Determining when computers first took flight depends in part upon one's definition of a computer. A little more than a decade after the Wright brothers flew at Kitty Hawk, the brilliant U.S. engineer Elmer Sperry adapted gyroscopes—which consisted of spinning weights that maintained a specific orientation—to electric and pneumatic control systems connected to an airplane's flight controls. This device, soon named an autopilot, could hold a plane level and on a specific course when the pilot took his hands off the controls. Over the next several decades, Sperry and others continued to perfect this technique. The famous Norden bombsight used aboard B-17 and B-29 bombers during World War II was a calculating device connected to an autopilot and controlled the airplane and held it steady when the bombs were released. These devices were all types of computers, although extremely primitive even by the standards of only a decade or so later.

Aviation history refers to the history of development of mechanical flight—from the earliest attempts in kites and gliders to powered heavier-than-air, supersonic and spaceflights. Earliest record of the use of buoyancy to achieve unmanned flight is as old as the 3rd century, when Zhuge Liang used hot air balloons for military signaling and to scare away enemy troops. With the efforts to analyze the atmosphere in the 17th and 18th century, gases such as hydrogen were discovered which in turn led to the invention of hydrogen balloons.[1] Various theories in mechanics by physicists during the same period of time— notably fluid dynamics and Newton's laws of motion—led to the foundation of modern aerodynamics. Tethered balloons filled with hot air were used in the first half of the 19th century and saw considerable action in several mid-century wars, most notably the American Civil War, where balloons provided observation during the battle of Petersburg.

Parachutes and gliders in Umayyad Iberia and England

" he eventually crashed and sustained injury which some contemporary critics attributed to a lack of tail. Ibn Firnas is said to have flown from the hill Jabal al-'arus by employing a rudimentary glider. A model he built for a test flight in 1496 did not fly. and whether his actual ideas would have flown is not known.[13] supported by the Emir Abd ar-Rahman II. Ibn Firnas is said to have jumped off the top in a parachute-like apparatus. and survived with minor injuries.Minaret of the Great Mosque at Córdoba. and he escaped with minor injuries. he himself never flew in it. such as the four-person screw-type helicopter have severe flaws. Based on his drawings.[17] However. his apparatus slowed his fall. While his drawings exist and are deemed flightworthy in principle. Ibn Firnas jumped off the minaret of the Grand Mosque in Cordoba—while he could not fly. and some other designs. In 852 he made a set of wings with cloth stiffened by wooden struts. his sketchy design was interpreted with modern knowledge of aerodynamic principles. Islamic Iberia during the Umayyad renaissance under the Caliphate of Cordoba witnessed several attempts at flight by the Arab polymath and inventor Abbas Ibn Firnas. . more than a century later. Leonardo da Vinci came up with a hang glider design in which the inner parts of the wings are fixed.[16] Some six centuries after Ibn Firnas.[14][15] His flight may have been an inspiration for Eilmer of Malmesbury. a prototype constructed in the late 20th century was shown to fly. Twenty-five years later. and some control surfaces are provided towards the tips (as in the gliding flight in birds). While "alighting again on the place whence he had started. at the age of 65. and using materials that would have been available to him. In 852. With this umbrella-like apparatus. who would fly for about 200 meters using a similar glider (circa 1010). His device is now considered to have been a prototype of the modern parachute.

because the canard could not be highly loaded. by surviving crashes. bombing and shelling correction military flights during the Italian-Turkish war (September 1911 – October 1912). characterized by the "gentleman scientists" who represented most research efforts until the 20th century. Its planes attacked and reconnoitered the Ottoman positions during the First Balkan War 1912–13. Almost as an afterthought. The first war to see major use of planes in offensive. The Allies and Central Powers both used planes extensively. Both problems proved difficult. they also designed and carved wooden propellers that were more efficient than any before. the Wrights' design was greatly influenced by the need to teach themselves to fly without unreasonable risk to life and limb. This emphasis. 1883. The Wright Brothers The Wrights appear to be the first design team to make serious studied attempts to simultaneously solve the power and control problems. anhedral wings were less affected by crosswinds and were consistent with the low yaw stability. in Libya. enabling them to gain adequate performance from their marginal engine power. Although wing-warping was used only briefly during the history of aviation. it flew in a controlled manner outside of San Diego on August 28. Relying on their wind tunnel data. It was not until many years later that his efforts became well known. They solved the control problem by inventing wing warping for roll control. planes were drafted for military service. whose planes made reconnaissance. While many aviation pioneers appeared to leave safety largely to chance. was the reason for low flying speed and for taking off in a head wind. While the concept of using the aeroplane as a weapon of war was generally laughed at before World War I[29].Controlling the flight The 1880s became a period of intense study. Another delta hang-glider had been constructed by Wilhelm Kress as early as 1877 near Vienna. The first country to use planes for military purposes was Italy. First bombing of enemy columns was the 1st November 1911[28]. First mission (a reconnaissance) happened on the 23rd October 1911. when used with a rudder it proved to be a key advance in order to control an aircraft. Performance (rather than safety) was also the reason for the rear-heavy design. Starting in the 1880s advancements were made in construction that led to the first truly practical gliders. as well as marginal engine power. but they never lost interest. combined with simultaneous yaw control with a steerable rear rudder. Then Bulgaria followed this example. First performances steps under World War I (1914–1918) Almost as soon as they were invented. defensive and reconnaissance capabilities was World War I. the idea of using it for photography was one that was not lost on . Percy Pilcher and Octave Chanute. One of the first truly modern gliders appears to have been built by John J. Three people in particular were active: Otto Lilienthal. Montgomery. they designed and built a low-powered internal combustion engine.

Supersonic flight was not commercially viable. In April 2001 the unmanned aircraft Global Hawk flew from Edwards AFB in the US to Australia non-stop and unrefuelled. attached to their reconnaissance departments. as the planes were required to fly over the oceans if they wanted to break the sound barrier. Aeroplanes evolved from low-powered biplanes made from wood and fabric to sleek. and a few minor milestones in flight progress. the early 21st century saw the end of an era with the retirement of Concorde. The age of the great airships came and went. distances and technology.296 hours between its first flight in 1976 and its final flight in 2000. .any of the major forces. This aircraft flew for 22. In commercial aviation. The last quarter of the 20th century saw a slowing of the pace of advancement. subsonic military aviation focused on eliminating the pilot in favor of remotely operated or completely autonomous vehicles. No longer was revolutionary progress made in flight speeds. In October 2003 the first totally autonomous flight across the Atlantic by a computer-controlled model aircraft occurred. typically derived from pre-war sporting designs. This is the longest point-to-point flight ever undertaken by an unmanned aircraft. based primarily on the founding work of Hugo Junkers during the World War I period. Concorde G-BOAB in storage at London Heathrow Airport following the end of all Concorde flying. high-powered monoplanes made of aluminum. This part of the century saw the steady improvement of flight avionics. All of the major forces in Europe had light aircraft. Nevertherless. 2001 In the beginning of the 21st century. Concorde also was fuel hungry and could carry a limited amount of passengers due to its highly streamlined design. Several unmanned aerial vehicles or UAVs have been developed. and took 23 hours and 23 minutes. Technology and performance advances in aviation's "Golden Age" (1918–1939) The years between World War I and World War II saw great advancements in aircraft technology. it seems to have made a significant operating profit for British Airways.

Determining when computers first took flight depends in part upon one's definition of a computer. They are used to design airplanes. The famous Norden bombsight used aboard B-17 and B-29 bombers during World War II was a calculating device connected to an autopilot and controlled the airplane and held it steady when the bombs were released. wind tunnel facilities often employed groups of women. This device. COMPUTERS IN AVIATION INDUSTRY: Just as computers have affected virtually every aspect of modern life.The U. major contributors to this gigantic evolution: they were used for designing efficient aircraft with new aerodynamic properties suitable for special roles (military. Centennial of Flight Commission was established in 1999 to encourage the broadest national and international participation in the celebration of 100 years of powered flight.[33] It publicized and encouraged a number of programs. could hold a plane level and on a specific course when the pilot took his hands off the controls. Computers at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) first used calculating machines in the 1930s to aid researchers in their work. efficiency as well as many other things. they have also had a major impact on aviation. although extremely primitive even by the standards of only a decade or so later. These were used to provide targeting information for guns and missiles. Over the next several decades. projects and events intended to educate people about the history of aviation. Furthermore. Computers are now used in all parts of aviation. A little more than a decade after the Wright brothers flew at Kitty Hawk. engineer Elmer Sperry adapted gyroscopes—which consisted of spinning weights that maintained a specific orientation—to electric and pneumatic control systems connected to an airplane's flight controls. with a range of 8200nm. the brilliant U. Computers were.S. sometimes to perform complicated calculations of airflow over airfoils. Sperry and others continued to perfect this technique. who were sometimes referred to as . These devices were all types of computers. Aircraft during the 1950s and early 1960s also carried analog computers as part of their radar equipment. to control them in flight. soon named an autopilot. weights. and to ensure that they reach their destinations safely and (more or less) on time.S. speeds. commercial etc) but are also used to 'fly' the larger jet airliner aircraft. from medicine to sports to education. at speeds of up to 450 knots (833 km/h) whilst cruising at 36000ft above the Earth. calculate cruising altitudes. Aviation has evolved from simple planes made out of paper and wood to modern airliners that can carry up to 800 people. amongst other things. The Heads Up Display (HUD) that projected information onto a piece of glass in front of the pilot relied upon computer input to help the pilot aim his guns or select his weapons.

was the first operational jet fighter to use an analog flight control system. powerful. The Arrow's computer was used to reduce the plane's tendency to yaw back and forth in flight. spacecraft such as Mercury. It was the first computer to respond immediately to actions taken by its operator. An important early computer. as IBM developed better calculating and tabulating machines for office use. Computers and wind tunnels both had an impact on each other: More powerful computers allowed designers not only to process wind tunnel test results better and faster. sometimes hours later."computers. was the first aircraft to use an analog computer not as an autopilot but as a means of improving the flyability of the aircraft." As previously noted. Gemini. so designers wanted to gain as much data about their aircraft as they could before they ever put a model in a wind tunnel." whose sole job it was to perform mathematical calculations concerning airflow. The Apollo Lunar Module also used an analog computer flight control system and other U. By the 1980s. was the Whirlwind computer started at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1944. The German A4 (V-2) rocket of World War II used an early computer control system. The pilot steers the rudder pedals and joystick. By the 1950s. Whirlwind was a flight simulator. The Canadian CF-105 Arrow interceptor airplane. The General Dynamics (now Lockheed-Martin) F-16. the first computers to fly were primitive mechanical devices used to control planes in flight. so-called "supercomputers" capable of conducting millions of calculations per second. they are connected to a "fly-by-wire" flight control system. Three computers on the aircraft constantly adjust the flight controls to maintain the aircraft in flight and reply to the commands from the pilot. But Whirlwind responded in "real time. Previous computers simply took inputs and then made calculations and eventually produced an output. they actually began replacing wind tunnels entirely. By the 1990s. but these are not directly connected to the control surfaces such as the rudder and ailerons. Instead. but to determine some of those test results before a model was even built. an hour of wind tunnel testing could cost thousands of dollars. more and more powerful computers were pressed into service to assist in number crunching the results of wind tunnel tests and in trying to predict some of the results before actual models were placed into wind tunnels. and wind tunnel data allowed designers to develop better programs for their computers to predict airflow. Airplane and missile designers kept improving these systems. Furthermore. because powerful computers and CFD programs could be bought by any large company (unlike wind tunnels. commercial aircraft designers no longer had to build models to fly in government wind tunnels. Computers allowed aircraft designers to narrow their research and test fewer designs in wind tunnels than before. By the 1970s. not only for aviation but for computers in general.S. which flew in March 1958. computers had become so powerful that for some applications. which could not be bought from a supplier). computers had all but replaced wind tunnels for aeronautical research. which entered service in the late 1970s and has been built in large numbers. The F-16 is inherently unstable by . This saved tremendous amounts of money. This demand played a major role in pushing the development of new. which enabled them to do new things. and Apollo all had computer flight control systems. Aeronautical engineers began developing advanced computer programs to conduct computational fluid dynamics (CFD) experiments.

statistically. Today fly-by-wire control systems are common on all advanced fighter aircraft. Nevertheless. a highly modified version of the popular DC-10. It is possible for a pilot to have 'zero flight time' in real life: 100% of his flying has been on simulators and has never flown in real life until his/her first commercial flight. computers are used for 'simulation flying' where pilots can practice their emergency skills. for some reason. This means that pilots do not have to fly in a 'real' aircraft to learn how to fly. The MD-11. meaning that it would fly out of control if the computers failed (which is why there are three of them). which has replaced analog systems for most applications. was the first commercial aircraft to adopt computer-assisted flight controls. Initially. slower ones that rarely reach the edges of their performance envelope. NASA tested a modified Navy F-8 Crusader with a digital fly-by-wire system. Also. Fly-by-wire has many advantages for small. Air Force made a major step to adopt computers in its airplanes in a major way in the 1970s. failure. which is both safer for people (if. In 1972. the Joint Strike Fighter." But computer control systems have become so common that they are no longer unusual. and the French Rafale all use flight control computers. unlikely. Because of this. F-22. The result was the Boeing 777." Airplanes will be connected by radio and satellite link to a global information system that will provide them with information on the weather and aircraft in their immediate vicinity. The F-18." The latest application of computers is for what is called "the Airborne Internet. the aircraft had an . as well as their flight plan. using methods like TCAS (Traffic Collision Avoidance System) which prevents mid air collisions.S. Similar computers were also used on the Space Shuttle and the F-117 stealth fighter. Keeping track of all the changes and making sure that workmen are using the latest blueprints and not outdated ones are major tasks in themselves. these failures are. Although the U. which first flew in 1994 and many people referred to as "the first Twenty-First Century Jet. the Swedish JAS 39 Grippen. The next major area for computers to conquer was the design of aircraft.design. airliners may have 2 or more computers for back-up purposes in case of a. pilots often referred to the F-16 as "the electric jet. The designers made it unstable in order to improve its maneuverability. In the 1980s Boeing decided to build a new large passenger jet and the program's managers made the radical decision to design the plane entirely on computers. very rare and computers have made flying much safer than it ever was. A modern airliner relies on computers in order to keep it 'flying' which poses a scary thought: what if these computers fail? Redundancy. aircraft designers disagree on how much control should remain with the pilot and how much should be given to a computer. nimble aircraft but fewer clear advantages for large. Designing a plane such as a large passenger airplane is an immensely complex job involving thousands of engineers and ultimately hundreds of thousands of pages of blueprints. The computers constantly readjust the flight surfaces to keep the plane flying. checklists. without using traditional paper blueprints. operations etc. The Airbus A340 also adopted them. the Eurofighter Typhoon. it took more than a decade before commercial airliners began to adopt them.

'global network'. We take a broad view here of the problems of attaining security and safety. and are as a result relatively easy to misuse once initial access is attained. and Risks An overall system perspective is essential. Computer Security in Aviation: Vulnerabilities. Most such systems have weak access controls and tend to be poorly configured. Security vulnerabilities are ubiquitous. These systems often have monitoring facilities that are ill adapted to determining when threats are mounting and what damage may have occurred. sort of. It is a common misconception that the sky is huge and mid air collision are rare. It is not a far step to completely automatic operation and pilots may become unnecessary. entirely by computer. They can also take off and land automatically (although current flight rules prohibit this).engine failure in a training flight people on the ground would be put at risk) and is much more ecological as a simulator does not run on kerosene. From an Air Traffic Control point of view. Consequently. Most computer operating systems have weak authentication and are relatively easy to penetrate. computers allow the mass numbers aviation traffic to pass from country to country at very efficient and safe speeds. This has created a. Looking at the commercial side of aviation. Security is tightly coupled with safety and reliability. misuse by outsiders and insiders is potentially easy to achieve and sometimes very difficult to detect. and must not be ignored or relegated to incidental concerns. In conclusion. where anyone can choose where to fly to for holidays. with multiple course changes. for example). Threats. without computers in aircraft systems and air traffic control centres. The ultimate application of computers may be to take over control of flying completely. flying would be very dangerous as there would be vast amounts of traffic in the same airspace (in the vicinity of a major airport. making collisions highly probable. and consider these problems as a unified global system/network/enterprise problem. computers have allowed the evolution of aviation to increase in a very short period of time and increase the safety of flying in general. Already planes can be flown over long distances. . It is now simpler than ever to book a ticket to almost any part of the world through a click of a mouse in your home. computers have allowed an uncontrolled boom in air travel.

Electromagnetic interference is a particularly complex type of threat. industrial or national competition. The risks are ubiquitous. Several people have masqueraded as air-traffic controllers on designated radio frequencies (in Miami. Of increasing concern in aviation is the omnipresent threat of terrorism. Radio-frequency spoofing of air-traffic control. it cannot be dependably reliable and it cannot have any predictable availability. deaths of many passengers.with a wide variety of causes and an enormous range of effects. misuses could happen at any time. The interrelationships are complex. Denial of service attacks are particularly insidious. many of those seemingly isolated systems can be compromised remotely because of their facilities for remote diagnostics and remote maintenance. airport closures. in Manchester. if a system is not adequately secure. espionage. Unanticipated acts of God are also a source of threat -.with the usual spectrum of difficulty in between. the security controls could be vitiated at any time. loss of data integrity when data is altered. it cannot be dependably secure. copycat crimes. safety.for example.Threats to security and safety are ubiquitous. those relating to commercial aviation and to military aviation. overall system risks included major air-traffic-control outages. . England. In general. Attacks may involve Trojan-horse insertion and physical tampering. and human error. We consider here just a few cases from that list. or seemingly innocuous thefts of service. The range of threats that can exploit these vulnerabilities is enormous. Systems connected to the Internet or available by dial-up lines are potential victims of external penetrations. As stated above. many aviation-related cases -. Computer-related misuse may (for example) result in loss of confidentiality. It may be very difficult to detect as in the case of a latent Trojan horse. More broadly. denials of service that render resources unavailable. loss of aircraft. from lightning or extreme weather conditions. Two sections in that list are of particular interest here. Even systems that appear to be completely isolated are subject to internal misuse. namely. The consequences of these vulnerabilities and associated threats imply that the risks can be very considerable. loss of system integrity when systems are corrupted. mechanical malfunctions. In addition. Such misuse may be intentional or accidental. A simple example of a security-related reliability flaw is provided by the time when MIT's CTSS (the first time-sharing system) spewed out the entire password file as the logon message of the day. and other major disturbances. and reliability are closely interrelated. security. and the interrelationships can be subtle. or may be blatantly obvious as in the case of a complete system wipeout -. Similarly. if a system is not adequately reliable. including retributive acts by disgruntled employees or former employees or harassment. sabotage. A Review of Past Incidents Among a large collection of riskful events. because they are so difficult to defend against and because their effects can be devastating. stemming from possible terrorist activities.

the Lauda Air thrust-reverser problem.to name just a few. although its effects on aircraft computers and communications are still inadequately understood.174 flights cancelled or delayed. Oakland.S.) Fatal aircraft incidents. Australia's Melbourne Airport reported serious effects on their RF communications. the Vincennes' Aegis shootdown of the Iranian Airbus. Electromagnetic interference. Many such cases have been recorded. Pittsburgh.S. altering flight courses and causing serious confusion. (Some communication authentication might help mitigate problems of this type. Air Force F-16 accidentally dropping a bomb on rural West Georgia on 4 May 1989.the ``Roanoake Phantom''). the Air New Zealand crash into Mt Erebus. Significant problems have arisen in computer-communication systems for air-traffic control and procurements for military and commercial aviation and defense systems. EMI was the cited cause of several UH-60 BlackHawk helicopter hydraulic failures. etc. The list of computer-related aircraft accidents is not encouraging. . Numerous near-misses have also been reported. Cleveland. Unfortunately. The AT&T outage of 17 September 1991 blocked 5 million calls and crippled air travel with 1. (Much greater recognition is needed of the intricate ways in which air-traffic control depends on the power and telecommunication infrastructures. An FAA report listed 114 major telecom outages in a 12-month period in 1990-91. several Airbus A320 crashes. Miami. Vulnerabilities of the power infrastructure and other computer problems have seriously affected air-traffic control (Chicago. BlackHawks over Iraq. Risks inherent in developing complex systems. Computer-communication system difficulties associated with air-traffic control are of particular concern. as well as a 3-hour outage and airport delays in Boston that resulted from unmarked electronic components being switched. other outages were due to lightning strikes. EMI was considered as one possible explanation for the U.). The Kansas City ATC was brought down by a beaver-chewed cable (1990). The recent missile observed passing AA 1170 over Wallops Island reminds us that accidents can be caused by friendly fire (as was indeed the case in the two UH-60 BlackHawks shot down by our own F-15Cs over Iraq). Washington DC.) Power and telecommunication infrastructural problems. the British Midlands 737 crash. Undeserved faith in the infallibility of computer systems and the people who use them played a role in the Korean Airlines 007 shootdown. Dallas-FortWorth. all three New York airports.and in Virginia -. misplaced backhoe buckets. Passenger laptops with cable-attached devices appear to be a particularly risky source of in-flight radiation. Interference seem to be a particularly difficult type of threat. Oakland. the American Airlines Cali crash. Near-misses and near-accidents. the Ilyushin Il-114 crash -. and various computer problems. which were finally traced to a radiating video cassette recorder near the airport. Twenty air-traffic control centers were downed by a fiber-optic cable inadvertently cut by a farmer burying his cow (4 May 1991). and probably many more have not. the F-15 shootdowns of two U. blown fuses. NW flight 255.

Another example is provided by the C-17 software and hardware problems. there is much that can be learned concerning the potential security risks. and users!). In particular. there were multiple causes and the blame can be distributed. reliability. On the other hand. in further cases. attacks need not be very high-tech -. There are many common threads among these cases (as well as many dissimilarities). For example. and some cases appear not to be computer related (TW 800). which are increasingly dominated by their software complexity.within budget. just think what maliciously conceived coordinated attacks could do -particularly. and law enforcement merely reinforce the conclusion that the development of large systems can be a risky business. ultimately.on the part of designers. the experiences of system development efforts for the Social Security Administration. once a high-tech . blackmail. explosives. catastrophes are often attributed to ``human error'' (on the part of pilots or traffic controllers) for problems that really originated within the systems or that can be attributed to poor interface design (which. and survivability. In some aircraft incidents. in other cases. the IRS Tax Systems Modernization effort. Possible Future Incidents If accidental outages and unintended computer-related problems can cause this much trouble.particularly with respect to security. system developers. although most of the cases seem to have had some accidental contributing factors (except for the masqueraders and various terrorist incidents such as the PanAm Lockerbie disaster). and with high assurance compliant with their stated requirements. well conceived attacks striking at weak links in the critical infrastructure! On one hand. maintainers. bribes. should be attributed to human problems -. There have been real fiascos elsewhere in attempts to develop large infrastructural computer-communication systems. operators. In some cases. and very few examples of how systems can be developed successfully.'' Unfortunately. which makes a careful study of causes and effects imperative.these problems are not indigenous to the aviation industry. and other strong-arm techniques may be sufficient. human error was involved. many of the accidentally caused cases could alternatively have been triggered intentionally. the human-computer interface design was implicated. on schedule. We desperately need the ability to develop complex systems -. efforts to develop and operate complex computerbased systems and networks that must meet critical requirements have been monumentally unsuccessful -. Unfortunately. this case was cited by a GAO report as ``a good example of how not to approach software development when procuring a major weapons system.under various scenarios. we have too many such horrible ``good'' examples of what not to do. well-aimed backhoes can evidently have devastating effects. In general. As we discuss in the following section. system design and implementation were problematic.

carefully controls system procurements and developments. DoJ. with their inherent dependence on software of completely unknown trustworthiness. Everyone seems to be jumping on the Internet and the WorldWideWeb.S. computer networks. and all of the interactions and interdependencies among them. but with no on-line schedules and no hardcopy backups. The combination of all three together is seemingly even more complicated. and reliability are separately each very difficult problems. . and the U. which on 29 November 1996 brought the rail system to its knees. But that combination cries out for a much more fundamental approach -one that characterizes the overall system requirements a priori. and reliability of the aviation infrastructure must be thoroughly integrated throughout the entire infrastructure. Conclusions Total integration. safety. addressing computer systems. One recent example relevant to public transportation is provided by the recent breakdown of the Amtrak ticket and information system. NASA. The ease with which web pages of the CIA. the risks become ever greater. Air Force have been altered by intruders merely hints at the depth of the problem. a high level of expertise is no longer a prerequisite. and continues that control throughout system operation. Thus. public-switched networks.attack is conceived. There are no easy answers. those intruders typically acquired the privileges necessary to do much greater damage than was actually observed. As air-industry-related activities become more Internet and computer-system dependent. its very sophisticated attack methods can be posted on underground bulletin boards and may then be exploited by others without extensive knowledge or understanding. Simplistic solutions are very risky. Increasingly widespread opportunities for misuse. safety. Furthermore. Security. Security. power-transmission and -distribution facilities. the air-traffic-control infrastructure. employees had to resort to manual ticketing operations. enforces compliance with the requirements.

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