Anima Singh KD (III), NIFT Bengaluru 11/9/2010

NIFT Bangalore .   Submitted By: Anima Singh KD III. V. He consistently inspired and motivated me for completing this project . Anima Singh. the completion of the project would never been possible . would like to acknowledge and extend my heartfelt gratitude to Mr. Without his able guidance and assistance. Mohan Kumar for his vital encouragement and support. I am also grateful to my friends and fami ly for their moral support and encouragement.K. KD III.Acknowled ement I.

For this reason. etc. flares. Wales ¤ £ KN ¡ ¢¢¡ N effect of darts. if the latter. often a garment. To secure a stitch. Although the new stitch is itse lf unsecured (active or live). forming symmetric loops (also called bights) symmetrically above and below the mean path of the yarn. knitted garments can stretch as much as 500%. however. The two types of stitches have a different visual effect. such pixels are usually rectangular. the active stitches are secured mechanically. the next stitch can pass through the previous loop either from below or above. can be obtained with sh ort rows or by increasing or decreasing the number of stitches. If the former. unraveling knitting. Thread used in weaving is usually much finer than the yarn used in knitting. by contrast. the knit stitches look like V 's stacked vertically. the stitch is denoted as a knit stitch or a plain stitch . unless they are woven from stretc hable material such as spandex. since their elasticity allows them to follow the body's curvature closely. may be made taller by drawing more yarn into the new loop (an elongated stitch). it secures the stitch(es) suspended from it. Knit and pu l stitches : In securing the previous stitch in a wale. Individual stitches. threads are always straight. to secure the final stitches in a wale. whereas the purl stitches look like a wavy horizontal line across the fabric. a new loop is pulled through an existing loop. During knitting. which can give the knitted fabric more bulk and less drape than a woven fabric. rather than square. a method for casting on is used.3|Page Knitting is a method by which thread o r yarn may be turned into cloth or other fine crafts. the yarn in knitted fabrics follows a meandering path (a course). Knitted garments are often more form -fitting than woven garments. which gives knitting much more elasticity than woven fabrics. either from individual hooks (in knitting machines) or from a knitting needle or frame in hand-knitting. A sequence of stitches in which each stitch is suspended fr om the next is called a wale. the seams of which lower the elasticity of the woven fabric still further. at least one new loop is passed through it. Patterns and pictures can be created in knitted fabrics by using knit and purl stitches as "pixels". the loops of a knitted course will come undone when their yarn is pulled this is known as ripping out. Knitting is a technique for producing a two -dimensional fabric made from a one-dimensional yarn or thread. Extra curvature can be introduced into knitted garments without seams. as a purl stitch. forming a fish -like oval pattern. The active stitches are held on a needle until another loop can be passed through them. If loops are not secured. woven garments s tretch mainly along bias direction and are not very elastic. gussets and gores. called stitches. as in the heel of a sock. curvature is introduced into most woven garments only with sewn darts. For comparison. which is the basis for uneven knitting: a row of tall stitches may alternate with one or more rows of short stitches for an interesting visual effect. This process eventually results in a final product. To secure the initial stitches of a knitted fabric. Short and tall stitches may also alternate within a row. As each row progresses. By contrast. Knitting consists of consecutive loops. depending on the yarn and knitting pattern. These meandering loops can be stretched easily in different direction . In weaving. Stretchability of knitted fabric STITCHES OF KNITTED FABRIC: Courses . one uses a method of binding off. running parallel either lengthwise (warp threads) or crosswise (weft threads). depending on the gauge of the knitting. knitting was initially developed for garments that must be elastic or stretch in response to the wearer's motions. such as socks and hosiery. flares. The two stitches are related in that a knit stitch seen from one side of the fabric appears as a purl stitch on the other side. or rows of stitches.

Depending on the ¥ Front view of plain knitted fabric : Wales Back view of plain knitted fabric: Courses Right. the twist can be clockwise . thus lengthening that wale by one stitch. Th e merged stitches need not be from the same row. thus clustering the intervening stitches. a new stitch is passed thro ugh a single unsecured (active) loop.and left-plaited stitches are functionally equivalent. a tuck can be formed by knitting stitches together from two different rows. this approach is often used to produce a smocking effect in the fabric. The slipped stitches are naturally longer than the knitted ones. a common choice is 2x2 ribbing. this need not be so.and left-plaited stitches: Both knit and purl stitches may be twisted: usually once if a t all. For example. i. and produces a vertical ladder of see through holes in the fabric. but wrapping the yarn as usual.e. a stitch may be deliberately left unsecured by a new stitch and its wale allowed to disas semble. but sometimes twice and very rarely thrice. respectively. passing the needle through the initial stitch in an unusual way.|Page distance between where the loop is drawn through the fabric and where it is knitted. the simplest of these is garter stitch. a stitch slipped for one row before knitting would be roughly twice as tall as its knitted counterparts.. Checkerboard patterns (basketweave) are also possible. corresponding to where the wale had been. for example. Hand -knitters generally produce right-plaited stitches by knitting or purling through the back loops. since the neighboring knit wales come forward. Typically. However. some may be left as is and knitted on a subsequent row. these fabrics are denoted as stockinette and reverse stockinette. making it stiffer. the left-plaited stitch is generally formed by hand knitters by wrapping the yarn in the opposite way. rows of purl stitches tend to form an embossed ridge relative to a row of knit stitches. In the simplest knitted fabrics. When seen from above. . Thus. The new loop may also be passed between two stitches in the present row. This is known as drop-stitch knitting. Fabrics in which the number of knit and purl stitches are not the same. an important technique in hand-knitting patterned fabrics. Although they are mirror images in form.left yarn over right . the purl wales in ribbing tend to be invisible. producing a raised horizontal welt on the fabric. or counterclockwise . for example. so-called because its great elasticity made it well -suited for garters. In some cases.and left-plaited stitches. whereas those of knit stitches tend to come forward. This is the basis of shadow knitting. by contrast. Slip -stitch knitting plays an important role in mosaic knitting. by alternating rows of knit and purl stitches. Not every stitch in a row need be knitted. the new loop may be passed through an already secured stitch lower down on the fabric. mosaic-knit fabrics tend to be stiffer than patterned fabrics produced by other methods such as Fair-Isle knitting. dip stitches can produce a subtle stippling or long lines across the surface of the fabric. in which the appearance of a knitted fabric changes when viewed from different directions. garter stitch or seed stitch) tend to lie flat and drape well. respectively. these are denoted as right.. such as stockinette. The new loop may also be passed through two or more previous stitches. and tend to draw the fabric inwards. producing a decrease and merging wales together. the lower leaves of a flower. Horizontal striping (welting) is also possible. the smallest of which is known as seed stitch: the stitches alternate between knit and purl in every wale and along every row. have a tendency to curl. in which two wales of knit stitches are followed by two wales of purl stitches. although the resulting fabric is more rigid. e. Plaited stitches are a common method for knitting jewelry from fine metal wire. right . By contrast.right yarn over left. Conversely. This can produce interesting visual effects. rather than by any change in the needle. because the slipped stitch "pulls" on its neighbors and is less deformable.g. Wales of purl stitches have a tendency to recede. This is known as slip -stitch knitting. Vertical stripes (ribbing) are possible by having alternating wales of knit and purl stitches. etc. all of the stitches are knit or purl. those in which knit and purl stitches are arranged symmetrically (such as ribbing. Both types of plaited stitches give a subtle but interesting visual texture. or even between secured stitches (a dip stitch).

in which every stitch is a yarn over or a decrease. Faggoting is stretchy and open. top and bottom) by purl stitches. the central edges of a cardigan. seed stitch is nubbly. In garter-stitch fabrics. the symmetry of their two faces prevents them from curling to one side or the other. garter stitch is produced by knitting and purling alternate rows. garter stitch is produced by knitting every stitch (or purling every stitch. though this is much less common).. faggoting has little structural strength and deforms easily. and most faggoting stitches look the same on both sides. not nearly as smooth as stockinette. and vice versa. Faggoting stitch Seed stitch .g.5|Page Garter stitch: Garter stitch is the most basic form of welting (as seen from the right side). Faggoting stitch: Faggoting is a variation of lace knitting. it makes an excellent choice for edging. However. By contrast. There are several types of faggoting. Garter stitch fabric has significant lengthwise elasticity and little tendency to curl. in the flat. due to the symmetry of its faces. Garter stitch Seed stitch: Seed stitch is the most basic form of a basket weave pattern. knit and purl stitches alternate in every column ("wale") and every row ("course"). Seed stitch is similar to Moss Stitch. making them ideal for garments like lacy scarves or stockings. Seed-stitch fabrics lie flat. the purl rows stand out from the knit rows. e. but all are an extremely open lace similar to netting. every knit stitch is flanked on all four sides (left and right. In the round. which provides the basis for shadow knitting. Hence. so it has little tendency to curl despite being asymmetrical. In other words. Like most lace fabrics.

the old yarn is left hanging. In the more complex stranded approach. however. Weft -knit fabrics may also be knit with multiple yarns. wooden ones used to make bobbin lace. Materials required include multiple colours of yarn. the yarns are used in well-segregated regions. slip stitch colour. The two most common approaches are intarsia and stranded colorw ork. Intarsia: Intarsia is a knitting technique used to create patterns with multiple colours. Double knitting can produce two separate knitted fabrics simultaneously. usually to produce interesting color patterns. there is only one "active" colour on any given stitch. a red apple on a field of green.g. and double knitting). Intarsia is most often worked flat. the yarns are kept on separate spools and only one is knitted at any time. and yarn is not carried across the back of the work. solid-colour features like fruits. As with the woodworking technique of the same name. fields of different colours and materials appear to be inlaid in one another. fit together like a jigsaw puzzle..However. In the more complex double k nitting.6|Page TYPES OF KNITTING There are two major types of knitting: Weft knitting Warp knitting. two or more yarns alternate repeatedly within one row and all the yarns must be carried along the row. Unlike the narrow. two socks. Double knitting can produce two separate knitted fabrics simultaneously. Argyle socks and sweaters are normally done in intarsia. the two fabrics are usually integrated into one . This means that any intarsia piece is topologically several disjoint columns of colour. Unlike other multicolour techniques (including Fair Isle. modern intarsia bobbins resemble translucent plastic yo -yos that can snap tight to prevent the yarn from unwinding. as seen in Fair Isle sweaters.g. standard needles. but are in fact all separate pieces. However. Weft Knitted Fabric . flowers. y Weft-knit fabrics may also be knit with multiple yarns. when a colour changes on a given row.g. in that case.g. e. and bobbins. although the thin diagonal lines are often overlaid in a later step. as seen in Fair Isle sweaters. In intarsia. using Swiss darning or sometimes just a simple backstitch. Bobbins serve to contain the inactive yarn and help keep it from getting tangled.. the wales are perpendicular to the course of the yarn.. the two fabrics are usually integrated into one. two socks. usually to produce interesting color patterns. the yarns are used in well -segregated regions. it is possible to knit intarsia in circular knitting using particular techniques. The two most common approaches are Intarsia Double Knitting Weft knitting: In the more common weft knitting. giving it great warmth and excellent drape. e. e. a simple blue circle on a white background involves one column of blue and two of white---one for the left and one for the right. e. Common examples of intarsia include sweaters with large. Process of Intarsia: Knitting in intarsia theoretically requires no additional skills beyond being generally comfortable with the basic knit and purl stitches. y In intarsia. rather than in the round. or geometric shapes.. In that case. a red apple on a field of green. the yarns are kept on separate spools and only one is knitted at any time. two or more yarns altern ate repeatedly within one row and all the yarns must be carried along the row. giving it great warmth and excellent drape.

tuck or transfer stitches. Thus. the crafter slides the stitches to the other end of the needle and begins the next row with the next yarn.e. you then turn the work and begin another pair of rows. towards the viewer and away from the wearer's body) and the wrong side (the side that faces inwards. away from the viewer and towards the wearer's body ). A "Flat" or Vee Bed knitting machine consists of 2 flat needle beds arranged in an upside -down "V" formation. because of the mechanics of knitting. in this sense resembling dot -matrix computer graphics or needlepoint patterns (though usually without t he colour nuance of the latter). The charts generally look like highly pixe lated cartoon drawings. In flat knitting.5 metres wide. or by a purl stitch on the wrong side. the piece is turned round just as with regular knitting. i. In principle. allowing complex stitch designs. in some versions of double knitting with two yarns and double-pointed knitting needles. It is. To make more elaborated patterns. the pattern is continued by always working each stitch in the same colour as the previous row. Flat knitting can complicate knitting somewhat compared to circular knitting. at the end of the row. After the first row. Only half the stitches are knit with any one yarn. . and the knitter returns back the way they came. as in interlock knitted fabrics. a knit stitch (as seen from the right side) may be produced by a knit stitch on the right side. knit. This may cause the gauge of the knitting to vary in alternating rows of stockinette fabrics. the fabric is usually turned after every row. The fabrics may be inseparable. the rest are slipped.. since the same stitch (as seen from the right side) is produced by two different movements when knitted from the right and wrong sides. These needle beds can be up to 2. including flat knitting on doubled-pointed knitting needles. Front on an intarsia knitted fabric Flat Knitting: Flat knitting is a method for producing knitted fabrics in which the work is turned periodically. Back of an intarsia knitted fabric The simplest intarsia pattern is for straight vertical stripes. Double Knitting: Double knitting is a form of knitting in which two fabrics are knit simultaneously with two yarns on one pair of needles. one can let this colour boundary drift from row to row. and Shima Seiki of Japan. working the needles to selectively. are read beginning at the lower right and continuing upward boustrophedonically). and may be eliminated with practice (the usual way) or by using needles of two different sizes (a n unusual way). the fabric may turned after every second row. A flat knitting machine is very flexible. The two sides (or faces ) of the fabric are usually designated as the right side (the side that faces outwards. When they arrive at a point where the colour changes. the knitter simply begins knitting their pattern. however. Intarsia patterns are almost always given as charts (which. changing colours a few stitches earlier or later each time. Methods of Double Knitting: There are several methods for double knitting. an arbitrary number n of fabrics can be knitted simultaneously on one pair of knitting needles with n yarns. however relatively slow when compared to a circular machine. The two largest manufacturers of industrial flat knitting machines are Stoll of Germany. shaped knitting and precise width adjustment. this effect is usually not noticeable. also known as a Cambox or Head. the fabric is knitted from alternating sides. changing colours at the exact same point in each row. as long as one is careful. after one row has been knit with one yarn. However. If flat knitting.7|Page After winding a few yards of each colour onto its own bobbin (and possibly several bobbins' worth of some colours). the knitter brings the new colour up underneath the old one (to prevent holes) and starts knitting with it. A carriage. or they can simply be two unconnected fabrics. moves backwards and forwards across these needle beds. After both rows are done.

whereas weft knitting is done by both hand and machine. When knitting circularly. cardigan fronts) are temporarily knitted with extra stitches. although it does make the t ask of flat knitting a little more complicated. warp knitting is typically done by machine. the wales and courses run roughly parallel. circular needles were invented. moving across the fabric as in a raster scan. This technique is called steeking. Later. creating a knitted tube. circular knitting was done using a set of four or five double-pointed needles. raschel knits. Warp-knitted fabrics such as tricot and Milanese are resistant to runs. including tricot. which can also be used to do circular knitting: the circular needle looks like two short knitting needles connected by a cable between them. double bed machines can be set up to knit on the front bed in one direction then the back bed on the return. Since a typical piece of knitted fabric may have hundreds of wales. Many types of sweaters are traditionally knit in the round. and are stitched with a sewing machine to prevent unraveling. and milanese knits. the entire fabric may be produced from a single yarn. using different size needles as well as different stitches can produce a unique look and feel to the gauge of the pattern. necks. Warp knitting: In warp knitting. Planned openings (arm holes. Circular Knitting: Circular knitting or knitting in the round is a form of knitting that creates a seamless tube. Machines also do circular knitting. reinforced if necessary. By contrast. one yarn is required for every wale. Warp Knitted Fabric Types of Warp Knitting: Warp knitting comprises several types of knitted fabrics. and are commonly used in lingerie. All warp -knit fabrics are resistant to runs and relatively easy to sewThere are six fundamental stitches in warp knitting: Circular Knitting y y y y Tricot Knit Milanese Knit Simplex Knit Raschel Knit . by adding stitches to each wale in turn. This is especially true when stockinette fabrics are used as the basis or foundation for the knitting. Specialized knitting machines for sock -knitting use individual latch-hook needles to make each stitch in a round frame. Adding in a garter stitch to produce an unusual flat knit will only enhance the look and feel. Knitting is worked in rounds (the equivalent of rows in flat knitting) in a spiral. For example. the knitting is cast on and the circle of stitches is joined. Then the extra stitches are cut to create the opening. In weft knitting. Originally. in warp knitting.8|Page Using flat knitting can produce some interesting results.

loungewear. to carpets. hence. Simplex fabric is used to make gloves. It is a small part of warp knit production. Some examples of tricot fabric are lingerie. elasticity. milanese fabric is superior to tricot in smoothness.9|Page y y Ketten Raschel Knit Crochet Knit . It can be identified by the fine rib on the face and a diagonal pattern on the back. blouses. has a better hand. Crochet Milanese Simplex Knit: Simplex fabric is made of fine yarn and is relatively dense and thick. handbags. more stable. laces. superior elasticity and cover.Raschel knits do not stretch significantly and are often bulky. This construction is used in a wide variety of fabrics ranging from nets and laces to bedspreads and carpets Tricot Milanese Knit: The milanese stitch produces a fabric very similar to tricot. regularity of structure. split and tear resistance . straight skirts and dress . they are often used as an unlined material for coats. Milanese is now virtually obsolete. consequently. raschel Ketten Raschel Knit: This is also known as the chain raschel. dresses. wrinkle resistant and has good drapability. Raschel Knit: The raschel knit ranks in importance of production with tricot but it make varieties of products ranging from veilings. sleepwear. is used in better lingerie. Eyelets and other openwork can also be produced on the simplex machine. Milanese is stronger. sportswear and slip covers. . The machine can be equipped to produce raised pattern effects in one or more colors. Raschel knitting is done with heavy yarns and usually has an intricate lace-like pattern. shirts. slacks etc. However.Tricot Knit : Tricot fabric is soft. jacke ts.Tricot is very common in lingerie. The fabric is finer. smoother and more expensive than tricot and. power nets for foundation garments. Crochet Knit: This basic stitch is used in hand -crochet. Tricot knits are used for a wide variety of fabric weights and designs.

between the Orkney and Shetland islands. The run will continue to the bottom (i. Traditional Fair Isle sweater construction usually involves knitting the body of the sweater in the round.g. always alternating colours every stitch. carried as a loose strand of yarn behind the just-made stitch. the cross -strands of runs (the "rungs" of the ladder) can also be mo dified in various ways. where the unused strand is held in slightly different positions relative to the needles and thereby woven into the fabric. since they follow the grain of the knitting. Others use the Fair Isle Knitting .. a tiny island in the north of Scotland. use only two colours per row. the columns o f dependent loops. by drawing four strands through the four below them. and so on repeatedly). A more modern variation is woven Fair Isle. These cuts are known as steeks in American knitting terminology. As another example. one is drawn through to make the knit stitch. and if you started with an odd number of stitches. cast on any number of stitches. then (deliberately) drop one or more stitches (i.Traditional Fair Isle patterns normally had no more than two or three consecutive stitches of any given colour. Instead of being left open. with the unused colours stranded across the back of the work.) At each knit stitch. just keep knitting round and round. it will be a diagonal grid that appears to mix the two colours . For example. Drop Stitch Knitting Fair Isle Knitting: Fair Isle is a traditional knitting technique used to create patterns with multiple colours. Traditional Fair Isle patterns have a limited palette of five or so colours. one can re -work them into larger knitted bights. cast-on) edge of the garment. Drop-stitch stripes are usually vertical. and too many consecutive stitches of one c olour means a very long strand of the other. which is probably easiest. Drop-stich runs are an easy way to get the "see -through" effect of lace. vertical stripes in a garment. The basic idea is to knit a solid fabric. the endpoints of the stripe are specified by the initial increase and the point at which the first stitch was dropped. i. but not in the Shetland Isles where the Fair Isle technique was developed. producing a run (or ladder) in the fabric. although it is also possible to simply use two different fingers for the two colours of yarn and knit both using the same style. sewing or otherwise fastening the work securely where the arm holes are to go. term "stranded colourwork" for the generic technique. Knitters who are comfortable with both English style and Continental style knitting can carry one colour with their right hand and one with their le ft. using a crochet hook. in interlace or by increasing on one edge and decreasing on the other. draw a loop out from the loop below it.e. and reserve the term "Fair Isle" for the characteristic patterns of the Shetland Islands. the "rungs" can be bound up in different patt erns using a contrasting yarn and a darning needle.. (The purl stitch is not used. at which it stops. Technique: Basic two-colour Fair Isle requires no new techniques beyond the basic knit stitch. an d the other is simply held behind the piece. It is named after Fair Isle. there are two available "active" colours of yarn. the term "Fair Isle" has been applied very generally and loosely to any stranded color knitting which has no relation to the knitting of Fair Isle or any of the other Shetland Island s.e. The designer can make interesting arrangements of open stripes (o f whatever length). the grain of the knitting can be made off-vertical.10 | P a g e Techniques of Knitting: Drop-Stitch Knitting: Drop-stitch knitting is a knitting technique for producing open. quite easy to catch with a finger or button. e.. and limit the length of a run of any particular colour.Beginning in the 1990s. The simplest Fair Isle pattern is as follows: using circular or double pointed needles. because they were stranded. but trapped closely against the back of the piece. still invisible from the front.. or until it encounters an increase.. but with a much more casual look.e. If you started with an even number of stitches. the wales. and then cutting the knit fabric to make the armholes. This permits a nearly limitless variety of patterns with considerably larger blocks of colour. However. are worked in the round. Then. you will end up with a vertically striped tube of fabric. Some people use the term "Fair Isle" to refer to any colour work knitting where stitches are knit alternately in various colors. and so on indefinitely. Fair Isle knitting gained a considerable popularity when the Prince of Wales (later to become Edward VIII) wore Fair Isle Tank tops in public in 1921. e.g.

fields of different colours and materials appear to be inlaid in one another. .. and double knitting). e. the pattern is continued by always working each stitch in the same colour as the previous row. changing colours a few stitches earlier or later each time. Basic Methods: Technique: Knitting in intarsia theoretically requires no additional skills beyond being generally comfortable with the basic knit and purl stitches. Argyle socks and sweaters are normally done in intarsia. The simplest intarsia pattern is for straight vertical stripes. The knitter then turns the work and repeats indefinitely. Common examples of intarsia include sweaters with large. and the knitter returns back the way they came. Intarsia patterns are almost always given as charts (which. and bobbins. and/or to carry over colors from an earlier row. one can let this colour boundary drift from row to row. stitch A is knitted. A vertical column of such "double-height" stitches is a nice accent. As a concrete example. stitch B is purled. there is only one "active" colour on any given stitch. The knitter then slides the stitches back to the beginning (recall that the needles are double -pointed). wooden ones used to make bobbin lace. at the end of the row. but are in fact all separate pieces. When they arrive at a point where the colour changes. it is possible to knit intarsia in circular knitting using particular techniques. where it produces a small horizontal "bar". on a scarf or in a sweater. The charts generally look like highly pixellated cartoon drawings. Double Knitting with Slip Stitches : Slip stitches may be used for an easier method of double knitting that requires only one yarn be handled at one time. the stitch is passed from the left needle to the right needle without being knitted. Bobbins serve to contain the inactive yarn and help keep it from getting tangled. this is invisible. the old yarn is left hanging. using color 2. the yarn can be "tucked". stitch A is slipped wyib. standard needles. and yarn is not carried across the back of the work. rather than in the round. resulting in a (very warm!) double -knit scarf alternating in the two colors with beautiful dra pe. e. a simple blue circle on a white backgro und involves one column of blue and two of white---one for the left and one for the right. whereas the purled and wyif stitches recede. solid-colour features like fruits. However. in this sense resembling dot -matrix computer graphics or In the basic slip stitch. like the simpler wyib. fit together like a jigsaw puzzle. when a colour changes on a given row. Unlike other multicolour techniques (including Fair Isle. Materials required include multiple colours of yarn. of the double-knitted fabric while the slipped stitches allow for the alternation of color. the knitter simply begins knitting their pattern.g. On the first row. using color 1. respectively. The yarn may be passed invisibly behind the slipped stitch (wyib="with yarn in back") or in front of the sl ipped stitch (wyif="with yarn in front"). After winding a few yards of each colour onto its own bobbin (and possibly several bobbins' worth of some colours). are read beginning at the lower right and continuing upward boustrophedonically). To make more elabourate patterns. flowers. modern intarsia bobbins resemble translucent plastic yo -yos that can snap tight to prevent the y arn from unwinding. The knit and purl stitches produce the front and back fabrics. although several knitting patterns use it to produce a visual effect like woven cloth. stitch C is knitted and stitch D is purled. made into a yarnover that is knitted together with the slipped stitch on the next row. or geometric shapes. Then. the wyib slipped stitch is twice as tall as its neighboring stitches. using Swiss darning or sometimes just a simple backstitch. stitch B is slipped wyif. consider a two-color pattern with a multiple of four stitches (labeled ABCD) being knit on double pointed circular needles. After the first row. The wyif slipped stitch is less common. although the thin diagonal lines are often overlaid in a later step. the piece is turned round just as with regular knitting. i. particularly in a contrasting color. slip stitch colour. changing colours at the exact same point in each row. needlepoint patterns (though usually without the colour nuance of the latter). Alternatively. because of the mechanics of knitting. This means that any intarsia piece is topologically several disjoint columns of colour. to make extra-long stitches. Intarsia is most often worked flat. If flat knitting. stitch C is sl ipped wyib and stitch D is slipped wyif. Intarsia Knitted Fabric Slip-Stitch Knitting: Slip-stitch knitting is a family of knitting techniques that use slip stitches to make multiple fabrics simultaneously. Unlike the narrow. As with the woodworking technique of the same name. The knitted and slipped wyib stitches come forward.. If knitted on the next row.11 | P a g e Intarsia: Intarsia is a knitting technique used to create patterns with multiple colours. the knitter brings the new colour up underneath the old one (to prevent holes) and starts knitting with it.

Therefore.Row 1 -2 (still following the pattern at row 1) (WS): knit the blank boxes.Row 1 -4 (WS): purl the blank boxes. the stitch is knitted with the white yarn. then two rows of color B. Each row in the pattern represents four rows of knit or purl stitches. The second (return) row repeats the slip/knit choices of the first row. So the basic idea is to create a pattern in knit stitches in the colors one wants and purl stitches in the background color. mosaic knitt ing is significantly lighter than Fair-isle knitting. knit the ones filled in. if they require too many slipped stitches or if the colors do not line up conveniently (as described above). mosaic patterns are rather rectilinear. i. rather than just two. Only knit or purl stitches are used. The tension in the fabric may also distort the rectilinear l ines into curves. This is probably the secret technique of Anna Makarovna from Leo Tolstoy's War and Peace. Depending on the pattern. particularly geometrical or Grecian designs. Historically. When looking straight at the knitted piece. such fabrics may be better for coats and jackets. one should obtain a "pocket" that can be opened (be sure to use wyif slip-stitches during binding off as well!) The wyif slip stitch prevents the yarn from crossing over to the back fabric. a mosaic -knit fabric may be stiff and tense. this is row 2 -1. Consider the pattern: * knit 1. In the end. Method Despite its impressive effect. (Note that. 2x3=6 . but not needed. Long horizontal bars of the same color are also more convenient in mosaic knitting than they are in Fair -isle knitting (where such bars require that the other c olors be held at the back for long runs). slip 1 wyif *. which is nearly twice as thick and bulky.Move to Row 2 on the pattern and begin knitting the BC. A knit stitch is flat. since the fabric is being knitted from the wrong side. which do not require as much drape. shadow knitting is a simple technique. the pattern is impossible for mosaic knitting. with regularly spaces spots of the opposing color. slipped). the stitch (from the white row below) is slipped wyib. On the other hand. if a black stitch is desired. Now if a white stitch is desi red at a given position. although the limitations on the pattern become even more severe. by contrast. the stitches look approximately the same. the stitch is knitted using the black yarn. the stitches are slipped wyif. As in mosaic knitting. across and back. Then knit the stitches that were slipped and slip (again wyif) the stitches that were knitted. Repeat for all rows and bind-off. then two rows of color A. Therefore. mosaic knitting has limitations relative to other techniques for producing color patterns in knitting such as Fair isle knitting.12 | P a g e An even simpler slip-stitch pattern generates two fabrics at once on the same needle. this constraint on possible patterns can be well hidden if the pattern is large enough. done in mosaic knitting. etc. Some color patterns may be impossible for mosaic knitting. by contrast. knit.e. purl the ones filled in. If a black stitch is needed in a white -yarn row and the stitch of the previous row was white (i. The visual effect of shadow knitting is due to the different height of the knit stitches on the wrong side rows. and black being the master color (MC).. while a purl stitch is raised. one can change which color (dark or light) stands out by changin g from knit to purl. who always knit two socks simultaneously . Blocks of solid colors can be Mosaic Knitting Shadow Knitting: Shadow knitting also called "illusion knitting" is a knitting technique that produces patterns that vary with the direction of viewing. The knitter casts on an entirely white row. across and back. ..e. 2x1=2. turn the work. although any two colors may be used. but only one yarn is handled at one time. any black or white vertical stripe must begin and end with the corresponding yarn. Mosaic knitting can produce many beautiful patterns. However. eff ectively giving double height. which allows the knitter to knit only one row per color .) The knitter then takes up the white yarn and knits two rows. i. so that only the front fabric is knitted in any row. etc. Another variant is to hold the yarns on opposite edges (or to knit circularly). only the raised purl stitches are visible. and each column represents one stitch. the stitch is slipped from the row below (if it is black). blocks of solid colors are usually broken up with stippling. which implies that the number of knitted rows in any vertical stripe must be 2 times an odd number.. However. if a black stitch is desired. Start at row one. Colors with good contrast are preferred. The knitter then introduces the black yarn and knits two rows. but from an angle. Let the first and second yarns be called "black" and "white" for specificity. but require many slipped stitches in a row. knit. Slip Stitch honeycomb design Mosaic Knitting: Mosaic knitting uses two colors (usually both held at one side). These problems may be overcome by judiciously elongating the stitches. hence.Row 1-3 (RS): change to MC. being composed mainly of thin horizontal and vertical stripes that meet at right angles. The knitter knits two rows of color A. To follow this pattern you would use black and white. this could be thought of as Row 1 -1 and is a right-side row (RS): with BC. the knitter alternates between two colors. At the end of the row. If a white stitch is desired at a given position. due to the many slipped stitches. white being the background color (BC). on the return row.e. A simple extension of mosaic knitting is to use multiple colors.

A two-cable braid can look like a rope. The first two may be crossed in front of the next two.. A three-cable braid is usually a simple plait (as often seen in girls' hair). Conversely. The stitches crossing behind are transferred to a small cable needle for storage while the stitches passing in front are knitted. It may be helpful to think of a cable pattern as a set of serpentine or wave-like cables. A lternatively.. every other row. the separation s of their center lines. A one-cable serpentine is simply a cable that moves sinusoidally left and right as it progresses. but can also be made to look like the links in a chain. since one ridge may "overs hadow" another. Higher -order braids are often made with such serpentines crossing over and under each other. possibly because it is very wide. let there be four stitches on the needle in the order ABCD. The stark contrast of alternating light and dark stripes is also visually interesting. having a much more narrow gauge. the cables themselves are with a knit stitch while the background is done in purl. Thus. Various visual effects are also possible by shifting the center lines of the undulating cables. forming the order CDAB Methods: Two different styles of cable needles. it can look like two serpentines. as would . a background seed stitch in the regions bounded by cables often looks striking. Cable stitches are generally permuted only on the right side. due to its larger gauge. often used as a centerpiece of an aran sweater or along the neckline and hemlines. The six-cable braid is called a Saxon braid.e. left over right). for a single stitch. it has a shimmering quality. how far they wander from their center line).g. If the number of stitches is not reduced. Another visually intriguing effect is meta cabling.13 | P a g e There are no constraints on the position of the purl/knit stitches. where the cable itself is made up of cables. sinusoidal versus triangular).. one on top of the other. Other k nitters prefer to transfer the stitches to a large safety pin or. Two cables should cross each other completely in a single row. In such cases. Cable knitting is usually less flexible and more dense than typical knitting. It is very difficult to make an intermediate crossing row of fewer stitches look good. normally be expected. similar to a kris dagger. This narrow gauge should be considered when changing from the cable stitch to another type of knitted fabric . the shape of the waves (e. if the cables always cross in the same way (e. Another interesting effect is to have one cable "pierce" another cable. Thus. As the number of cables increases. so a nearly infinite variety of patterns can be made. but any combination will do. complex patterns such as the branches of a tree. Having a spacer row helps the fabric to "relax". for example.g. rather than having it pass over or under the other. stitches ma y need to be added to maintain the gauge when changing from another knitted fabric such as stocking to a cable pattern. ribbed cuffs on an aran sweater may not contract around the wrist or waist. as described by the braid group. such as a three-cable plait made of strands that are themselves 2 -cable plaits.For example. or as three independent serpentines.. A vast variety of cable patterns can be invented by changing the number of cables. Cables are usually done in stocking stitch. The seven-cable braid is rarely used. The pattern will not be apparent from every direction of viewing. the "inner" cables sometimes go their separate ways. with a reverse stocking background. and is visually interesting because one side is cresting while the other side is in a trough. The former stitches are then transferred back to the original needle or knitted from the cable needle itself. or by changing the space between the cables. simply hold it in their fingers while knitting the other stitch(es). Knitters often enjoy watching when the picture created becomes visible. i. two cables three stitches wide should cross with the three stitches of one cable passing over the three of the other cable. each one meandering around its own center line. and the relative position of Shadow stitch Cable Knitting: Cable knitting is a style of knitting in which the order of stitches is permuted. making them denser or more open. A four-cable braid allows for several crossing patterns. The five-cable braid is sometimes called the Celtic princess braid. This is a large motif. for example. the number of crossing patterns increases. forming beautiful. Cable Braids: Cables are often used to make braid patterns. the amplitudes of their waves (i.e. and looks square and solid. Usually. the second knitted fabric may flare out or pucker.

If the decrease precedes the yarn-over.. e. a deep honeycomb pattern can be made by adjacent serpentines. magazines where they were copied in Iceland with single ply wool. skp") stitch pairs (again. some knitted lace is almost all holes.g. Knitted lace with no bound-off edges is extremely elastic. There are few constraints on positioning the holes. yo. first touching the neighbor on the left then the neighbor on the right. To design a simple lace motif. it typically slants left as seen from the right side (e. "yo. From there. by separating the yarn-overs and decreases. it typically slants right as seen from the right side (e. because of its complexity and because woven fabrics cannot easily be made to have holes. Other common patterns in clude a "Y"-like shape (and its inverse) and a horseshoe crab patter n. one can form a lattice of cables.g. so practically any picture or pattern can be outlined with holes.. Famous examples include the wedding ring shawl of Shetland knitting. ssk" or "yo.. At the other extreme. going left and right and integrating themselves in the neighboring cables. mimicking the veins in a leaf. as seen on the right side). a knitter can draw its lines on a piece of knitting graph paper. Technique: A hole can be introduced into a knitted fabric by pairing a yarn-over stitch with a nearby (usually adjacent) decrease. Pairing a yarn-over with a decrease keeps the stitch count constant.g. These slants pull the fabric away from the yarn over. opening up the hole. little rosettes of one hole surrounded by others in a hexagon). forming an "X". If the decrease follows the yarn -over. knit ting with pattern stitches on only one side of the fabric.g. e. Separating the yarn -over from its decrease "tilts" all the intervening s titches towards the decrease. k2tog. knitting patterns for the shawls were printed in Englis h women's Lace Knitting . For example. True knitted lace has pattern stitches on both the right and wrong sides. see knitting abbreviations). right -slanting lines should be produced with "k2tog. yo" stitch-pairs (as seen on the right side) whereas left -slanting lines should be produced with "yo. A typical example is a set of parallel 2 cable plaits in which.14 | P a g e the crests and troughs of each wave (e.g. Shetland knitted lace became extremely popular in Victorian England when Queen Victoria became a Shetland lace enthusiast. Cable Pattern Lace Knitting: Lace knitting is a style of knitting characterized by stable "holes" in the fabric arranged with consideration of aesthetic value. Eyelet patterns are those in which the holes make up only a small fraction of the fabric and are isolated into clusters (e. so that holes are separated by at least two threads. common motifs include leaves. equivalently. ferns and flowers. In the process. rosettes. k5... k2tog tbl" (or. not k2tog). faggoting. is technically not lace. More sophisticated patterns will change the grain of the fabric to help the design. k2tog tbl or ssk. k2tog. not k2tog tbl.g. The tilt may form part of the design. Many beautiful patterns separate the yarn -over and decrease stitches. is one wave cres ting as another is crossing its center line?). Lace is sometimes considered the pinnacle of knitting. but often called "lacy knitting". knitted lace garments must be blocked or "dressed" before use. a shawl so fine that it could be drawn through a wedding ring.. and tend to stretch over time Cable Lattices: In some cases. Cable Textures: Many patterns made with cables do not have a rope -like quality. every so often. As a consequence.g. the two cables of each plait separate. the right -going cable of one plait crosses the left -going cable of its neighbor. a kind of ribbing made of cables where the individual cable strands can be exchanged freely. deforming easily to fit whatever it is draped on.. e.

Machines with stitch transfer and intarsia capabilities can create the well known argyle styles. bearded needles are used which are set into a straight-bar in a long row and the entire bar is reciprocated by rotary cams which causes the knitting action. making it necessary to produce the welts/cuffs on special ribbing knitting machines. The carriage effectively raises and lowers the needle s on both beds simultaneously as it passes over them. . After knitting the front. Fully Fashioned knitting Machine Flat Knitting Machine: Sometimes referred to as Flatbeds or V -beds due to the nature and arrangements of the knitting beds where two opposing needle beds are positioned so that the upper ends form an inverted V .0m to 2. pullovers.15 | P a g e Types of knitting machine: There are majorly two types of knitting machines: Warp Knitting Machines Weft Knitting Machines WEFT KNITTING MACHINE: y y y Fully Fashioned Machine Flat Knitting Machine Circular Knitting Machine 1. Needles slide up and down the beds in slots known as tricks and in this case the gauge refers to the number of needles per 1 inch. Double Jersey Fully Fashioned Machine: Traditionally these machines produce plain classical styled wool knitwear by producing panels that are shaped to style Fashioned during knitting. The ribs are held on running -on bars and are either transferred on to the Fully Fashioned machine by hand or automatically depending on the age of the machine.2m width and each is designed for a specific task or purpose. cardigans.5 inch) through to a super-fine 33gg. each section up to 36 inch wide Needle type : bearded and latch Needle bed type : single and rib End products: jumpers. back and sleeve panels are linked to form the garment. The gauges of Fully Fashioned machines range from a relatively course 9gg (needles per 1. dresses. Cottons Patent or Cotton machines due to patents that were given to William Cotton way back in the mid 1800 s. In these machines. under wear. thermal wear. is that the stitches can be passed from one bed to the other and the beds can be Special Features: y y y y Machine width : from 2 to 16 section machines. The gentle knitting action of these machines allows the use of delicate fine count woollen spun yarns and also enables the machines to run faster where possible giving good knitting efficiency. Fully Fashioned machines are sometimes referred to as straight-bar. sports shirts. Single Jersey 2. Fully Fashioned machines only have one set of needles and therefore can only produce plain knit fabric. trouser suits. fully fashioned hose. flat bar. What makes these machines so versatile. Needle bed lengths can vary from 1. depending on the desired pattern. The patterning capability of Fully Fashioned machines is limited to plain knit fully fashioned panels. apart from the virtually unlimited patterning capacity. suits. The carriage or cam box traverses across the needle beds and selects needles to be knitted as it reciprocates side to side.

pullovers. without the need for any making-up. Advanced technology has now made it possible for complete garments to be knitted on the machine. like those used in Aran style sweaters. This not only allows panels to be shaped. The technique of complete garment knitting is done in one of two ways.16 | P a g e moved linearly in relation to each other. hat y Terry loop machines. about 30 inch diameter. Sliver knitting machines are single jersey machines that have been adapted to trap a sliver of staple wool fibre in to the knit structure. or by using a special machine that has four needle beds. the basis for fleece fabrics which are produced by knitting two yarns into the same stitch. dressed. can now all be knit as an integral part of the panel. suits. collars. Wool production on single jersey machines tends to be limited to 20 gauge or coarser. ca rdigans.5 inch Machine width : up to 78. Other single jersey based machines include: y Special Features: y y y y y Machine gauge : normally 5-15 needles per 1. rib and in terlock End. as these gauges can use two-fold wool yarns which will give spirality-free fabrics. of needles that produce plain fabrics (single thickness). etc. eithe r using an adapted version of a V-bed. Furthermore parts of the garment that are normally added during make-up such as pockets.7 inches Needle type : Latch Needle bed type : single. An additional inherent feature of wool single jersey fabrics is that the fabric edges tend to curl inwards. one ground yarn and one loop yarn.products : jumpers. Flat knitting machine Circular Knitting Machine: There are many types of circular knitting machines which produce long lengths of tubular fabric and quite often they are manufactured with very specific end uses in mind. but it also opens up extensive patterning possibilities using stitch transfer. This is not a problem whilst the fabric is in tubular form but once cut open can become so if the fabric is not finished correctly. y y Single Jersey Machine Double Jersey Machines Single jersey Machine: Single Jersey machines are equipped with a single ³cylinder´. These protruding loops are then brushed or raised during finishing creating a fleece fabric. trims. Single jersey knitting Machine Two types of machine: . V -necks.

warp knitting declined with the reduction in sales of nylon shirts and sheets which were the major products of warp knitting at that time. Types of machine arey y Tricot machine Raschel machine Tricot Machine: In tricot machines the needles mainly used are beared needle with a pressure bar tricot machine. Much finer yarns can be used as singles yarns do not present a problem for double jersey knitted fabrics as the ³double layer´ construction works to cancel out the residual torque between the face and reverse sides. some 200 years after the first knitting machines. the net effect being no spirality. One guide bar is used for one set of warp yarns. Warp knitting machines were invented in 1775.There was extraordinary growth in the warp knitting industry between 1950 and 1970 due to development in yarns After 1970. It has one or more than one warp beams mounted above the machine. Movements of guide bar is controlled by chains with links. the machine and is controlled by yarn guides. This extra set of needles allows the production of fabrics that are twice as thick as single jersey fabrics. Typical examples include interlock based structures for underwear/base layer garments and 1 x 1 rib fabrics for leggings and outerwear products. set in a guide bar. Tricot Machine Rachel Machine: Rachel machines are different from tricot machines as rashel fabrics are made with heavy yarnsthey usually have an implicate lace like pattern where as tricot fabrics are made with five yarns and flat or have simple geometric fabrics.17 | P a g e Double jersey Machine: Double jersey machines are single jersey machines with a ³dial´ which houses an extra set of needles positioned horizontally adjacent to the vertical cylinder needles. As the guide bar is raised and moves side ways it plays the warp yarn in their respected needle hooks to form a coarse of loops. Rachel Machine . the greater the design flexibility. Warp Knitting Machines: Rachel fabrics are knitted on machine having 2-40 guide bars. Simultaneously when the loops of proceding. The gauge of Rachel machine is measured in term of the number of needles per two inches. The greater number of bars.

helping us tgain indepth information about the techniques and machines involved in making various types of knitted fabrics and garments. It also made us aware of the innovations that are coming into this field these days which enhanced our technical knowledge about knitting. .Conclusion This documentation helped to gain mor e and more knowledge of Knitting and knitting techniques. It enhanced our knowledge about Knitting process.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful