Mosquito Coil. Essentials/ Characteristics/ Attributes of a Good copy: 1. It is important to know the target audience when composing a jingle. Captions are small sentences that seem to come out the mouth of the people shown in the ads. “ If you have nothing to say.Make it persuasive 9. Follow the headline and illustration. Comic strip type of copy make use of captions. which we pick up and hum quite unconsciously most of the times. singer.

Say you're selling a handheld vacuum cleaner: Your video could actually demonstrate the product vacuuming the stairs. you wouldn't want to see video of a woman struggling with a large vacuum cleaner while you hear audio claiming. You should be able to identify the benefits of purchasing a product just from the video. then the commercial isn't effective. What do you want your viewer to do? Tell them to call now.Chapter: 7 I. Use your audio to explain the advantages of owning your product. hard to reach places and inside a car. Effective TV commercials merge video and audio into a powerful sales tool. Order now. Close your eyes and listen to the announcer. For example. portable. and lightweight. Your video must match your audio to drive home your selling points. Visit their local dealer.fussing with cords and heavy equipment. Writing for Television: Stages of producing a TV Commercial 1) Writing scripts and developing storyboards 2) Briefing the producer 3) Pre-production 4) Shooting 5) Post-production The Two elements that make TV so exiting are: (1) Sight (2) Sound Focus on single big idea: TVC are generally use for launching the single Big Idea to leave its impression." However. there are no words more important than your call to action. If the audio doesn't explain the product in detail. bulky vacuum cleaner . Potential customers should be able to hear your message even if they're not in the room to see it. But don't think one is more important than the other. You'd also use video to show someone struggling with a regular. Audio and video go hand-inhand. For instance. Always use a strong audio and video combination when creating your own commercial. "Our handheld vacuum cleaner is By: M H Lakdawala 91 . turn down the volume on any commercial. The same holds true for audio. You'd use words like "convenient.

Visit your local dealer. The ability to create a mood or demonstrate a brand in use gives television it superior capability. Compare the value. 3. If you're producing a Public Service Announcement (PSA) about drunk driving. And show people eating your food. Combining sight and sound should spark your viewers' emotions and help them identify with your product. 2.the visual equivalent of a strong headline. Tell the viewer what to do . Motivate viewers: Television viewers rarely remember the details of an ad. 2.great for cleaning the inside of your car!" Your message gets distorted. Be sure to tell the viewer your name visually. Television has a tremendous advantage over radio: In that action as well as sound can be used in the message. 4.if it's not clear you've lost the viewer for the entire ad. By: M H Lakdawala 92 . And if they can identify with your product. 3. don't just use a shot of a crowd of people at a funeral. Don't forget your call to action. If you're advertising a restaurant. You can do this by "showing" what they are. Make sure they feel motivated after viewing yours. But this also changes the whole concept of copy for the copywriting effort. but they can recall how the ad made them feel. You have about two seconds to grab the television viewer's attention. rather than just "telling" what they are. you're more likely to get Successful television advertising sells through emotions: 1. Use a close-up of your food in your commercial. so use a strong opening image . Get to the point. Think of television as an intimate medium. hit them twice by having the voice-over announcer read it aloud at the same time. Put it right there up on the screen. Stress your benefits. Keep your message simple. along with your logo. and your address and phone number. You then have a total of maybe five seconds to say what the ad is about . Better yet. The viewer gets confused. Come see us.Call now!!!. Copy for television must be highly sensitive to the ads visual aspects as specified by the creative director. And remember to stress them visually. And you lose the sale. Show a tear streaming down a child's face. 1. etc. 5. don't just use a shot of your building's exterior.

Expert. special effects. Demonstrating a brand in action is an obvious format for a television ad. rather than vice-versa. The copy is given precedence over the visual and is supported by the visual. Problem and Solution.The opportunities inherent to television as an advertising medium represent challenges for the copywriter as well. The road map for this coordination effort is known as a storyboard. A storyboard is a frame-by-frame sketch depicting in sequence the visual scenes and copy that will be used in a television advertisement. and sound techniques may ultimately convey a message far better than the cleverest turn of a phrase. Music and Song. A brand is introduced as the savior in a difficult situation. and celebrity testimonials fall into this category. A variation is to promote a brand on the basis of problem prevention. Most slice-of-life ads in which a husband and wife or friends are depicted using a brand employ a dialogue format. beer. Writing TV Copy Television Advertising Formats: Because of the broad creative capability of the television medium. The copywriter must remember that words do not stand alone. Television commercials represent a difficult timing challenge for the copywriter. Visuals. Copy must be precisely coordinated with the video. Dialogue. there are several alternative formats for a television ad: Demonstration. Demonstration with sight and sound lets viewers appreciate the full range of features of a brand. Dialogue format ads pressure a copywriter to compose dialogue that is believable and keeps the ad moving forward. The delivery of a message by a spokesperson can place a heavy emphasis on the copy. As in a radio commercial. a television ad may feature a dialogue between two or more people. This format often takes shape as a slice-of-life message. in which a consumer solves a problem with the advertised brand. By: M H Lakdawala 93 . Many television commercials use music and singing as a creative technique. The beverage industries (soft drinks. average-person. Spokesperson. Brands whose benefits result from some tangible function can effectively use this format. and wine) frequently use this format to create the desired mood for their brands.

20-. A narrative is similar to a vignette but is not part of a series of related ads. emotional. 30-. Many of the "heart-sell" ads by Kodak and Hallmark use the narrative technique to great effect.Vignette. Wordiness.15-. Narrative. Use the video. an opportunity to either communicate additional information or strengthen the video communication has been lost. Sell the product as well as entertain the audience. 5. Build campaigns. 2. 3. Avoid generalizations and words that are imprecise in meaning. If all the copy does is verbally describe what the audience is watching. and receivers bore easily. commercials are produced to run as 10. Using clichés and worn out superlatives was mentioned as a threat to print copywriting. 2. The copywriter may need to ensure that the audio portion of an ad is complete and comprehensive within varying time lengths. Use copy judiciously. 4. Vagueness. 9. Be flexible. 8. Being economical with descriptions is paramount. Unoriginality. Make sure that the copy doesn't simply hitchhike on the video. Vignettes also give the advertising a recognizable look. Copy has to fit in a limited time frame (or space). 6. like a vignette. which can help achieve awareness and recognition. When copy for a particular advertisement is being written. 7. but the mood of the ad is highly personal. and involving. Trite copy creates a boring. evaluate its potential as a sustainable idea. Guidelines for Writing Television Copy 1. or 60-second spots. A vignette format uses a sequence of related advertisements as a device to maintain viewer interest. 3. Common Mistakes in Copywriting Beyond the guidelines for effective copy in each media area. The same threat (to a lesser degree. Reflect the brand personality and image. Support the video. outdated image for a brand or firm. By: M H Lakdawala 94 . Due to media-scheduling strategies. Narrative is distinct in that it tells a story. Coordinate the audio with the video. The Taster's Choice couple featured in a series of advertisements in the United States and Great Britain is an example of the vignette format. A narrative ad often focuses on storytelling and only indirectly touches on the benefits of the brand. there are common mistakes made in copywriting that should be avoided: 1. due to audio and audiovisual capabilities) exists in radio and television advertising.

The artist is given a detailed description on the commercial viz. Finally. Some copywriters get carried away with a clever idea. Creativity for creativity's sake. locales. After the account management team has made recommendations. Evaluative copy research is where the audience expresses its approval or disapproval of the copy used in an ad. In the advertising agency. Developmental copy research provides audience interpretations and reactions to the proposed copy. It’s essential that the copy in an ad remain true to its primary responsibility: communicating the selling message. Socio-economic profile of the protagonists . Once the concept behind a TVC is ideated. the place / location where the TVC is set in and so on. approved and researched. Storyboard is a series of visuals which convey the story or the idea behind the commercial. Storyboard Creating the Storyboard is the second level of making a television commercial (TVC). a meeting is likely held to present the copy marketing staff. The Copy Approval Process In copy approval. Often. the director then takes over the mantle and in consultation with the director of photography. copy should always be submitted for final approval to the advertiser's senior executives. a copywriter submits draft copy to either the senior writer or the creative director. look of the models etc on a storyboard but this time in a more detailed version. their costumes. By: M H Lakdawala 95 . After the initial discussions on the TVC with the creative. Inevitably. copy may be subjected to research scrutiny. A typical copy approval process goes as follows. A redrafted copy is forwarded to the account management team within the agency. these executives have little interest in evaluating advertising and they leave this responsibility to middle managers. these visuals are usually hand-drawn. The dialogues / lyrics of the jingle are written against each corresponding visual. In Advertising. His interpretation of the commercial is again presented by a storyboard artist as various shots. the client feels compelled to make recommendations for altering the copy. This storyboard is in turn forwarded to the producer /director of the TVC. visualizes the entire film shot by shot. presented to the client. The artist then presents his interpretation of the commercial in visuals as various shots conceived by the creative team. their age group. the storyboard artist is called upon to present the ideas visually with a brief from the creative department. The final step in copywriting is getting the copy approved. A main concern at this level is to evaluate the copy on legal grounds. or both.4.

giving us characters. even before the film gets shot. giving us ACTION. give us CONFLICT and STRUGGLE. CLIMAX. viii. Cinema: Art of script writing In a good screenplay. From the advertising agency's perspective. CONFLICT and STRUGGLE: The various motives. MOTIVE: These desires cause them to do certain things--and the causes are called MOTIVE. The various minor happenings throughout are INCIDENTS. vi. being human. which are the effects of the causes. have desires. The sequence of situations builds to the final situation and the greatest crisis in the story. a storyboard makes things easier for all parties involved. Too much dialogue clutters up and slows down the impact of the film. So one of the most important lessons a screenwriter can learn is to show rather than tell. Motive finds its outlet in deeds. II. Dialogue is only used to add subtlety to characters and action and to provide additional information that will help the audience better understand what is going on and why. giving us CONTRAST. clashing. dialogue tends to be used frugally. of their script. CHARACTERIZATION: The portrayal of these characters gives us CHARACTERIZATION. The story is about people. Incident by incident the conflict grows into SITUATIONS. vii. The Director of photography too. lenses . the lighting technique which could be used to make the frames look interesting. Each situation builds up to a CRISIS. gets a fair idea on the editing pattern. giving us SEQUENCE. iv. It makes the director's job much easier once he has his well-defined visual representation. v. The editor. with the help of a storyboard knows his shots and the angles much in advance and this helps his planning with the kind of equipment. There must be several situations and crises. The characters. thanks to the storyboard. Waiting for the outcome of the conflict gives us SUSPENSE CONTRAST: To be interesting the characters must be dissimilar. In presenting our story on the screen through the medium of photographed action we have SCREEN DRAMA. The Elements of The Screenplay i.For a TVC. iii. Drama: First we are telling a story in the form of DRAMA. By: M H Lakdawala 96 . especially when it slows down or reduces visually showing the audience what is happening. ii. following one after another. the director's storyboard helps them understand what exactly the director's visualization is.

4. Radio has survived and flourished as an advertising medium because it offers advertisers certain advantages for communicating messages to their potential customers. Radio production process 1. Radio: Writing Radio Copy 1. Radio has been called the Rodney Dangerfield of media because it gets no respect from many advertisers. Limited Research Data. DIALOGUE is used throughout to add subtlety and to convey information that fleshes out what is being communicated visually. Fragmentation: The high level of audience fragmentation due to large number of stations. Radio is capable of presenting words and “theatre of the mind. is often the background to some other activity and may not receive the listener’s full attention. However. particular compared with TV. b. III.which culminates in the CLIMAX. 2. Characteristics of Radio environment 2. Limited Listener Attention: It is difficult to retain listener attention to commercials. Message strategy 3. The story usually involves a single general SUBJECT known as THEME. Audience research data are often limited. Radio programming. c. there are other fundamentals which are important: The OBJECT of conflict must be of sufficient importance to possess SIGNIFICANCE. Characteristics of Radio environment 1. In addition to these components. 3. Creative Limitations: Absence of visual image. or newspapers. Thus they may miss all or some of the commercials. A radio commercial is like a TV ad.Radio has also become a medium characterized by highly specialized programming appealing to very narrow segments of the population. particularly music. a short-lived and fleeting message that is externally paced and does not allow the receiver to control the rate at which it is processed. Writing script 4. radio has inherent limitations that affect its role in the advertiser’s media strategy: a. By: M H Lakdawala 97 . d. magazines. After which we gather the various threads of the story together and reach the ENDING.

Message generation 2. it is useful to understand the characteristics of messages and how to construct the most effective messages. In order to understand communication. Advertising people have proposed different theories for creating an effective message. Message execution 4. Social responsibility review Message generation: An important component of communication is the message what is said or written. to have suitability to the message and to understand likes and dislikes of the customers and the middlemen’s. dealers and experts and experts. episodes related to the problem and outcomes. • • • Reeves of the Ted Bates advertising agency favoured linking the brand directly. Flexibility: Radio is probably the most flexible of all the advertising media because it has a very short closing period. creative people should talk to consumers. he saw buyers as expecting one of the four types of reward from a product: a. Rational b. The Doyle. Radio commercials can easily adjust their messages to local market conditions and marketing situations. John Maloney proposed one framework. Social By: M H Lakdawala 98 . Whatever the method is used. Message strategy Deciding the message is the one of the important activity in the advertising decisions. Leo Burnett and his agency preferred to create a character that expressed the product’s benefits. it includes: 1. Sensory c. 2. Message evaluation and selection 3. Dane and Bern Bach agency favoured developing a narrative story with a problem.Advantages: Cost and efficacy: Radio commercials are very inexpensive to produce. Some creative people use a deductive framework for generating a advertising messages. They require only a script of the commercial to be read by the radio announcer or a copy pf a prerecorded message that can be broadcast by the station. which means advertisers can change their message almost up to the time it goes on the air.

Crossing the four types of rewards with the three types of experience generate twelve types advertising message. Persuasive message: This type is to create liking. Social responsibility review: Advertiser and their agency must be sure their creative advertising does not overlap social and legal norms. Informative message: This is to create awareness and knowledge of new products or new features of existing products or service. By: M H Lakdawala 99 . but often more important. conviction and purchase of product or services. c.d. preference. Reinforcement message: This is to convince current purchases that they made the right choice. Message evaluation and selection: The good advertisement normally focuses on one core-selling proposition. exclusiveness and believability. d. b. Product in use experience 3. the message appeal can be: a. Incidental to use experience. Results of use experience 2. Ego satisfaction Buyers might visualize these rewards from: 1. Message Appeal: Message appeal is the feature that brings about attitude change on the part of the audience. but DIK Twedt suggested that messages be rated on desirability. preference. For example the appeal ‘get cloths cleaner’ is a rational reward promise following the results of use experience. Some aim for rational positioning and others for emotional positioning. Reminder message: This type is to create liking. The advertiser should conduct market research to determine which appeal works best with its target audience. conviction and purchase of product or service. on how it is said. Message execution: The message impact depends not only on what is said.

Take a week off and then run it for another week. If you choose the latter. Different radio stations require different types of ads. And make sure the personality is familiar with your product or service . If you're using a script. Foreground" stations require active listening. and the like. 5. and don't use a music-driven ad on talk radio. 4. 6. have a professional announcer read the copy. speak to them like you're having a one-on-one conversation. you need to keep your message simple and focused. call-in shows. Repetition is very important in radio: Because it takes several airings for the listener to become familiar with your name and product or service. Consider running your spots at the same time every day for a week. Remember that it takes longer to say something out loud than it does to read it. much of the “mad variety. By: M H Lakdawala 100 . On radio. it will sound like a testimonial. and your message will get across. 2. In "Guerrilla Advertising. Address them directly. Entertaining Commercials sell Humor. don't put a country and western jingle on a classical music station.Writing Radio script 1. By having the personality read your ad. holds audience just as well as the surrounding program material. you're speaking to a captive audience – The listener has to take an action (actively change the station) to pass by your ad. consider placing your ads on the show of a well-known radio personality.don't use a "voice-only" ad on a music station. The average 30-second radio spot contains only about 70 words. You can provide a script and have it read by the announcer. 7. all-news radio. When you place a radio ad. Music is used skillfully to capture attention or to create moods." Jay Levinson identifies two basic types of stations. Make your ad sensitive to the format to keep the listener's attention . They would include talk radio. "Background" stations are on in the background and are typically music stations that are listened to passively. Because listeners are often sitting alone (frequently in their cars). 3. You have two basic choices when it comes to creating a radio ad. Choose one theme and stick to it. Or you can provide a tape. Frequency helps you break through the clutter. Mention your company name at least three times in those 30 seconds. and consider using background music or sound effects as a way of making the ad stand out.send them a sample. if appropriate.

put your audience in the driver’s seat of that car-make them feel its surging strength-its ease of handling-make them see its handsome lines. the emergence of new media has enhanced reach on several levels. 10. want it. Length of words and sentences Short words are usually the best radio words. smell it. words that contain more than three of four syllables should be used only when absolutely necessary. The result is new advertising vehicles which are wider in reach. Try them out loud The one most important rule to learn about writing for radio is that every single word you set down on paper for use over the air must be read aloud by you before you give it your personal approval. 8. Regardless of their pronunciation or ease of understanding. 4. taste it. If you are asked to prepare radio commercials for an automobile you must deftly use description. By: M H Lakdawala 101 . specific in targeting and most of all lower in cost. Description is vital in a great many radio commercial. 8. 5. 7. 3. As technological breakthroughs facilitate better modes of communication. Words are your illustrations Radio scriptwriter job is to make those-listening to your commercial see the product through you’re his words alone. METHODS OF DELIVERY: The Live Commercials Station Announcers The prerecorded commercials Music Dialog Announcement Celebrity announcer IV. 6.“Lovely” preferable to “beautiful”. Details should be kept to a minimum.“ good” to “ outstanding”. 9. Thus a “great car” is better than “an exceptional car”. and so on 1.The good radio writer knows that in this era of half-listening radio audiences it is vital to give the listener just one principal idea to carry away. 2. In radio the writer is the artist as well as the writer. Writing for Innovative medium Innovative media focuses on alternative platforms of advertising which open up new avenues for advertisers.

Write for people’s interest: Writing articles for newspaper or magazine is different to writing for Internet. phrases and imagery that help paint vivid mental pictures. This enhances the visibility of web page on the search engines. But don't focus on how better or unique you are. Search Engine Optimization: Write copy that is keyword rich. Write copy around the in-demand keywords for your product or service. Use words. 5. Since innovative medium grab attention the copy should use Positive Emotional Appeals: Positive appeals highlight product benefits and attributes capable of influencing consumer behavior. Focus on how that uniqueness directly benefits target group. 1. thereby increasing success rate. Most baby food products have a mother's love appeal. 3. even to the point they can almost taste it.1. creativity. Other positive emotional appeals involving price. 4. Also adhere to following norms: i. prestige or exclusiveness 6. Listed below are some valuable tips to write effective copy for web pages and web sites. followed by a message that extols the advertised brand as a product that satisfies that need. The copy for innovative medium should reflect Newness. They are love. Web posts that captivate reader’s mind and that are understandable. Primary keywords that you use in the URL should also be included in headline of the copy. pride. By: M H Lakdawala 102 . humor. The body of copy should have sufficient secondary keywords. iii. It should be kept in mind and strictly adhere to the principles of online copywriting to make headlines and copy appeal the online traffic. Direct Appeals: Direct appeals are those that clearly communicate with the consumers about a given need. prestige and joy. novelty and timing which are key themes in innovative medium advertising 2. V. curt and laconic share good ranking from search engine optimizers as well as from the readers’. Keep copy stick to one topic and the topic should be burning and topical. URL must contain the primary keyword to increase your search engine ranking. writing for web pages is very different in as much as the web traffic is very impatient and any thing less appealing is not likely to generate any interest. 2. Copywriting for Internet Writing for Web How to make websites and web pages popular and attract more traffic. ii. being different is important. Unlike writing for print media.

feel or try the products chosen on Internet. This practice increases customers’ confidence thereby their willingness to buy on Internet 4. The anchor text of links in the body of text should also contain keywords. faster product testing. greater customization of the products to the customer needs. 3. VI. companies that have online shops should offer warranties for products sold. 5. Brand Loyalty: Target group for sms campaign perceive some brands as "trusted. Providing complete and relevant product information is crucial in order for the customers to get a realistic picture of the product and to make the product offered more attractive. and shorter product life cycles. but it also enables the companies to offer additional services such as interactivity or more information about the company’s core product.iv. Since customers can not touch. Writing copy for SMS campaigns Critical success factors for writing copy for sms campaigns: 1. 6. they will pay for content that they perceive as valuable. The target group would consider downloading and paying for the sponsored content as long as it was relevant. "This is just like on TV." and would enjoy receiving content they requested via opt-in customer acquisition methods. 5. 3. Internet offers the opportunity of developing new products or services. On Internet. To develop a product. The Internet leads to faster discovery of customer needs. Awareness: Target group should be able to recognize that there is a relationship between brands and associated content that they have experienced via other channels. a picture or description will replace the physical product offered in the traditional marketplace or in stores. Appropriate: Video content must be designed to meet the needs of the mobile handset. Relevance: Advertising content must be targeted." 4. Cost: Target group for sms campaign are generally extremely price sensitive. there is a need for research on customers’ needs. Internet provides the opportunity of offering a core product that satisfies the customers’ fundamental needs. Participants did not like the ads that were originally filmed for television and not formatted to their phone By: M H Lakdawala 103 . 2.

Reader relevance c. The secret to successful media relations is to serve your interests by serving the media’s interests. you need to understand a few things about the media and how it works. Understanding what the Media Want It is important to establish a working relationship between the organisation and the media (both local and national). the more likely they are to publish You need to think about what they want: i. you can deploy PR tactics such as press releases to your advantage. ‘how’. ii.Chapter: 8 Principles of writing press release copy. The organization’s credibility A press release should be able to attract further inquiry and generate publicity around your offer. one-page press release. This press release should be a short fact-filled document that tells editors the ‘who’. Newsworthiness b. To succeed. By: M H Lakdawala 104 . It’s not enough to want attention. The more you can match your story to their needs. iii. The media have to want to give that attention to you. the press release makes a compelling case for: a. ‘what’. Whatever your objective. Within its handful of paragraphs. Often success in PR terms comes from a well-crafted. ‘when’. they want news They want reader relevance They want fresh insights. and sometimes ‘why’ of your story. ‘where’.

Constructing the Elements of the Press Release 1. a press release By: M H Lakdawala 105 . The press release begins with: a. 7) Collect answers to the following questions: • Who is your product/service (offer) useful for or meaningful to? • How and why is this offer used. Think of it as the ‘so what’ rule. to be ‘embargoed’ until a particular publication date (which you can specify) b. 4) For every statement you wish to include in the press release. Formatting the top of the release. ‘so what?’ What is it adding to the different parties? 5) Preparing Yourself: If you want to capture the attention of a journalist. think like a journalist! 6) Ask pertinent questions that go to the heart of the story. Release date – here you have two options. answer. However. to make the release. ‘for immediate release’. They have to communicate the essence of your story right away.Writing a Press Release Follow three basic steps when writing your press release: 1) Get a grip on the content – be sure you have clear understanding of your story and all the facts that support it 2) Follow the standard format – press releases have evolved into fast. or. press release headlines are like any other headlines. Contact information – how can the editor/journalist contact the organization and to whom should they speak? 2. deployed or valued? • How or where can the offer be obtained? 8) In addition to asking the big questions that capture the core idea of your press release. Creating catch headlines In many ways. easily skimmed documents for the media’s convenience 3) Turn your content into compelling news – explain ‘why it’s important’ to the editor’s readers. 9) One of the easiest ways to liven up a press release and to give it added credibility is to include a direct quote from a person connected to the story -preferably someone who is not a member of your organisation. you also have to consider smaller issues such as: • Who – Who’s involved? Includes both the readers or the audience for whom the story is relevant • What – The bulk of your press release – the ‘what’ – covers all the specifics of your statement • How – May include both the offer and ‘how’ the prospects can acquire/ use it • Why – The key question is ‘why is this important?’ Explain the significance of your statement to the editor’s readers.

Following the opening paragraph. and it simply states ‘who you are’ and ‘what you do’. How do you write a good headline? Write about the news plus the benefit the news provides.e. Think of the news as the actual announcement and the benefit as the reason why the announcement is important to your target audience. why and how • The reason – why this announcement is newsworthy – articulate why this news is important to the publication’s readers • Proof points – articulate evidence that validates your claims. Some ways to do this include using: 1. providing the editor with enough information to provide reassurance that this announcement is both newsworthy and relevant for the publication’s readers. 3. Boilerplate’ A ‘boilerplate’ is a brief paragraph. where. about the organisation represented in the release. Your headline must summarise the essence of the release. The opening paragraph should cover: • The facts – establish the fundamental facts of your story – the who. This information remains the same in every press release your organisation produces. regardless of its contents. By: M H Lakdawala 106 . Quotes – weave the quotes into the story in as seamless and natural a manner as possible The end of the release The purpose of the close of the press release is to signal to the editor that this is the end of the release. Subheads – to help smooth the transition into another element of your story or to highlight another key benefit or newsworthy item 2. when. You do this by adding a ‘boilerplate’.headline is not a place to make an offer (i. with no more than two or three sentences. you now have room to elaborate with the ‘middle’ of the release. selling) – instead it must get right to the point and inform. what. This is your chance to really back-up the promises made in the release with just enough detail to create a watertight case for the value and meaning of your story. The Body: The press release starts out with the fundamentals of your story.

most customers can easily access any number of retail stores. Deliveries are made through the mail. Mail order advertising usually contains a coupon. and it turns when the reader is ready to act. By: M H Lakdawala 107 . television. they can pore through the pages of mail order catalogs that offer just about everything they can imagine. The mail order advertisers that waste by tests. website. Borders are rarely used. That is there to cut out as a reminder of something the reader has decided to do. They may be absorbed in a story.Chapter: 9 I. Consumer buy direct by post either in response to an advertisement or from a sales promotional catalogue. email. radio. That economy of space is universal. In today's marketplace. There is no useless talk. but they don't have the time. (4) Mail order advertisers know that readers forget. A large percentage of people who read an ad and decide to act will forget that decision in five minutes. The mail order customer learns of and views an item and its description through one or more types of media. Factors to keep in mind while writing copy for Mail order advertising: 1. either print or electronic. including catalog. by carrier direct from warehouse or factory. It is usually set in smaller type than ordinary print. or sometimes through a local agent. So he inserts that reminder to be cut out. Mail order advertising is always set in small type. (2) Every line is utilized. They are reading a magazine of interest. where the potential customer is not physically present at a store or other location to make a purchase or to place an order. (3) In mail order advertising there is no boasting. There is no attempt at entertainment. Definition: What is mail order? Mail order is a term that refers to many different methods of soliciting and/or selling products or services at a distance. newspaper. Instead of spending their precious free time at the mall. electronic catalog. and others. direct mail. magazine. and he does not propose to accept it. Mail Order Advertising: Mail Order It is a distribution channel. There is nothing to amuse. save of super-service.

" And it has never failed to prove out so in any test we know. sometimes-large ads. A four times larger ad brings four times the returns. The picture of a dress one is trying to sell may occupy much space. But an ad twice larger brings twice the returns. We have seen many a test prove that. product brochures. Direct mail works because it is "conversation in writing. 3. and usually some in addition. And you may be sure that everything about them has been decided by many comparative tests. But the benefits that readers gain from these features." No matter what you have heard.. folders etc 1. But pictures in mail order advertising may form half the cost of selling. (8)Sometimes the advertiser uses small ads.and say it in a way that's understandable by your audience. end it at the top of the next page. They probably result in whims. (7) Mail order advertising tells a complete story if the purpose is to make an immediate sale. Set half-page copy in a page space and you double the cost in returns. You see no limitations there are on amount of copy. Have something to say----. or believe most people look forward to receiving and reading their mail. Before you use useless pictures. split the last sentence in half. look over some mail order ads. The motto there is. Not the features that you offer…. merely to decorate or interest. Write about benefits. II. They are salesmen in themselves.(5) In mail order advertising the pictures are always to the point. Less important things get smaller spaces. But this occurs only when the larger space is utilized as well as the small space. Why? To pull the reader with you and "make" them turn the page. 2. read. Mark what their verdict is. Copywriting for Direct Mail-letters Writing for direct mail-letters. Keep the opening paragraph of a direct mail letter short-absolutely no more than 17 words. 4. None are to small to tell a reasonable story. Whenever you go to second page in a letter. They earn space they occupy. Pictures in ordinary advertising may teach little. (6) The size is gauged by their importance. Begin it at the bottom of the first page. 5. "The more you tell the more you sell. leaflets. By: M H Lakdawala 108 .

Keep that in mind.S. A good Service or cause fills an identifiable need. At least usually. Share a case history. Often when people are confronted by a long letter (and long letters almost always sell more).S. Components of Good Direct Mail Good direct mail has three components: Ø A good product. or cause appeal Ø A good mailing list Ø A good appeal A good product appeals to a specific segment. But never exaggerate. schedule a demonstration. send a donation). but never tell a lie. Tell funny stories. and make readers who do not act more likely to respond positively next time. Ø Secondary Purpose Ø To build a good image of the writer's organization.S. i.e. A good mailing list has accurate addresses and is a good match to the product.6. before they read your letter. Weave a scene. 7. opportunities. You P. offers. in your letter first. Ø To overcome any objections that might prevent or delay action. to strengthen the commitment of readers who act. Be dramatic. Ø To provide enough information so that the reader knows exactly what to do. they'll go to the end of the letter because they know that the whole letter will be summed up in the offer and the P. The P. Make a point. Of your first-time readers. Ø To have the reader act ( Order the product. how to respond. service.S.almost 4 out of 5 – will read the P. 79%. Always be true. By: M H Lakdawala 109 . can be mailed. Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø You can use it to: Bring up the big promise again Add more benefits Powerfully state the offer Create curiosity Build urgency Add even more credibility and proof any or all of the above Primary purpose of Direct Mailer Ø To motivate the reader to read the message. Be entertaining. Never. and provides an adequate profit margin. can do everything that your headline can do. is a repeat of earlier key benefits. Include testimonials.

stories. the information also helps to prove the claim that the magazine will be useful. Makes the reader want to read the letter. Poor question: do you want information about investments? Better question: can you still make money investing in land? I. use the four basic modes: 1. the pictures in the brochure. This information in the letter is useful to any writer. link the benefits of the product or service to a need or desire that motivates the reader. anecdotes By: M H Lakdawala 110 . Direct Mail strategies start with three basic steps: 1. Quotations 1. Learn about the product. These steps interact How to organize a Direct Mailer: Opener (Star): The opener of your letter gives you 30 seconds to motivate readers to read the rest or thrown away. and all the parts of the package. Narration. service. They're interesting enough that readers want the answers. Narration 3. Starling statements a 4. or organization 2. so the recipient keeps reading. and motivates the reader to act. Good question challenge but don't threaten the reader. Questions 2. Choose a central selling point. so they read the letter. from outer envelop to reply card. Questions Dear writer What is the best way to start writing? This letter selling subscriptions to Writer's digest goes on the discuss Hemingway's strategy for getting started on his novels and short stories. A very successful subscription letter for Psychology Today started out: Do you still close the bathroom door when there's no one in the house? To brain storm possible openers. Choose and analyze the target audience 3. The appeal is made up of the words in the letter. Writer's Digest offers practical advice to writers who want to be published.A good appeal offers a believable description of benefits.

and challenges." The series of which this letter is a part sells season tickets to the Atlanta ballet by focusing on the people who work to create the season. subscribe to its journal. On the contrary. and challenges. A good chain answers reader's questions. 3. You'll be working for only as much time as you find it rewarding and fun. and monitor changes in water. and involves them emotionally. This fund. understand. By: M H Lakdawala 111 . Startling Statements This fund-rising letter from Earth watch invites readers to participate in its expeditions. Body (Chain) The chain is the body of the letter. count bighorns. Content for the body of the letter can include 1. Earth watch's volunteers help scientists and scholars diag for ruins. You can't give in to pain and still perform. Quotations "I never tell my partner that my ankle is sore or my back hurts. and monitor changes in water. subscribe to its journal. Information readers will find useful even if they do not buy or give. Earth watch's volunteers help scientists and scholars dig for ruins. they can work as long as they like. and donat its programs. they pay their own(tax deductible)expenses.raising letter from earth watch invites readers to participate in its expeditions. 3. 2. The opening quote is used on the envelope over a picture of the ballerina and as an opener for the letter. twists. Each letter quotes a different member of the company. Variations of this mode include special opportunities. and donate to its programs. it will cost you money. It provides the logical and emotional links that moves readers from their first flicker of interest to the action that is wanted. I'm writing to offer you a job. Variations of this mode include special opportunities. It's even a paying job. they pay their own (tax-deductible) expenses. overcomes their objections. It's not a permanent job. to appreciate their hard work. and to share their excitement about each performance. 4. twists. they can work as long as they like.Dear membership candidate: 1. The letters encourage readers to see the artists as individuals. count bighorns.

They lack positive emphasis and encourage your reader to say no. stress the guarantee. the sooner they contribute funds. III. Writing copy for yellow pages: a. Stories about how the product was developed or what the organization has done. one column of phrases . Reasons for acting promptly are easy to identify when a product is seasonal or there is a genuine limit on the offer – time limit. The action close can also remind readers of the central selling point. put the card and check (if payment is to accompany the order) in the envelope. price rise scheduled. 3. And why not ("why not send in a check?"). By: M H Lakdawala 112 . why you are different from your competitors and what associations you belong to. The last sentence should never be a selfish request for money. Sometimes you can offer a premium or a discount if the reader acts quickly. Tell them how long you've been in business. Summarize the scope of the business (and a key selling point) in the 'Year Round Yard Maintenance' subheading. and so on. d. Stories about people who have used the product or who need the organization's help 4. Action Close (Knot) The action close in the letter must do four things: Tell the reader what to do: Respond. the sooner they can benefits from it. Set the business name big and bold but not in all caps. All caps are harder to read. the sooner their dollars can go to work to solve the problem. limited supply. Offer a reason for acting promptly: Readers who think they are convinced but wait to act are less likely to buy or contribute. Arrange the main services in columns instead of that centered paragraph with bullets. Avoid if ("if you'd like to try…"). sign the card (for credit sales). One column of short words. b. Make the action sound of easy: fill in the information on the reply card. and mail the envelope.2. End with a positive picture: of the reader enjoying the product (in a sales letter) or of the reader's money working to solve the problem (in a fund raising letter). remind readers that the sooner they get the product. stress those facts. c. Tell your customers the benefits of buying your products/services immediately! There's not much time so you have to grab a potential customer's attention. If you provide an envelope and pay postage. The larger font makes the name stand out. When these condition do not exit. Word pictures of readers using the product and enjoying its benefits. and mention when the customer will get the product.more contrast that's easier to scan.

The art of writing a powerful advertisement. g. Copy should be descriptive. IV. system compatibility. By: M H Lakdawala 113 .e. c. but what? They may worry about the safety of using a credit card. The copy should be benefit. Copy for trade directory should be short. b. f. pretentious language doesn't sell." "fastest.. broad claims. ordering online. Follow the "3 C's" Rule: Express your offer as Clearly. is not easy. Writing copy for classified advertisement. V. Proofread! Proofread! Proofread! If you sell "dogs" and your ad says you sell "dots" then you'll have to wait until next year to fix the error.Copy using complicated. and lots of them! e. Business users have very different needs and ways of expressing themselves from the average home user. as convincingly and as compellingly as possible. complex. And make sure you put your message across with the right tone. People are usually ready to make a purchase or get more information when they use the Yellow Pages.. You have to look through the eyes of the consumer . attributed to a person's full name and company. getting unwanted junk mail and so on. The classified advertisement if written well could at times substitute a display advertisement which would be much more expensive. Proof read: Once your ad goes in the Yellow Pages. Forget things like "best. If a target group scanning a trade directory looking at a product/ service that appeals to him. or CPU usage patterns at the young game player. or you're wasting your time. Another universal technique that works is the use of testimonials. second to making broad claims. Give Them What They Want. Make sure you don't throw street-slang at the IT guy. Used contrast (size) and placement/alignment (lower right corner) to emphasize the telephone number (call to action). the testimonials can swing it. Because the worst thing you can do. in three or four lines in such a way that it conveys the message and induces the reader to buy the product. g.imagine that they're interested in the product but. is to express those claims broadly. Writing copy for trade directory a. to the point. a. privacy." "cheapest" and other. f. But make sure they look genuine. it's going to stay that way for an entire year. d. A three sentence praise of features.

resources. There are four important ingredients in good classified advertisement. rather than to consumers An area of advertising for products. which is directed to farmers as business customers of various products and services. which involves goods. By: M H Lakdawala 114 . Your advertisement has to make him stop and get the attention. Next it has to make him interested in the product. The choice of your words should make him to believe it is exactly what he is looking for. and supplies used in the production of other goods and services. VI. c. Advertisements in bold letters would get more attention but more expensive. attention grabbing message is a challenge in itself. Generally readers respond to advertisements with names and phone numbers than blind advertisements. to buy the product. the classified advertisement is a powerful way of conveying your message and sell a product. v. There would be other advertisements vying with you with equally catchy words to lure him away. but what he wants. (3) Professional advertising. The readers will be scanning hundreds of advertisements at a furious pace. This area includes: (1) Industrial advertising. services. (4) Agricultural advertising. B2B Advertising Business-to-business advertising is where business houses uses advertising to attract custom from other businesses rather the general public. resources. i. Then it has to induce him to take action. any other print media or internet. which is directed to members of various professions who might use or recommend the advertised product. iii. services. It should induce the reader to read the advertisement. attractive. It has to grab the attention of the reader. 6. But art of conveying a powerful. and supplies purchased and used by businesses. iv. e. ii. Classified advertisement gives you very little room to convey your message. Whether it is newspaper. (2) Trade advertising. which is directed to wholesalers and retailers who buy the advertised product for resale to consumers. materials. and.b. You should remember that the reader is not looking at what you say. Then create a desire in him to possess the product. Definition: Advertising directed to other businesses. The first two or three words have to be really catchy. d.

This approach appeals to those who value reliability. Not only is the B2B purchasing cycle longer. That is why click-through rates are not particularly effective in measuring B2B ad effectiveness. What type is your target? Understanding the psychographics or logic system of your particular business target. they must look at a longer time line to determine the effectiveness of their approach.B2B is traditionally focused on relationships. Gaining attention and market share through emotional appeals to business buyers is now emphasize. but it does so by striking fear in their hearts. Factors to keep in mind while writing copy for B2B Advertisement: 1. That means less emphasis on generating transactions and more on providing customers with a consistent stream of information and service. a rational way to be. An advertiser that properly targets the message will be successful. Because B2B advertisers are not necessarily looking for an instant purchase. In B2B." By: M H Lakdawala 115 . The goal of advertising should be to make that job easier. Some believe that the online medium will shift the B2B paradigm. may be expedited by convening several focus groups of typical prospects. With B2C. For example. whether chemists. 3. Consumer online advertising works because they are on their own time and are more willing to be diverted to different types of activities. but also there is usually more than one person making the decision. are better focused. on the job during the day. customers don't usually click and purchase. Basing B2B appeals on facts and logic is no longer considered the only way to market. as B2B customer behavior is precisely tracked. doctors or data systems managers. People are receptive to appropriate marketing messages at work. The ad viewer might pass the information along to someone else or save the information for future reference. and responded to with advertising that more directly galvanizes sales. analyzed. AT&T advertised its services to businesses through emotionpacked scenarios where managers desperately rue their decisions to switch phone companies. They are involved in solving a specific problem. But the same Internet users (B2B Target). the advertisers are after instant transactions. 2.

however.4. Lately. Creating B2B Advertising By: M H Lakdawala 116 . other aspects of B2C advertising – such as positioning and brand awareness – are being increasingly emphasized also in B2B advertising.

The term "advertorial" is a portmanteau of "advertisement" and "editorial. Advertorials commonly advertise new products or techniques—such as a new design for golf equipment or a new form of laser surgery. and disclaimers—such as the word "advertisement"—may or may not appear. usually without a byline credit. and presented in a printed publication —usually designed to look like a legitimately and independent news story. Advertorial An advertorial is an advertisement written in the form of an objective opinion editorial. Sometimes euphemisms describing the advertorial as a "special promotional feature" or the like is used. Many newspapers and magazines will assign staff writers or freelancers to write advertorials. A major difference between regular editorial and advertorial is that clients usually have content approval of advertorials. a newspaper or magazine) which is in fact created by a company to market its products. The tone is usually closer to that of a press release than of an objective news story: advertisers will not spend money to describe the flaws of their products. The differences may be subtle. A related practice is the creation of material that looks like traditional media (for instance. One familiar example are airline in-flight magazines which usually feature reports about travel destinations to which the airline flies. By: M H Lakdawala 117 .Chapter: 10 Different types of copy I. Most publications will not accept advertisements that look exactly like stories from the newspaper or magazine they are appearing in. whereas publicity is placed without payment to the media company and with no control over the copy." Advertorials differ from publicity advertisements because the marketer must pay a fee to the media company for the ad placement. a luxury usually not provided with regular editorial.

The word infomercial is a portmanteau. The book As Seen on TV (Quirk Books) by Lou Harry. are normally shown outside of peak hours. As in any other form of advertisement. Infomercials are designed to solicit a direct response. The strategy proved successful in getting its message out to both the public as well as politicians and Mobil Oil quickly became identified with this unique advertising strategy. George Foreman (with the George Foreman Grill). Ron Popeil. By: M H Lakdawala 118 . Daisy Fuentes. the Chia Pet. This strategy was first popularized during the energy crisis of the 1970s. Political and media advisor Fred Dutton developed a strategy to publish Mobil Oil's opinion as an advertisement on editorial pages across the country. and Ginsu knives. II. which is formed by combining the words "information" and "commercial". the content is a commercial message designed to represent the viewpoints and to serve the interest of the sponsor. Chuck Norris. advertisers do not solicit a direct response from viewers. Jack Lalanne. Infomercial advertisers may make use of flashy catchphrases (such as "Set it and Forget it").Product placement is another form of non-obvious paid-for advertising. also known as paid programming (or teleshopping in Europe). Cheryl Tiegs. and are. instead. with minimal acknowledgement that the program is actually an advertisement. Sam Stall and Julia Spalding highlights the history of such memorable products as the Flowbee. Infomercial Infomercials are television commercials that run as long as a typical television program (roughly 28 minutes. brand their product in the market place amongst potential buyers. such as late at night or early in the morning. 30 seconds). Famous infomercial personalities include: Cher. but. Tony Robbins. therefore. In normal commercials. Infomercials are often made to closely resemble actual television programming. Mobil Oil felt its efforts to gets its side of the story out through the American press was failing. repeat basic ideas. and/or employ scientist-like characters or celebrities as guests or hosts in their ad. Infomercials. which is specific and quantifiable. Because of the sometimes sensational nature of the ad form. The ad response is delivered directly to television viewers by infomercial advertisers through the television ad. usually talk shows. and Kevin_Trudeau. a form of direct response marketing (not to be confused with direct marketing). consumer advocates recommend careful investigation of the claims made within any infomercial ad and investigation of the company sponsoring the subject product of the infomercial before purchasing the featured product or products.

Every language has evolved to have many different kinds of functionality. All comparative advertising is designed to highlight the advantages of the goods or services offered by the advertiser as compared to those of a competitor. Comparative advertising improves the quality of information available to consumers enabling them to make well-founded and more informed decisions relating to the choice between competing products/services by demonstrating the merits of various comparable products. Function of comparative advertising Comparative advertising should enable advertisers to objectively demonstrate the merits of their products. it seems to make most sense to understand "normal language" to include the variety of styles of language that mature speakers and readers control. the message of the advertisement must necessarily underline the differences between the goods or services compared by describing their main characteristics. Market transparency is also deemed to benefit the public interest as the functioning of competition is improved resulting in keeping down prices and improving products. or with those of other competitors. In order to achieve this objective. Comparative advertising can stimulate competition between suppliers of goods and services to the consumer's advantage. Comparative advertising. It is a sales promotion device that compares the products or services of one undertaking with those of another. This will form the backdrop of everyday language in its many functions. By: M H Lakdawala 119 . Based on this information. From an analytic point of view. against which we can view advertising language.) Comparative advertising which aims to objectively and truthfully inform the consumer promotes the transparency of the market. IV.Infomercials are for the largest part shown late night to early morning between 2:00am and 6:00am. A copy writer must have some conception of what is meant by "normal language". consumers may make informed and therefore efficient choices. The comparison made by the advertiser will necessarily flow from such a description. 1. Copy for different languages The most important factor to be kept in mind for writing copy for different language is the context of the readers' general knowledge of language. each of which corresponds to different situations and styles of use. III. (These statements are true only if the comparative advertising is objective. Comparative advertising is a special form of advertising.

3. While writing copy the facts about language that are immediately accessible to the average person only should be use. Like many aspects of human being and human behavior. Focus on creative possibilities language allows. our unconscious knowledge of language is much greater than our conscious knowledge of it. By: M H Lakdawala 120 .2.

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