Guidelines for the Reporting of Daily Air Quality – the Air Quality Index (AQI
EPA-454/B-06-001 May 2006
Guideline for Reporting of Daily Air Quality – Air Quality Index (AQI)
Contact: David Mintz U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Research Triangle Park, North Carolina
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Reporting Guidance………………………………………………………… 1 Table 1: Pollutant-Specific Groups…………………………………………2 Pollutant-Specific Health Effects Statements ……..…………………….. 8 Pollutant-Specific Sub-indices and Cautionary Statements …….……………………………………………….10 Table 2: Breakpoints for the AQI .………………………………………....14 Table 3: Metropolitan Statistical Areas...………………………………… 20 Frequently Asked Questions……………..……………………………….. 25
. Use Table 1 on page on the following page to caution sensitive groups...............
. Other efforts... “Unhealthy” Red 201 to 300 ...............50 states that Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) with a population of more than 350..
Although a recorded phone message or a radio broadcast can’t show colors.g.. the associated color.....g.. ozone action day programs) that provide timely air quality information to the public... if reported in a color format..... “Good” Green 51 to 100 . may be used to meet reporting requirements....... this is a “red” air quality day)......... “Moderate” Yellow 101 to 150 ..... The U... The AQI...50 of 40 CFR and according to Appendix G to Part 58 of 40 CFR.“Hazardous” Maroon Statements cautioning sensitive groups for all pollutants with an index value over 100.. What is in my AQI report? Your AQI report must contain: # # # # # The reporting area(s)........... Do I have to report the AQI? Part 58.... This definition allows for days when personnel are not available to provide the AQI report or for equipment failures... it can name a color in the report (e..... or publish the report on a publicly accessible Internet site..S. television)..This guidance is designed to aid local agencies in reporting the air quality using the Air Quality Index (AQI) as required in Part 58........... use this descriptor................... “Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups” Orange 151 to 200 ... and this color 0 to 50 ........... How do I provide the AQI report to the general public? You may distribute the report to the local media (newspapers.. How often do I report the AQI? Appendix G states that MSAs must report the AQI on a daily basis..... Statements may be combined so that each group is mentioned only once............ “Very Unhealthy” Purple 301 and above .......... The reporting period. The appendix further defines daily as at least five times each week.. The critical pollutant......... The category descriptor and..... Office of Management and Budget defines MSAs according to the 2000 census. including real-time data reporting and community action programs (e..... radio.....1 Use only the following names and colors for the six AQI categories: For this AQI... Table A-1 in the Appendix lists all metropolitan areas with a population of more than 350..... provide a recorded telephone message.........000......000 are required to report the AQI daily to the general public....
# Causes for unusual AQI values. Air Quality Index Yesterday’s report: 76 Main pollutant: Particulate Matter
. N. older adults. particularly those with an index value greater than 100.
What does an AQI report look like? NEWSPAPER
Example 1.5 PM10 CO SO2
An AQI report may also contain. Newspaper short form in color Air Quality for Raleigh. # The index for sub-areas of the reporting area. # Health effects and cautionary language. whenever the AQI exceeds 100.C. # Statements that “blend” health effects and cautionary information for more than one pollutant. # Actual pollutant concentrations. and children and the groups most at risk People with heart disease are the group most at risk People with asthma are the group most at risk
PM2.Table 1: Pollutant Specific Sensitive Groups When this pollutant has an index above 100… Ozone Report these Sensitive Groups People with lung disease. but does not require: # The name and index value for other pollutants. older adults. In particular. It is important to inform the public when the AQI is above 100. should include notification to the media with the largest market coverage for the area in question. and people who are active outdoors are the groups most at risk People with heart or lung disease. and at a minimum. older adults. This is why EPA strengthened the reporting provisions in section 6 of Appendix G in 1999. if there is more than one pollutant with an index value greater than 100. children. reporting agencies should expand reporting to all major news media. and children are the groups most at risk People with heart or lung disease.
Since today’s air quality is expected to be much the same. 101-150 unhealthy for sensitive groups. The graphics used in the report could be much the same as the graphics used in newspaper reports. resulting from an ozone concentration of 0. 200+ very unhealthy Tuesday’s reading Wednesday’s forecast Critical pollutant na Good Particulate Matter
Example 3. Sensitive groups 151-200 Unhealthy 201-300 Very unhealthy
• Today’s ozone forecast : 38
Example 2. Newspaper longer form The Air Quality in Baltimore Yesterday The AIR QUALITY yesterday in Northeast Baltimore was Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups due to ozone. 151-200 unhealthy. and people with respiratory disease such as asthma. 51-100 moderate. colors for the categories that are listed above. sensitive groups should consider limiting prolonged or heavy outdoor exertion.088 ppm. Newspaper short form in black and white Chicago Tribune AIR QUALITY Illinois EPA’s air quality index (AQI): 0-50 is good. Groups likely to be sensitive to ozone include active children and adults. Elsewhere in Baltimore.– 0-50 Good 51-100 Moderate 101-150 Unhealthy. The Air Quality Index was 110. GOOD MODERATE UNHEALTHY for SENSITIVE GROUPS UNHEALTHY VERY UNHEALTHY HAZARDOUS
TELEVISION The following is a short script that could be used for a television evening news/weather report. the air quality index was 87 or Moderate.
. if a color format is used. The weathercaster must use the descriptors and.
The responsible pollutant is ozone. Louis. and children should avoid strenuous activities.m. morning traffic. A script for telephone “As of 10:00 a.” “Tomorrow will be a code red air quality day for Center City.” Example 6.. A short form for television (morning) “Yesterday the air quality was unhealthy due to ozone..airnow. The cool front we expected to come through here tomorrow and blow all this ozone away isn’t going to make it. A short form for television (evening) “The air quality index today was 156. with an index value of 156. everyone should consider limiting the time they spend on outdoor exercise or those outside jobs. the air quality index is 45 which is a good or “green” air quality day. In fact. making air quality unhealthy. For example. Active children and adults and people with asthma or other respiratory diseases should avoid prolonged exertion outside tomorrow. A short form for a Web page Air Quality Index for St. The data available on the Web site are typically up to the most recent hour.. The air stagnation caused a buildup of ozone to unhealthy levels. Active adults and children and people with asthma or other respiratory diseases should avoid prolonged physical exertion outside today. the following script has been used: Example 7.gov. MO Time of this report: Responsible pollutant: 1:00PM Ozone AQI: Category: 110 Code: Orange
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups
INTERNET Most State and local agencies report the AQI on their public Web sites. so the stagnant air will still be here.Example 4. a red air quality day.” Example 5. everyone should consider limiting the time they spend on outdoor exercise or those outside jobs. which is unhealthy. The cold winter air. older adults. and we expect similar air quality today – in the red range or around an index of 160. at www. People with heart or lung disease.”
TELEPHONE Recorded telephone messages can be used to give more up-to-date information on the air quality. Links to these sites can be found in the “Where I Live” section of the AIRNow Web site.
Example 8. In fact. and wood smoke are expected to cause particle pollution to rise to unhealthy levels. Two long forms for television (evening) “Air quality today was unhealthy due to ozone.
ozone Air Quality Index for Chicago. AQI: 122 (Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups) Code: Orange
Air Quality in South Chicago . IL Tomorrow’s air quality in Chicago is predicted to be:
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups
. IL for August 2
Report as of: Code: Red
Active children and adults. and people with lung disease. A long form for a Web page. should reduce prolonged or heavy outdoor exertion.Example 9. such as asthma should avoid moderate exertion outdoors. such as asthma. and people with lung disease. possible respiratory effects in the general population.Gary. everyone else (especially children) should limit prolonged or heavy outdoor exertion. Greater likelihood of respiratory symptoms and breathing difficulty in sensitive groups. Children and adults who are active outdoors.
and children should remain indoors. Alaska
Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) Issues Statewide Air Quality AdvisoryThe AQI levels have been steadily increasing from Moderate to Unhealthy. the elderly. A long form for a Web page. Dense smoke advisory has been issued by the National Weather Service for the Fairbanks area for today and tonight. Source: Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation and United States Environmental Protection Agency. Health Tip: Everyone should avoid any outdoor exertion.Example 10. people with respiratory or heart disease. Poor air quality conditions are expected to persist for the next several days as a high pressure system to the northeast drives easterly winds and smoke to the Fairbanks area.particulate matter Anchorage.
The color models are based on a 0 . The following table lists the different health effects messages. magenta. 50% is 126). sensitive groups.g.
What health effects and cautionary statements should I use in my report? The most recent health effect information used with the AQI is pollutant-specific.. blue (RGB) and cyan. and cautionary statements for each pollutant in the AQI. while CMYK is traditionally used for printing processes.
Future revisions to Appendix G will include the updated color variables. use this color Green Yellow Orange Red Purple Maroon
Specific colors are defined in the table below20 for red.
. the appropriate colors are specified in Appendix G as the following: For this category . Good Moderate Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups Unhealthy Very Unhealthy Hazardous . green. yellow. and black (CMYK) color formulas: Color Green Yellow Orange Red Purple Maroon R 0 255 255 255 153 126 G 228 255 126 0 0 0 B 0 0 0 0 76 35 C 40 0 0 0 10 30 M 0 0 52 100 100 100 Y 100 100 100 100 40 100 K 0 0 0 0 30 30
Notes: The RGB model is traditionally used for screen colors...What colors do I use in my AQI report? If you report the Air Quality Index in a color format.255 scale (e..
0-4 None >4 . such as chest tightness and breathing discomfort.9 None
0 .0.65 >150 .15 None >15 .14 . aggravation of heart or lung disease and premature mortality in people with cardiopulmonary disease and older adults.105 .194
>65 .125 .0.065 . in people with heart disease.150) Increasing likelihood of respiratory symptoms and breathing discomfort in active children and adults and people with lung disease.350
>12 . Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups (101 .100) Unusually sensitive individuals may experience respiratory symptoms.200)
0. possible respiratory effects in general population.104 0. possible aggravation of heart or lung disease.30 Increased respiratory symptoms.5 [24-hour] PM10 [24-hour]
Carbon Monoxide (ppm) [8-hour]
Sulfur Dioxide (ppm) [24-hour]
0 .50 None >50 .
Increased aggravation of heart or lung disease and premature mortality in people with cardiopulmonary disease and older adults.0.0.12 Increasing likelihood of reduced exercise tolerance due to increased cardiovascular symptoms.250 >9 .064 None 0. such as asthma.0. Respiratory symptoms possible in unusually sensitive individuals. such as chest pain.0.22 . increased respiratory effects in general population.150
0 . such as chest tightness and wheezing in people with asthma.14 None
Unhealthy (151 . >0.03 None >0.40
0 . in people with heart disease.
Greater likelihood of respiratory symptoms and breathing difficulty in active children and adults and people with lung disease.164 >40 . such as asthma. Increasing likelihood of respiratory symptoms in sensitive individuals.0.22 Increasing likelihood of respiratory symptoms.
>0.165 . possible aggravation of heart or lung disease in people with cardiopulmonary disease and older adults.0.
Particulate Matter (µg/m3)
PM 2.085 .03 .15 Reduced exercise tolerance due to increased cardiovascular symptoms.Pollutant-Specific Sub-indices and Health Effects Statements for Guidance on the Air Quality Index (AQI)
AQI Categories: Index Values
Good (Up to 50) Moderate (51 . such as chest pain. in people with asthma.0.0.124
increasing likelihood of respiratory effects in general population. such as chest pain.60 Significant increase in respiratory symptoms.Very Unhealthy (201 . possible respiratory effects in general population.60 [1-hr]
0. such as wheezing and shortness of breath.0. in people with asthma.600
>30 .0 Severe respiratory symptoms.0. impairment of strenuous activities in general population.250
>350 . in people with heart disease.
Serious aggravation of heart or lung disease and premature mortality in people with cardiopulmonary disease and older adults.500
>420 .30 Significant aggravation of cardiovascular symptoms.405 .
Hazardous (301 . such as wheezing and shortness of breath.
>0.30 . in people with asthma. such as asthma.404 [1-hr]
0. such as asthma.1.404
>150 .125 [8-hr] .
Increasingly severe symptoms and impaired breathing likely in active children and adults and people with lung disease.0.60 . such as chest pain. serious risk of respiratory effects in general population.300)
0.0. increasingly severe respiratory effects likely in general population. significant increase in respiratory effects in general population. in people with heart disease.60
Significant aggravation of heart or lung disease and premature mortality in people with cardiopulmonary disease and older adults.405 [1-hr] .195 . increased aggravation of heart or lung disease.
Severe respiratory effects and impaired breathing likely in active children and adults and people with lung disease.50 Serious aggravation of cardiovascular symptoms. aggravation of heart or lung disease.
03 None >0.0.065 .250
People with heart or lung disease. such as angina.0. such as heavy traffic.
>0.12 People with heart disease.Pollutant-Specific Sub-indices and Cautionary Statements for Guidance on the Air Quality Index (AQI)
Particulate Matter (µg/m3)
[1-hour] PM 2.0.
Active children and adults.40
>150 . older adults.14 None
Unusually sensitive people should consider reducing prolonged or heavy exertion.
.5 [24-hour] PM10 [24-hour] Carbon Monoxide (ppm) [8-hour] [8-hour] Sulfur Dioxide (ppm) [24-hour]
AQI Categories (Index Values)
Good (Up to 50) Moderate (51 .
should limit heavy exertion and avoid sources of CO.50 None >50 .0. should reduce prolonged or heavy outdoor exertion.064 None 0.085 .03 .15 None >15 .150
0-4 None >4 .100)
0 .14 . and children should reduce prolonged or heavy exertion.
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups (101 .0. such as asthma.9 None
0 . and people with lung disease.084 Unusually sensitive people should consider reducing prolonged or heavy outdoor exertion.0.22 People with asthma should consider limiting outdoor exertion.164
>0.60 Children. asthmatics.30 Children. and people with heart or lung disease should remain indoors.0. and children should avoid all physical activity outdoors. and people with heart or lung disease should limit outdoor exertion.124
0.0. such as angina.0.500)
0. people with heart or lung disease.0.
>0. everyone else.165 .
Active children and adults.194
>65 . everyone else should reduce prolonged or heavy exertion. should avoid exertion and sources of CO.200)
>350 . and people with lung disease. such as asthma.600
>30 . such as angina.150
>250 . and people with lung disease. asthmatics.
Everyone should avoid all physical activity outdoors.404
>150 . especially children.0. should avoid prolonged or heavy outdoor exertion.50 People with heart disease.1. such as heavy traffic. such as asthma.15 People with heart disease.60 . everyone else should limit heavy exertion
>0. older adults.
People with heart or lung disease. everyone else.60 [1-hr]
0.195 .0. and people with heart or lung disease should avoid outdoor exertion. should limit moderate exertion and avoid sources of CO.300)
0. everyone else should avoid outdoor exertion. and children should avoid prolonged or heavy exertion.420
.0. older adults. asthmatics. should reduce prolonged or heavy outdoor exertion. should avoid all outdoor exertion. older adults. everyone else should reduce outdoor exertion. especially children. and children should remain indoors and keep activity levels low.30 People with heart disease.105 .60
should avoid exertion and sources of CO.30 . Everyone else should avoid prolonged or heavy exertion.125 [8-hr] . such as heavy traffic.405 .
Hazardous (301 .405 [1-hr] .0.Unhealthy (151 .
People with heart or lung disease.22 .
Active children and adults. such as heavy traffic. such as angina.
Very Unhealthy (201 .
Everyone should avoid all outdoor exertion.350
>12 . should reduce outdoor exertion.
Las personas extraordinariamente sensitivas deben considerar limitar los esfuerzos prolongados al aire libre. Este esquema de colores puede ayudarle a determinar rápidamente si los contaminantes del aire están alcanzando niveles muy daZinos a la salud en su zona. todos los demás. especialmente los niZos. Sensitivos deben limitar los esfuerzos prolongados al aire libre. y las personas con enfermedades respiratorias tales como el asthma.
151 a 200
DaZina a la Salud
201 a 300
Muy DaZina a la Salud
Se ha asignado un color específico a cada categoría de AQI. tales como el asthma. todos los demás. Los niZos y adultos activos. y las personas con los Grupos enfermedades respiratorias. deben evitar cualquier esfuerzo al aire libre. deben limitar los esfuerzos al aire libre. Por ejemplo. especialmente los niZos. Los niZos y adultos activos.
51 a 100
101 a 150
DaZina a la Salud de Los niZos y adultos activos. deben limitar el esfuerzo prolongado al aire libre.
Valores del Índice 0 a 50
Precauciones para Protegerse del Ozono Ninguna. deben evitar el esfuerzo prolongado al aire libre. y las personas con enfermedades respiratorias. tales como el asthma. el rojo significa condiciones “daZinas a la salud” y el púrpura significa condiciones “muy daZinas a la salud”.Classifications and cautionary statements in Spanish: Use estas tarjetas para entender los efectos de la contaminación del aire cuando escuche las noticias del Indice de la Calidad del Aire.
the following table. BPHI − BPLo
Where Ip = the index for pollutant p Cp = the rounded concentration of pollutant p BPHi = the breakpoint that is greater than or equal to Cp BPLo = the breakpoint that is less than or equal to Cp BPHi = the breakpoint that is greater than or equal to Cp IHi = the AQI value corresponding to BPHi ILo = the AQI value corresponding to BPLo
. and the following equation (linear interpolation):
I Hi − I Lo (C p − BPLo ) + I Lo .How do I calculate the AQI from pollutant concentration data? You calculate the AQI by using your pollutant concentration data.
404)4 (3) (3)
0.5 15.305 0.400 1.4 40.304 0.605 0.105 0.4 15.4 350.
8-hour O3 values do not define higher AQI values ($ 301).150 151 .5 30. However.64 1.124 0.50 51 .5 250.144 0.155 0.5 -40.4 12..0 .5 .804 0.205 0.
NO2 has no short-term NAAQS and can generate an AQI only above a value of 200.300 1.104 0.065 0.65 ..504 0.500 2.65.084 0.200
Good Moderate Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups Unhealthy Very unhealthy
15.164 0.25 .equal this AQI PM10
…and this category
PM2.225 0.5 150.604
425 504 505 604
250.301 .034 0.4 150.24
0.5 (µg/m )
SO2 (ppm) NO2
0.201 ..0 .4 65.5 500.035 0.000 0.4.54 55 154 155 254 255 354 355 424
0. In these cases the index for both the 8-hour and the 1-hour ozone values may be calculated and the maximum AQI reported.505 0.204 0.4
0.Table 2: Breakpoints for the AQI
0.100 101 .125 0.4
0.145 0.5 40.9.4
The numbers in parentheses are associated 1-hour values to be used in this overlapping category only.65 .805 1.5 12.604
(2) (2) (2) (2)
0 ..224 0.401 .405 0. o3 (ppm)
0 . there are areas where an AQI based on 1-hour ozone values would be more protective.125 0.
.15.5 350.000 0.4 40.5 50.4 9.004
1.064 0.085 0. AQI values of 301 or higher are calculated with 1hour O3 concentrations.165 0.04
Areas are required to report the AQI based on 8-hour ozone values.374 (0.5 .4 4.
104).087−.085 .5 value of 54. Now you have all the numbers needed to use the equation.How do I use the table and the equation and my concentration data to calculate the AQI? Suppose you have an 8-hour ozone value of 0. How do I use both ozone 1-hour and 8-hour values? You must calculate the 8-hour values. and you may also calculate the 1-hour values.4 − 50. 104−.085) .08753333.125) + 201 = 207 (. What if I have values for more pollutants? Suppose you have an 8-hour ozone value of 0. In this case.4µg/m3.125)
In this case.5 ) + 75 = 82 ( 65.4ppm.4 − 50.077 ppm.5 )
The AQI is 87.404− .141− .002 + 101 = 106157 .155) (300 − 201) (.087.087 value falls within the index values of 101 to 150. the 0.5 ) + 75 = 87 ( 9 .077−.019 (. First. the index is 207 (the maximum of 204 and 207) and the responsible pollutant is ozone. with CO as the responsible pollutant.085) + 101 = .13333.155) + 201 = 204 (. and a CO value of 8.162− . Then you apply the equation twice:
1 − hr: 8 − hr:
(300 − 201) (. If you calculate both.
(150 − 101) 49 = 106 (.08753333 corresponds to an index value of 106.5 ) (100 − 75) ( 8 .162ppm and an 8-hour value of 14. you must report the higher AQI value.4 − 7 .374− .075) (100 − 75) ( 54.084−.
So an 8-hour value of 0. round off the value to 0.075) + 75 = 81 (. a PM2.4 − 7 . You apply the equation 3-times:
O3: PM : CO:
(100 − 75) (.0. Then refer to the 8-hour ozone in table 2 for the values that fall above and below your value (0.
. Suppose you had a 1-hour value of 0.
Are there exceptions to these reporting requirements? Yes.085) + 101 = 10615789 . computational resources and expertise that may be unavailable to you.
.What do I do with concentrations for pollutants that have blank places in the table for Breakpoints for the AQI? Disregard those numbers. Then you calculate the index for the 8-hour ozone value as before:
(150 − 101) (. section 8 of appendix G now requires that the responsible agency must again report the AQI. you are encouraged to forecast values at least 24 hours in advance. Do I have to forecast pollutant concentrations for the AQI report? Although not required. Since ozone is a dominant pollutant in AQI reporting and the form of the ozone standard is an 8-hour average. In these cases.104− .087− . The final rule allows agencies to discontinue reporting for any pollutant if index values for that pollutant have been below 50 for an entire season or a year. this does not hold if in subsequent years’ pollutant levels rise so that index values for that pollutant would be above 50 and the criteria for an exemption are no longer met. you can estimate the AQI without having to wait for the full 8-hour maximum to be observed. given the present 1-hour value. From this regression. even if you have decided not to forecast 24 hours in advance. the timing of how the public is informed is an important issue. Suppose you had a 1-hour ozone value of 0. the method you can use relies on the high correlation between daily maximum of 8-hour ozone and 1hour ozone values.087ppm and an NO2 value of 0.65ppm. an 8-hour ozone value of 0.104ppm. you do not have to meet all the requirements. then you are not required to include this pollutant in the calculation of the AQI. When you have low index values that meet the following criteria. (. You can do this with very little additional resources. However. However. good forecasts may require data.54ppm. First you disregard the 1-hour ozone value because it is less than 0. The EPA provides guidance if you are interested in starting a forecasting program for AQI reporting in your Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). In order for potentially affected people to take advantage of this information. The AQI is designed to inform members of sensitive groups and the general population so that they may choose to reduce or avoid exposure to certain levels and types of air pollution. the public cannot make this choice. A simple linear regression can be calculated on daily max data at any site.085)
This value rounds to 106. it is necessary to consider at least a short term forecast or prediction of 8-hour ozone levels for the purposes of reporting the AQI. From this information.125ppm and the NO2 value because it is less than 0. for that particular season). you can predict that the 8-hour ozone maximum for a day will be at least the corresponding maximum 8-hour value. If the index for a specific pollutant remains below 50 for an extended period of time (for example. If the information is not timely.
If you are concerned about public health. you can use the confidence interval of the predicted value to trigger your decision. which is adequate to predict the maximum 8-hour values from the maximum 1-hour for reporting the AQI.gov/airnow. you may want to use a confidence interval for the decision you make based on the predicted 8-hour maximum.epa. including the ones listed: ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ AQI brochure AQI calculator program Forecasting guidance Air quality guides for: -Ozone -Particle pollution ‚Pamphlets: -Ozone Pollution and your Health -Particle Pollution and your Health -Smog: Who does it Hurt? ‚Medical poster ‚Ozone web course for health care providers
. Is there anything else I should know about reporting the AQI? For further information. you might consider calling an “ozone action day” as soon as the upper bound of the confidence interval is greater than the AQI cut-point for the unhealthy category.86. if your ozone action day is declared when you reach the unhealthy category and you predict an unhealthy day but are unsure whether or not you should call an “ozone action day” based on this prediction.can I still forecast the AQI? The lowest observed correlation at any site reporting to AIRS data was 0. go to www. if you feel uncomfortable from either a public health or cost viewpoint.What if the correlation at my site is low.” there are several informative documents to help you report the AQI. Under “Publications. If you are concerned with the cost of calling an “ozone action day” unnecessarily. However. then you might consider calling an ozone action day only when the lower bound of the confidence interval is above the cutpoint for the unhealthy category. For example.
α)100% confidence interval with n-2 degrees of freedom. n −2 S e ⎜1 + + ⎟ ⎝ n ( n − 1 ) S x2 ⎠
is the predicted 8-hour ozone maximum.05 corresponding to a 95% confidence interval.
The value α is arbitrary. or the residual variance. is the error variance described above.
t1-α/2. is the average of the 1-hour values. or the variance of “Y given X” as part of the output. n −2 S e ⎜1 + + ⎟ ⎝ n ( n − 1 ) S x2 ⎠ ⎛ 1 ( x ' − x )2 ⎞ 2 $ lower: Y − t1−α / 2 . and is the variance of the 1-hour values.n-2 is a tabulated Student’s-T value corresponding to a two sided (1. Call this Se2. but conventionally it is set to 0. Then you calculate the upper and lower bounds of the predicted value as:
⎛ 1 ( x ' − x )2 ⎞ 2 $ upper: Y + t1−α / 2 .How do I calculate the upper and lower bounds of the confidence interval for the predicted maximum 8-hour ozone value? Most computer regression programs include the error variance. is the 1-hour value used to predict the 8-hour value.
997 2. AZ MSA Tucson. CA PMSA Orange County.519.021 516.682.833 1. AR MSA Phoenix--Mesa.762 2.821 753. CO MSA Denver.746 661. CA PMSA Modesto. FL PMSA Fort Myers--Cape Coral.731. AZ MSA Bakersfield. CT PMSA Stamford--Norwalk. AL MSA Mobile.251.623. CA PMSA Santa Barbara--Santa Maria--Lompoc.556 4. CO PMSA Bridgeport.888
.153 586.258 583.645 922.846. CA MSA Fresno. DE--MD PMSA Daytona Beach.216 493. FL MSA STATE AL AL AR AZ AZ CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CO CO CT CT CT CT DC/MD/VA/WV DE/MD FL FL FL POPULATION 921.109. CA MSA Oakland.598 518.479 1.110 542.628.000 population (2000 Census) MSA 1000 5160 4400 6200 8520 680 2840 4480 5170 5775 5945 6780 6920 7120 7320 7360 7400 7480 7500 8120 8720 8735 8780 1720 2080 1160 3280 5480 8040 8840 9160 2020 2680 2700 NAME Birmingham. DC--MD--VA--WV PMSA Wilmington--Newark.254. CA PMSA Ventura. CA PMSA Riverside--San Bernardino.338 446. CA MSA San Francisco.197 401. CA PMSA Sacramento. CA MSA San Diego.183. CA MSA Colorado Springs.614 563.516 9.585 399. CT PMSA Hartford. CA MSA Santa Rosa. CA PMSA Visalia--Tulare--Porterville.175 1. CA PMSA Salinas.106 540. CT MSA New Haven--Meriden.923. CA MSA Vallejo--Fairfield--Napa.282 459. AL MSA Little Rock--North Little Rock.821 1. FL MSA Fort Lauderdale.Table 3: Metropolitan Statistical Areas with over 350. CT PMSA Washington.557 2.183 1.929 2.347 458. CA PMSA Stockton--Lodi.876 843.289 3.197 368.149 353. CA MSA Los Angeles--Long Beach. CA PMSA San Jose.018 440.813.845 3.392.
253. MA MSA Worcester. IL PMSA Rockford.932 511.131. IA MSA Davenport--Moline--Rock Island. IN MSA Gary. LA MSA New Orleans.514
.552. GA MSA Augusta--Aiken. GA--SC MSA Honolulu.491 483.302 3.025. KY MSA Louisville. KS MSA Lexington.997 1.647 1.598 602. MI PMSA Flint.389 396. MA--CT PMSA Lawrence. LA MSA Boston. IN PMSA Indianapolis.561 412. HI MSA Des Moines. MD PMSA Ann Arbor.441 876.551 436.607. FL MSA Sarasota--Bradenton.486 545.198 477.337.062 432.141 631. IA--IL MSA Boise City.959 2.395.198 1.100.994 578. FL MSA Melbourne--Titusville--Palm Bay.112. Petersburg--Clearwater. FL PMSA Orlando.894 385.272. IN MSA Wichita.644. MA--NH PMSA Springfield.230 2. FL MSA Tampa--St. LA MSA Lafayette. FL MSA Miami. MI PMSA Grand Rapids--Muskegon--Holland.406.345 8.924 476.829 591.362 1.236 502.220 479.736 4.441.141 1.768 371.362 1. FL MSA Lakeland--Winter Haven. MA--NH PMSA Baltimore.3600 3980 4900 5000 5960 6080 7510 8280 8960 520 600 3320 2120 1960 1080 1600 6880 2760 2960 3480 9040 4280 4520 760 3880 5560 7680 1120 8000 9240 4160 720 440 2160 2640 3000
Jacksonville. KY--IN MSA Baton Rouge. FL MSA West Palm Beach--Boca Raton.726 392. MI PMSA Detroit.088.184 4. MI MSA
FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL GA GA/SC HI IA IA/IL ID IL IL IN IN IN KS KY KY LA LA LA LA MA MA MA/CT MA/NH MD MI MI MI MI
1. IL MSA Fort Wayne.156 456.022 359.230 2. FL MSA Atlanta. LA MSA Shreveport--Bossier City. ID MSA Chicago. FL MSA Pensacola.153 589.
NY MSA Newburgh. OH MSA Dayton--Springfield.117 387.989 350. OH MSA Youngstown--Warren.801 1.293 716. NM MSA Las Vegas.960 406. NJ PMSA Middlesex--Somerset--Hunterdon. NC MSA Charlotte--Gastonia--Rock Hill.641 1. NE--IA MSA Atlantic--Cape May. NJ PMSA Bergen--Passaic.235 1.878 1. NY PMSA New York. NY MSA Syracuse.968.282 875. OH--KY--IN PMSA
MI MI MI MN/WI MO/IL MO/KS MS MS NC NC NC/SC NE/IA NJ NJ NJ NJ NJ NJ NJ NM NV/AZ NY NY NY NY NY NY NY/PA OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH/KY/IN
452.157 950.540. MN--WI MSA St.669 694.607 1.776. Paul. NY--PA PMSA Akron. OH PMSA Columbus. MS MSA Raleigh--Durham--Chapel Hill.913 9.201 732. OH PMSA Canton--Massillon.170. NY MSA Buffalo--Niagara Falls.251. NY MSA Nassau--Suffolk.062 363. OH MSA Toledo. NJ PMSA Albuquerque.126.563.753.203 594.111 2.975 1.738 1.646.070 2.746 1. MI MSA Saginaw--Bay City--Midland.988 440. NJ PMSA Jersey City. NC MSA
.583 1.603.728 403. NJ PMSA Newark.558 618. MI MSA Lansing--East Lansing.509 1. MI MSA Minneapolis--St.934 2. MO--IL MSA Kansas City. NJ PMSA Monmouth--Ocean. MS MSA Jackson.3720 4040 6960 5120 7040 3760 920 3560 6640 1520 5920 560 875 3640 5015 5190 5640 8480 200 4120 160 1280 5380 5600 6840 8160 5660 80 1320 1680 1840 2000 8400 9320 1640
3120 Greensboro--Winston-Salem--High Point.499. NV--AZ MSA Albany--Schenectady--Troy. OH MSA Cincinnati.314.761 712.167 608.806 2.871 1.998 354.941 1.187. MO--KS MSA Biloxi--Gulfport--Pascagoula.032.250. Louis.851 447. OH MSA Cleveland--Lorain--Elyria.217 2.169.373. NY PMSA Rochester. NJ PMSA Trenton. NC--SC MSA Omaha.
967. UT MSA Salt Lake City--Ogden.519.646 569. TX PMSA El Paso. TN--AR--MS MSA Chattanooga.083. PA MSA Reading. PA MSA Harrisburg--Lebanon--Carlisle.931 361.658 2. WA PMSA
OK OK OR/WA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA/NJ PR PR RI/MA SC SC SC TN TN TN/AR/MS TN/GA TN/VA TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX UT UT VA/NC VA/NC WA
1.512 2. PA MSA Lancaster.622 1. TX MSA San Antonio.100.638 624.614 465.441 687. PR MSA San Juan--Bayamon.383 368. TN--VA MSA Austin--San Marcos.616
.333.569.401 470. PA MSA Pittsburgh. OK MSA Tulsa. TX PMSA Houston.091 1.346 803.009 637.776 381. SC MSA Greenville--Spartanburg--Anderson. TX MSA Corpus Christi. TN--GA MSA Johnson City--Kingsport--Bristol.249.541 996. SC MSA Columbia.627 1.702.625 4. OK MSA Portland--Vancouver.751 5.592.176 679. TN MSA Memphis. UT MSA Norfolk--Virginia Beach--Newport News.414.536 1. OR--WA PMSA Allentown--Bethlehem--Easton. TX MSA Dallas. TN MSA Nashville.311 1.033 536. PA MSA York.695 373.135.763 385.914 1.231.613 549. PA--NJ PMSA Ponce. VA MSA Seattle--Bellevue--Everett.177.094 1. TX MSA Provo--Orem.958 629. PA MSA Scranton--Wilkes-Barre--Hazleton.358.918. VA--NC MSA Richmond--Petersburg.235 1.5880 8560 6440 240 3240 4000 6280 6680 7560 9280 6160 6360 7440 6480 1440 1760 3160 3840 5360 4920 1560 3660 640 840 1880 1920 2320 2800 3360 4880 7240 6520 7160 5720 6760 7600
Oklahoma City. RI--MA MSA Charleston--North Charleston.463 1. SC MSA Knoxville. PA MSA Philadelphia. TX MSA Beaumont--Port Arthur.249 1. PR PMSA Providence--Fall River--Warwick.188.161 480.090 380.691 962.783 3. TX PMSA McAllen--Edinburg--Mission. TX MSA Fort Worth--Arlington.
365 426. WA PMSA Appleton--Oshkosh--Neenah. WI MSA Milwaukee--Waukesha.7840 8200 460 4720 5080
Spokane.500.820 358.939 700.526 1. WI Madison. WI PMSA
WA WA WI WI WI
417. WA MSA Tacoma.741
it may take some effort to educate decisionmakers about the importance of providing air quality information to the public.gov/mold/index. bring along this guidance document or several examples showing how
.5 and ozone together.” If this was an AQI forecast.000 or fewer inhabitants are not required to report the AQI. can generate significant levels of ozone. As more and more areas begin forecasting for PM2.gov/iaq/pubs/ozonegen. On these days. Also. it should be noted that there are occasions where hazy conditions may be due primarily to high humidity and not pollution. solutions and preventative tips are offered at http://www. Are the purifiers that produce ozone helpful to my indoor air quality? Some air cleaning devices.5 that will eliminate this problem. Some networks don't submit their data. In this instance. We recommend that you direct your initial approach to the newspaper editors. Why is my area not covered in the Air Quality Index? Towns and cities with 350. However. Why didn’t the AQI report this accurately? There are a couple of reasons why this may have occurred. In general. this discrepancy should diminish. Finally.epa. or good air quality. However. but will continue to provide the separate pollutant AQI maps to allow for people to identify the pollutant of concern. including aggravated asthma and increased susceptibility to respiratory illnesses. It is possible that the ozone AQI maps were showing “GOOD” conditions and the PM2. it was pretty hazy outside. Additional information on the assessment of the effectiveness and health consequences of ozone generators that are sold as air cleaners can be found at http://www.5 maps showing “MODERATE” or above conditions. If you’re having issues with mold and moisture. such as ozone generators and ionic air purifiers. since they are the customers of the weather provider company.gov/research/indoor/ozone_gen_fact_sheet-a. How do I get my newspaper to publish the AQI? Most newspaper weather pages and graphics are developed and produced by private weather service providers. It is possible that the forecast ozone AQI was “GOOD” and the hazy conditions experienced were due to particle pollution.pdf.ca. AIRNow plans to have combined AQI maps of both ozone and PM2.5 AQI. In the case of real-time data. or don’t have any monitors in the area.FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
I want to buy an air purifier. the air quality in my area was reported as green. In the future. It is important to check both maps for a specific geographical area to cover both primary pollutants. ozone triggers a variety of health problems. depending on what was “reported. there are still some parts of the United States that only forecast for ozone and not particle pollution. Even at low levels.epa. newspapers want to provide more health-based information to their readers. it is still good to check the AQI maps and forecasts to make sure that pollution is not the primary cause of the haze. For additional questions about indoor air quality. please use the EPA Office of Indoor Air Quality hotline at 1-800-438-4318.html.arb. the AIRNow program provides separate maps for ozone and PM2. the “reported” AQI forecast may have only represented ozone. AIRNow is a voluntary program based upon state and local air quality monitoring networks. The other day.html. and also at the California Air Resources Board Web site at http://www. When you meet with the newspaper staff.
include it too. All of the weather service companies have access to the air quality data through AIRNow. If this is not possible. you could team with other health and nongovernmental organizations to approach the newspaper editor with a united message and request. you will need to establish a relationship and educate them about the benefits of providing air quality information to their viewers. Television stations use weather service providers to provide graphics and data support for their weathercasts. If it's midnight to midnight. and you are submitting data for Tuesday morning's paper. what should I do? Common problems with AQI reporting in newspapers include either reporting data values that are wrong or reporting pollutant concentrations instead of the AQI. since the true AQI is a midnight to midnight calculation. so a small. Should I report the AQI value through 1 pm.
My local newspaper has a deadline of 2 pm for the next day’s paper.other newspapers publish the AQI. today’s forecast. that means Sunday's data. • If you have the Wednesday forecast and they're willing to carry that. If you have difficulty getting the newspaper to correct the issue. chances are good that other stations will follow suit. then report the AQI value through a certain time. the station news director controls the content of
. There are several questions that need to be addressed: Does the station want to show air quality information? Do other stations in your market show air quality information? Is the station news director on board with providing this information? Does the station have the proper software to access the air quality data? For stations that have never shown these data on the air. or report the forecast? Again. Should I report yesterday’s observed value. compact graphic might be a better choice for a crowded weather page. as well as incorrect pollutant names. Air quality is weather. which makes it easy for them to acquire and provide these data to their television station customers. How do I get my local TV station to show the AQI? Similar to the newspaper industry. Let's also assume that the paper is willing to carry both the observed AQI and the forecast. but make sure the newspaper includes the reporting period to avoid confusion. • Send the Tuesday forecast so there is a "day-of" forecast in the Tuesday paper. If the AQI reported in the newspaper is incorrect. In such a case: • Send the paper the most recent observed AQI. most weather service providers already have access to the air quality data through AIRNow. which makes it easier for them to acquire and publish the information. news and health all in one. television reporting reflects the culture of the local community and what competing stations show. Once a station in your market begins to provide air quality information. Space on weather pages is limited. Establishing a good working relationship with the newspaper and educating them about how misleading or erroneous AQI information can impact their readers could help minimize potential problems. We recommend that you first notify the newspaper directly about any error so they can relay discrepancies to their weather service provider as a paying customer. we recommend that you report tomorrow's forecast. even if the weathercasters want to provide this information in their weathercasts. or tomorrow’s forecast to the newspaper? Let's assume that today is Monday. However. Another frequent mistake is to report inconsistent AQI colors or terminology. In addition.
and are usually evaluated on a longer term. particle pollution.what goes on the air. However. carbon monoxide. The Air Quality Index is required by law. several cities forecast for all five pollutants. basis. For information on concentrations of air toxics. Why doesn't the AQI cover toxic air pollutants or air toxics? While the AQI is an excellent indicator of the air quality resulting from ozone and particulate matter. Keep in mind that air quality information could be displayed only during periods of high pollution levels."
. when it is considered more "newsworthy.
Why does EPA issue AQI forecasts only for ozone and particle pollution? AQI reporting is required for all criteria pollutants when they have an index value of 50 or above. radio. sulfur dioxide. Even though the air quality information that you provide to AIRNow is distributed on a national basis to the media and weather service provider companies. Adverse health effects from air toxics are generally not believed to be episodic in nature like ozone and particulate matter. and nitrogen dioxide. people better understand and prefer the term “particle pollution” than "particulate matter.
Should I use particulate matter or particle pollution when speaking with the public? Based on focus group testing by EPA. there is no guarantee that this information ends up within the media (newspaper. Most cities forecast for ozone and particle pollution as these pollutants are the major sources of unhealthy air quality around 99% of the time.epa. refer to EPA’s National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) Website at: http://www. or chronic. or web site) in your local community as required." Can we still use the Pollutant Standards Index? No.ground-level ozone.gov/ttn/atw/nata/. it does not directly include health implications from air pollutants such as air toxics. In addition. if the station wants to show the AQI on the air. they need to have the proper software version of weather graphics products to access and display the AQI. Does providing our data and forecasts to AIRNow meet the AQI reporting requirements? No.
Publication No.United States Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards Research Triangle Park. EPA454/B-06-001 May 2006