Lead-Free Wave Solder Processing

CPS Study Phase I

Initial Lessons Learned from Cookson Performance Solutions L-F Wave Solder Study

Wetting Balance Testing
To Determine Lead-Free Solder Pot Temperature

• Laboratory test designed to determine the best temperature to wave solder an alloy with.
– Data not relevant to SMT processing

• Test Conditions
– Preheat after flux immersion: Test coupon held 0.1” pot for 5 seconds – Dwell time in solder: 5 seconds – 15 test coupons per test
• Cleaned as follows:
- degreased in boiling IPA - Cleaned in Alpha 922 copper cleaner for 15 seconds - Two DI water rinses: 5 & 10 seconds - Two IPA rinses: 5 seconds each

above solder

• Test using cleaned coupons as well as clean coupons oxidized for 1 hour @ 100°C (212°F)
CPS Lead-Free Study CPS Lead-Free Study

5 Sn96/Ag2.5 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 Solder Temperature (°F) CPS Lead-Free Study CPS Lead-Free Study .5/Sb0.5 Wetting Time (sec.7 2.3 0. oxidized Cu) Sn63/Pb37 Sn95. Solder temperature (RF 800.Wetting time vs.1 1.7 Sn96.5/Cu0.) 232 238 243 249 254 260 265 271 277 3.8 Solder Temperature (°C) 4.5 Sn99.3/Cu0.2/Ag2.5/Ag4/Cu0.9 2.5/Ag3.5 Sn96.5/Bi1/Cu0.

2/Ag2.8 350 Wetting Force (uN/mm) 232 238 243 Solder Temperature (°C) 249 254 260 265 271 277 280 210 140 70 0 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 Solder Temperature (°F) CPS Lead-Free Study CPS Lead-Free Study .5/Cu0.5/Bi1/Cu0.5 Sn99.5/Ag3.5 Sn96. oxidized Cu) Sn63/Pb37 Sn95.Wetting force vs.5/Ag4/Cu0.7 Sn96.3/Cu0. Solder temperature (RF 800.5 Sn96/Ag2.5/Sb0.

– DATA NOT SHOWN CPS Lead-Free Study CPS Lead-Free Study . Silver & Copper alloys generally produced the fastest wetting times and maximum wetting forces. no-clean type.Wetting Balance Observations & Discussions • The Binary & Ternary Tin. • 500°F (260°C) appears to be an appropriate solder pot temperature for these alloys with high solids content. • 520°F (271°C) appears to be an appropriate solder pot temperature for these alloys when the flux used is a low solids. non-activated rosin flux (Control Flux).

5 (SAC305) Sn95.7 (Sn-Cu) Sn96.0-Cu0.5-Ag4.5 (SAC405) Sn96.5-Ag3.5-Ag3.Alloy Run Order – Pot Temp.5 (Sn-Ag) 500º F / 260º C 530º F / 276º C 520º F / 270º C 530º F / 276º C 530º F / 276º C CPS Lead-Free Study CPS Lead-Free Study .3-Cu0. • • • • • Sn63-Pb37 (Sn-Pb) Sn99.0-Cu0.

CPS Lead-Free Study CPS Lead-Free Study .CPS L-F Study Bottom of Test Vehicle “Designed for Defects” Note that TH Components are for position reference only and board is prior to solder.

Wave Machine Configuration • • • • • Air Environment Spray Fluxer (“Accuspray”) Three bottom forced convection heaters (for water-based fluxes) Two bottom forced convection heaters (for alcohol-based fluxes) Dual wave with Air Knife – Rotary Chip Wave – Lambda Wave – Hot air knife (“Accuknife”) • Finger conveyor Electrovert Vectra Oven CPS Lead-Free Study CPS Lead-Free Study .

) ∆T (B-T) (rec.5 4. 207 .25 7 . (Rosin) 4.240 180-200 0 to +65 0 to +65 not spec.6.16 9 .Processing Parameters Parameter Solvent Solids content Top preheat (rec.24 5. CPS Lead-Free Study CPS Lead-Free Study .229 230 . all the boards in the experiment were run without further changes.2% 11.6.256 241 .5 .5 SLS65C 5280E 615-25 Alcohol Water Alc.0% 210 .0 .6. • This gives a “first-level” of optimization only.0 not spec.6.0 .235 190 .0% 25.0 3.235 7 .258 9 .0 .19 9 .250 220 .5 5. 3. (RMA) 2.5 .230 216 .1% 210 .230 0 to +40 0 to +65 3.0 For statistical data: Once a set of processing parameters was set for a given flux/alloy.0% 4.5 4.0 218 .0 .0 5.6.0 .6.6.0 .) Speed (rec) Top preheat (actual) ∆T (B-T) (actual) Speed (actual) % 0 0 F F ft/min 0 0 F F ft/min NR330 RF800 Water Alc.5 .6.27 5.6.

062" Environment: Air T top-side (ave) = 251 °C T bottom-side = 266 °C ∆ T = 15 F Temperature (°F) 300 200 top-side TC #3 100 top-side TC #2 top-side TC #1 bottom-side TC 0 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 Time (seconds) CPS Lead-Free Study CPS Lead-Free Study .Thermal Profiles 500 400 Alloy: SAC405 Flux: 615-25 Size: 0.

– Higher pre-heats. volatize off more of the flux material prior to the wave.Thermal Impact on Chemistry • Lead-Free processing will require higher preheats to thermally pre-condition the boards prior to their contact with the higher pot temperatures. ambient temp over the pot and pot temperatures. – Fluxes need to be engineered to handle these higher temperatures. CPS Lead-Free Study CPS Lead-Free Study .

2% solids (SLS65CAlcohol Based) 4.Flux Solids Comparison – Sn/Ag with OSP 2. CPS Lead-Free Study CPS Lead-Free Study .1% solids Rosin (RF800 Alcohol Based) 25% solids RMA (615-25 Alcohol Based) 4% solids ( NR330 Water Based) 11% solids (5280E Water Based) Indicates High Solids not absolutely necessary for Lead-Free.

Alloy Comparison – OSP Finish/RF800 Flux 530 ºF (276 ºC) 530 ºF (276 ºC) Indications are that Lower Temp yieldedSn-Ag Alloy higher defects for SAC. SAC405 Alloy 530 ºF (276 ºC) 520 ºF (270 ºC) Sn-Cu Alloy CPS Lead-Free Study CPS Lead-Free Study SAC305 Alloy .

Environment Comparison with Sn Cu Alloy NR330 VOC Free Flux 530 ºF (276 ºC) For Air Environment applicationsInertmayEnvironment certain Sn/Cu N2 (N2) be required! CPS Lead-Free Study CPS Lead-Free Study .

Dross Removal 30 25 Loss of Solder Mass due to Dross Removal Lead-Free Wave Study Estimated Sn/Pb mass loss rate Mass 20 Lost 15 (g/min1) 10 5 0 0 1 Sn/Cu 2 SAC 305 3 SAC 405 4 5 Sn/Ag Sn/Ag/Bi/Cu 1.Loss of Solder Yield . Data based on min of 4 separate 2 to 4 hour run experiments. CPS Lead-Free Study CPS Lead-Free Study . Grams/minute of mass removed during typical dross removal per minute of wave run time.

thin layer of dross across the surface of the lambda wave under an air environment • Dross rates were lowest for Sn-Cu followed by the SAC alloys CPS Lead-Free Study CPS Lead-Free Study .Drossing Rates • Lead-Free alloys produce a continuous.Initial Conclusions .

Initial Qualitative Conclusions LF Wave Study • 0. – The Delta T between top and bottom side of the board never exceeded 30 °F • OSP finish was the most difficult to solder and all of the metalized finishes performed better and approximately the same CPS Lead-Free Study CPS Lead-Free Study .062 in /1.6 mm boards flexed significantly as they passed through the waves. Warpage of boards was significant.

cont LF Wave Study • Overall the 615-25 & NR330 showed the best performance with 5280E a close third – High-solids fluxes: 615-25 was the best – Low-solids fluxes: the water-based VOC Free NR330 was the best • Qualitative inspection indicated SAC405 alloy performed the best in our study – It should be stressed that the SAC305 was run at 10 C lower Solder Pot Temperature and that may explain the increase in defects over the SAC405 CPS Lead-Free Study CPS Lead-Free Study .Initial Qualitative Conclusions .

• Contamination Issues during the transition to Lead-Free – Solder baths prone to lead contamination if substrates and components are Sn/Pb coated CPS Lead-Free Study CPS Lead-Free Study . – Nitrogen inerted wave may be needed for certain applications using Sn-Cu system.Lead-Free Wave Processing Observations • Pot temperatures of 270º -277º C (520º -530º F) needed.

) • Lead-pull testing for each device type on the test vehicle • Cross sectioning (fillet/joint quality.What’s Next for the Wave Solder Project? • Visual inspection of solder joints to J-standard-001B • Extensive stress-testing program utilizing Thermal Cycling & Thermal Shock (-55 °C .125 °C) • Scanning Acoustic Microscopy and X-ray imaging for solder defects for cycled/shocked and control boards (voids. Intermetallic layer growth) CPS Lead-Free Study CPS Lead-Free Study . etc.

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