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Submitted To: Mr. Guldeep Singh
Submitted By: Vikash MBA(BIO-TECH) B
Introduction to Management Information System ................................................................... 3 Problem 1.............................................................................................................................. 6 Problem 2.............................................................................................................................. 13 3
than qualitative. computer. MIS provides several benefits to the business organization: the means of effective and efficient coordination between Departments. processor. telephone. data collection. MIS is basically concerned with processing data into information which is then communicated to the various Departments in an organization for appropriate decision-making.) Computers are important for more quantitative. Data collection involves the use of Information Technology (IT) comprising: computers and telecommunications networks (E-Mail. storage and retrieval. etc. A combination of IT is used: telephone. A lot of time and money are saved and the security of data and messages is ensured. printer. Special features are speed and accuracy. Voice Mail.Introduction to Management Information System A management information system (MIS) is a system or process that provides the information necessary to manage an organization effectively. MIS and the information it generates are generally considered essential components of prudent and reasonable business decisions. etc. Internet. Telecommunications provide means oneway two-way communication and for the transmission of messages. quick and . and storage the of large for amount or of data.
access to relevant data and documents. stock control. and to each department. use of less labour. payroll. 4 . It is important to note that whatever IT is installed must be appropriate to the organization. improvement in organizational and departmental techniques. management of day-to-day activities (as accounts.).reliable referencing. etc. day-to-day assistance in a Department and closer contact with the rest of the world.
as a by-product of the accounting system and with some additional statistics. data had to be separated individually by the people as per the requirement and necessity of the organization. which were developed to provide managers with information about sales. . Early on. and other data that would help in managing the enterprise. Previously. Over time these applications became more complex and began to store increasing amounts of information while also interlinking with previously separate information systems. internal reporting was made manually and only periodically. important and to the point data that is needed by the organization was stored. often without much detail. Today.Development of MIS Previously works in businesses and other organizations. The term "MIS" arose to describe these kinds of applications. inventories. Later. stored data. and gave limited and delayed information on management performance. business computers were mostly used for relatively simple operations such as tracking sales or payroll data. data was distinguished from information. and so instead of the collection of mass of data. As more and more data was stored and linked management began to analyze this information into further detail. resource and people management applications. the term is used broadly in a number of contexts and includes: decision support systems. creating entire management reports from the raw.
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). Customer Relationship Management (CRM). . project management and database retrieval applications. Supply Chain Management (SCM).
balancing. and internal control checks. summarize results. Accuracy A sound system of automated and manual internal controls must exist throughout all information systems processing activities. an institution's MIS should be capable of providing and distributing current information to appropriate users. Information should receive appropriate editing. Consistency . A comprehensive internal and external audit program should be employed to ensure the adequacy of internal controls. Information systems should be designed to expedite reporting of information.Features of a Good MIS Timeliness To simplify prompt decision making. and be able to adjust and correct errors promptly. The system should be able to quickly collect and edit data.
management must establish sound procedures to allow for systems changes. thereby avoiding "information overload. Information that is inappropriate. because data collection and reporting processes will change over time. Completeness Decision makers need complete and pertinent information in a summarized form. or too detailed for effective decision making has no value. 6 . etc. in the performance of their jobs. data should be processed and compiled consistently and uniformly. departmental or area mid-level managers. Reports should be designed to eliminate clutter and voluminous detail. Variations in how data is collected and reported can distort information and trend analysis. These procedures should be well defined and documented. In addition." Relevance Information provided to management must be relevant. and should include an effective monitoring system. The relevance and level of detail provided through MIS systems directly correlate to what is needed by the board of directors.To be reliable. executive management. unnecessary. MIS must be appropriate to support the management level using it. clearly communicated to appropriate employees.
b) The various companies require information about students for placement. Ans. It consists of 1) Input of data 2) Processing of data to information 3) Output of information 4) Storage of data & information 5) Decision Process . MIS is basically concerned with processing data into information which is then communicated to the various Departments in an organization for appropriate decision-making. the MIS you would provide to support each of the following situations: a) The UGC wants various student and teacher related statistics from the universities. with illustrative examples. c) Top administrator in the university want to run a simulation model on a regular basis. with the opportunity to perform ³what-if´ analysis.Problem 1 1) Describe.
we would be using a Database. typically in digital form. therefore needs to be stored in different tables as per requirements and these tables need to be related to each other. storage and retrieval of data.a) For implementing the system required by University Grants Commission(UGC). For our purpose we can use the commercially available Oracle Database Features of DBMS system are: i) To add modify. . DBMS is used for collection of interrelated data and sets of programs that control the organization. This database will contain all the information specified and required by UGC. A database consists of an organized collection of data for one or more uses. Such a method of storing data is referred to as Relational Database. Data. Now for the management of data in database we require a DBMS(Database Management System). extract data from a database ii) Prevent unauthorised access of data All data cannot exist in the same table in a database as information retrieval would become difficult and time consuming.
This code will act as a Primary Key to this table & will also act a Foreign Key in the subsequent tables.Relational Databases can use multiple tables to store information. The data in these tables are then related to provide information For our case we would be creating the following tables: 1) A table containing all the Department Names and the corresponding code allocated to each department. Department Name Department Of Computer Department Code 101 Sciences & Applications University Business School University Institute of Engineering & Technology University Institute of 104 102 103 Pharmaceutical Studies .
In this table the Employee Number will act as the Primary Key and the Department Code will act as the Foreign Key referencing to the table Departments. Table 2: Faculty Employee Number 12000 12001 12002 12003 Name Date of Birth Department Designatio Code n Mukesh Kumar Sanjeev Sharma Pretti Gupta Sunil Aggarwal 12/08/1978 26/04/1974 18/01/1982 23/12/1980 103 102 101 102 Professor Lecturer Reader Lecturer 3) Another table containing the Course Name and Subject Code will be created. This will help us in determining the Course which the student in undergoing in the department. In this Course Code acts as Primary Key. Table 3: Course Course Name ME (Computer Science) MBA(HR) Master of Computer Applications MBA(Finance) Course Code 1070 1093 1085 1086 .2) A table will be created for maintaining the records of teachers.
Also in this table the course code acts Foreign Key. In this table the Student Registration Number will act as the Primary Key and the Department Code will act as the Foreign Key referencing to the table Departments.Student (As discussed in the previous part) Roll No 6555 7814 6555 312 tables in the .Departments (As discussed in the previous part) 2) Table 2. Gender Date of Depart Subject Table 4: Name Birth ment Code Student Code Registr ation Number S-10Rahul M 12/08/19 103 1070 10650 98 S-10Meenal F 26/04/19 102 1093 10651 84 S-10Pankaj M 18/01/19 101 1085 10652 85 S-10Amir M 23/12/19 102 1086 10653 87 b) For designing of such a system we would create the following database system: 1) Table 1.4) A table will be created for maintaining the records of all the students of the university.Course (As discussed in the previous part) 3) Table 3. We will not consider the Roll No of the student as the Primary Key in this table. as students of different departments may have the same Roll Nos but all the students have a unique Registration Number.
we follow the process of Normalization to store our information in multiple tables. We would create further tables to store any additional information and link then to Student Table using Keys. Table 4: Education al Qualificati on Registrati on Number S-1010650 S-1010651 S-1010652 S-1010653 10 th Board 10th Percenta ge 12 th Board 12th Percenta ge Course Percenta ge CBSE CBSE PSEB ICSE 65 89 96. Thus.2 82 CBSE CBSE CBSE PSEB 75 79 86 78 72 65 80 78 .Now including all the information of student in the same table would make the database unmanageable and would lead to redundancy. In this table the Student Registration Number will act as the Foreign Key. 4) A table will be created for maintaining the educational records of all the students of the university.
the project is taken back to drawing board to figure out the desired problem. Sector 9. Sector oo.com GH-4 9. Simulations are used to check the expected outputs of the system in question i. Sector ail.com BH-4 Chd meenal@gm 8991511232 Room No. 9862412261 Room No. In this table the Student Registration Number will act as the Foreign Key. . they give us a predictive analysis. Karnal amir@gmail. 75. A approach for describing information systems can be to define information as one of four types and all these types are important component of a management . Table 5: Personal Information Registratio n Number S-10-10650 S-10-10651 S-10-10652 S-10-10653 c) Simulation Email id Contact No Temp. Jalandhar Model. Sector com BH-2 9. 186. 779.e. 748. If the output is in coherence with the expected output.4.Simulation Model is defined as the testing of a situation or concept under trial conditions.5.6. the system may be put in to practise whereas if some errors are generated during the simulation process. Address Permanent Address rahul@gmail 9915412232 Room No.1.5) A table will be created for maintaining the personal information of all the students of the university.com BH-1 9. Delhi pankaj@yah 7915412232 Room No.
Descriptive information is very important to the business manager. test results. Descriptive information includes a variety of types of information including financial results. This information portrays the what is condition of a business. product marketing. because without it.information system. Furthermore. i) The starting level is Descriptive information. . many problems would not be identified. and it describes the state of the business at a specified point in time. and maintenance records. the various types build upon and interact with each other. production records.
ii) The second type of information is diagnostic information. This assessment of how things are versus how they should be is probably the most common management problem. descriptive information must be available along with appropriate norms or standards for . Adequate. where what is wrong is measured as the disparity between what is and what ought to be. reliable. This information portrays this what is wrong condition. The major use of Diagnostic information is that it can be used to define problems that develop in the business.
Information is inadequate for problem solving if it does not fully describe both what is and what ought to be. When a problem is recognized. assumptions. and human relationships affecting the business. Prediction also assists in analysis. The choice is conditionally right. a manager will analyze the situation and specify at least one alternative (including doing nothing) to deal with it. and conditions he wishes to impose on the decision.particular business situations.. iv) Without detracting from the importance of problem identification and analysis in management. prices.. institutions. climate. there is a right course of action. one either defines problems or avoids problems in advance. For every problem a manager faces. Prescriptive information is . Predictive information is needed by managers to reduce the risk and uncertainty concerning technology. prediction is concerned with what if. the crux of management tasks is decision making. iii) As description is concerned with what is and diagnostics with what is wrong. With predictive information.? Predictive information is generated from an analysis of possible future events and is exceedingly valuable with desirable outcomes. depending upon a manager s knowledge. Such information is vital in formulating production plans and examining related financial impacts.
Thus.e. It has two possible setups that it can implement. MIS SystemLet the university administration require a Relational Database Setup for managing the records of its students and faculty. the levels at which the data is present in the two systems. Let one system be implemented at a greater normal form than the other.directed toward answering the what should be done question. An evaluation of the predicted outcomes together with the goals and values of the manger provides that basis for making a decision. This difference at the abstraction level manifests itself in the form difference of different normal forms in the case of databases. But this greater level of normalization comes at the expense greater computer resources and greater development costs. Greater the degree of normalization the more expensive it is and lesser is the chance of any redundancy. the MIS will run simulation models on both these models to determine the . Predictive information by itself is not adequate for decision making. the trade-off needs to be studied and decision taken accordingly. The primary difference in these setups that can be implemented is at the abstraction level i.
The MIS helps us in answering these questions: what if we select the first model what if we select the second model. The job specification for this post highlights the following essential knowledge for any suitable candidate to possess. a) Knowledge of how MIS can support management. internet. intranets. Thus this what if analysis simulation done by MIS helps us in determining the right choice for the university by studying the net implication of implementing both the models. Problem -2 2) A company needs to hire a new Director for a Business School. These costs are analysed on the basis of both time and monetary costs. b) Role of IT. and web based application for the Business School. .total costs being incurred in both the models.
Modern day management is as much about technology and using it your advantage as it is about understanding the principles of management and applying them. the knowledge of Information Technology has become a pre-requisite for any successful manager. specify. Write a report to convince the company that you possess the requisite knowledge in the above listed areas. Systems like MIS. change. Thus. Ans After many years of working in diverse professional settings. MIS and its Support of Management. ERP have become the backbone of any business and it is hard to imagine any business being able to survive today without having a virtual presence on Internet. The study of Management Information Systems is concerned with how managers build. upgrade. we focus on how firms can use people . I will be elaborating on these systems & their impact on the field of management in the following paras.Information Systems (IS) are the collections of people and machines that make products and services in supply chains and individual firms. I am seeking to leverage my experience in the education domain within the field of management. I believe my vast experience in the field of management and technology will help the students of your esteemed institution better understand the rigors of modern day management and how it is being influenced by technology in the present day scenario. control and maintain Information Systems.You are considering applying for this post. Nowadays. design. improve.
The term "MIS" arose to describe these kinds of applications. which were developed to provide managers with information about sales. MIS helps to highlight the strategic and competitive advantages of linking Information Systems to the business needs of the organisation. Customer . resource and people management applications. Supply Chain Management (SCM). 1) Over time management activities have became more complex and require increasing amounts of resources. implementation and management of an organisation's Information Systems and business processes. inventories. the term is used broadly in a number of contexts and includes: decision support systems. stored data.and technology to create business value. As more and more data was stored and linked management began to analyze this information into further detail. and other data that would help in managing the enterprise. MIS helps to store increasing amounts of information while also interlinking different segments of information with each other. The overall aim of providing MIS knowledge is to equip the students with the knowledge and conceptual tools to address the various management challenges involved in the effective design. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). Today. creating entire management reports from the raw.
MIS focuses on the complexity generated by inter-organisational business processes and how this can be managed for sustainability and success. Organisations exist within the 'ecosystem' called the global economy.There is a growing importance of information systems in the successful functioning of modern business processes. 2) Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP).and interorganisationally. Its purpose is to facilitate the flow of information between all business functions inside the boundaries of the organization and manage the connections to outside stakeholders. from a security perspective information systems are . including tangible assets. and human resources.No business is an island. 3) Inter-organisational business. Built on a centralized database and normally utilizing a common computing platform. project management and database retrieval applications. 4) Security for businesses.ERP is an integrated computer-based system used to manage internal and external resources.Relationship Management (CRM). they are all connected to customers and suppliers by business processes and information systems. materials. both intra. financial resources. ERP systems consolidate all business operations into a uniform and enterprise-wide system environment. However.
Role of Internet in Business1) E-Commerce . The worldwide e-learning industry is estimated to be worth over $48 billion. The students also need to be aware of the challenges and threats of this form of commerce. 2) E-Learning. criminal and private entities. MIS focuses on different perspectives on business security that managers need to be aware of.Electronic commerce. databases and information systems. No longer is it necessary for teachers to travel . or ebusiness consists of the buying and selling of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet.E learning comprises all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching. so the students need to be aware of the growing potential of e commerce and the ways to leverage this tool to their advantage. The amount of trade conducted electronically has grown extraordinarily with widespread Internet usage.immature. commonly known as eCommerce. Today s managers need to be aware of the immense potential of this tool and it s immense implications. This includes security of our records. and this immaturity is increasingly being taken advantage of by different business.
Teams working on same projects can now communicate over chat. businesses have the advantage of appealing to consumers in a medium that can bring results quickly. voice/video conferencing thus eliminating the need for expensive work related travel & increasing efficiency. 3) Communication & Collaboration. . The strategy and overall effectiveness of marketing campaigns depend on business goals and cost-volumeprofit (CVP) analysis. The nature of the medium allows consumers to research and purchase products and services at their own convenience. Therefore. files easily and seamlessly. Managers need to be aware of the strengths & weaknesses of such concepts in the present day competitive environment.Internet has enabled businesses to streamline their communication process. 4) E-Marketing.Internet marketing is relatively inexpensive when compared to the ratio of cost against the reach of the target audience. This has brought forward new concepts such as Work-From-Home. Companies can reach a wide audience for a small fraction of traditional advertising budgets.long distances to far flung places to deliver lectures as it can be achieved through video conferencing at a fraction of the cost. Internet allows collaboration on work projects between teams by enabling them to share documents.
With the advent of IT came the communication networks. 3) Information Technology brought with it a large number of web-sites and increased Internet penetration. The managers of today need to understand this ever connected world. IT has impacted the way we do business in the following ways: 1) Office Automation Tools. No longer do we see the use of type-writers in offices preparing long reports for analysis. All reports are made using MS tools & sent via mail to all the concerned persons in the new scenario. .Information Technology has completely revolutionized the business scenario so much so that the business as we see today is completely different from what we saw 15-20 years back. These communication networks allow teams all over the world to coordinate on their projects.With the development of office automation tools such as MS Office we have moved a great extent towards our ultimate goal of paperless office. This has enabled even a common farmer to make use of the potential of the internet and use the information thus available to his advantage.Role of Information Technology. 2) Communication Networks. These communication networks are the backbone of IT and support the vast flow of information through the vast grid of computer networks.
Mac. such as email and searching.They require no upgrade procedure since all new features are implemented on the server and automatically delivered to the users.e. They also provide cross-platform compatibility in most cases (i.. etc. Web applications integrate easily into other server-side web procedures. Windows. Linux. Web Based Applications1) Java Applets 2) Flash content and other interactive media 3) Online Spreadsheets & word processing tools 4) Google Docs 5) Certain simulation Software s .) because they operate within a web browser window.