MOBILE COMPUTING

ABSTRACT Mobile computing has been undergoing a bit of a renaissance lately. A few years ago it was a simple matter of finding a data-compatible mobile phone, a PC card modem, and a matching cable and installing it as a modem. Then people started to use PDA’s (Personal Data Assistants) as well. Cell phones started to come with infrared ports to allow communication with laptops. Then cell phones started to come with modems built in. The connecting methods of mobile computing, its introduction, connection types, factors affecting connections, mobile applications and its limitations will be discussed. Mobile computing evolved during the last few years as a result of shrinking portables and growing (wireless) networks. It enlarges the usability of computers, but raises demanding challenges. A mobile user has to deal with the problems of slow albeit expensive connection lines, frequent interruption of wireless connections, and limited host performance. "Requirements” for mobile services are stability, bandwidth / cost considerations, and integration into the familiar environment, application transparency, security and extendibility. The concept of zigbee is associated with controlling all electronic devices and communicating with themselves with the surrounding by using simple our mobile or pc by using this latest technology. Mobile computing is a new style of computer access emerging at the intersection of the two currently dominant trends: producing portable computers in computer industry and wireless communications in telecommunication industry. This abstract discusses some key issues involved in realizing a mobile wireless computing environment by examining the characteristics required of each main component: mobile computer, wireless communications network, and coordination software. INTRODUCTION: The term "Mobile computing" is used to describe the use of computing devices--which usually interact in some fashion with a central information system--while away from the normal, fixed workplace. Mobile computing technology enables the mobile worker to: (a) create; (b) access; (c) process; (d) store; and (e) communicate information without being constrained to a single location. By extending the reach of an organization's fixed information system, mobile computing enables interaction with organizational personnel that were previously disconnected. Wireless networking technology has engendered a new era of computing, called mobile computing. Mobile Computing is an umbrella term used to describe technologies that enable people to access network services any place, anytime, and anywhere.

Ubiquitous computing and nomadic computing are synonymous with mobile computing. Mobile computing helps users to be productive immediately by reducing the training requirements associated with traditional automated data collection methods and provides a higher level of portability than keyboard-based systems.

Field-based users can access any information available from the system at any time to make critical business decisions. This information is available at the point of use, wherever and whenever they need it. Portable devices like laptop and palm top computers give mobile users access to diverse sources of global information anywhere and at any time. One of the most important and highly publicized recent developments in the PC world has been the introduction of the pen interface .The pen interface allows users to interact with the computer in a very natural and familiar way by entering text, numbers, and graphics in “electronic ink” directly on the screen. ZigBee is the name of a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols[1] using small, lowpower digital radios based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard for wireless personal area networks (W P A N s). ARCHITECTURE: The architecture consists of a Mobility Service Architecture, describing the way we implement our mobility services in a computer system, and a Mobility Environment Architecture describing how data are transmitted between computers in mobile environments and what tasks the different stations fulfill in our architecture.

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These services are called common mobility services (CMS). To distinguish from conventional clientserver and network tunneling systems we chose the notions front-end for a mobile host. Similarly a relay in our system provides more functionality than a convenient gateway does. especially an elaborate authentication and authorization service which is of special importance for a secure mobile system. which are called special mobility services (SMS). in the case of full disconnection the front end will simulate the connection to the server using cached data. the Internet). we are able to sketch architecture for a "mobility services enhanced system". traditional clientserver terms are not sufficient any more to model the system. E. and cost: At present wireless network is less reliable. accounting and billing issues or profiling of the users' habits.g. The Internet infrastructure is built on top of a collection of protocols. First there are services designed to overcome common restrictions of mobile computing. Viewing services as distinct building blocks.Mobility Services Architecture: Mobility services can be classified into three groups. but use physically closer located hosts as access points to the backbone for means of minimizing the distance which has to be bridged by a mobile connection line. But when dealing with weak and sometimes fully broken lines. coverage. It offers important services for mobile hosts. insecurity and instability of wireless or analogous connection lines utilized by the mobile user. More precisely. IMPORTANCE OF MOBILE COMPUTERS: Mobile computing is becoming increasingly important due to the rise in the number of portable computers and the desire to have continuous network connectivity to the Internet irrespective of the physical location of the node. capacity. Mobile IP is a standard protocol that builds on the Internet Protocol by making mobility transparent to applications and higher level protocols like TCP.e. the architecture consists of the following parts: The network environment consists of mobile hosts fixed hosts and 2 . The fixed hosts are all connected to a backbone (i. called the TCP/IP protocol suite. Mobile hosts usually don't contact them directly. are slower. The system could be modeled using the familiar client-server notion when full connectivity is guaranteed. The tasks necessary to adapt certain existing applications to mobile usage are implemented by high level services. which arise mainly from the slowness. DESIGN ISSUES OF MOBILE COMPUTING: 1. The Mobile Internet Protocol (Mobile IP) is an extension to the Internet Protocol proposed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Mobility Environment Architecture: certain access points. Reliability. Special mobility services adapt existing services to the mobile conditions. For example to allow remote database access over a wireless connection line one has to take special care of possible frequent connection losses especially in the context of the state of the database. backend for a fixed host that is servicing mobile nodes and relay for an access point to the backbone.The second group of services handles the management and administration of mobile users moving around and connecting their portables to networks at different places. have less geographic coverage and reduced bandwidth. and cost more than the wired-line network services. It enables mobile computers to stay connected to the Internet regardless of their location and without changing their IP address. It is important to find ways to use this new To overcome restrictions in mobile computing the above architecture was designed. These mobility management services (MMS) include tasks such as the authentication of users.

a huge inventory of applications using communications interfaces that are basically incompatible with mobile connectivity have been accumulated. complete. Security: Wireless networks have relatively more security requirements than wired network. accessed. Current processes carry significant costs in labor. such as bar code scanners  Blue tooth  Bridge Achieving the Benefits of Mobile Computing Accurately recognizing situations where mobile computing is an appropriate technology to address an organization's problems. Additionally. The location or status of personnel must be known throughout the workday. Tablet Computers and Bar Coding / Automated Data collection devices. 2. Work cannot be completed at remote site due to lack of information from the central Business location. The six categories are: M O B I L E  the need for mobility the need to improve operations the need to break business barriers the need to improve information quality the need to decrease transaction lag the need to improve efficiency 1. Information must be gathered. 2. 3. such as PDAs. 3. inventory.  Information 1. Revising the technical architecture: Mobile users are demanding. Management is not able to properly oversee operations due to a lack of information. As a result of the IT industry’s original focus on mainframes. 3. 2. A number of approaches have been suggested and also the use of encryption is has been proposed. or frequent enough. 2. Questions must be re-asked or locations must be revisited because data was not completely or correctly gathered on initial visit due to a mistake or oversight.  Operations 1. This practice must change for successful integration of mobile connectivity. They are important to the business world. end-to-end technical compatibility. Current operations are not keeping pace with competitors due to a technological disadvantage. 5. 4. 2. input more than once. Laptop Computers. Mobile devices Mobile computing devices come in a variety of forms. Business operations or expansion is hindered by the geographical dispersion of business activities.  Lag 1. Cell Phones. Key business processes or activities are not being accomplished where they are best performed or most needed. Contact must be made while personnel are mobile or at remote locations.  Barriers 1. and directives is important if the promised benefits of mobile computing are to be achieved. Cost. and network response time estimates are difficult to achieve. 2. application and data architectures must also be revised to support the demands put upon them by the mobile connectivity. There are seven different types of mobile devices:  Laptop computers  PDA’s and handheld PCs  Pagers  Smart phones and cellular phones  Task devices. opportunities. or relevant enough. operating locations. Geography. 3. End-to-end design and performance: Since mobile computing involves multiple networks (including wired) and multiple application server platforms.  Efficiency 1. The mobile worker cannot quickly complete a transaction while at the remote location because access to information or authorization from a central location is required. To provide complete connectivity among users the current communication technology must be revised to incorporate mobile connectivity. Return trips to a remote location or multiple contacts are required to complete a transaction. or travel expenses. Freedom of movement is required to accomplish the task. concise. Data is input from paper. Information sent to or received from mobile personnel is not accurate. or not captured at its source. Workers lack information required to operate at their full potential. server capacity design.resource more efficiently by designing innovative applications. or processed during movement or while at a remote location. Integration with legacy mainframe and emerging client/server applications: Application development paradigms are changing. 4. Information sent to or received from mobile personnel is not timely. Still the application development trend is geared towards wired network platform and little thought has been given to applications necessary for mobile platform. Market opportunity for mobile computing: Mobility 3 . 2. current.

it has to discover the resources available there. lazy write back. However. accessing remote storage over the network.  High Error Rate The network quality varies as the mobile computer moves across the heterogeneous network connections. error rates. as well as opportunities to provide new services and supplementary information to users in the locations where they find themselves.2 billion in 2006 Challenges in mobile computing: Wireless and mobile environments bring different challenges to users and service providers when compared to fixed.15. To overcome these limitations. an issue that does not appear in distributed wired environment. power restrictions. The total revenues for healthcare mobile devices. which results in retransmission and affects the Quality of Service. PDA’s like Infopad and ParcTab are designed to have extreme portability and provide ubiquitous information access. priority scheduling. Software techniques required to improve effective bandwidth usage include data compression logging requests to combine multiple short ones. The main technique used is encryption. wired networks. In addition. error correction schemes can be employed to improve performance. Common problems are impersonation. applications and services were approximately $50 million in 2002.Market forecast for mobile devices. The wireless environment exhibits higher error rates. Physical constraints become much more important. sharing code libraries and compressing virtual memory pages. Location transparency should be provided to the mobile applications by the underlying runtime system so that the users are not aware of the effects of mobility. In addition. battery power. perfecting.  Power Limitations Mobile computers are concerned with the limited power supply. Mobility of clients raises the issues of unique naming of the clients and finding their current locations. In personal profiles of users are used to restrict access to the mobile units. However. the user interface has to be designed to adapt to the small screen size of the portable computers. where information on location is configured statically mobile computers have to configure information dynamically Mobility of resources addresses this problem. In this way Zigbee is a superset of the 802.4 specification. applications and services. As a result. screen size. their applications rely heavily on the interoperability of the pads and other servers. One of mobile computing technology. At the same time. In addition. efficient software operations can help to lower the power consumption. high error rate. etc. difference-based updates. any server that needs to communicate with the mobile host has to identify its new location. Examples include: shifting the processing to a fixed host.  Low Bandwidth Wireless networks deliver lower bandwidth than wired networks. usage of proxy. portability. It builds on IEEE standard 802.15. mobile computers are smaller in physical size and have smaller storage capacity. limited capabilities. quality of radio transmission. Zigbee: What is Zigbee? Zigbee is a wireless networking standard that is aimed at remote control and sensor applications which is suitable for operation in harsh radio environments and in isolated locations. This market is anticipated to grow significantly with a compound annual growth rate of 120 percent to $1. some useful techniques are proposed including: Compressing file systems. and transmitting less data while receiving more Security Security and privacy are of specific concerns in wireless communication because of the ease of connecting to the wireless link anonymously. mobile applications have to be carefully designed to control the bandwidth consumption. When a mobile host moves into a new cell or administrative domain. By minimizing the usage of wireless transmission. 4 . the data is less exposed to transmission errors. caching. Hardware improvements on batteries can help to lengthen the life of a charge and reduce battery weight. Even ordinary laptops typically have less RAM and smaller hard disks than stationary computers. these schemes also add to the communication overhead and reduce the usable bandwidth. security. Unlike stationary computers. denial of service and tapping. aggressively caching and perfecting data to reduce disk traffic.  Limited Capabilities Unlike stationary computers. Above this. The major challenges in mobile computing are described including: low bandwidth. Zigbee defines the application and security layer specifications enabling interoperability between products from different manufacturers. disconnection and problems due to client mobility. such as device weight. Mobility There are two types of mobility described: (a) mobility of clients and (b) mobility of resources. Mobility brings additional uncertainties.4 which defines the physical and MAC layers.

this makes it a very robust topology because bad performing routes can be ignored. The cluster tree topology is basically a combination of star and mesh.4GHz 250 kbps 16 Figure 1: Layers in Zigbee Why choose ZigBee? • • • • • • • Reliable and self healing Supports large number of nodes Easy to deploy Very long battery life Secure Low cost Can be used globally 5 . Many aspect of the network are specified in this layer. ZigBee has the possibility to define high priority messages.15. security settings and the messaging. In total there is room for a maximum of 104 bytes. ZigBee's packets have a maximum size of 128 bytes including protocol overhead. Take a look at the next table for a few differences between the bands: Frequency In all bands DSSS (Direct sequence spread spectrum) is used. The ZigBee upper layers The layers above that what 802.4GHz band at the moment. so a ZigBee product may be used all over the world. ZigBee is known because of its mesh network architecture but it does also support a star topology or cluster tree or hybrid architecture[3]. There is a 64 bit IEEE address that can be compared to the IP address on the internet.4GHz uses O-QPSK (Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying). ZigBee uses 2 kinds of addressing.. The distance between 2 nodes can be up to 50 meters but be aware the each node can relay data to the next making a very big network.The 802. This is achieved by use of a guaranteed timeslot mechanism so that the high priority messages can be send as fast as possible. possible Hardware (Physical and MAC layers): The 2.). 868 and 915 MHz are using Binary Phase Shift Keying and 2. all nodes directly communicate with one central node (like a star. The mesh topology is more complicated. like: Application profiles. There is also a 16 bit short address. A star topology is very simple.15. Bandwidth Nr. Like in any network data is transmitted in packets.4 specifies is what we call the ZigBee standard (look above for a graphical overview). channels of 868 MHz 20 kbps 1 915 MHz 40 kbps 10 2. but with 250kbps for many applications more than enough. covering significant distances. For real time features.4GHz frequency band is a license free band. Low power consumption is the most important feature that makes battery operated devices operates for a long time[2]. Depending on the application or situation each kind of topology has its own advantages and disadvantages. All current products seem to be using the 2. The amount of data throughput (bandwidth) is relatively low compared to wireless LAN for example. It's easy to understand that this gives many possible routes through the network.. each node may communicate with any other node within range.4 standard is primarily aiming at monitoring and control applications.

having timely and accurate information is more important than ever. Healthcare. poor connection maintenance. especially Low-Earth Orbit systems (LEOS) are under development with the Internet in mind. etc. mobile computing allows the taxis to be given full details of the dispatched job as well as allowing the taxis to communicate information about their whereabouts back to the central dispatch office. restaurant. most application software. Consequently. nursing home. Features found in these applications usually provide access to stock and pricing information. Eg: The most deadly terrorist attack occurred on sept 11. and productive solution in several different types of application environments. wireless user has great difficulty exploiting the computational infrastructure as fully as he or she might. battery power and display size. efficient. Delivery and Route Sales. poor security.  Day by day as the standard of the mobile computing is increasing the boons of mobile computing are changing to banes. For example. inspections. enhancement of revenue potential. monitor promotions. and Utilities. new hardware and software techniques must be developed. Merits: The benefits of automating data collection applications with mobile computing are the reduction of hard and soft costs. in order to fit in the limited memory on the mobile devices. Companies like Teledesic and Orbcomm are actively promoting Internet access. Transportation. Market Research. home automation.e Securicor. • Consumer Good: Typical applications include inventory. There is an emerging consensus among researchers that a new architecture and dynamic infrastructure is an appropriate way to address this problem. Applications: New technical and application developments have established that mobile systems can be a cost-effective. merchandising. A common goal is to leverage mobile computing in the implementation of positive patient identification. building automation.  Mobility brings additional uncertainties. • Delivery & Route Sales: With fierce competition and an increasing inventory. order entry. ZigBee's current focus is to define a general-purpose. applications need to be highly optimized for space. child care. Government. In general. and a distinct competitive advantage through: • Improving the data collection process • Improving data accuracy • Reducing paperwork • Enforcing collection of more complete information • Facilitating collection of more useful information • Eliminating redundant data entry • Reducing administrative costs • Reducing billing errors • Reducing data backlog • Improving information flow • Allowing faster adaptation to changing business conditions • Increasing responsiveness and customer satisfaction • Providing access to previously unavailable information Demerits The demerits of the mobile computing are discussed as follows:  Information access via a mobile device is plagued by low available bandwidth. Most of these applications involve auditing some sort of facility or process (food service. • Government: Applications center on assessments. • Taxi/Truck Dispatch: Using the idea of a centrally controlled dispatcher with several mobile units (taxis). Pharmaceuticals. They are:. Unlike their wired counterparts. 6 . and addressing problems. design of software for mobile devices must consider resource limitation. schools. medical data collection. embedded sensing. Customer detail helps reps to act more as consultants than order takers.a new generation of satellites.APPLICATIONS OF ZIGBEE: Zigbee protocols are intended for use in embedded applications requiring low data rates and low power consumption. and so the mobile. • Healthcare: The focus in this industry has been on automating patient records. smoke and intruder warning. 2001. and sample collection. self-organizing. commercial and residential buildings). as well as opportunities to provide new services and supplementary information to users in the locations where they find themselves. and work orders. medication dispension. Vertical industries where mobile technology has already been successfully adopted include Consumer Goods. This system is also extremely useful in secure deliveries i. and sales automation. and perform shelf space analysis including number of facings and product age. mesh network that can be used for industrial control. inexpensive. and network infrastructures are intended for more conventional environments. operating systems.

reliability. especially in the field of mobile data communications. rapidly improves and. Use of Artificial Intelligence may allow mobile units to be the ultimate in personal secretaries. the future of mobile computing looks increasingly exciting.htmZ:\wireless com-zig\wireless UPPER LAYERS . understand what they are about. INTRODUCTION Z:\wireless comzig\wireless-zigbee\ZigBee . 3. and user demand for useful wireless applications is increasing. although technology may go too far. With the emphasis increasingly on compact.Wikipedia. and change the individual’s personal schedule according to the message. this paper shows how these behavioral extensions serve as a powerful abstraction for practical systems. mobility. For the first time. This can then be checked by the individual to plan his/her day. This scary concept of a world full of inanimate zombies sitting.Major Trends in Computing Indeed. THE FUTURE: With the rapid technological advancements in Artificial Intelligence.e. REFERENCES: 1. The working lifestyle will change. including simplicity. The future of Mobile Computing is very promising indeed. a wireless mesh network (hasse_nl). ZigBee is all set to provide the consumers with ultimate flexibility. small mobile computers. Using the mobile data communication technologies discussed. companies will have a standards-based wireless platform optimized for the unique needs of remote monitoring and control applications. Integrated Circuitry and increases in Computer Processor speeds. 2.Z:\wireless comzig\wireless-zigbee\What is ZigBee. trends are very much towards ubiquitous or mobile computing. Additionally. even in social spheres. with the majority of people working from home. Because of the banes of mobile computing the security level should be improved. as shown below. industrial and government markets worldwide. and ease of use by building wireless intelligence and capabilities into every day devices. merits. this mobility may be pushed to extreme. This mobility aspect may be carried further in that. it may also be possible to have all the practicality of a mobile computer in the size of a hand held organizer or even smaller. In this paper. low-cost and low-power. people will interact via mobile stations. Conclusion: Mobile computing is rapidly becoming popular. technologies such as Interactive television and Video Image Compression already imply a certain degree of mobility in the home.htm Taxi Dispatch Network • Utilities. rather than commuting.htm WHAT IS ZIGBEE . commercial. ZigBee technology will be embedded in a wide range of products and applications across consumer. i. home shopping etc. we have looked at issues related to portable devices.zigbee\ZigBee. eliminating the need to venture outside of the house. This may be beneficial to the environment as less transportation will be utilized. Eliminating the rekeying of data and providing a means to perform on site analysis are instrumental to an industry that is required to perform inspections on a routine basis. the free encyclopedia. which can receive emails and paging messages. locked to their mobile stations. 7 . causing detriment to society. accessing every sphere of their lives via the computer screen becomes ever more real as technology. demerits and applications in mobile environment.

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