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- A diffuser is a device that increases the pressure of a fluid by slowing it down. - The chief use of nozzle is to produce a jet of steam (or gas) of high velocity to produce thrust for the propulsion of rocket motors and jet engines and to drive steam or gas turbines. - Diffusers are used in compressors, combustion chambers etc. - The smallest section of the nozzle is known as the throat. Types of nozzles and diffusers Three types of nozzles: Converging, Diverging, Converging – diverging Diagrams

Flow of steam through nozzles - The flow of steam through nozzles may be regarded as adiabatic expansion. - The steam has a very high velocity at the end of the expansion, and the enthalpy decreases as expansion takes place. - Friction exists between the steam and the sides of the nozzle; heat is produced as the result of the resistance to the flow. - The phenomenon of supersaturation occurs in the flow of steam through nozzles. This is due to the time lag in the condensation of the steam during the expansion. Continuity and steady flow energy equations Through a certain section of the nozzle: m.v = A.C m is the mass flow rate, v is the specific volume, A is the cross-sectional area and C is the velocity. For steady flow of steam through a certain apparatus, principle of conservation of energy states: h1 + C12 /2 + gz1 + q = h2 + C22 /2 + gz2 + w For nozzles, changes in potential energies are negligible, w = 0 and q ≅ 0. h1 + C12 /2 = h2 + C22 /2 Nozzle and diffuser efficiencies In ideal case, flow through nozzle and diffuser is isentropic. But in actual case, friction exists and affects in following ways: i) reduces the enthalpy drop

95. If discharge coefficient is 0. b) smoothness. Quantity of steam flowing is 2 kg/s and the heat loss from the nozzle is 8 KJ/s.943] 2. e)nature of fluid flowing and its state. g) turbulence in nozzle flow. . d) angle of nozzle divergence.C12 ) Efficiency of nozzle depends upon: a) material it is made of. Cd = mactual / mtheoretical Examples: 1. Velocity coefficient: is the ratio of the actual exit velocity to isentropic velocity obtained for the same pressure drop.C12 )/( C2s2 . f) fluid velocity.ii) iii) iv) v) reduces the final velocity of steam increases the final dryness fraction increases specific volume of the fluid decreases the mass flow rate η = (h1 – h2a) / (h1 –h2s) = (C2a2 . [Answer: 0. Determine the final dryness fraction of steam (quality of steam). Find the condition of steam exit. At the inlet of these nozzles steam is at 6 bar and 260 oC. c)size and shape. Neglect velocity of approach. Total area of the nozzle at exit is 30 cm2. The expansion of steam is isentropic. Estimate the rate of flow of steam for a steam turbine which uses a convergent nozzles. assuming velocity and specific volume are the same. kn = C2' / C2 kn = √ [(h1 – h2a) / (h1 –h2s)] kn = √ η Coefficient of discharge. The exit pressure is 4 bar. The discharge pressure is 5 bar and discharge velocity is 500 m/s. what should be exit area of nozzles. Dry and saturated steam enters a nozzle at a pressure of 11 bar and velocity of 80 m/s.

135 r = 0.3 . n = 1. n = 1.Nozzle shape for uniform pressure drops Mass flow through nozzle <Formula derived in class> m= Throat pressure for maximum discharge/ Existence of a critical pressure in nozzle flow (choking flow) The pressure at which the area is minimum and the discharge per unit area is maximum is termed as the critical pressure. r = < Derivation done in lecture> For saturated steam. Critical pressure ratio.5774 For superheated steam.

For choked flow (i.5457 For gas nozzles. v2) <Derived in class> This represents the local velocity of sound in steam at pressure P2 and density ρ2 = 1/v2. Thus it is seen that the velocity of steam in adiabatic and frictionless flow reaches the velocity of sound in steam at throat.4 r = 0. The variation of mass flow rate with pressure ratio is shown in the graph shown below (ii). n is replaced by k =1. Effect of back pressure The back pressure is the pressure in the exhaust region outside the nozzle exit.e. P2. P2 is varied. one with maximum flow rate) C2 = √ (n.r = 0. In a converging nozzle . A contains steam at pressure P1 while pressure in vessel B.528 Physical meaning of critical pressure Consider two vessels A and B joined by a convergent nozzle as shown below (i).

For given inlet conditions. The effect of variation of back pressure in a convergent-divergent nozzle is shown next: . The resulting combined flow section is a converging-diverging nozzle. which occurs at the exit plane (throat) of the nozzle.In a converging diverging nozzle The highest velocity to which a fluid can be accelerated in a converging nozzle is limited to sonic velocity (Mach number. Forcing a fluid through a converging-diverging nozzle is no guarantee that the fluid will be accelerated to supersonic velocity. the flow through a converging-diverging nozzle is governed by the back pressure. Accelerating a fluid to supersonic velocities (M>1) can be accomplished only by attaching a diverging flow section to the subsonic nozzle at the throat. M=1).

and the steam that exists in the wet region without containing any liquid is known as supersaturated steam. and it expands in the nozzle to a pressure of 200 kPa. The flow is isentropic between the nozzle entrance and the throat. the residence time of the steam in the nozzle is small. Carbon dioxide flows steadily through a varying-cross-sectional-area nozzle at a mass flow rate of 3 kg/s.4 MPa. The carbon dioxide enters the duct at a pressure of 1400 kPa and 200oC with a low velocity. and Mach number at each location along the duct that corresponds to a pressure drop of 200 kPa. . The Wilson line lies between 4 and 5 percent moisture curves in the saturation region on the h-s diagram for steam.5 kg/s.1 bar. and it is expected that the steam start condensing when it strikes the saturation line. Consequently. Owing to the high velocities. 3. Determine the throat and exit areas. But this is not always the case. and is often approximated by the 4 percent moisture line. velocity.Supersaturated flow in Nozzles As steam expands in the nozzle. and there may not sufficient time for the necessary heat transfer and the formation of liquid droplets. Air at enters a converging nozzle at a pressure of 1 MPa and 600oC with negligible velocity. This phenomenon is known as supersaturation. Determine the density. The duct is designed so that the flow can be approximated as isentropic. and the overall nozzle efficiency is 93 percent. its pressure and temperature drop. Steam enters a converging-diverging nozzle at 2 MPa and 400 oC with a negligible velocity and a mass flow rate of 2. Determine the mass flow rate through the nozzle for a nozzle throat area of 50 cm2 when the back pressure is (a) 0. The locus of points where condensation will take place regardless of the initial temperature and pressure at the nozzle entrance is called the Wilson line. The supersaturation phenomenon is shown on the h-s chart below: Examples: 1. 4.7 MPa and (b) 0. the condensation of steam is delayed for a little while. flow area. Assume negligible inlet velocity. Design a convergent-divergent nozzle if air at 9 bar and 200oC expands in the nozzle at the rate of 5 kg/s into a space at 1. 2. and it exits at a pressure of 300 kPa.

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