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Final Year project Report-2nd Review

CONTENTS

1. Introduction 3

2. Literature Review 4
2.1. The necessity of replacing cushion 4
2.2. Main considerations in designing a replacement material for foam 6
2.3. Nonwoven Production Methods and Selection of a Method for the Project 6

3. Research Methodology 8

4. Summary of Progress up to First Review 8


4.1 Difficulties faced 9

5. Work Done So far from 1st review onwards 10

6. Tests Carried Out According To ASTM Standards 12

7. Results and Analysis of Tests 12

8. Future Work

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REPLACEMENT PRODUCT FOR FOAM CUSHIONS USING


NONWOVENS

1. Introduction

Cushions are everywhere where people need seating or lying down in comfort in either
mattresses or seats. The main constituent of cushion is polyurethane converted to foam
status. The foam provides the resiliency and softness required for seating purposes. The
foam should have the effect of distributing the pressure over the buttocks of the seated
subject, and reducing the peak pressure. If the cushion is too stiff, it will give rise to high
peak pressure and if it is too soft it will bottom out. Bottoming occurs when cell ribs in
the foam come into contact. This is called densification. But some disadvantages
associated with foam made us to find an alternative to the foam cushions. These will be
discussed in detail in literature review which follows. Our research is to replace the foam
cushion with an engineered nonwoven product having vertical fiber orientation to meet
the requirements expected from a cushion.

The history of foam cushions goes back more than hundred years since petroleum
derivatives like Polyurethane are known to people since a long time. At that time due to
the absence of engineered nonwoven products, the only solution for a resiliency product
was the Polyurethane foam which allowed direct conversion from polymer to foam was
possible.

This problem is of great interest and significant since if a proper replacement could be
found it can be made commercialized and marketed worldwide. The vertical fiber
orientation that we are going to suggest is completely different from the existing
replacement products of nonwovens. Therefore the fiber arrangement for our product is
unique and its properties cannot be achieved by any other means using nonwovens.

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2. Literature Review

We went through several sources of information to gather required knowledge about


merits and demerits of cushions. First we looked at different types of cushions available
in the market. But unfortunately some of them are not currently available in the Sri
Lankan market. The available forms of cushion are foam cushions, gels and viscous fluid
cushions and air cushions. The most common form of cushion is foam cushion, which is
generally light weight and of different hardness/ firmness and resiliency. The foam used
in mattresses has a lower density because when a person lies down the weight is
distributed over a larger area. But this is not the case in foam that is used for seating
materials. Stiffness, density and resiliency are the main factors deciding the required
support and the durability. As the name implies the second kind of cushions are made out
of gel or viscous liquids. These are widely used with foam and have high heat transfer
and can bear hard vibrations, but not good for seating purposes. In the third category air
is the compressible medium but impermeable membrane or container is compulsory to
retain its dimensions. The properties of air cushions may vary and they can be made to
dissipate heat and moisture. Air cushions need to be properly maintained.

2.1. The necessity of replacing cushion

Foam is made out of polyurethane. Over 1.1 billion pounds of flexible polyurethane
foam, also referred to as “FPF”, is produced and used every year in the United States. We
have identified several disadvantages of foam cushion which forced us to find a
replacement to the foam cushion.

• Foam cushions cause localized peak pressure which is uncomfortable, and will
cause soon a healthy person to change seating position. Peak pressure will be
more troublesome for persons suffering with paralysis. Prolonged pressure can
inhibit blood flow. The critical pressure for this to occur is considered to be the
capillary pressure of 32mmHg (4.3Kpa). Due to these reasons current cushions
have to be replaced after six months’ use.

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The above figure shows the sample pressure distribution from Xsensor pressure
mapping system. This reading is taken with the subject seated on a plywood
board. The field to the right gives the pressure legend.

• The main disadvantage of polyurethane is tendency for potential combustibility,


especially given the lethal nature of fires that occur in bedrooms or living rooms
while occupants are in a sleep. Since polyurethane is an organic material, it burns
when exposed to an ignition source with sufficient heat.
• Foam is poor in heat transfer and is damaged by moisture and light, so a
protective cover should be used. Covers made from fabric that does not stretch
and is fitted tight around a cushion tend to negate the compressive benefits of
foam.
• Less durability in good condition. Generally, cushions should be replaced about
every two to five years with all-foam cushions having a shorter life compared to
other materials. Therefore thorough maintenance is required.
• Difficulty in maintenance (e.g.: washing)
• Loss in resiliency with time
• Tendency to cling on to the body

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2.2. Main considerations in designing a replacement material for foam

Cushions are used as supporting surface for body in most cases and three main
determinants or parameters of a material to be used as supporting surface are identified as
below,
• Compression
• Displacement
• Tension
These are influenced by the materials used and structure of cushion. The structure of
cushion determines its ability to distribute pressure without hindering function or
increasing the potential for skin damage.
A good combination of above three parameters would determine the following
characteristics of high quality cushion material.

• Surface firmness
• Deep-down firmness
• Support
• Surface feel
• Height retention
• Firmness retention

2.3. Nonwoven Production Methods and Selection of a Method for the


Project

A nonwoven fabric is a fabric made without weaving or knitting. Typically fibres are laid
down on a conveyer belt known as a web former and is bonded or consolidated at a later
stage.
There are three steps involved in making nonwovens,
1. Web Formation
2. Consolidation
3. Finishing

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The web formation techniques can be basically categorized in to Dry Laid and Air Laid.
Dry laid systems use the out put of carding machine to form the web. Air laid techniques
also come under this category since it uses the carded web and fiber transportation is
done by using compressed air. Wet laid techniques uses the water to disperse the fibers
and later filter out the fibers as a web. Apart from these techniques there are other
manufacturing methods for man made filament or fiber nonwovens which are listed
below,
• Spun Laid
• Melt Blown
These two manufacturing methods use manmade polymer solutions to extrude the
filaments and form the web. In spunlaid technique large numbers of filaments extruded
side by side are formed into a web by a suitable layering method. This method is cheap,
but not available in Sri Lanka which limits the applicability of this type of nonwovens in
our project. The melt blown method uses hot air to blow or spray the extruded filaments
thus breaking them to fibers of variable length, to a conveyer belt. This technique is very
expensive and not suitable for a country like Sri Lanka.
The main selection criteria for nonwoven web to be used in our project depends up on,
• Availability of technology of manufacturing (e.g.: polymer extrusion
plants, layering methods)
• Less cost of manufacture
• Reasonable capital cost
According to the above considerations the most suitable method of web forming is
mechanical dry laid carded web formation method. Since there are factories in Sri Lanka
engaged in this type of web formation, we can utilize web produced by them for our work
since the carding machine at the Spinning laboratory is larger in size and not having fiber
laps to operate.

A suitable consolidation technique has to be chosen from the following methods,


• Chemical boding
• Needle Punching

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• Thermal Bonding
For the first sample preparation we used the chemically bonding technique to consolidate
the web, since it was available already. But we are in the process of finding a suitable
boding technique that is efficient and less costly.

3. Research Methodology

A research methodology is designed in a such away that it will properly guide us towards
the fulfillment of our project objectives, those are to find a replacement product for foam
cushions using Nonwovens, design a process of manufacturing the product and explore
the other possibilities of end uses where proposed vertical fiber arrangement can be used
to a greater effect.
The preliminary requirement of the project is to study the properties and existing
manufacturing methods of nonwoven webs. According to the sources available to us
mechanical web formation method is the best that will yield our expectations. This
method uses the output of carding machine for the web production. The web layering has
to be redesigned according to the requirements and later on suitable web consolidation
and finishing methods have to be applied. Since we lack practical exposure to the
nonwoven production methods we hope to seek assistance of Nonwoven factories in Sri
Lanka that use mechanical methods for web formation.

4. Summary of Progress up to First Review

A sample of nonwoven cushion is made to evaluate the physical properties and


understand the manufacturing requirements and implications. The first sample was made
using manual techniques in all the stages including layering. The output of the carding
machine was used as the web of nonwoven.

The sample production process is as follows,

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• The block to which the web was layered was made using a wire mesh. The
dimensions are 10’’ in height, 8” in width and 6” in depth approximately. These
dimensions are taken considering the space available at the oven. The wire mesh
was chosen to make the block since it provides the necessary spaces to spray the
resins required for consolidation of the web.
• The web of nonwoven was cut in to small strips of 8” width. The cutting
equipment was a scissor. Since the available web of nonwovens is a cross lapper
in which the orientation of the fibers in the web are in 45 degrees angle, the
direction of cutting the strip can be chosen to be either widthwise or lengthwise.
• The cut strip of non woven web was formed to spiral shape using hand while
spraying the resins to the web. A hand spray bottle was used to spray the resin.
The resin is a water based chemical and the water to chemical ratio is 5:1.
• Then the web with spiral folds was deposited inside the block. Hand pressing is
used to compress the web by hand.
• This is kept for consolidation in oven under following conditions,
Temperature: 160 C
Duration : 2 hours

4.1 Difficulties faced

• We could observe that the duration of 2 hours was not enough for setting of the
vertical layers. Therefore we increased the setting time to 40 minutes, but it also
yielded unsatisfactory results since the binding chemical tended to come out due to
lack of fixation. Then we decided to increase the time up to 3 hours.
• Even after 3 hours of heating, delamination occurred in some layers of the sample.
There may be two reasons behind this.
1. The chemical to water dissolution ratio (1:5) is not correct.
2. The resin was not suitable for more depth consolidation of webs.
• When we try to remove the partly consolidated sample the outer layers tended to
come out since they had got adhered to the wire mesh. The reason behind this may be

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the excess resin applied had come out to the outer layers and onto the wire mesh as
well.

5. Work Done So far from 1st review onwards……

• Latex test

To combine fiber layers one to another we used Latex. In our project we brought latex
from Dipped Rubber Product (Pvt) Ltd, Hanwella. Normal concentration of the latex is
30%. But we brought 60% concentrated latex from that factory. So we prepared 30%
latex from above solution. For that we had to dilute the solution in ratio of 1:1 with water.
After that we prepared another sample by spraying above latex solution. For the binding
process the sample was placed in the oven at 500C temperature. But due to thickness of
the sample that temperature was insufficient. So, after that we used 1000C temperature
for the four hours. After that, this sample was compared with our previous samples.

Observations

-The cushion is too stiff and hard than our previous samples.
-There was a bad smell.
-Appearance was poor.
-Other than that viscosity of the latex is more than our previous chemical. So,
spraying process also was very difficult.
-So, due to above reasons we concluded that previous chemical is more suitable
than latex.

• Determining Concentration of Binding Chemical

To get smooth and durable cushion we were prepared several samples by changing the
concentration of the chemical.
In this practical we prepared three different samples by using different concentrated
chemicals. In this three time chemical were diluted by 1:3, 1:2, and 1:1 with the water. In

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this test we applied 160C temperature for four hours for binding process. After that
compared above samples and selected best concentration of the chemical solution.

Observations
Appearance and degree of fiber binding was increased from the sample made out
from third concentration. So, finally we selected best concentration as chemical to
water -1:1.

• Prepared a new non woven sample which did not separate in to stripes. We used this
sample to all the tests we did.

• Sample preparation time in the oven was changed. Initially it was 2 hours but we
realize that time was not sufficient to heat the inner layers of the sample. So we
increased that time 4 hours.

• Referred ASTM journals to find out test which carried out to cushion materials. This
standard is issued under the fixed designation D- 3574 and kwon as Standard
methods of testing for cellular materials. Selected tests given below under D-3574
designation.

Test B1- Indentation Force Deflection test- specified deflection


This test consists of measuring the force necessary to produce 25
and 65% or other designated indentation in the sample.
Test B2 -Indentation Force Deflection test – Specified Force
The force deflection is determined by measuring the thickness of
the pad under a fixed force of 4.5N, 110N and 220N, on a 323cm2
circular indenter foot
Test C – Compression Force Deflection Test

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This method consists of deflecting the form specimen under


specified conditions of time and temperature and nothing the effect
on the thickness of the specimen.

• Recovery test
This is one of the most important tests for cushioning materials. We have done a
modified test. For that test we use weights and kept those weights on the both non
woven cushion and polyurethane foam cushion for same time period. Then those
weights were removed and the recovery height was measured.
• After doing above tests we analyzed the results to compare the two samples.

6. Tests Carried Out According To ASTM Standards

Please Refer To Annex A for Detailed Descriptions of ASTM Test Procedures.

7. Results and Analysis of Tests

We have done four tests up to the second review. Three of them are compression tests. In
compression tests, a standard sized sample with parallel flat surfaces is held between two
parallel plates of larger area than the specimen, and the force required to compress at a
constant rate is measured.

• Indentation Hardness Test (ASTM D 3574 – Test C – Compression Force


Deflection Test)
This test gives a measure of the load bearing properties of the foam for use in seating,
bedding and other cushioning applications.
Indentation hardness is an important characteristic which is used to classify many flexible
polyurethane materials. Indentation hardness is used to classify the foam material to
following,

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a. Low Density
b. Flexible foams
c. Rigid foams
d. High density self skinning foams
The specifications for indentation hardness tests vary according to the end use.
The thickness of Test specimen was 30cm.
The result of the Test D-D 3574 was as follows.

Applied Contact Load Thickness of the specimen (cm)


140 Pa 27.16 (Polyurethane sample)
140 Pa 29 (Non woven sample)

Compression Ratio (%) Required Load (N)


50 6 ( Polyurethane sample)
50 24 (Non-woven Sample)

The main objective of the test was to determine the force required to compress the sample
by 50%. The results clearly show that the polyurethane sample can be easily compressed
with a force of 6 N. But the non woven sample wants 4 times more force. Therefore it has
more firmness and hardness.

• ASTM Test B2 – Indentation Force Deflection Test – Specified Force

Result of the Test as follows,


Initial specimen thickness was 36cm

Applied Load (N) Thickness After Compression(mm)


Foam sample Nonwoven Sample
26 12 31.52
629 2.6 8.8
1257 2.1 7.6

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Above results were taken to a graph as follows,

35
Thickness after compression (mm)

30

25

20 Foam sample
15 Nonwoven Sample

10

0
26 629 1257
Applied Load (N)

It is evident that the increase of force from 26N to 629N makes a drastic steep decrease
of thickness in Non-woven sample. Therefore it compensates the hardness of the non-
woven sample shown in Indentation Hardness test.

• ASTM Test B1- Indentation Force Deflection Test – Specified Deflection

The main objective of this test was to determine the Comfort Factor of cushions.

The ratio of the 65% indentation force deflection to the 25% indentation force deflection
determined after 1 min rest. The comfort factor thus indicates what 65% IFD value would
be acceptable for a particular application. The 65% IFD value measures the support
region and seating foams with low comfort factors will usually bottom out and give
inferior performance.

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Comfort Factor = Thickness after 25% compression


Thickness after 65% compression

Results and calculated comfort factor values,

Compression (%) Required Load (N)


Foam Non woven
25 3.7 11.5
65 8.1 33.2
Comfort Factor 2.18 2.88

• Modified Recovery Test

We did a modified recovery test to measure the recovery of cushion material. The test
procedure involved applying a constant weight of 18Kgs for each of the two samples and
keeps it for 4 hours and removes it and measure the thickness after every 30 seconds.

In this test we compared form cushion and non-woven cushion which we made. We were
used 18kg weight for both samples. We brought two same size cushions for above two
types. The height was measured of those samples before start the test. Then same weight
was applied for same time for both cushions and placed it for four hours. After that
released that weight and measured the height of each sample in same 30seconds time
period.

The results were as follows,


Initial Thickness of samples = 4.2 cm

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Time (S) Thickness(cm)


Non-woven Foam
Start (0) 2.8 0.8
30 3.0 1.0
60 3.4 1.4
90 3.5 1.8
120 3.6 2.1
150 3.6 2.3
180 3.7 2.4
210 3.8 2.6
240 3.9 2.6
270 4.0 2.7
300 4.0 2.8
330 4.0 2.9
360 4.0 3.0
390 4.0 3.2

The above results were taken to a graph which is shown below. (Initial Thickness is 4.2)

4.5
4
3.5
Thickness (cm)

3
Non-woven
2.5
Foam
2
Initial Thickness
1.5
1
0.5
0
0

0
0)

60

12

18

24

30

36
t(
ar
St

Time (S)

This graph helps us to come to the conclusion that Non-woven sample recovers to 95% of
its initial thickness while the recovery of foam cushion sample is just 76%. Therefore we
can conclude that non-woven material is more resilient than the polyurethane cushion
material. Then we calculated the rate of recover.

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Rate of Recover = Distance recovered


Recovery Time

Rate of Recover for foam cushion is 0.49 cm/min and for non-woven sample
0.61cm/min. Therefore we can say that non-woven cushion recovers faster that foam
cushion.

8. Future Work

• Time Table

Project Stage Time Period Preparation

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Literature Survey December(2006) Completed


Designing a way of doing the task January(2007) Completed
including all the sub processes
Carry out trials at the selected factory February , March, Completed
environment or in department labs (Trial April
and Error session)
Finalize the production method and make a May, June,July Completed &
prototype Find Other new
ways
Explore the possibilities and ways of July In Progress
marketing and commercializing the product
Preparation of final project report and August Not yet
presentation

• Test to be carry out in Future


I. Determination of apparent thermal conductivity by means of a heat flow
meter.
II. Determination of apparent thermal conductivity by guarded hot-plate Test
for Dimensional Stability (ASTM C177)
III. Determination Indentation hardness Index (BS 4443)
IV. Creep Test as defined in Test 11 of ASTM D 3574- Static Force Loss at
Constant Deflection

• Developments wish to do.

As the preliminary step of the project we have made a sample, but there were some
drawbacks. The immediate next process would be to make another sample by
defining a method to minimize or eradicate the difficulties.

o Introduce a new layering method

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We will have to design way of layering the Nonwoven web. For layering purpose
either an existing layering technique can be used or suggest a totally different
layering method. But for bulk production it will be easy if having Mechanical
layering method.

o Develop a good compression method


After normal Layering of web in a stack with resin, we should compress it to
required height with stable because it is difficult to change Height after loading in
the oven. So we wish to find good compression method.

o Method of spraying of Resin


During applying resin to the fiber web it should ensure that uniform spreading of
resin. In our experiment we did it manually. But when applying resin for mass
production it should be reliable. So we suppose to introduce method for resin
insertion.
o We will have design a process to continuously manufacture the nonwoven
cushion, so that industry can adopt this method to produce in large scale.
o We will have to carry out experiments to compare and contrast the properties
of foam cushion with nonwoven cushion.
o After obtaining the results of the above experiments, we will come up with
new methods to improve the mechanical and comfort properties of nonwoven
cushions.
o We will decide on the type of finishes to be applied to impart aesthetic
properties to the cushion.
o If all above stages are successful, then we have to obtain the patent and derive
a strategy to market the product.
o A detailed final report will be prepared by including all the details of the
project.

• Marketability

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The advantages and Features of our product will be distributed among customers by
using marketing Chanels.

9. References

I. Modern nonwovens Technology edited by D.T. Ward


II. Polyurethanes in Medical Applications by

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III. Developments in Polyurethanes edited by J.M. Buist


IV. Manual of Nonwovens by
V. Negative Poisson’s ratio foam as seat cushion material by R.S. Lakes and
A. Lowe
VI. Theoretical knowledge acquired in lectures

ANNEX-A

TESTS CARRIED OUT ACCORDING TO ASTM STANDARDS

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ASTM D 3574 – TEST B1 INDENTATION FORCE DEFLECTION TEST –


SPECIFIED DEFLECTION

Summary of Method

This will be known as the indentation force deflection test and the results as IFD values.
This test consists of measuring the force necessary to produced 25% and 65% of other
designated indications in the foam product

Apparatus

An apparatus having a circular indentor foot 323cm2 in area connected by means of a


swivel joint capable of accommodation of the angle of the sample to force measuring
device and mounted in such a manner that the product or specimen can be defected as a
speed of 0.4 to 6.3mm/s. the apparatus shall be arrange to support to specimen on a level
horizontal plate which is perforated with approximately 6.5 mm holes on approximately
22mm center to allow for rapid escape of air during the test. Special support for
contoured molded pads shall be perforated and agreed upon between the supplier and the
purchaser. Pads longer than the base plate shall be supported from distortion at the 4.5N
contact force.

Test Specimen

The test specimen shall consist of the entire product sample or a suitable portion of it
except that in no case shall the specimen have dimension less than 380 by 380 by 20 mm.
specimens less than 20mm thick shall be plied up with out the use of cement, to a
minimum of 20mm.
The IFD values for molded products are dependent on the specimen dimension. Higher
values are generally obtained for specimens that retain all molded surface.
Number of specimens

One specimen shall be tested

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Procedure

Place the test specimen in the position on the supporting plate of the apparatus. In case
the product has one side cored or honey-combed, this face shall rest on the perforated
plate. The specimen position shall be such that whenever practicable the indentation will
be made at the center of all articles, except where another location is agreed upon by the
supplier and the purchaser.
Preflex the area to be tested by twice lowering the indentor foot to a total deflection on 75
to 80% of the full part thickness at a rate of 0.4 to 6.3mm /s. mark the location of test area
with a pen by circumscribing the indentor foot while under a 4.5N force. Allow the
specimen to rest 6± 1 min after the preflex.
Bring the indentor foot into connect with the specimen and determine the thickness after
applying a contact force of 4.5N of the area under the indentor foot. Compress the
specimen at 0.83± 0.08 mm/s to 25% of this thickness and observe the force in newtons
after 60±3s. with out removing the specimen increase the deflection to 65% deflection,
allowing the force to drift while maintaining the 65% deflection, and again observe the
force in newtons after 60±3s.

NOTE

For super-soft foam, foam with a 25% IFD less than 40N, a reduction of pressure on the
indentor foot shall be allowed. Sufficient pressure to make contact is normal.

Report

Report the force in mewtons required for 25 to 65% indention. These figures are known
as the 25% and 65% IFD values, respectively. Report also length with and thickness of
the specimen and the ration (comfort factor) of 65% to 25% IFD values.

NOTE

Indention deflection test, other than 25 and 65% as well as a 25% return value, may be
specified as agreed upon between the supplier and the purchaser.

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Precision and Bias

Precision statements are in the process of being prepared in the form specified by
practiced

ASTM D 3574 - TEST B2 - INDENTATION FORCE DEFLECTION TEST-


SPECIFIED FORCE

Summery of Method

Cellular form products have been traditionally test for force deflection by determining the
force required to effect the 25% deflection. In seating on the other hand, the interest is in
determining how thick the padding is under the average person. Two measurements are
called for to meat the requirements of this method. The force deflection is determined by
measuring the thickness of the pad under a fixed force of 4.5N, 110N and 220N, on a
323cm2 circler indentor foot.
This determination should be known as the indentation residual deflection force and the
measurements as the IRDF values.

Apparatus

An apparatus having a flat circular indentor foot 323cm2 in area and equipped with a
swivel joint for applying forces of 4.5N, 110N and 220N shall be mounted over a level
horizontal flat form that is perforated with approximately 6.5mm holes on approximately
20mm centers to allow for rapid escape of air during the test. The distance between the
indentor foot and the platform shall be available to compress the specimen under test at a
speed of 0.83±0.08 to 3.3± 0.3 mm/s for deflection measurements. The apparatus shall be
equipped with a device for measuring the distance between plates.
Special supports for contoured molded pads shall be perforated and agreed upon between
the supplier and the purchaser. Pad longer than the base plate shall nr supported from
distortion at the 4.5N contact force.

Test conditions

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When possible the completed manufactured product shall be used. In the case of trapped
cushion, the location of the area for measurement is to be agreed upon between the
supplier and the purchaser. In the case a finishing part is not feasible for test, 380 mm
specimens of as average thickness are to be from the cushion.
The IRDF values for molded products are dependent on the specimen dimension.
Deference values are generally obtained for specimens that retain all molded surfaces.

Number of specimens

One specimen shall be tested

Procedure

Test the whole rest specimen on minimum area of 380mm. preflex twice to a 10kPa
pressure. This corresponds to 330N on a 320 cm2 indentor foot at 3.3 mm/s. allow to rest
6 ±1 min. position in the test apparatus with any coring , honeycombing or slotting
resting on the perforated bottom plate.
Bring the indentor foot into connect and determined the thickness of the specimen with
the 4.5N load on the indentor foot.
Apply the 110N force at 83±0.08 mm/s to indentor foot and compress the specimen until
the force is carried by the specimen. Determine the thickness at 110N after maintaining
the force for 60±3 s.
Without removing the specimen apply the 220N force to the indentor foot and further
compress the pad until this load is carried. After 60±3 s under load, observe the thickness
of the pad.

Report

Report the specimen thickness after 60±3 s at 4.5N,110N and 220N. thes figures are
known as the IRDF values, respectively. Report also the length , width, and thickness of
the specimen.

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Precision and Bias

Precision statements are in the process of being prepared in the specified by practice

ASTM D 3574 -TEST C - COMPRESSION FORCE DEFLECTION TEST

Summery of method

This test consists of measuring the force necessary to produce a 50% compression over
the entire top area of the foam specimen.

NOTE

Compression deflection tests other than at 50% may be specified as agreed upon between
the supplier and the purchaser.

Apparatus

An apparatus having a flat compression foot, larger than the specimen to be tested
connected to a force measuring device and mounted in a manner such that the product or
specimen can be deflected at a speed of 0.4 to 6.3mm/s. the apparatus shall be arrange to
support the specimen on a level horizontal plate that is perforated with approximately 6.5
mm holes on approximately 20mm centers to allow for rapid escape of air during the test.

Test specimens

The slab test specimen shall have parallel top and bottom surface and essentially vertical
sides, the thickness shall be no greater than 75% of the minimum top dimension.

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Replacement Product for cushions using non-wovens
Final Year project Report-2nd Review

Specimens from uncored slab stock shall be a minimum of 2500mm2 in area and than 20
mm thick shall be plied up, without the use of cement, to a minimum of 20mm.
Specimen from cored slab stock shall be of such size that the coring does not appreciably
affect the compression value.
The test specimen from molded parts shall have parallel top and bottom surfaces and
perpendicular sides. Preferably the specimen should include both top and bottom molded
skins. If a test specimen with parallel top and bottom surfaces including both molded
skins cannot be obtain because of the shape of the molded part, at least one of the molded
skin surfaces should be retained. Both surface skins should be removed only in case
where the shape of the original sample makes this absolutely necessary.
Maximum method specimen thickness shall be greater that the minimum top dimensions.
Specimens from uncored stock shall have a minimum length of 50mm, a minimum width
of 50mm, and minimum thickness of 20mm. specimens less than use of cement , to a
minimum of 20mm.

Number of specimens

Three specimens per sample shall be tested. The value reported shall be the median of
those observed, if any value deviates more than 20% from this median, two additional
specimens shall be tested and the median for all five values shall be reported.

Procedure

Preflex the specimen twice, to 75 to80% of its original thickness at 0.4 to 6mm/s. than
allow the specimen to rest for a period of 10±5min.
Place the specimen center in the line of the axial load on the supporting plate of the
apparatus. In case the product has one side cord or honeycombed, rest on the perforated
plates.
Bring the compression foot into contact with the specimen and determined the thickness
after applying a contact load of 140 Pa to the specimen area. Compress the specimen 50%
of this thickness at 83±0.08 mm/s and observe the final load after 60±3 s

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Replacement Product for cushions using non-wovens
Final Year project Report-2nd Review

Report

Report the thickness after contact load, and the 50% compression deflection value in
Pascals.

Precision and Bias

Precision statements are in the process of being prepared in the specified by practice.

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