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x e ques ion arose of we er and ow e Slovenian ouseolds would be able o À 
 À  À   
 
         

À    À  


À  
À . As e CPO decision was final, ouseolds would ave o prove only e
amoun of damages before a regular cour ( e cour s are bound by final CPO decisions
as concerns e es ablismen of a breac. However, given a e damage suffered
by individual ouseolds amoun ed o only approxima ely ͂30 o ͂300 eac , e filing of
individual damages claims - in view of e cos s associa ed erewi  - seemed unrea-
sonable. Needless o say, e elec rici y dis ribu ors con inued o den y any wrongdoing
on eir par and refused o re urn e overpaid sums volun arilydz. Ten Rado Pezdir, a
Slovenian economis and publicis , es ablised a civil socie y (una sociedad civil seme-
jan e a la de los ar s. 1665 ss CC ǥSuppor ed by a law firm wic agreed o advance e
cos s of li iga ion, e socie y, roug mass media appeals, collec ed powers of a or-
ney from nearly 75,000 Slovenian ouseolds. Te dis ribu ors were en given a dead-
line for e volun ary repaymen of e overcarged amoun s: if e sums were no re-
urned in due ime, e socie y would file lawsui s on bealf of e ouseolds. One by
one, e dis ribu ors gave in o e pressure; a e ime of wri ing, e majori y of Slo-
venian ouseolds ave received credi no es corresponding o e overpaid
amoun sǥ
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/mmm÷*,/m&*1m =/m9','mm/)BmmNo ice of a Claimm

Te Second, Tird, Four  and Fif  Defendan s appealed agains e ar icles of e De-
cision imposing bo  liabili y and penal y o e Cour of Firs Ins ance of e European
Communi ies (xCFIdz (Cases T-68/04, T-69/04 and T-73/04. Teir appeals were dis-
missed in a judgmen delivered on 8 Oc ober 008. Te Four  and Fif  Defendan s
subsequen ly appealed, in respec of penal y only, o e Cour of Jus ice of e Euro-
pean Communi ies (xECJdz3 (Cases C-554/08 and C-564/08. Bo  appeals were dismissed
in a judgmen delivered on 1 No vember 009.m
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El pleno del Tribunal de Defensa de la Compe encia, en el expedien e 46/98 dic  Reso-
lucin el 15 de Abril de 1999, en cuyo fallo, en re o ras consideraciones dic amin: xD e-
clarar acredi ada la realizacin de una prác ica res ric iva de la compe encia proibida
por el ar culo 1.1.a de la Ley 16/1989, de Defensa de la Compe encia y el ar culo 85.1.a
del Tra ado de la Unin Europea, por par e de Ebro Agrcolas, Compaña de Alimen a-
cin S.A., Sociedad General Azucarera de España S.A., Sociedad Coopera iva General
Agropecuaria (ACOR y Azucareras Reunidas de Jaén S.A., consis en e en la concer acin
del precio de ven a del azúcar para usos indus riales desde febrero de 1995 a sep iembre
de 1996dz. Impuso diversas sanciones a las empresas condenadas, y concre amen e a
ACOR 151 millones de pese asǥ Es a Resolucin fue recurrida an e la Audiencia Nacio-
nal, cuya Sala de lo Con encioso Adminis ra ivo (Seccin Sex a, en sen encia de 4 de j u-
lio de 00, deses im el recurso presen ado por ACOR con ra el acuerdo dic ado por el
Tribunal de Defensa de la Compe encia. Recurri en onces en casacin ACOR an e la Sala
Tercera del ÝÀ  
  À  
   
    À 
  declar no
aber lugar al recurso. Dica concer acin de precios mo iv   À 
À  
 
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À  
À     )Es de lgica que si la demandada vende a precios ex-
cesivos, los compradores direc os de esos produc os sufrirán un perjuicio por la par e

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del precio pagado por la adquisicin de esos produc os que excede del precio compe i-
ivo. Los compradores direc os pueden adop ar dos pos uras, bien repercu ir la o ali-
dad o par e de esa subida en sus propios clien es (los minoris as y és os a su vez en los
consumidores, lo que no conllevara ningún ipo de perjuicio, porque en defini iva, si se
siguen man eniendo las ven as, como ocurre en el caso del azúcar (no olvidemos que es
un produc o que no puede ser sus i uido por ningún o ro, o bien asumir ellos solos esa
subida sin repercusin alguna en el res o de los in egran es de la cadena, en cuyo caso la
repercusin de la subida s iene verdadera impor ancia en cuan o a los beneficios deja-
dos de ob ener. En és e caso  * À 
À À À   À+  À 

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1   À
 
1 À  
. ǥ 2. + 
À  
À  
 À   À  si no se ubiera
producido la concer acin? ǥ. Pero el eco de que exis an grandes dificul ades para su
valoracin no quiere decir que no sea posible. ' À 
  À  À  À  

  À 
1  (  

%  ÝÀ  
   , y ello de ermina que acceda-
mos a lo solici ado en demanda.

m*mm*/m3&*/m1)mm*/m)'*/m/m/)&'/m'/ Emm
GALLETAS GULLON S.A., 193.044,95 ͂ MAZAPANES DONAIRE S.L., 5.658,53 ͂ NESTLE ES-
PAÑA S.A., 508.91,47 ͂ ZAHOR S.A., 00.788,47 ͂ GALLETAS CORAL S.A., 61.104,4 ͂
PRODUCTOS ALIMENTICIOS LA BELLA EASO S.A., 7.661,87 ͂ LACASA S.A.U., 37.566,90 ͂
CHOCOLATES DEL NORTE S.A., 16.83,5 ͂ BOMBONERA VALLISOLETANA S.A., 5.113,18 ͂.
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x e cus omers raised e ques ion we er and ow ey could ge a compensa ion
for e damages sus ained. Agains is background, e idea of CDC was borne, and
CDC SA was founded as e firs company of e CDC group o overcome e exis ing
obs acles o an effec ive enforcemen of an i rus damage claims. CDC SA began pro-
ceedings o enforce damage claims agains e ringleaders of e Cemen Car el in 00.
  À   À À     
3  #  
, mos ly medium-
sized companies wic are ac ive in e concre e produc ion and manufac uring sec or.
In Augus 005, af er e prepara ion of e claim, and in par icular of e calcula ion of
e damages sus ained, CDC SA represen ed by e German law firm Oppenländer Rec-
sanwäl e broug an ac ion for damages agains e six above-men ioned car el mem-
bers before e Regional Cour of Düsseldorf, Germany [Case No. 34 O (Kar  147/05].
mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm
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CDC SA as since ,    
4 
  À À 
#  À À     # 
  
3 À À 
&Ý   
À   #  
4   À ,

 5  

(wi ou in eres . Te subs an ia ion of e claim is based on evi-
dence ga ered from e car el proceedings and e damaged companies. ǥ CDC col-
lec ed and analysed e da a received from i s business par ners on eir purcases of
cemen ǥ Te analysis clearly sows e price effec s of e Cemen Car el: Prices were
rela ively s able since e early 1990s un il e break-up of e car el in spring 00. D i-
rec ly af er is even , all major cemen producers offered prices significan ly below e
price level during e car el period. Tis con ras s wi  e price developmen during
e car el period, were even a worsened economic si ua ion for e cons ruc ion in-
dus ry never caused comparable price reac ions. As a resul of e car el, e damaged
companies ad o pay significan overcarges.

Ý     À
 
   
  # À 
#   
  

À    #  
6./  

& On 7 April 009, e German Federal Cour of
Jus ice dismissed is appeal and confirmed a e damage ac ion of CDC SA is admis s-
ible [Case No. KZR 4/08]. Te Regional Cour of Düsseldorf will proceed wi  deciding
on e meri s of e case.
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are rela ively s able, ere are impor an lessons from is analysis of wa causes car els o break up on eir own. Firs , 
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m,/''(m%&mmm9/'mm='mm8m('m*'*/$mm!Comunicacinde la Comisin re-
la iva a la cooperacin en re la Comisin y los rganos jurisdiccionales de los Es ados miembros de la UE para la aplicacin
de los ar culos 81 y 8 TCEdz 7mmm÷*,/m&*1*m1&m/m%&m 1mC#EmxCuando la Comisin llegue a una
decisin en un asun o concre o an es que el rgano jurisdiccional nacional, es e úl imo no podrá omar una decisin con-
raria a la de la Comisinǥ Sin embargo, si se impugna la decisin de la Comisin an e los ribunales comuni ariosǥ y el re-
sul ado del li igio an e el rgano jurisdiccional nacional depende de la validez de la decisin de la Comisin, el rgano juris-
diccional nacional deberá suspender su procedimien o as a que los ribunales comuni arios dic en resolucin defini ivadz. 
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daños y perjuicios por incumplimien o de las normas comuni arias de defensa de la compe encia7 mmm'*m(& 
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!Siempre que la Comisin Europea de ec e una infraccin del ar culo 81  8 del Tra ado CE, las vc imas de la infraccin
podrán, en vir ud de la jurisprudencia rei erada y del ar culo 16.1 del Reglamen o 1/003, basarse en esa decisin como
prueba vinculan e en demandas civiles por daños y perjuicios. Para las resoluciones de las au oridades nacionales de com-
pe encia que comprueban una infraccin del ar culo 81  8, ac ualmen e slo exis en normas similares en algunos es ados
miembrosdz [ǥ]mm
xLa Comisin no ve razones por las que una resolucin final rela iva al ar culo 81  8 omada por una Au oridad Nacional
de Compe encia de la Red Europea de Compe encia (xRECdz, y una sen encia firme adop ada por una ins ancia de revisin
que ra ifique la resolucin de la ANC o la suya propia en cuan o a la exis encia de una infraccin, no deba acep arse en o-
dos los Es ados miembros como prueba irrefu able de infraccin en las pos eriores demandas civiles de reparacin de da-
ños y perjuicios por incumplimien o de las normas de compe enciadzm[ǥ]
xLa Comisin sugiere que los rganos jurisdiccionales que engan que pronunciarse sobre demandas de reparacin de da-
ños y perjuicios por prác icas de conformidad con el ar culo 81  8 en los que una au oridad nacional ya aya emi ido una
resolucin firme en la REC en la que se acredi e la exis encia de una infraccin de dicos ar culos, o sobre las que una ins-

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')m*m*,'*m/,1'm'm0/m*&/)m*m/',')m'4m'P/m1m*(4)$m*mJ44m'4m/m9
'/(m 91m &)m **,'m /','*$m /m (Jm m )m (m 5Im m ¯0*(m -..7#m *m (/mm
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'4/m1 9m(',/m*&m0m/*m'*mm/'0&'*mJ4*m/*m'4,mm'4m/,m*,m'*mmm,m4mm,m
'4m,9m'4m(',/m'*m''mmJ44m'm/*m141/m'*mm/*m(m/'0&'*mm'4m'*mmm:
,/m'4m1&4/m'4mm*')m'4m'3m(',/m4m'mJ/m'*m/m,/Pm*/'/m m'4&/m
'4m 4)m ,*m *m '4m 0m *m ,Im '4'm '4m 1*&m 4/m 0m *m ,Im J/m '4m /*m '*m /'0&'*/m *m 'm
)*/$mJ4*m'4m/*m'4,m'*m*/&,/m¯mIm'4/m1m9m(',/m1//m'4*&)4mm4m*3m*m,*m 
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m

m*,3#m*m/'=m&*/m &/,'m m*,1*m4m1**m'/mm 
,'*m )/m m /&m 1*1m 40$m *m m m /'&m m ,*# $m 1*m *m %&$mm &m
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01*Tm'm'm*,1*/m1**/*/Tm/m(m1*&'*/m*/mm*/m
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$mm,*/$mm1*m/*m4,*/m4*m%&m!m11*"$m/'m)&,'*m5&/'6m,1 *
mm,*mm)mm1*0mm'/mm/*01*m1*m1'mm, 
' 

Cm ÷*,*m 4m **m 8'$m ! una vez que aquel concep o de daño deja de considerarse
como algo obvio o na ural y, pues o que el ordenamien o debe par ir del principio de que odo
lucro (como ood daño debe dejarse en el pa rimonio donde se a producido, salvo que exis a
una buena razn (no el simple eco de que aya sido causado por o ro para rasladarlo a un
pa rimonio ajeno, deja de ser algo <<eviden e>> que, de no admi irse al compensa io el daña-
do vendra a enriquecerse injus amen e a cos a del dañan e; y comienza a serlo que el slo
eco de aber sido causado por una conduc a ajena dolosa o negligen emen e dañosa, no es
una buena razn para rasladar odo o par e (si el daño es menor del lucro al pa rimonio del
dañan e. Y puede en enderse por qué, apar ándose de sus preceden es, el ar . 1686 CC no per-
mi e al socio compensar los daños con los beneficios proporcionados a la sociedad, ni siquiera

mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm
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m1// '4*&)4m'*m1/m*m/&11mm,m/''$m0&'m(mm'4m'm1&4/m/mm,**1*/'mm
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*1'*/m
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C`m *m)$m'4m,1'm*m'4m1m/m/m'*m&m//$mm     

 
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/*m*mmJm/m'4'm',/m'1m0/*0m/*,m'(m/,m1*'*m*m'4m*(4)$m/*,',/m 
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en los casos en que daños y beneficios provengan del mismo negocio negligen emen e ges i o-
nadodz 31.

C- mm)&,'*m/)Bmm&$m43mm)0mmm passing on defense m,1m%&m
/m )m )',m '(m 1m ,m m */m 2*/m '*/m m m 5,1*m m
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*,1*/mm/m)'/#m /&1*m5m /m4*mm&m,3mm*/m*/&, 
*/m/mm1*&'*$m'm&m&3m ,=/m1'm%&mm
*m/**m1*%&m&m 
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0'*m/m0$m1/,'$mm%&m*m/',*/m/)&*/mmm%&m4m/&*m'( 
,'m&m2*m /m*/m0'/mm)'/m*m*/m/'0&* /m,*/'/mm)'/m*m*/m
/'0&*/m ,*/'/m m )'/m 0/*0*m m /*01*#m m m m &'6m m @/'m
&*m'**/m*/m'*/m*m4m0/*0*mm)&m,#m/*m',0@m1*%&mm
,/0m m m 91m *m 5m *m /m ,*/m (6/m m */m */&,*/m /'*/m
1*=m,m&*mm='m/m4m0*m'm*/m0'/m*m/'0&*/mm
1*&'*/m m */&,*m m5,1*m/*(*m /m ,&m 91/(*m m %&m */m ='/m %&m 
2m,'mm*/m*/&,*/m/*m*/mm/m,1//m*m/m%&m/m*m 
','m */m='/m'm0'/mm1*&'*/mm*/&,*m/*m*/$m1/,'$m
1*%&m*/m/'0&*/m/'=mm**/mm/&0*/m1*mm,1m/'0m
&m91m1m'/m/*/m/m/m,&/'m%&m /m4m1*&*m&m'/m* ,
1'm m ,'m m /*01*m 1*m 1'm m ',*m 'm 0'm m */&, 
*m

C-
CC m&/*mm ,$m*mm'*6mmmm*,mm=&*mmm,3 $m
m *'m m m 5&/1&m 43m m 1m m m passing on defense 33. /6$m m am CCm
mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm
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4''1EMMJJJ& /)M0AM4'/J///4'MI0/M,'MJ''0J0/4'M0'/)&)S
SI'4'S SCCS)J0S/4//'31 Die Grundsä ze über die Vor eilsausgleicung se zen das Prinzip um, dass der
Gescädig e nic besser ges ell werden soll, als er one scädigendes Ereignis s ünde (scadensrec lices Bereice-
rungsverbo . Die Vor- eilsausgleicung se z nac s ändiger Rec sprecung generell folgendes voraus: Adäqua er Kausal-
zusammenang zwiscen Vor eil und scädigendem Ereignis und Anrecnung widerspric nic dem Sinn und Zweck des
Scadenser-sa zanspruces, d.. der Scädiger wird nic unbillig begüns ig und der Gescädig e nic unzumu bar belas-
e .m
m
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4''1EMM11///*,M/*CM11/,\0/''SR+-AFmm

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0/mCm m-mGOm/'0m%&mm('mm1*&'*m*m/(*m'3*m1*mm*,1 
*m *m 9&m m 4*m m m /''&m m /*01*m m (*m  m ,/,*m m *'m
&m/&m43*mmmmmm,3mm2*/mmm%&m/m'0&$m',0@m
&m'm&m1('(m*$mm*'*/m'@,*/$m%&mmmmm*,m%&m1*460m
*/m ='/m /m (6m /,&m /m /m 1'/m m )m m m 91m m /0/m m
%&mm*/&,*mm >m%&m/mm%&m406m/*1*'*mm/*01*mmB',*m'@,*m >m
*m ,=m 1*m /m 3*/m %&m 4,*/m (/'*m 'm  Gm U/&4m m m 5&*m m
-..#CFmm$m/mm1&'*mm(/'m m,'m m*,1*m'*mm1*&'*m' 
3*m>mm1*/0mm%&m/mm)&mm passing on defense Ȃ '=m&m'*m/&/**m
*0(*mm%&m,'mm/)*mm(m//',m/&m,mm/mm1&'*mm(/'m
m,*$mm ,**mm*',*m,'mm/)&m5&6Em1&m
&mm1*m%&@mm,=mmm%&@m&'6m8*m*m40mmm&'m1m 
',m%&@m/'6m)',*m1/(,'m&*mm mm*,3m'm
(*/m/0*/mm
m
CF m/m'*m%&m',0@m*/m*,1*/m'*/m1&m(/m/&*/mm1/'mm *
/1*'m,m1*m',*mmmmm(*m/m,'m&mm* 
'&m*m@$m*,*m4m*&*$m1*00,'$mmm/*mm ='mm/)&*mm
8*m06m''/mm/*/m91*/m8&m40m',*/m*,1*/m*m' 
1*mm*,1*/m*m'(*/m1m ,m 1*m5,1*$mmm/*mm/)&*m 
$m1*,*'*/mm&'/m*,/m(/m mm//mm/'*#m*m''/mm
)/m*,1*/m%&m'm&m1*/m)*m&'m*m*/m(*/mmm&m
,m1&m/&,/m*/m,=/mm/m,3/m*m1//m1*m1'mm*/m' /
'/m*m46m/*m)(m/&m1*/m'm/m&'*/mm*,1' CAm
m
CAm*/m2*/m6,'m,30/m/*m*/mm*/m1*(*/mm*/m'/'/m&*m
m='m1*&$m*,*m/m*,$m&m&mmm*' C+mm

mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm
CF
m /m &I&'4,m 4''m m I''m 8*&I'm
-         " %
2 $m/*m(*m,mG*V4Wm03*)mmG*V4WmJmm*4')//4'm/m/'/m

CA
m ,=/$m*,*m4m**m 40$m!m)m/m'4,/m/m3&mO4&)mm'//mm '
/)m3&m8L&)m&m&4/'3&)m(*m,X)4m 4//'3/1L4m(14'' &/m'4,//4'm
/m¯/'XVm/m 'm))mU'4'm/*m4'm/m3&m04m/mm¯')/0&4"m
C+
m4*,/m)mm8'mO/m ,'/m'*m'4m1('m*,'m*m''&/'mJ$m,0m-..+mWe conclude a
e deadweig loss is e social cos of e inefficiency of e price car el. Wen fac or prices drop e deadweig loss
srinks. In e case of full employmen e deadweig loss is zero. Addi ional arm is incurred by e redis ribu ion of in-

m
m

m
C+m m/*m)@/mMediana, 1m,*mm/m**mm/' m1&'*Em

Now, in e par icular case before us, apar from a circums ance wic I
will refer o immedia ely, e broad proposi ion seems o me o be a
by a wrongful ac of e defendan s e plain iffs were deprived of eir
vessel. Wen I say deprived of eir vessel, I will no use e prase " e
use of e vessel."   À
#    4À#  À  
À 4  
  À # 
# "  À ? More an one case as been pu
o illus ra e is: for example, e owner of a orse, or of a cair. Suppos-
ing a person ook away a cair ou of my room and kep i for welve
mon s, could anybody say    À
#   

  # 
4 
#  
  


ÀÀ  À 4 À  
 À
À  
À? Te proposi ion so nakedly s a ed appears
o me o be absurd; bu a jury ave very of en a very difficul ask o per-
form in ascer aining wa sould be e amoun of damages of a sor .
I know very well a as a ma er of common sense wa an arbi ra or or
a jury very of en do is o ake a perfec ly ar ificial ypo esis and say,
"Well, if you wan ed o ire a cair, wa would you ave o give for i
for e period"; and in a way ey come o a roug sor of conclusion
as o wa damages oug o be paid for e unjus and unlawful wi -
drawal of i from e owner. Here, as I say,  À À  

  
   
 
    À  
À     

4 À #

#   "      
#   4   " , excep --and is I ink as
been e fallacy running roug e argumen s a e bar --wen you are
endeavouring o es ablis e specific loss of profi , or of some ing a
you o erwise would ave go wic e law recognises as special dam-
age. In a case you mus sew i , and by precise evidence, so muc so
a in e old sys em of pleading you could no recover damages unless
you ad made a specific allega ion in your pleading so as o give e pe r-
sons responsible for making good e loss an oppor uni y of inquiring
in o i before ey came in o cour . Bu wen we are speaking of general
damages no suc principle applies a all, and e jury mig give wa -
ever ey oug would be e proper equivalen for e unlawful
wi drawal of e subjec -ma er en in ques ion.dz

m
C7 mmB',*m)&,'*m m1 5&*mm9,mm1*0,mmm passing on defense mm
m%&m*m06m,'/mm'm1 5&*m4m%&*m*,*mm9,m*/m)&, 
'*/m&*/mm(*mmm*'m m)&/'6m2m%&$m*m/**m/m,=/m**,m*mm 
mm4*m m='/m /*m%&m/&m'*m ,=/m15&m >m1(mm)',m
'(mm*/m*/&,*/m/m >m1&m5&/'/m'*mmmmm4*m
m 2*/m 8*')m m m )m m */m */&,*/m 'm m */m 2*/m &/*/m 1*m
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come from owners of e fac ors of produc ion o price car els in e form of profi . We ave sown a e more e
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