Diesel Engine A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the diesel cycle (named after

Dr. Rudolph Diesel). Diesel engines have the highest thermal efficiency of any internal or external engine, because of their compression ratio. The defining feature of the diesel engine is the use of the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber during the final stage of compression. This is in contrast to a petrol (gasoline) engine or gas engine, which uses the Otto cycle, in which a fuel/air mixture is ignited by a spark plug. Diesel engines are manufactured in two stroke and four stroke versions. They were originally used as a more efficient replacement for stationary steam engines. Since the 1910s they have been used in submarines and ships. Use in locomotives, large trucks and electric generating plants followed later. In the 1930s, they slowly began to be used in few automobiles. Since the 1970s, the use of

diesel engines in larger on-road and off-road vehicles in the USA increased. As of 2007, about 50 percent of all new car sales in Europe are diesel. History Rudolf Diesel, of German nationality, was born in 1858 in Paris where his parents were Bavarian immigrants. He was educated at Munich Polytechnic. After graduation he was employed as a refrigerator engineer but his true love lay in engine design. Diesel designed many heat engines, including a solar-powered air engine. In 1893, he published a paper describing an engine with combustion within a cylinder, the internal combustion engine. In 1894, he filed for a patent for his new invention, dubbed the diesel engine. His engine was the first to prove that fuel could be ignited without a spark. He operated his first successful engine in 1897. In 1898, Diesel was granted U.S. Patent 608,845 for an "internal combustion engine". Though best known for his invention of the pressureignited heat engine that bears his name, Rudolf Diesel was also a well-respected thermal

engineer and a social theorist. Diesel's inventions have three points in common: they relate to heat transference by natural physical processes or laws; they involve markedly creative mechanical design; and they were initially motivated by the inventor's concept of sociological needs. Rudolf Diesel originally conceived the diesel engine to enable independent craftsmen and artisans to compete with industry. At Augsburg, on August 10, 1893, Rudolf Diesel's prime model, a single 10-foot (3.0 m) iron cylinder with a flywheel at its base, ran on its own power for the first time. Diesel spent two more years making improvements and in 1896 demonstrated another model with a theoretical efficiency of 75 percent, in contrast to the 10 percent efficiency of the steam engine. By 1898, Diesel had become a millionaire. His engines were used to power pipelines, electric and water plants, automobiles and trucks, and marine craft. They were soon to be used in mines, oil fields, factories, and transoceanic shipping.

1902 until 1910 MAN produced 82 copies of the stationary diesel engine. the Z. 1897 On August 10 Diesel builds his first working prototype in Augsburg 1899 Diesel licenses his engine to builders Krupp and Sulzer.Early history timeline Rudolf Diesel's 1893 patent on his engine design • 1893 Rudolf Diesel obtains a patent (RP 67207) titled [Theory and Construction of a Rational Heat-engine to Replace the Steam Engine and Combustion Engines Known Today] "Arbeitsverfahren und Ausführungsart für Verbrennungsmaschienen". • • • • • . who become famous builders. 1904 The French build the first diesel submarine. 1903 A diesel engine was installed in a river boat.

The first locomotive with a diesel engine. Rudolf Diesel died mysteriously when he crossed the English Channel on the SS Dresden. as well as a scroll loader from Creux (F) Company. 1909 The prechamber with half spherical combustion chamber is developed by Prosper L'Orange with Benz.• 1905 For diesel engines turbochargers and intercoolers wer e manufactured by Büchl (CH). afterwards Selandia was the first trading vessel. 1908 Prosper L'Orange develops with Deutz a precisely controlled injection pump with a needle injection nozzle. 1913 US Navy submarines use NELSECO units. • • • • • . 1910 The Norwegian research ship Fram is the first ship of the world with a Diesel drive. By 1960 the Diesel drive had displaced steam turbine and coal fired steam engines. 1912 The Danish built First diesel ship MS Selandia.

1919 Prosper L'Orange obtains a patent on a prechamber insert and makes a needle injection nozzle. 1922 First vehicle with (pre-chamber) diesel engine is the Agricultural type 6 of Mercedes-Benz agricultural tractor OE Benz Sendling. Benz and Daimler was tested. • • • • • • • . FairbanksMorse starts building diesel engines. 1924 The introduction on the truck market of the diesel engine by commercial truck manufacturers in the IAA. First passenger car prototype of Stoewer. First diesel engine from Cummins.• 1914 German U-Boats are powered by MAN diesels. 1930s Caterpillar starts building diesels for their tractors. 1927 first truck injection pump and injection nozzles of Bosch. 1923 first truck with diesel engine made by MAN. 1921 Prosper L'Orange built a continuous variable output injection pump.

1934 First turbo Diesel engine for railway train by Maybach. 1933 of first passenger cars with diesel engine (Citroën Rosalie). 1934-35 Junkers Motorenwerke in Germany starts production of the Jumo aviation diesel engine family. Hanomag and Saurer). the most famous of these being the Jumo 205. The car does not go into production due to legal restrictions in the use of Diesel engines.• 1932 Introduction of strongest Diesel truck of the world by MAN with 160 hp (120 kW). First series manufactured passenger cars with diesel engine (Mercedes-Benz 260 D. of which over 900 examples are produced by the outbreak of World War II. Daimler • • • • . Citroën uses an engine of the English Diesel pioneer sir Harry Ricardo. AT&SF inaugurates the diesel train Super Chief. 1936 Mercedes-Benz builds the 260D diesel car. Airship Hindenburg is powered by diesel engines.

1954 Turbo-Diesel truck in mass production of Volvo. First diesel engine with an overhead cam shaft of Daimler Benz. 1973 Load air cooling with the diesel engine of DAF. 1938 First turbo Diesel engine of Saurer. 1976 February Testing of a diesel engine of Volkswagen for the passenger car • • • • • • • .[5] 1968 Peugeot places with 204 the first small cars with forward crosswise mounted Diesel. 1944 Development of Air cooling for diesel engines by Klöckner Humboldt Deutz AG (KHD) for the production stage and later also for Magirus Deutz. • 1937 BMW 114 (aircraft engine) BMW 114 experimental airplane diesel engine development.Benz airship diesel engine 602LOF6 for airship the LZ129 Hindenburg. 1953 Turbo Diesel truck for Mercedes in small series.

1986 Electronic Diesel Control (EDC) of Bosch with the BMW 524tD. 1987 Most powerful production truck with a 460 hp (340 kW) MAN diesel engine. 1985 ATI Intercooler diesel engine from DAF.Volkswagen Golf. 1993 Pump nozzle injection for the truck diesel engine of Volvo. The Common Rail injection system was developed by the ETH Zurich from 1976 to 1992. First Common Rail system with the IFA truck type W50. • • • • • • • . 1988 First turbochargers with direct injection in the diesel engine from Fiat. • 1977 The production of the first passenger car turbo-Diesels (Mercedes 300 SD). 1994 Unit injector system by Bosch for diesel engines. 1991 European emission standards (redirect Euro 1) euro 1 met with the truck diesel engine of Scania.

the ratio of passenger cars with diesel engine exceeds 50%. • 2008 Subaru presents to first production stages Diesel double-piston engine. Euro 5 for all Iveco trucks.• 1999 euro 3 of Scania and first Common Rail truck diesel engine of Renault. • 2009 Volvo claims the world’s strongest truck with their FH16 700. Piezoelectric injector technology by Bosch. Euro 5 with EGR system Strongest series trucks with a 680 hp (510 kW) MAN diesel engine. 16 litre 700hp diesel engine producing 3150 Nm (2323 lb-ft) of torque . 2004 In Western Europe. • Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system in Mercedes. • 2006 First worldwide outstanding success in the Diesel racing car AUDI R10 TDI that wins 12 Hours running in Sebring and defeats all other engine concepts. Euro 4 with EGR system and particle filters of MAN. An inline 6 cylinder.

The fuel injector ensures that the fuel is broken down into small droplets. This may be into a (typically toroidal) void in the top of the piston or a 'pre-chamber' depending upon the design of the engine. This high compression heats the air to 550 °C (about 1000 °F). and . How diesel engines work The diesel internal combustion engine differs from the gasoline powered Otto cycle by using a higher compression of the air to ignite the fuel rather than using a spark plug ("compression ignition" rather than "spark ignition").and fully complying with Euro 5 emission standards. In the diesel engine. The air is then compressed with a compression ratio typically between 15 and 22 resulting into a 40 bar (about 600 psi) pressure compared to 14 bar (about 200 psi) in the gasoline engine. fuel is injected directly into the compressed air in the combustion chamber. only air is introduced into the combustion chamber. At about this moment (the exact moment is determined by the fuel injection timing of the fuel system).

that the fuel is distributed as evenly as possible. The more modern the engine, the smaller, more numerous and better distributed are the droplets. The heat of the compressed air vaporises fuel from the surface of the droplets. The vapour is then ignited by the heat from the compressed air in the combustion chamber, the droplets continue to vaporise from their surfaces and burn, getting smaller, until all the fuel in the droplets has been burnt. The start of vaporisation causes a delay period during ignition, and the characteristic diesel knocking sound as the vapour reaches ignition temperature and causes an abrupt increase in pressure above the piston. The rapid expansion of combustion gases then drives the piston downward, supplying power to the crankshaft. As well as the high level of compression allowing combustion to take place without a separate ignition system, a high compression ratio greatly increases the engine's efficiency. Increasing the compression ratio in a sparkignition engine where fuel and air are mixed before entry to the cylinder is limited by the need to prevent damaging pre-ignition. Since only air is compressed in a diesel engine, and fuel is not introduced into the cylinder until

shortly before top dead centre (TDC), premature detonation is not an issue and compression ratios are much higher. Early fuel injection systems Diesel's original engine injected fuel with the assistance of compressed air, which atomized the fuel and forced it into the engine through a nozzle (a similar principle to an aerosol spray). The nozzle opening was closed by a pin valve lifted by the camshaft to initiate the fuel injection before (TDC) (top dead centre). This is called an air-blast injection. Driving the three stage compressor used some power but the efficiency and net power output was more than any other combustion engine at that time. Diesel engines in service today raise the fuel to extreme pressures by mechanical pumps and deliver it to the combustion chamber by pressure-activated injectors without compressed air. With direct injected diesels, injectors spray fuel through six or more small orifices in its nozzle. The early air injection diesels always had a superior combustion without the sharp increase in pressure during combustion. Interestingly research is

performed and patents are taken out to use some form of air injection to reduce the nitrogen oxides and pollution, reverting to Diesels original implementation with its superior combustion. In all major aspects, it holds true to Rudolf Diesel's original design that of igniting fuel by compression at an extremely high pressure within the cylinder. With much higher pressures and high technology injector’s present-day diesel engines use the so-called solid injection system applied by Herbert Akroyd Stuart for his hot bulb engine. Indirect injection engine could be considered the latest development of these low speed "hot bulb" ignition engines. Cold weather Starting In cold weather high speed diesel engines, which are mostly prechambered, can be difficult to start because the mass of the cylinder block and cylinder head absorb the heat of compression, preventing ignition because of the higher surface to volume ratio. Prechambered engines therefore make use of small electric heaters inside the prechambers

In the past. a wider variety of cold-start methods were used. Some engines.called glow plugs. The flame heated the inlet manifold . Saab marine engines. used a system to introduce small amounts of ether into the inlet manifold to start combustion. These engines also generally have a higher compression of 19:1 to 21:1. such as Detroit Diesel engines and ListerPetter engines. Diesel fuel slowly dripped from the valve onto the hot element and ignited. Low speed and compressed air started larger and intermediate speed diesels do not have glow plugs and compression ratios are around 16:1. Lucas developed the 'Thermostat'. Some engines use resistive grid heaters in the intake manifold to warm the inlet air until the engine reaches operating temperature. Engine block heaters (electric resistive heaters in the engine block) connected to the utility grid are often used when an engine is turned off for extended periods (more than an hour) in cold weather to reduce start-up time and engine wear. where an electrical heating element was combined with a small fuel valve. Field Marshall tractors (among others) used slowburning solid-fuel 'cigarettes' which were fitted into the cylinder head as a primitive glow plug.

Gelling Diesel fuel is also prone to "waxing" or "gelling" in cold weather. The crystals build up in the fuel line (especially in fuel filters). International Harvester developed a WD-40 tractor in the 1930s that had a 7-liter 4-cylinder engine which ran as a diesel. Recently direct-injection systems advanced to the extent that prechambers systems were not needed using a common rail with electronic fuel injection. The cylinder head had valves which opened for a portion of the compression stroke to reduce the effective compression ratio. terms for the solidification of diesel oil into a partially crystalline state. and a magneto produced the spark. An automatic ratchet system automatically disengaged the ignition system and closed the valves once the engine had run for 30 seconds. eventually starving the engine of .and when the engine was turned over the flame was drawn into the combustion chamber to start combustion. but was started as a gasoline engine. The operator then switched off the gasoline fuel system and opened the throttle on the diesel injection system.

These systems use a combination of springs and weights to control . Due to improvements in fuel technology. Fuel delivery A vital component of all diesel engines is a mechanical or electronic governor which regulates the idling speed and maximum speed of the engine by controlling the rate of fuel delivery. Mechanically governed fuel injection systems are driven by the engine's gear train. with additives waxing rarely occurs in all but the coldest weather when a mix of diesel and kerosene should be used to run a vehicle. most engines have a "spill return" system. by which any excess fuel from the injector pump and injectors is returned to the fuel tank.fuel and causing it to stop running. resulting in its destruction. Also. incoming air is not throttled and a diesel engine without a governor cannot have a stable idling speed and can easily over speed. Once the engine has warmed. returning warm fuel prevents waxing in the tank. Low-output electric heaters in fuel tanks and around fuel lines are used to solve this problem. Unlike Otto-cycle engines.

Controlling the timing of the start of injection of fuel into the cylinder is a key to minimizing emissions. Optimal timing will depend on the engine design as well as its speed and load. [8] Modern.fuel delivery relative to both load and speed. from a sensor and controls the amount of fuel and start of injection timing through actuators to maximize power and efficiency and minimize emissions. and higher efficiency. or timing. if the ECM/ECU initiates fuel injection when the piston is 10 degrees before TDC. but also results in elevated engine noise and increased oxides of nitrogen (NOx) . as well as other operating parameters such as intake manifold pressure and fuel temperature. Advancing the start of injection (injecting before the piston reaches TDC) results in higher in-cylinder pressure and temperature. of the engine. The timing is measured in degrees of crank angle of the piston before top dead centre. The ECM/ECU receives an engine speed signal. the start of injection. For example. is said to be 10° BTDC. electronically controlled diesel engines control fuel delivery by use of an electronic control module (ECM) or electronic control unit (ECU). and maximizing fuel economy (efficiency).

The life of a diesel engine is generally about twice as long as that of a gasoline engine due to the increased strength of parts used. Delaying start of injection causes incomplete combustion. • • • • They burn less fuel than a gasoline engine performing the same work.emissions due to higher combustion temperatures. due to the engine's high efficiency and diesel fuel's higher energy density than gasoline. Major advantages Diesel engines have several advantages over other internal combustion engines. . They have no high-tension electrical ignition system to attend to. also because diesel fuel has better lubrication properties than gasoline. resulting in high reliability and easy adaptation to damp environments. containing a considerable amount of particulate matter and unburned hydrocarbons . reduced fuel efficiency and an increase in exhaust smoke. They can deliver much more of their rated power on a continuous basis than a gasoline engine.

lifted mechanical single plunger high pressure fuel pump driven by the engine . The carbon monoxide content of the exhaust is minimal. Although diesel fuel will burn in open air using a wick. rotating at half crankshaft speed. For any given partial load the fuel efficiency (kg burned per kWh produced) of a diesel engine remains nearly constant.• • • • • Diesel fuel is considered safer than gasoline in many applications. therefore diesel engines are used in underground mines. Mechanical and electronic injection Many configurations of fuel injection have been used over the past century (1900–2000). boost pressure is essentially unlimited. Most present day (2008) diesel engines make use of a camshaft. With a diesel. as opposed to gasoline and turbine engines which use proportionally more fuel with partial power outputs. it will not explode and does not release a large amount of flammable vapour. They generate less waste heat (but) in cooling and exhaust.

its plunger measures the amount of fuel and determines the timing of each injection. A cheaper configuration on high speed engines with less than six cylinders is to use an axialpiston distributor pump . Fuel volume for each single combustion is controlled by a slanted groove in the plunger which rotates only a few degrees releasing the pressure and is controlled by a mechanical governor. Each fuel line should have the same length to obtain the same pressure delay.consisting of one rotating pump plunger delivering fuel to a valve and line for each cylinder (functionally analogous to points and distributor cap on an Otto engine). For each cylinder. This contrasts with the more modern method of having a single fuel pump which supplies fuel constantly at high pressure . On high speed engines the plunger pumps are together in one unit. For each cylinder a plunger pump is connected with an injector with a high pressure fuel line. These engines use injectors that are basically very precise spring-loaded valves that open and close at a specific fuel pressure.crankshaft. The injectors are held open by the fuel pressure. consisting of weights rotating at engine speed constrained by springs and a lever.

with a common (single fuel line common) to each injector. Older diesel engines with mechanical injection pumps could be inadvertently run in reverse. and less noisy. such as engine speed and loading. . and providing better engine performance and fuel economy. resulting in more accurate control of injector opening times that depend on other control conditions. Large ship diesels can run either way. This was often a consequence of push starting a vehicle using the wrong gear. Both mechanical and electronic injection systems can be used in either direct or indirect injection configurations. making it generally more reliable. Indirect injection An indirect injection diesel engine delivers fuel into a chamber off the combustion chamber. as witnessed by massive amounts of soot being ejected from the air intake. Each injector has a solenoid operated by an electronic control unit. albeit very inefficiently. This design is also mechanically simpler than the combined pump and valve design. than its mechanical counterpart.

000 rpm).called a prechamber or ante-chamber. marine and construction uses from the 1950s. The prechamber had the disadvantage of increasing heat loss to the engine's cooling system. injector pressures can be lower. . Mechanical injection systems allowed high-speed running suitable for road vehicles (typically up to speeds of around 4. until direct injection technology advanced in the 1980s. and restricting the combustion burn. about 100 bar using a single orifice tapered jet injector. Indirect injection engines are cheaper to build and it is easier to produce smooth. Indirect injection engines were used in small-capacity. which reduced the efficiency by 5%– 10%. quieter running engine. and because combustion is assisted by turbulence. quiet-running vehicles with a simple mechanical system. This system allows for a smoother. high-speed diesel engines in automotive. where combustion begins and then spreads into the main combustion chamber. assisted by turbulence created in the chamber. In road-going vehicles most prefer the greater efficiency and better controlled emission levels of direct injection.

EGR and turbo boost were all electronically controlled. This gave more precise control of these parameters which made refinement more acceptable and emissions lower. but the injection timing. This type of engine was transformed by electronic control of the injection pump.Direct injection Direct injection injectors are mounted in the top of the combustion chamber. which for some buyers was enough to compensate for the extra noise. In this system the injector and the pump are combined into one unit positioned over each cylinder controlled by the camshaft. pioneered by the Volkswagen Group in 1989. fuel quantity. The problem with these vehicles was the harsh noise that they made. The injection pressure was still only around 300 bar (4350 psi). Fuel consumption was about 15 to 20 percent lower than indirect injection diesels. Each cylinder has . Unit direct injection Unit direct injection also injects fuel directly into the cylinder of the engine.

Instead. This type of injection system. 30000 psi). allowing injection parameters similar to common rail systems. the pump pressure has been raised to 2. Cummins. The common rail is a tube that supplies each computer-controlled injector containing a precision-machined nozzle and a plunger driven by a solenoid or piezoelectric actuator. Diesel. . a high-pressure pump pressurises fuel at up to 2. Volvo). Common rail direct injection In common rail systems. in a "common rail". With recent advancements. achieving a more consistent injection. also developed by Bosch.000 bar (200 MPa.050 bar (30127 psi).its own unit eliminating the high pressure fuel lines. the separate pulsing high pressure fuel line to each cylinder injector is also eliminated. is used by Volkswagen AG in cars (where it is called a Pumpe-Düse-System—literally "pump-nozzle system") and by Mercedes Benz ("PLD") and most major diesel engine manufacturers in large commercial engines (CAT.

being tens of feet high with vertical cylinders arranged in-line. The largest early diesels resembled the triple-expansion reciprocating engine steam engine.Types Early Rudolf Diesel intended his engine to replace the steam engine as the primary power source for industry.and large-sized industrial engines were built with horizontal cylinders. Engines could be built with more than one cylinder in both cases. These early engines ran at very slow speeds—partly due to the limitations of their air-blast injector equipment and partly so they would be compatible with the majority of industrial equipment designed for steam engines. maximum speeds of between 100 and . just as steam engines had been. with long-bore cylinders. As such. Smaller engines would be built with vertical cylinders. external valve gear. diesel engines in the late 19th and early 20th centuries used the same basic layout and form as industrial steam engines. cross-head bearings and an open crankshaft connected to a large flywheel. while most medium.

with combustion taking place on both sides of the piston. the double-acting diesel engine's main problem was producing a good seal where the piston rod passed through the bottom of the lower combustion chamber to the crosshead bearing. Engines were usually started by allowing compressed air into the cylinders to turn the engine. By the 1930s turbochargers were fitted to some engines. the engines took a form similar to the compound steam engines common at the time. In the early decades of the 20th century.300 rpm were common. While it produced large amounts of power and was very efficient. although smaller engines could be started by hand. when large diesel engines were first being used. and no more were built. Crosshead bearings are still used to reduce the wear on the cylinders in large longstroke main marine engines. Following steam engine practice some manufactures made double-acting two-stroke and four-stroke diesel engines to increase power output. with the piston being connected to the connecting rod via a crosshead bearing. . with two sets of valve gear and fuel injection.

Modern As with gasoline engines, there are two classes of diesel engines in current use: two-stroke and four-stroke. The four-stroke type is the "classic" version, tracing its lineage back to Rudolf Diesel's prototype. It is also the most commonly used form, being the preferred power source for many motor vehicles, especially buses and trucks. Much larger engines, such as used for railroad locomotion and marine propulsion, are often two-stroke units, offering a more favourable power-to-weight ratio, as well as better fuel economy. The most powerful engines in the world are two-stroke diesels of mammoth proportions. Two-stroke diesel operation is similar to that of gasoline counterparts, except that fuel is not mixed with air prior to induction, and the crankcase does not take an active role in the cycle. The traditional two-stroke design relies upon a mechanically driven positive displacement blower to charge the cylinders with air prior to compression and ignition. The charging process also assists in expelling (scavenging) combustion gases remaining from

the previous power stroke. The archetype of the modern form of the two strokes Diesel is the Detroit Diesel engine, in which the blower pressurizes a chamber in the engine block that is often referred to as the "air box". The (much larger) electromotive prime mover utilized in EMD Diesel-electric locomotives is built to the same principle. In a two-stroke diesel engine, as the cylinder's piston approaches the bottom dead centre exhaust ports or valves are opened relieving most of the excess pressure after which a passage between the air box and the cylinder is opened, permitting air flow into the cylinder. The air flow blows the remaining combustion gasses from the cylinder—this is the scavenging process. As the piston passes through bottom centre and starts upward, the passage is closed and compression commences, culminating in fuel injection and ignition. Refer to two-stroke Diesel engines for more detailed coverage of aspiration types and supercharging of two-stroke engine. Normally, the numbers of cylinders are used in multiples of two, although any number of

cylinders can be used as long as the load on the crankshaft is counterbalanced to prevent excessive vibration. The inline-six cylinder design is the most prolific in light to mediumduty engines, though small V8 and larger inlinefour displacement engines are also common. Small-capacity engines (generally considered to be those below five litres in capacity) are generally four or six cylinder types, with the four cylinders being the most common type found in automotive uses. Five cylinder diesel engines have also been produced, being a compromise between the smooth running of the six cylinder and the space-efficient dimensions of the four cylinders. Diesel engines for smaller plant machinery, boats, tractors, generators and pumps may be four, three or two cylinder types, with the single cylinder diesel engine remaining for light stationary work. Direct reversible two stroke marine diesels need at least three cylinders for reliable restarting forwards and reverse. Four cycle engines need at least six cylinders, repeated power strokes at 120 degrees. The desire to improve the diesel engine's power-to-weight ratio produced

designed by Tillings-Stevens. the TS3. this was found to be a much more reliable and simple way of extracting more power. The Napier Deltic engine. is one of the better known. The Commer TS3 engine had 3 horizontal in-line cylinders. with three cylinders arranged in a triangular formation. each with two opposed action pistons that worked through rocker arms. to connecting rods and had one crankshaft. Sulzer started experimenting with two-stroke engines with . each containing two opposed-action pistons.several novel cylinder arrangements to extract more power from a given capacity. Gas generator Main article: Free-piston engine As a footnote. they were complex and expensive to produce and operate. and when turbocharger technology improved in the 1960s. prior to 1950. While both these designs succeeded in producing greater power for a given capacity. the whole engine having three crankshafts. The Commer van company of the United Kingdom used a similar design for road vehicles. member of the Rootes Group.

which is the highest conversion of fuel into power by any internal or external combustion engine. Advantages and disadvantages versus spark-ignition engines Power and fuel economy The MAN S80ME-C7 low speed diesel engines use 155 gram fuel per kWh for an overall energy conversion efficiency of 54. This system was derived from Raúl Pateras Pescara's work on free-piston engines in the 1930s.boost pressures as high as 6 atmospheres. Opposed pistons were connected by linkages instead of crankshafts. Diesel engines are more efficient than gasoline (petrol) engines of the .4%. The overall thermal efficiency was roughly twice that of a simple gas turbine. in which all of the output power was taken from an exhaust gas turbine. Several of these units could be connected together to provide power gas to one large output turbine. The two-stroke pistons directly drove air compressor pistons to make a positive displacement gas generator.

3 MJ/kg (mega joules per kilogram) than gasoline at 45. resulting in lower fuel consumption. has a combined Euro rating of 6. the overall energy efficiency is still about 20% greater for the diesel version. No vehicle has an unlimited volume available for fuel storage. Adjusting the numbers to account for the energy density of diesel fuel. in addition to mass.2 L/100 km (38 miles per US gallon) for the 102 bhp (76 kW) petrol engine and 4. A common margin is 40% more miles per gallon for an efficientturbodiesel.same power. liquid diesel fuel is significantly denser than liquid gasoline. This is important because volume of fuel. For example. Although the calorific value of the fuel is slightly lower at 45. is an important consideration in mobile applications. However.4 L/100 km (54 mpg) for the 105 bhp (78 kW) diesel engine. such a comparison doesn't take into account that diesel fuel is denser and contains about 15% more energy by volume.8 MJ/kg. using Volkswagen Group engines. the current model Škoda Octavia. .

This creates parasitic loss and destruction of availability on the incoming air.While higher compression ratio is helpful in raising efficiency. Unlike the petrol engine. In many applications. diesels are left idling unattended for many hours or sometimes days. These advantages are especially attractive in locomotives (see dieselisation). Weight can be an issue. since diesel engines are typically heavier than gasoline engines of similar power output. poor design or failing injectors resulting in black exhaust. agriculture. the fuel cannot burn completely until it has encountered the right amount of oxygen. air and fuel are mixed for the entire compression . and railways. This is essentially because the diesel must operate at lower engine speeds. which closes at idle. As a result of this. This results in incomplete combustion with too much fuel. In the gasoline engine. diesels lack a butterfly valve (throttle) in the inlet system. reducing the efficiency of petrol/gasoline engines at idle. such as marine. Diesel fuel is injected just before the power stroke. diesel engines are much more efficient than gasoline (petrol) engines when at low power and at engine idle.

However. A gasoline engine of similar size cannot put out a comparable power increase without extensive alterations because the stock components would not be able to withstand the higher stresses placed upon them. Diesel engines usually have longer stroke lengths to achieve the necessary compression ratios. it makes an ideal candidate for performance tuning with little expense. As a result piston and connecting rods are heavier and more force must be transmitted through the connecting rods and crankshaft to change the momentum of the piston. ensuring complete mixing even at higher engine speeds. This is another reason that a diesel engine must be stronger for the same power output. Since a diesel engine is already built to withstand higher levels of stress. Yet it is this same build quality that has allowed some enthusiasts to acquire significant power increases with turbocharged engines through fairly simple and inexpensive modifications. it should be said that any modification that raises the amount of fuel and air put through a diesel engine will increase its .stroke.

meaning turbochargers require less cooling. high performance diesel engines which are not "overbuilt" to the degree of older engines and are being pushed to provide greater power in smaller engines. lighter. the exhaust gas is cooler. mitigating the fuel-air intake speed limit mentioned above for a given engine displacement. The addition of a turbocharger or supercharger to the engine greatly assists in increasing fuel economy and power output. and can be more reliable. With a diesel. than on spark-ignition engines. boost pressure is essentially unlimited. It is literally possible to run as much boost as the engine will physically stand before breaking apart. Boost pressures can be higher on diesels than gasoline engines. and the higher compression ratio allows a diesel engine to be more efficient than a comparable spark ignition engine. These are issues with newer. due to the latter's susceptibility to knock. Because the burned gases are expanded further in a diesel engine cylinder.operating temperature which will reduce its life and increase service requirements. Consequently. engine designers have come to realize that diesels are capable of .

as the growing of crops specifically for bio fuels takes up land that could be used for food crops and uses water that could be used by both humans and animals. . due to the absorption of CO2 by plants used to produce the fuel. advances in production and changes in the political climate have increased the availability and awareness of biodiesel. sawmill waste from managed forests in Finland funded by Nokia venture capital. The use of waste vegetable oil.substantially more power and torque than any comparably sized gasoline engine. demonstrate great promise in providing feed stocks for sustainable biodiesel. Recently. and the development of the production of vegetable oil from algae. that are not in competition with food production. Although concerns are now being raised as to the negative effect this is having on the world food supply. The increased fuel economy of the diesel engine over the gasoline engine means that the diesel produces less carbon dioxide (CO2) per unit distance. an alternative to petroleum-derived diesel fuel with a much lower net-sum emission of CO2.

buses.Diesel engines have lower power output than equivalent size petrol engine because its speed is limited by the time required for combustion. Poor power and narrow torque bands have been addressed by the use of superchargers. and a large efficiency increase from about 35% for IDI to 45% for the latest engines in the last 15 years. higher injection pressures that have improved the atomisation of fuel into smaller droplets. intercoolers. have mostly mitigated these problems in the latest generation of commonrail designs. especially variable geometry turbochargers). Even though diesel engines have a theoretical fuel efficiency of 75%. A combination of improved mechanical technology (such as multi-stage injectors which fire a short "pilot charges" of fuel into the cylinder to warm the combustion chamber before delivering the main fuel charge). and newer . Engines in large diesel trucks. turbochargers. and electronic control (which can adjust the timing and length of the injection process to optimise it for all speeds and temperatures). in practice it is less. while greatly improving engine efficiency.

Modern car engines use a diesel particulate filter (DPF) to capture carbon particles and . At these areas where it is relatively cold. and could reach 55% efficiency in the near future. However. the mixture is rich (contrary to the overall mixture which is lean). at which point the quantity of fuel injected per cycle is still about 50% lean of stoichiometric. However. average efficiency over a driving cycle is lower than peak efficiency. they can produce black soot (or more specifically diesel particulate matter) from their exhaust.diesel cars can achieve peak efficiencies around 45%. For example. Emissions Diesel engines produce very little carbon monoxide as they burn the fuel in excess air even at full load. it might be 37% for an engine with a peak efficiency of 44%. This is caused by local low temperatures where the fuel is not fully atomized. which consists of unburned carbon compounds. These local low temperatures occur at the cylinder walls and at the outside of large droplets of fuel. The rich mixture has less air to burn and some of the fuel turns into a carbon deposit.

which are less thermally efficient. Likewise. high fuel consumption and dense clouds of smoke. resulting in blue/white smoke and lower power outputs until the engine has warmed through. This is especially the case with indirect injection engines. With .then intermittently burn them using extra fuel injected into the engine. Beyond which point the fuel cannot be completely combusted. The result is that fuel is not combusted fully. It is possible to obtain more power by exceeding it. This is only done in specialized applications (such as tractor pulling competitions) where these disadvantages are of little concern. The full load limit of a diesel engine in normal service is defined by the "black smoke limit". the engine's combustion efficiency is reduced because the cold engine block draws heat out of the cylinder in the compression stroke. when starting from cold. but the resultant inefficient combustion means that the extra power comes at the price of reduced combustion efficiency. as the "black smoke limit" is still considerably lean of stoichiometric.

Other problems associated with the exhaust gases (nitrogen oxides. and multi-phase electrically controlled glow plugs. the timing and length of the injection sequence can be altered to compensate for this.electronic injection. Older engines with mechanical injection can have mechanical and hydraulic governor control to alter the timing. some diesel cars now have catalytic converters in the exhaust. especially in cities. Some modern diesel engines feature diesel particulate filters. Particles of the size normally called PM10 (particles of 10 micrometres or smaller) have been implicated in health problems. that stay on for a period after start-up to ensure clean combustion—the plugs are automatically switched to a lower power to prevent them burning out. sulphur oxides) can be mitigated with further investment and equipment. which catch the black soot and when saturated are automatically regenerated by burning the particles. All diesel engine exhaust emissions can be significantly reduced by the use of biodiesel fuel. Oxides of nitrogen do increase .

Diesel engines tend to have their torque peak quite low in their speed range (usually between 1600–2000 rpm for a small-capacity unit. This provides smoother control over heavy loads when starting from rest. lower for a larger engine used in a truck). load carrying and other tractive tasks. and. so most modern diesels used in such vehicles use electronic control. allows the diesel engine to be given higher loads at low speeds than a gasoline engine.from a vehicle using biodiesel. . variable geometry turbochargers and shorter piston strokes to achieve a wider spread of torque over the engine's speed range. crucially. making them much more economical for these applications. diesel engines tend to have better torque characteristics. but they too can be reduced to levels below that of fossil fuel diesel. Power and torque For commercial uses requiring towing. This characteristic is not so desirable in private cars. by changing fuel injection timing. typically peaking at around 2500–3000 rpm.

pilot or preinjection. Diesel clatter is caused largely by the diesel combustion process. Engine designers can reduce diesel clatter through: indirect injection. or by using a cetane improving additive. Diesel fuels with a higher cetane rating modify the combustion process and reduce diesel clatter. . or diesel knock. and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Some oil companies market high cetane or premium diesel. turbo boost. the sudden ignition of the diesel fuel when injected into the combustion chamber causes a pressure wave.Noise The characteristic noise of a diesel engine is a contributor to low consumer acceptance of diesel engines for passenger cars. injection timing. compression ratio. Biodiesel has a higher cetane number than petro diesel. injection rate. This noise is variably called diesel clatter. typically 55CN for 100% biodiesel. Common rail diesel injection systems permit multiple preinjections as an aid to noise reduction.CN (Cetane number) can be raised by distilling higher quality crude oil. diesel nailing.

Reliability The lack of an electrical ignition system greatly improves the reliability. higher injection pressures that have improved the atomisation of fuel into smaller droplets.A combination of improved mechanical technology such as multi-stage injectors which fire a short "pilot charges" of fuel into the cylinder to initiate combustion before delivering the main fuel charge. a benefit that is magnified by the lower rotating speeds in diesels. it is . have mostly mitigated these problems in the latest generation of common-rail designs. which creates less-violent changes in pressure when compared to a spark-ignition engine. while improving engine efficiency. and electronic control (which can adjust the timing and length of the injection process to optimise it for all speeds and temperatures). Diesel fuel is a better lubricant than gasoline so is less harmful to the oil film on piston rings and cylinder bores. The high durability of a diesel engine is also due to its overbuilt nature (see above) as well as the diesel's combustion cycle.

pre-lubrication and slow turning of an engine. On large engines. Due to the greater compression force required and the increased weight of the stronger components. Some smaller military diesels can be started with an explosive cartridge. The pony motor heated the diesel to aid in ignition and utilized a small clutch and transmission to actually spin up the diesel engine. as well as heating. which provides the extra power required to get the machine turning. Even more unusual was an International Harvester design in which the diesel motor had its own carburettor and . are required to minimize the amount of engine damage during initial start-up and running. Caterpillar and John Deere used a small gasoline pony motor in their tractors to start the primary diesel motor. In the past.000 km) or more without a rebuild. starting a diesel engine is harder.000 miles (400. called a Coffman starter.routine for diesel engines to cover 250. Either an electrical starter or an air start system is used to start the engine turning. More torque is required to push the engine through compression.

the operator moved two levers to switch the motor to diesel operation. This narrow band is a reason why a vehicle such as a truck may have a gearbox with as many as 18 or more gears. Turbochargers tend to improve power at high engine speeds. and started on gasoline. However. These engines had very complex cylinder heads. and work could begin. As mentioned above. to allow the engine's power to be used effectively at all speeds. and in general were vulnerable to expensive damage if special care was not taken (especially in letting the engine cool before turning it off). Naturally-aspirated diesels tend to lack power and torque at the top of their speed range. Once warmed up. superchargers improve power at lower speeds. diesel engines tend to have a narrower power band than gasoline engines. and variable geometry turbochargers improve the engine's performance equally by flattening the torque curve. diesel engines tend to have more torque at lower engine speeds than gasoline engines. with their own gasoline combustion chambers.ignition system. .

if the compression ratio of the engine is too high or the fuel too volatile (with too low an octane rating). before the piston reaches the top of its stroke. as in a diesel engine. or a Fuel injector in a fuel injection . a mechanical injector system vaporizes the fuel into a pre-combustion chamber (as opposed to a Venturi jet in a carburettor. The need for a fuel that is volatile enough to vaporize but not too volatile (to avoid pre-ignition) means that petrol engines will only run on a narrow range of fuels. Older petrol engines fitted with a carburettor required a volatile fuel that would vaporize easily to create the necessary fuel/air mix for combustion. Because both air and fuel are admitted to the cylinder. the fuel will ignite under compression. In diesel engines. gasoline/propane.Quality and variety of fuels Petrol/gasoline engines are limited in the variety and quality of the fuels they can burn. This pre-ignition causes a power loss and over time major damage to the piston and cylinder. and gasoline/methane. There has been some success at dual-fuel engines that use gasoline/ethanol.

but diesel engines. Some engines can be run on vegetable oil without modification. Diesel fuel is a form of light fuel oil. The only limits on the fuels used in diesel engines are the ability of the fuel to flow along the fuel lines and the ability of the fuel to . More crucially. and most others require fairly basic alterations.system vaporizing fuel into the intake manifold or intake runners as in a petrol engine). very similar to kerosene. This forced vaporisation means that less-volatile fuels can be used. can run on a wide variety of other fuels. the compression ratio can be much higher as there is no risk of pre-ignition provided the injection process is accurately timed. allowing less-combustible fuels to be used. Biodiesel is a pure diesel-like fuel refined from vegetable oil and can be used in nearly all diesel engines. This means that cylinder temperatures are much higher in a diesel engine than a petrol engine. because only air is inducted into the cylinder in a diesel engine. especially older or simple designs that lack precision electronic injection systems. Some of the most common alternatives are Jet A-1 or vegetable oil from a very wide variety of plants.

This is partly because an indirect injection engine has a much greater 'swirl' effect. Diesel himself later tested extensively the use of plant oils in his engine and began to actively promote the use of these fuels. The French government were at the time exploring the possibility of using peanut oil as a locally produced fuel in their African colonies.lubricate the injector pump and injectors adequately. Also. indirect injection engines generally run more satisfactorily on bio-fuels than direct injection engines. In general terms. improving vaporisation and combustion of fuel. inline mechanical injector pumps tolerate poor-quality or biofuels better than distributor-type pumps. At the request of the French Government the Otto company demonstrated a diesel engine at the 1900 Exposition Universelle (World's Fair) which used peanut oil (see biodiesel). . and also because (in the case of vegetable oil-type fuels) lipid depositions can condense on the cylinder walls of a directinjection engine if combustion temperatures are too low (such as starting the engine from cold).

Good-quality diesel fuel can be synthesised from vegetable oil and alcohol.[34] The type of fuel used is a combination of service requirements. gasoline. viscous and almost unflammable fuel which is very safe to store and cheap to buy in bulk as it is a waste product from the petroleum refining industry. wood gas to the fuel oils from diesel oil to residual fuels. alcohols. The fuel must be heated to thin it out (often by the exhaust header) and is often passed through multiple injection stages to vaporize it. depending on configuration. Biodiesel is growing in . and fuel costs. which is a thick. from natural gas. Fuel and fluid characteristics Diesel engines can operate on a variety of different fuels. though the eponymous diesel fuel derived from crude oil is most common. The engines can work with the full spectrum of crude oil distillates. Diesel fuel can be made from coal or other carbon base using the FischerTropsch process.Most large marine diesels (often called cathedral engines due to their size) run on heavy fuel oil (sometimes called "bunker oil").

which are so thick that they . or oil with higher viscosity. The Philippines pioneers in the research on Coconut based CME with the help of German and American scientists.and medium-sized oil presses cold press oilseed. Biodiesel from coconut. Petroleumderived diesel is often called petrodiesel if there is need to distinguish the source of the fuel. for fuel. heavier oil. and smoother engine performance. Residual fuels are the "dregs" of the distillation process and are thicker. mainly rapeseed. though production remains limited. Pure plant oils are increasingly being used as a fuel for cars.popularity since it can frequently be used in unmodified engines. trucks and remote combined heat and power generation especially in Germany where hundreds of decentralised small. less particulate matter or black smoke. There is a Deutsches Institut für Normung fuel standard for rapeseed oil fuel. Recently. has characteristics which enhance lubricity and combustion giving a regular diesel engine without any modification more power. which can produce a very promising coco methyl esther (CME).

frequently amounting to many tonnes per hour. Moving beyond that. Most diesel engines that power ships like super tankers are built so that the engine can safely use low-grade fuels due to their separate cylinder and crankcase lubrication.are not readily pump able unless heated. and adequate filtration to OEM standards. as these fuels will not flow through fuel lines at low temperatures. use of low-grade fuels can lead to serious maintenance problems because of their high sulphur content. due to the cost of the large volume of fuel consumed. but can be viable fuels on non common rail or TDI PD diesels with the simple conversion of fuel heating to 80 to 100 degrees Celsius to reduce viscosity. Normal diesel fuel is more difficult to ignite and slower in developing fire than gasoline because . Engines using these heavy oils have to start and shut down on standard diesel fuel. Residual fuel oils are cheaper than clean. although they are dirtier. refined diesel oil. The poorly refined bio fuels straight vegetable oil (SVO) and waste vegetable oil (WVO) can fall into this category. Their main considerations are for use in ships and very large generation sets.

of its higher flash point. Diesel engines are equipped with a mechanical or electronic governor to control minimum and maximum rpm. Safety The diesel engine is a very safe type of engine. which can accumulate in the bottom of the vessel. which makes Diesel engine runaway unlikely. because it . Therefore ventilation systems on petrol powered vessels are required. it just slowly burns. Yachts In yachts diesels are used because petrol engines generate combustible vapours. Military vehicle safety The US Army and NATO use only diesel fuel engines and turbines because of fire hazard. Diesel does not explode in a manner such as gasoline does. but once burning. The fuel is barely flammable so fire risk is low. a diesel fire can be fierce. US Army gasoline-engine tanks during World War II were nicknamed Ronsonlighters. sometimes causing explosions.

but this may be changing. (However. and diesel is currently more expensive than petrol in the UK. Cold-starting is more problematical in colder climates. Some 40% or more of all cars sold in Europe are diesel-powered where they are considered a low CO2 option. Their reliability and life-span tend to be better (as detailed).only took a single spark to ignite 50 or more gallons of highly volatile gasoline. and in cases of difficulty they are more difficult to jump start and to bump start. Diesel cars cannot accelerate as quickly as petrol cars and the increased weight of their engines (normally at the front) tends to increase tyre wear. particulate emission can be a concern). Diesel applications Passenger Cars Diesel engines have long been popular in bigger cars and this is spreading to smaller cars. . Diesel engines tend to be more economical at regular driving speeds and are much better at city speeds and at tick-over. European governments traditionally favoured diesel engines in taxation policy.

Button dryly observed in subsequent interviews that he had actually . who was arrested while driving a diesel-powered BMW 330cd Coupé at 230 km/h (about 140 mph) in France. where he was too young to have a gasoline-engined car hired to him.Mercedes-Benz in conjunction with Robert Bosch GmbH produced diesel-powered passenger cars starting in 1936(eMB) and very large numbers are used all over the world (often as "Taxi’s in the Third). One anecdote tells of Formula One driver Jenson Button. known for design and successful history in racing. Turbodiesels can outperform their naturally aspirated petrol-powered sister cars. a trend which increased further in the 1970s and 1980s. Fiat in 1953 andPeugeot in 1958) joined in. as does Volkswagen across various brands. Other manufacturers (Borgward in 1952. Citroën sells more cars with diesel engines than gasoline engines. The Italian marque Alfa Romeo. is now focusing on diesels that can be and are raced. Peugeot) pioneered smoke-less HDI designs with filters. They have put the emphasis on high performance diesel cars in their newer ranges.

as nobody had believed a diesel road car could be driven that fast. The BMW diesel lab in Steyr. From the late seventies to the mid-eighties. but a superior and widely-accepted American regular-production diesel passenger car never . Yet. sootier. noisier.done BMW a public relations service. Dodge with its everfamous Cummins inline-six diesels optioned in pickup trucks (since about the late 1980s) really revitalized the appeal for diesel power in light vehicles among American consumers. Cadillac. General Motors' Oldsmobile. having performance characteristics which make them slower to accelerate. diesel is not as popular in passenger cars as in Europe. BMW had already won the 24 Hours Nürburgring overall in 1998 with a 3series diesel. Austria is led by Ferenc Anisits and develops innovative diesel engines. Such cars have been traditionally perceived as heavier. and Chevrolet divisions produced a lowpowered and unreliable V8 diesel engine which generally serves as the prime example for this reputation. In the United States. smellier. and of being more expensive than equivalent gasoline vehicles.

but to not much avail. BMW . Recently. in early 2008. other manufacturers such as Ford. General Motors.S. This image does not reflect recent designs. which had further contributed to the negative image.S. In addition. especially where the very high low-rev torque of modern diesels is concerned—which have characteristics similar to the big V8 gasoline engines popular in the US. Light and heavy trucks. Mercedes-Benz has marketed passenger vehicles under the BlueTec banner. have been diesel-optioned for years. (1 June 2006 in Canada). Honda. before the introduction of 15 parts per million ultra-low sulfur diesel. designed to meet the tougher emissions requirements in 2010. Honda has stated that they plan to . in the U. Ultra-low sulfur diesel is not mandatory until 2010 in the US. diesel fuel used in North America still had higher sulfur content than the fuel used in Europe.. which started at 15 October 2006 in the U. Audi. Subaru. Ford Motor Company tried diesel engines in some passenger cars in the 1980s. In addition. After the introduction of ultra-low sulfur diesel. effectively limiting diesel use to industrial vehicles.materialized.Volkswagen. and Nissan plan to sell Diesel vehicles in the US in 2008-2010.

Smart Fortwo was first introduced in 2004 with a diesel engine. with Mercedes-Benz having already started selling the Mercedes-Benz E320 CDI in autumn 2006. TVO) in most parts of the world by the end of the 1950s with the U. but the German torpedo-boats known . In Japan. Diesel displaced paraffin (or "Tractor Vaporising Oil". In merchant ships and boats the same advantages apply. up until 2008. with the relative safety of diesel fuel an additional benefit. In Canada.S.2 liter i-DTEC diesel engine in the new 2009 Acura TSX for the US market.) also benefit from the diesel's reliability and high torque output. The German "pocket battleships" were the largest diesel warships.[37] Honda and MercedesBenz have made plans to offer Diesel vehicles in the future. buses etc. following some 20 years later. Other transport uses Larger transport applications (trucks.offer their 50 state compliant 2. newly registered Diesel vehicles were less than 1% in 2005.

NATO and the United States Marine Corps have even been developing a diesel military motorcycle based on a Kawasaki off road motorcycle. Conventional submarines have used them since before the First World War. . a few civilian motorcycles had been built using adapted stationary diesel engines. Previous to this. American World War II diesel-electric submarines operated on two-stroke cycle as opposed to the four-stroke cycle that other navies used. because motorcycles were the last remaining petrol/gasoline powered vehicle in their inventory. Military fuel standardisation NATO has a single vehicle fuel policy and has selected diesel for this purpose. but the weight and cost disadvantages generally outweighed the efficiency gains. to be produced in the USA. with a purpose designed naturally aspirated direct injection diesel at Cranfield University in England.as E-boats (Schnellboot) of the Second World War were also diesel craft.

cars. and these engines are capable of utilising lower fuel grades (slower burning) fuels than high speed engines. buses. High-speed engines High-speed (approximately 1000 rpm and greater) engines are used to power trucks (lorries). medium speed engines and slow speed engines High and medium speed engines are predominantly four stroke engines. Slow speed engines are predominantly large two stroke crosshead engines. hence very different from high and medium speed engines. there is more time for combustion during the power stroke of the cycle. compress . Medium speed engines are physically larger than high speed engines and can burn lower grade (slower burning) fuel than high speed engines.Engine speeds Within the diesel engine industry. Due to the lower rotational speed of slow and medium speed engines. engines are often categorized by their rotational speeds into three unofficial groups: High speed engines. yachts. tractors.

particularly in on-highway applicatons.800 bhp) and . although many modern engines. and 900/1000 rpm. 600 RPM (both 50 and 60 Hz). ship propulsion and mechanical drive applications such as large compressors or pumps. As of 2009 the largest medium speed engines in current production have outputs up to approximately 20. As of 2008 most high-speed engines have indirect injection. which is not as reliable as mechanical injection. but is cleaner burning. have common rail direct injection.ors. Medium-speed engines Medium speed engines are used in large electrical generators.000 kW (26. 720/750 rpm. Engines used in electrical generators run at approximately 300 to 1000 rpm and are optimized to run at a set synchronous speed depending on the generation frequency (50 or 60 Hertz) and provide a rapid response to load changes. pumps and small electrical generators. Typical synchronous speeds for modern medium speed engines are 500/514 RPM (50/60 Hz).

Wartsila. and engine configurations typically are offered ranging from in-line 4 cylinder units to Vee 20 cylinder units. and Rolls-Royce (acquired Ulstein Bergen Diesel in 1999). There is no definitive engine size cut-off point for this. using an air distributor. Typical cylinder bore size for medium speed engines ranges from 20 cm to 50 cm. which in fact operate on the Otto cycle. Most larger medium speed engines are started with compressed air direct on pistons. which tends to be used for smaller engines. . It should also be noted that most major manufacturers of medium speed engines make natural gas fueled versions of their diesel cycle engines. as opposed to a pneumatic starting motor acting on the flywheel. Medium speed engines produced are four-stroke machines and two-stroke units.are supplied by companies like MAN B&W. Medium speed diesel engines operate on either diesel fuel or heavy fuel oil by direct injection in the same manner noted below for low speed engines.

low-speed marine diesel engine.and require spark ignition. Low-speed engines The MAN B&W 5S50MC 5-cylinder. 2-stroke. the largest diesel engines are primarily used to power ships. Also known as "slow-speed" or traditionally "oil engines". and can weigh over 2000 . These extremely large two-stroke engines have power outputs up to approximately 85 MW. typically provided with a spark plug. This particular engine is found aboard a 29000 tonne chemical carrier. operate in the range from approximately 60 to 200 rpm and are up to 15. although there are a few land-based power generation units as well. In case of a gas supply failure or maximum power demand these engines will instantly switch back to full diesel fuel operation.25m (50ft) tall. There are also dual (diesel/natural gas/coal gas) fuel versions of medium and low speed diesel engines using a lean fuel air mixture and a small injection of diesel fuel (so called "pilot fuel") for ignition.

At least three cylinders are required with two stroke engines and at least six cylinders with four stroke engines to provide torque every 120 degrees. Large and medium marine engines are started with compressed air directly applied to the pistons. Provided the heavy fuel system is kept warm and circulating. (formerly Burmeister & Wain) and Wärtsilä (which acquired Sulzer Diesel) . which produce the steam required for fuel heating. and to provide reverse propulsion the engine must be run backwards. The heat for fuel heating is often provided by waste heat recovery boilers located in the exhaust ducting of the engine. They typically use direct injection running on cheap low-grade "heavy fuel". also known as "Bunker C" fuel. Companies such as MAN B&W Diesel. engines can be started and stopped on heavy fuel. which requires heating in the ship for tanking and before injection due to the fuel's high viscosity. Air is applied to cylinders to start the engine forwards or backwards because they are normally directly connected to the propeller without clutch or gearbox.tons.

Supercharging and turbocharging Most diesels are now turbocharged and some are both turbo charged and supercharged.8 in) delivering 84. with a cylinder bore of 960 mm (37. They are unusually narrow and tall due to the addition of a crosshead bearing. Moller-Maersk Group. Typical bore size for low speed engines ranges from approximately 35 to 98 cm (14 to 39 in). Today (2007). all produced low speed engines with crosshead bearingsare in-line configurations. It was put into service in September 2006.P. the 14 cylinder Wärtsilä-Sulzer 14RTFLEX96C turbocharged two-stroke diesel engine built by Wärtsilä licensee Doosan in Korea is the most powerful diesel engine put into service.800 bhp).42 MW (114. A turbocharged engine can produce .design such large low speed engines. more than one bar of air can be loaded in the cylinder without preignition. aboard the world's largest container ship Emma Maersk which belongs to the A. no Vee versions have been produced. As of 2008. Because diesels do not have fuel in the cylinder before combustion is initiated.

not requiring any mechanical power. while a turbocharger is powered by the engine exhaust. Smaller two stroke engines (example Detroit 71 series) are fitted with turbochargers and a mechanically driven supercharger (i. a Roots blower). as having more air in the cylinders allows more fuel to be burned and thus more power to be produced. A two-stroke engine does not have an exhaust and intake stroke. attention must be paid to the mechanical design of components. A supercharger is powered mechanically by the engine's crankshaft.e. These are performed when the piston is at the bottom of the cylinder.significantly more power than a naturally aspirated engine of the same configuration. Because turbocharged or supercharged engines produce more power for a given engine size as compared to naturally aspirated engines. hence turbocharging does not adversely affect the fuel economy. . Therefore large two-stroke engines have a piston pump or electrical driven turbo at startup. lubrication. and cooling to handle the power.

which move and let more air into the engine depending on load.Other applications • • Aircraft diesel engine Motorcycles Current and future developments See also: Diesel car history As of 2008. Accelerometer pilot control (APC) uses an accelerometer to provide feedback on the engine's level of noise and vibration and thus instruct the ECU to inject the minimum amount of fuel that will produce quiet combustion and still provide the required power (especially while idling). Boost lag is reduced as turbo impeller inertia is compensated for. . Variable geometry turbochargers have flexible vanes. giving finer control of the injection event. many common rail and unit injection systems already employ new injectors using stacked piezoelectric wafers in lieu of a solenoid. This technology increases both performance and fuel economy.

The next generation of common rail diesels is expected to use variable injection geometry. This residual pressure must be relieved. and there are other methods to achieve even more efficient combustion. the fuel must be safely contained. coming tougher emissions regulations present a considerable challenge to diesel engine manufacturers. If a high-pressure diesel fuel injector is removed from its seat and operated in open . and if it is done so by external bleed-off. Maintenance hazards Fuel injection introduces potential hazards in engine maintenance due to the high fuel pressures used. Particularly in the United States. and variable valve timing similar to that ongasoline engines. which allows the amount of fuel injected to be varied over a wider range. such as homogeneous charge compression ignition. Ford's HyTrans Project has developed a system which starts the ignition in 400 ms. being studied. saving a significant amount of fuel on city routes. Residual pressure can remain in the fuel lines long after an injection-equipped engine has been shut down.

jacket water heaters. The first known such injury occurred in 1937 during a diesel engine maintenance operation. canopy. Diesel generator set The packaged combination of a diesel engine. control systems. there is a risk to the operator of injury by hypodermic jet-injection.air. is referred to as a generating set or a gen set for short. Diesel Generator A diesel generator is the combination of a diesel engine with an electrical generator (often called an alternator) to generate electric energy. sound attenuation. or as auxiliary power for vehicles such as mobile homes. even with only 100 psi pressure. Small portable diesel generators range from about 1kVA to 10kVA may be used as power supplies on construction sites. a generator and various ancillary devices such as base. starting systems etc. circuit breakers. Diesel generating sets are used in places without connection to the power grid or as emergency powersupply if the grid fails. .

factories. to allow more cargo to be carried. sometimes not only to provide auxiliary power for lights. small shops & offices up to 2000kVA used for large office complexes.While the larger industrial generators can range from 8kVA . With electric propulsion the generators can be placed in a convenient position. but also for main propulsion. Electric drives were specified in many warships built during WW II because .30kVA for homes. fans. or periods when there is a shortage of large power generators. and winches. A 2000 kVA set can be housed in a 40ft ISO container and be fully packaged and portable. Diesel generators. Ships often also employ diesel generators. Sizes up to about 5 MW are used for small power stations and these may use from one to 20 units. In these larger sizes the engine and generator are brought to site separately and assembled along with ancillary equipment. but also many have a secondary function of feeding power to utility grids either during peak periods. Electric drives for ships were developed prior to WW I. sometimes as small as 250 kVa are widely used not only for emergency power. etc.

compared to capacity for manufacture of electrical equipment. Generating sets are selected based on the load they are intended to supply power for. and size of any motors to be started which is normally the critical parameter.manufacturing capacity for large reduction gears was in short supply.electrical "Island" mode One or more diesel generators operating without a connection to an electrical grid are operating in "island" mode. An island power plant intended for primary power source of an isolated community will often have at least three diesel generators. any two of which are rated to carry the required load. taking into account the type of load. Synchronization involves . Groups of up to 20 are not uncommon. ie emergency or for continuous power. Several parallel generators provides the advantages of redundancy and better efficiency at part loads. Generators can be electrically connected together through the process of synchronization. Power plants . and the size of the load. [1] Such a diesel-electric arrangement is also used in some very large land vehicles.

matching voltage. Woodward and Heinzman who dominate this market Load can be shared among parallel running generators through load sharing. while regulating the speed through the engine governor or ECU (Engine Control Module). load sharing can be automated by using a load sharing module. while it constantly adjusts the engine fuel control to shift load to and from the remaining power sources. frequency and phase before connecting the generator to a live bus-bar. The synchronization process can be done automatically by an auto-synchronizer module. As the prime mover of a diesel generator runs at constant speed. GAC. Typical manufacturers are ComAp. The auto-synchronizer will read the voltage. Failure to synchronize before connection could cause a high current short-circuits or wears and tears on the generator and/or its switchgear. Like autosynchronization. The load sharing module will measure the load and frequency at the generator. frequency and phase parameters from the generator and bus-bar voltages. it will take more loads when the fuel supply to its combustion system is .

In the UK for example. widely used in the US and the UK to support the respective national grids at times for a variety of reasons. diesel generator sets also routinely support main power grids worldwide in two distinct ways: Peak Shaving Maximum demand tariffs in many areas encourage the use of diesels to come on at times of maximum demand. whereas in the USA this is often in the summer to meet the air conditioning load.In Europe this is typically on winter weekdays around tea time (3 pm). as a secondary function. Supporting main utility grids In addition to their well known role as power supplies during power failures. are. some 2 GWe of diesels are routinely used to support the National Grid. whose peak load is about 60 GW.increased. while load is released if fuel supply is decreased. These are sets in the size . Grid support Emergency standby diesel generators such as those used in hospitals. water plant etc.

they are only used a few hundred hours per year in this duty. Whilst diesels are very expensive in fuel terms. This is extremely beneficial for both parties the diesels have already been purchased for other reasons. The diesel fuel used is fuel that would have been used in testing anyway. which can take several minutes. National Grid (UK) reserve service . and their availability can prevent the need for base load station running inefficiently at part load continuously.range 200kW to 2 MW. Grid paralleling is a convenient way of doing this. This usually occurs during say the sudden loss of a large conventional plant of say 660 MW. but to be reliable need to be fully load tested. and faster than a gas turbine. See Control of the National Grid (UK). This is far quicker than a base load power station which can take 12 hours from cold. In this way the UK National Grid can call on about 2 GW of plant which is up and running in parallel as quickly as two minutes in some cases. or a sudden unexpected rise in power demand eroding the normal spinning reserve available.

gasoline. alcohols. Typical operating costs Fuel consumption is the major portion of diesel plant owning and operating cost for power applications. from natural gas.000 MW(5 GW of diesel generating sets to become available.4 litres of fuel per kilowatt hour at the generator terminals. The engines can work with the full spectrum of crude oil distillates. Specific consumption varies.A similar system operates in France known as EJP. where at times of grid extremis special tariffs can mobilize at least 5. the diesels prime function is to feed power into the grid. depending on configuration. However diesel engines can operate on a variety of different fuels. though the eponymous diesel fuel derived from crude oil is most common. wood gas to the fuel oils from diesel oil to residual fuels. whereas capital cost is the primary concern for backup generators. . This is implemented by introducing gas with the intake air and using a small amount of diesel fuel for ignition.28 and 0.In this case. but a modern diesel plant will consume between 0.

larger fuel tank) Approx another £5k So for a 1MW set…£13/kW 50 kW…maybe £260/kW This capital cost of £13/kW . £3k to fit a PLC to the set Paralleling and synchronising gear and G59 equipment (this allows grid connection) Approx £5k Tidying up set (noise.0/kWh Typical costs of conversion to paralleling for grid operation To be able to operate in parallel with the mains certain modifications are necessary which include the following: • • • • • Approx. .Conversion to 100% diesel fuel operation can be achieveved instantaneously.26p/kWh (using farm diesel at 65p/litre) lifetime engine maintenance about is 0.1. • • Fuel cost 18p .5p/kWh .£260/kW is low compared to combined cycle gas turbines that cost £350/kW.

would be expected to give a somewhat lower output. but literally continuously. or less power continuously. Typically a given set can deliver more power for fewer hours per year. That is a standby set is only expected to give its peak output for a few hours per year. whereas a continuously running set. and both to have reasonable maintenance and reliability.Generator Sizing and Ratings Rating Generators must be capable of delivering the power required for the hours per year anticipated by the designer to allow reliable operation and prevent damage. These standard rating definitions are designed to allow correct machine selection and valid comparisons between manufacturers to prevent them from misstating the performance of their machines. To meet the above criteria manufactures give each set a rating based on internationally agreed definitions. . and to guide designers.

and BS5514). . DIN6271. This rating is not applicable to all generator set models. Typical application emergency power plant in hospitals. Typical application . factories etc. Nominally rated.where the generator is the sole source of power for say a remote mining or construction site. Not connected to grid. fairground. (Equivalent to Prime Power in accordance with ISO8528 and Overload Power in accordance with ISO3046. DIN6271 and BS5514). AS2789. No sustained overload capability is available for this rating. (Equivalent to Fuel Stop Power in accordance with ISO3046. festival etc. Prime (Unlimited Running Time) Rating based on: Applicable for supplying power in lieu of commercially purchased power. AS2789. Prime power is the maximum power available at a variable load for an unlimited number of hours. offices.Generator Rating Definitions Standby Rating based on Applicable for supplying emergency power for the duration of normal power interruption. A 10% overload capability is available for limited time.

AS2789. Often a set might be given all three ratings stamped on the .Base Load (Continuous) Rating based on: Applicable for supplying power continuously to a constant load up to the full output rating for unlimited hours. No sustained overload capability is available for this rating. Consult authorized distributor for rating. DIN6271. and the Continuous Rating 800kW. However these ratings vary according to manufacturer and should be taken from the manufacturer's data sheet. then a Prime Power rating might be 850 kW. This rating is not applicable to all generator set models Typical application . (Equivalent to Continuous Power in accordance with ISO8528. ISO3046. and BS5514). As an example if in a particular set the Standby Rating were 1000 kW. This also applies to sets used for peak shaving /grid support even though this may only occur for say 200 hour per year. or paralleled with the mains and continuously feeding power at the maximum permissible level 8760 hours per year.a generator running a continuous unvarying load.

Sizing Typically however it is the size of the maximum load that has to be connected and the acceptable maximum voltage drop which determines the set size. If the set is required to start motors. but sometimes it may have only a standby rating. Manufactures have sophisticated software that enables the correct choice of set for any given load combination. Correct Generator Installation To ensure correct functioning. This means it will be unlikely to operate at anywhere near the ratings of the chosen set. reliability and low maintenance costs generators must be installed correctly. To this end manufacturers provide detailed installation guidelines covering such things as: . which is normally started first. or only a prime rating. then the set will have to be at least 3 times the largest motor.data plate. not the ratings themselves.

Short periods of low load running are .*Sizing and selection *Electrical factors *Cooling *Ventilation *Fuel storage *Noise *Exhaust *Starting systems These are frequently ignored causing problems for users Diesel engine damage due to misapplication or mis use of generating set Diesel engines can suffer damage as a result of mis-application or mis use . This is a common problem in generator sets caused by failure to follow application and operating guidelines ideally diesel engines should run at least around 60-75% of their maximum rated load.namely internal glazing and carbon buildup.

Low cylinder pressures cause poor combustion and resultant low combustion pressures and temperatures. This poor combustion leads to soot formation and unburnt fuel residues which clogs and gums piston rings. causing the diesel unit to be under-loaded. Internal glazing and carbon buildup is due to prolonged periods of running at low speeds and/or low loads. if the engine powering the set is over-powered (mis application) for the load applied to it.permissible providing the set is brought up to full load. when sets are started and run off load as a test (mis use). This causes a further drop in sealing efficiency and exacerbates the initial low pressure. (mis use). Such conditions may occur when an engine is left idling as a 'standby' generating unit. ready to run up when needed. Glazing occurs when hot . or close to full load on a regular basis. Running an engine under low loads causes low cylinder pressures and consequent poor piston ring sealing since this relies on the gas pressure to force them against the oil film on the bores to form the seal. or as is very often the case.

The problem is increased further the formation of acids in the engine oil caused by condensed water and combustion by-products which would normally boil off at higher temperatures. creating an enamel-like glaze which smooths the bore and removes the effect of the intricate pattern of honing marks machined into the bore surface.combustion gases blow past the now poorlysealing piston rings. since the oil film trapped in the honing marks is intended to maintain the piston seal and pressures. which then leads to increased oil consumption (blue smoking) and yet further loss of pressure. causing the lubricating oil on the cylinder walls to 'flash burn'. Hard carbon also forms from poor combustion and this is highly abrasive and scrapes the honing marks on the bores leading to bore polishing. This acidic build-up in the lubricating oil causes . Poor combustion causes the injectors to become clogged with soot. which are there to hold oil and return it to the crankcase via the scraper ring. causing further deterioration in combustion and black smoking. Un-burnt fuel leaks past the piston rings and contaminates the lubricating oil.

Under loaded running inevitably causes not only white smoke from unburnt fuel but over time is joined by the blue smoke of burnt lubricating oil leaking past the damaged piston rings. This pollution is unacceptable to the authorities and any neighbours. machining new honing marks and stripping.slow but ultimately damaging wear to bearing surfaces. and the black smoke caused by the damaged injectors. cleaning and de-coking combustion chambers. This cycle of degradation means that the engine soon becomes irreversibly damaged and may not start at all and will no longer be able to reach full power when required. However. If detected in the early stages. allows the piston rings to scrape glaze off the bores and allow carbon buildup to be burnt off. if glazing has progressed to the stage where the piston rings have seized . it can only be cured by stripping down the engine and re-boring the cylinder bores. fuel injector nozzles and valves. running an engine at maximum load to raise the internal pressures and temperatures. Once glazing or carbon build up has occurred.

. The situation can be prevented by carefully selecting the generator set in accordance with manufacturers printed guidelines. this apparent over size being necessitated to be able to meet starting loads and minimising starting voltage drop. This situation can be dealt with by hiring in a load bank for regular testing. For emergency only sets. which are islanded. thereby gaining revenue from the fuel burnt. Both these options cost money in terms of engine wear and fuel use but are better than the alternative of under loading the engine. or installing a permanent load bank. if available.into their grooves this will not have any effect. once a month on load test. the emergency load is often only about 1/4 of the sets standby rating. and or enrolling the set in utility Reserve Service type schemes. Often the best solution in these cases will be to convert the set to parallel running and feed power into the grid. Hence the available load is not usually enough for load testing and again engine damage will result if this we used as the weekly or monthly load test.

motors and generators have many similarities. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine. The reverse conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy is done by a motor. but it does not create electricity or charge. Historic developments Before the connection between magnetism and electricity was . an internal combustion engine. water falling through a turbine or waterwheel. A generator forces electric charges to move through an external electrical circuit. generally using electromagnetic induction. It is somewhat analogous to a water pump. which creates a flow of water but does not create the water inside. compressed air or any other source of mechanical energy. a hand crank. which is already present in the wire of its windings.Electrical Generator In electricity generation. an electrical generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. a wind turbine.

The charge was generated using either of two mechanisms: • • Electrostatic induction The tribo electric effect. They operated by using moving electrically charged belts. Because of their inefficiency and the difficulty of insulating machines producing very high voltages. electrostatic generators were invented that used electrostatic principles. electrostatic generators had low power ratings and were never used for generation of commercially-significant quantities of electric power. where the contact between two insulators leaves them charged. The Wimshurst machine and Van de Graaff generator are examples of these machines that have survived. Jedlik's Dynamo In 1827.discovered. plates and disks to carry charge to a high potential electrode. Hungarian Anyos Jedlik started experimenting with electromagnetic rotating devices which he called electromagnetic self- . These generated very high voltages and low currents.

called the 'Faraday disc'.rotors. and large amounts of current. using a copper disc rotating between the poles of a horseshoe magnet. is that a potential difference is generated between the ends of an electrical conductor that moves perpendicular to a magnetic field. The principle. In the prototype of the single-pole electric starter (finished between 1852 and 1854) both the stationary and the revolving parts were electromagnetic. . Jedlik's invention was decades ahead of its time. In essence the concept is that instead of permanent magnets. later called Faraday's law. It produced a small DC voltage. Faraday disk In 1831-1832 Michael Faraday discovered the operating principle of electromagnetic generators. a type of homopolar generator. two electromagnets opposite to each other induce the magnetic field around the rotor. He also built the first electromagnetic generator. He formulated the concept of the dynamo at least 6 years before Siemens and Wheatstone but didn't patent it as he thought he wasn't the first to realize this.

the current would circulate backwards in regions outside the influence of the magnetic field. Since the output voltage is proportional to the number of turns. Later homopolar generators would solve this problem by using an array of magnets arranged around the disc perimeter to maintain a steady field effect in one current-flow direction.This design was inefficient due to selfcancelling counter flows of current in regions not under the influence of the magnetic field. and induces waste heating of the copper disc. However. generators could be easily designed to produce any desired voltage by varying the number of turns. recent advances (rare earth magnets) have made possible homo- . Another disadvantage was that the output voltage was very low. While current flow was induced directly underneath the magnet. Wire windings became a basic feature of all subsequent generator designs. Experimenters found that using multiple turns of wire in a coil could produce higher more useful voltages. This counter flow limits the power output to the pickup wires. due to the single current path through the magnetic flux.

Through a series of accidental discoveries.110 ) The first Turbo generator Designed by the Hungarian engineer Ottó Bláthy in 1903 The Dynamo was the first electrical generator capable of delivering power for industry.polar motors with the magnets on the rotor. when spinning at 1400 RPM. including the DC electric motor. or 2. the dynamo became the source of many later inventions. Partly Section] (U. which should offer many advantages to older designs. Dynamo Dynamos are no longer used for power generation due to the size and complexity of the commutator needed for high power applications. Dynamo Electric Machine [End View. This large belt-driven high-current dynamo produced 310 amperes at 7 volts.S. The dynamo uses electromagnetic principles to convert mechanical rotation into a pulsing direct electric current through the use of a commutator. The first dynamo was built by Hippolyte Pixii in 1832. the AC alternator. the . patent 284.170 watts.

On small machines the constant magnetic field may be provided by one or more permanent magnets. the dynamo is an example of an alternator. Other rotating electromagnetic generators Without a commutator. which provides a constant magnetic field.AC synchronous motor. But before the principles of AC were discovered. and the rotary converter. larger machines have the constant magnetic field provided by one or more electromagnets. which are usually called field coils. A dynamo machine consists of a stationary structure. which is a synchronous singly-fed generator. Large power generation dynamos are now rarely seen due to the now nearly universal use of alternating current for power distribution and solid state electronic AC to DC power conversion. very large direct-current dynamos were the only means of power generation and distribution. and a set of rotating windings which turn within that field. With an . Now power generation dynamos are mostly a curiosity.

the dynamo is a classical direct current (DC) generator. the doubly-fed generator.electromechanical commutator. such as wind turbines or other technologies.e. The DC generator can operate at any speed within mechanical limits but always outputs a direct current waveform. The alternator must always operate at a constant speed that is precisely synchronized to the electrical frequency of the power grid for nondestructive operation. or the brushless wound-rotor doubly-fed generator. which by itself offer cost. reliability and efficiency benefits. . and as a result. are seeing success in variable speed constant frequency applications. The full output performance of any generator can be optimized with electronic control but only the doubly-fed generators or the brushless wound-rotor doubly-fed generator incorporate electronic control with power ratings that are substantially less than the power output of the generator under control.. do not incorporate permanent magnets or field windings (i. such as the asynchronous or induction singly-fed generator. electromagnets) that establish a constant magnetic field. Other types of generators.

MHD generators operated as a topping cycle are currently (2007) less efficient than combined-cycle gas turbines. 25. culminating in a 25Mw demonstration plant in 1987. the MHD plant U 25 was in regular commercial operation on the Moscow power system with a rating of 25 MW. MHD generators were originally developed because the output of a plasma MHD generator is a flame. . well able to heat the boilers of a steam power plant. Terminology Rotor from generator at Hoover Dam. government funded substantial development. the largest MHD plant rating in the world at that time. The two main parts of a generator or motor can be described in either mechanical or electrical terms.S. developed in 1965. In the Soviet Union from 1972 until the late 1980s.MHD generator A magneto hydrodynamic generator directly extracts electric power from moving hot gases through a magnetic field. The first practical design was the AVCO Mk. without the use of rotating electromagnetic machinery. The U.

alternator. Electrical: • • Armature: The power-producing component of an alternator. The magnetic field of the dynamo or alternator can be provided by either electromagnets or permanent magnets mounted on either the rotor or the stator. AC generators nearly always have the field winding . Stator: The stationary part of an alternator. or dynamo the armature windings generate the electrical current. dynamo or motor. The armature can be on either the rotor or the stator. dynamo or motor. (For a more technical discussion. generator. generator. generator. refer to the Field coil article. generator. Field: The magnetic field component of an alternator.Mechanical: • • Rotor: The rotating part of an alternator. dynamo or motor.) Because power transferred into the field circuit is much less than in the armature circuit. In a generator. dynamo or motor.

Direct current machines necessarily have the commutator on the rotating shaft. An electric generator or electric motor that uses field coils rather than permanent magnets will require a current flow to be present in the field coils for the device to be able to work. so the armature winding is on the rotor of the machine. If the field coils are not powered. while the rotor of a motor may not spin at all. using slip rings. with a separate belt-driven exciter generator. Excitation A small early 1900s 75 KVA direct-driven power station AC alternator.on the rotor and the stator as the armature winding. Very large power station generators often utilize a separate smaller generator to excite the field coils of the larger. In the event of a severe widespread power outage where islanding of power stations has . Only a small amount of field current must be transferred to the moving rotor. the rotor in a generator can spin without producing any usable electrical energy.

occurred. To determine the generator's VG and RG parameters. . This is the opencircuit voltage VG. measure the resistance across its terminals using an ohmmeter. follow this procedure: • • Before starting the generator. the stations may need to perform a black start to excite the fields of their largest generators. in order to restore customer power service. Start the generator. Equivalent circuit Equivalent circuit of generator and load. This is its DC internal resistance RGDC. G = generator VG=generator open-circuit voltage RG=generator internal resistance VL=generator on-load voltage RL=load resistance The equivalent circuit of a generator and load is shown in the diagram to the right. measure the voltage across the generator's terminals. Before connecting the load RL.

Measure the load resistance RL. This is inefficient since half the power is wasted in the generator's internal resistance.• • • Connect the load as shown in the diagram. Note 2: If the generator is an AC type. if you don't already know it. you can omit the measurement of RGAC and assume that RGAC and RGDC are equal. practical electric power generators operate with load . and measure the voltage across it with the generator running. This is the on-load voltage VL. For rough calculations. The above procedure allows you to measure both values. The maximum power theorem states that the maximum power can be obtained from the generator by making the resistance of the load equal to that of the generator. use an AC voltmeter for the voltage measurements. Calculate the generator's AC internal resistance RGAC from the following formula: Note 1: The AC internal resistance of the generator when running is generally slightly higher than its DC resistance when idle.

since they can be made smaller . Automotive alternators power the electrical systems on the vehicle and recharge the battery after starting. These have now been replaced by alternators with built-in rectifier circuits. depending on the designed electrical load within the vehicle. Rated output will typically be in the range 50100 A at 12 V. Vehicle alternators do not use permanent magnets and are typically only 50-60% efficient over a wide speed range.[2] Motorcycle alternators often use permanent magnet stators made with rare earth magnets. Large commercial vehicles are more likely to use 24 V to give sufficient power at the starter motor to turn over a large diesel engine.resistance much higher than internal resistance. which are less costly and lighter for equivalent output. Vehicle-mounted generators Early motor vehicles until about the 1960s tended to use DC generators with electromechanical regulators. which places a high load on the electrical system. Some cars now have electrically-powered steering assistance and air conditioning. so the efficiency is greater.

the maximum efficiency is only around 80% for the best of these generators . Engine-generator An engine-generator is the combination of an electrical generator and an engine (prime mover) mounted together to form a single piece of self-contained equipment. Nevertheless. bearing losses and cheap design.5 ampere. so these may incorporate rare-earth magnets and are designed and manufactured with great precision.due in part to the rolling friction at the tire-generator interface from poor alignment. These tend to be 0. Some of the smallest generators commonly found power bicycle lights. wind turbine or impeller is connected to a low-power alternator and rectifier to supply currents of up to 12 A at typical cruising speeds. Being powered by the rider. Sailing yachts may use water or wind powered generator to trickle-charge the batteries. See also vehicle. the small size of the generator. The engines used . A small propeller. permanent-magnet alternators supplying 3-6 W at 6 V or 12 V.60% is more typical . efficiency is at a premium.and lighter than other types.

such generators can be practically used to charge batteries.Human powered direct current generators are commercially available. in field radio station equipment). . As it required from Mahindra and Mahindra. Many different versions are available . Typically operated by means of pedal power. but gas turbines can also be used. see clockwork radio. and have been the project of some DIY enthusiasts.are usually piston engines. or a foot pump. The average adult could generate about 125-200 watts on a pedal powered generator. Human powered electrical generators A generator can also be driven by human muscle power (for instance. a converted bicycle trainer.ranging from very small portable petrol powered sets to large turbine installations. and in some cases are designed with an integral inverter. Portable radio receivers with a crank are made to reduce battery purchase requirements.

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