Submitted To

:
Ms. Mona Jindal

Submitted By:
Shallu MBA-2, 4th sem Class R.No. 20

“S.S.D.WOMEN’S INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,” BATHINDA (Affiliated By Punjabi University, Patiala)

survey feedback. worker skills. French identified 13 major "families" of interventions based on the type of activities that they included—activity groups included teambuilding.L. organizations that wish to achieve a high degree of organizational change will employ a full range of interventions. applying interventions targeted primarily toward operating policies. the type of group for which they are intended. and career-planning. and personnel policies. In fact. including function. . management structures. including those designed to transform individual and group behavior and attitudes. Numerous interventions have been developed over the years to address different problems or create various results. they all are geared toward the goal of improving the entire organization through change. In general. OD interventions can be categorized in a number of ways. W.OD INTERVENTIONS OD interventions are plans or programs comprised of specific activities designed to effect change in some facet of an organization. Entities attempting smaller changes will stop short of those goals. However. structural change. or the industry to which they apply.

This therefore calls for an effective understanding of the organization. It is always preferable to use interventions when the need arises. its needs and the problems it is facing so as to make sure that the right intervention tools solve the right kinds of problems. A single organizational consultant cannot use all the interventions available in his arsenal. The following are the different kinds of organizational development interventions:  Sensitivity Training  Survey Feedback  Development Discussion . coaches and mentors to help solve the pressing problems of organizations who seek their services.Figure 1: An Action Research Model for Organizational Development Organizational development interventions refer to the techniques (methods) created by OD professionals.

 Goal setting and Planning  Team building and Management objective. The intervention basically entails temporarily . This type of intervention helps to gradually diffuse tension between groups caused by lack of communication and misunderstanding. different group leaders are brought together to get their commitment to the intervention. Finally.  Managerial grid  Job enrichment. Next. Rotating membership interventions are used by OD change agents to minimize the negative effects of intergroup rivalry that result from employee allegiances to groups or divisions. For instance. Conflict resolution meetings are one common intergroup intervention. the teams meet to discuss the problems and to try to develop solutions that will help both parties. INTERGROUP INTERVENTIONS Intergroup interventions are integrated into OD programs to facilitate cooperation and efficiency between different groups within an organization. the teams meet separately to make a list of their feelings about the other group(s). Then the groups meet and share their lists.  Process Consultation interventions  Inter-group Team-Building Interventions  Third-party Peacemaking Interventions  Structural Interventions These kinds of intervention can be used in various settings depending on the need of the organization. departmental interaction often deteriorates in larger organizations as different divisions battle for limited resources or become detached from the needs of other departments. Participative management and Quality circles. First.

Facilitators will also usually record what was said. but they usually impose a structure and process . An intervention forms the appropriate relationship between strategy and organizational development. experiment with alternative arrangements. government regulation. Alternatively. And identify key communicators and fire-able offenses. and may write up a short report summarizing the discussions and any agreements that were reached.putting group members into their rival groups. THIRD –PARTY PEACEMAKING INTERVENTIONS In implementing OD interventions. but it involves getting members of different groups to work together toward a common goal. The terms "third party" and "intermediary" are both used to refer to a person or team of people who become involved in a conflict to help the disputing parties manage or resolve it. greater understanding results. and economic conditions. A more active and powerful third party role is that of mediator. Mediators not only facilitate discussions. As more people interact in the different groups. it is important to apply criteria to goals. they might act as facilitators. management and structure to build the organizational development intervention. common enemy interventions achieve the same results by finding an adversary common to two or more groups and then getting members of the groups to work together to overcome the threat. setting agendas. establish inter unit task force. Examples of common enemies include competitors. At last an intervention makes a way for the effective business development with lots of competition. arranging meetings. So a development model is required to reflect the human resource. helping one side or both sides analyze the conflict and plan an effective response. Third parties might act as consultants. Similarly. and guiding productive discussions. OD joint activity interventions serve the same basic function as the rotating membership approach.

the arbitrator is the most powerful type of intermediary. examines written materials and other evidence relating to a case. they can suggest a solution. For parties that want to maintain control. They have said that “Basically OD is a process for teaching people how to solve problems. mediators can usually get the parties to develop a common understanding of the situation. Usually. however. While some mediators take a stronger role in option identification and selection than others. and do not worry about losing control of the process or the outcome. At most. While many different styles of mediation are common.Case Study of a PSU in India French & Bell have defined OD to be the applied behavioural science discipline dedicated to improving organizations and the people in them through the use of theory and practice of planned change. By clarifying the divergent views and reasons for those views. most mediators have the conflicting parties sit down together to explain to each other their views about the nature of the problem and how they think it might best be solved. Thus. Arbitration works well when the parties simply want a settlement.on the discussions that is designed to move the parties toward mutual understanding and win-win agreements. or how a conflict should be settled. The mediator often tries to get the disputants to focus on underlying interests (the things they really need or want) more than their initial opening positions (what they initially say they need or want). and then makes a determination of who is right and who is wrong. The most powerful third party role is that of an arbitrator. OD Interventions . which the disputants may or may not accept. take advantage of opportunities. the arbitrator’s decision is binding and cannot be appealed. mediators do not have the power to impose a solution. which often yields a solution which satisfies the interests of all parties. and learn how to do that better and . the other forms of intervention (mediation or facilitation) are often preferred. An arbitrator listens to presentations made by both sides.

Data. . a leading Public Sector Undertaking of India. was used to make an action plan. thus obtained.After approval of the action plan by Board of Directors. one for each location/division.better over time. was presented to the Board of Directors . the change agents should necessarily be line managers who have demonstrated to possess good ‘people skills’. Selection of the change agents was done.The action plan. It started off with the Action Research Model (French & Bell. .The change agents were given extensive training on behavioral skills ( most of which are termed as ‘soft skills’ in present day parlance ) . Change Agents were earmarked .000) embarked upon the Organization Development program in the year 1985 with the help of an eminent consultant. involving  Data Collection  Analysis of the data (with the help of a consultant)  Action Planning on the basis of analysis of the data subsequent steps taken were as below. termed as HRD framework. . (having an employees strength of approx 33.A company-wide climate survey was conducted to obtain the data which could throw up the areas/actions for OD interventions. teams And the organization’ human and social processes” Driven by these basics of OD. keeping the recommendation of the consultant in mind. since OD was a people’s program. that. page 100). OD focuses on issues related to human side of the organizations by finding ways to increase the effectiveness of individuals.

As on today.The two authors have also acknowledged the work of Prof Ishwar Dayal of India. but not so effectively linked as they become after the OD interventions. with regard to RA. They were placed administratively under Chief of HR at each location. The enclosed HRD Framework shows the different derivatives (sub systems) of Role Analysis along with their linkages. the Chief of HR would be its custodian for its assimilation with the regular HR practices and policies The OD action plan (HRD Framework) & its implementation Role Analysis has been a rather more acceptable strategy in India. It will be prudent here to mention that many of these RA derivatives (subsystems) were already in vogue in the organization.The change agents were made responsible for implementation of HRD framework. Role Analysis (RA) implies analyzing the role of a person/position in the organization. the subtle difference being that RA deals with total role of a person ( including competencies ) whereas JD is a mere description of the job ( may not clearly focus on competencies). RA has been described as one of the team building techniques and has been adequately explained by French & Bell (page 166-168) . Job description is something akin to RA.. In simple words. RA and all its sub-systems have been institutionalized and the organization is now preparing for next phase of OD Interventions. pursued by the organization under discussion. . the underlying concept being that once the HRD framework had been implemented and institutionalized.

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