A Comparative Study of UMTS (WCDMA) and cdma2000 Networks

Neerav Dalal Award Solutions, Inc. IEEE METROCON-2001

Outline
! Current

scene of Cellular Wireless ! 3G Technology Landscape ! Comparative Study
– – – –

Network Architecture Air Interface Network Interfaces End-to-End Service Flow

! Beyond

3G ! Summary

Evolution of Wireless Technologies
1st Generation (1G) • Analog-based cellular technology • Services " Voice • Introduction of digital technologies • Services " Voice " Low-rate data • Next generation digital systems • Services " Voice " High speed data services

2nd Generation (2G)

3rd Generation (3G)

2G Technologies
AMPS
Operating Spectrum Frequency Channel Width Users Per Channel Channel Separation Network Architecture 800 MHz

D-AMPS
800 & 1900 MHz

GSM

CDMA

900 & 1800 MHz (Europe) 800 & 1900 800 & 1900 MHz (US) MHz

30 kHz 1 Frequency IS-41

30 kHz 3 Frequency and Time IS-41

200 kHz 8 Frequency and Time GSM-MAP

1.25 MHz About 20 Frequency and Code IS-41

GSM Network Architecture PSTN MSC/VLR HLR SS7 MSC GSM PLMN BSS BTS A Interface BSC .

IS-95-Based 2G Network CDMA (IS-95) Proprietary IS-634 (IOS) VLR BSC MSC BSC IWF PSTN IS-41 SS7 HLR AC Internet .

2G Limitations Capacity Uni-service network Limited roaming capabilities Bandwidth 14.4-64 Kbps Limited support for packet data No multimedia .

3G Requirements ! Radio Network requirements – Support up to 2 Mbps data rates – Support flexible operating environments – High spectral efficiency/capacity – Support multimedia services ! Core Network requirements – Packet Data Network and IP Mobility – Global Roaming – Virtual Home Environment – Quality of Service – Interoperability with 2G Networks .

3G Network Architecture Internet PSTN PS-CN RAN CS-CN UIM .

GPRS .IP Mobility ! ! ! Ability to move with an IP address while the connection using the IP address is active IP Mobility may be provided by a combination of “RAN mobility” and “CN mobility” Radio Access Network IP mobility – Handoff/handover – Cell selection/reselection ! Core Network IP mobility – Mobile IP.

Always Connected Logical Connections remain intact RAN Application Logical Connection CN Logical Connection RAN Physical Connection Physical Connection comes and goes Wireless Core Network Services e-mail IP CC TV .

Circuit Core Network Services Network IS-41/MAP PSTN Intelligent Network MSC Gateway Call Server IP Telephony Services Customer Relationship Management PDSN Location Based Services CS BTS IP Network M Commerce Push Services BSC RAN PS Packet Core Network Billing Services Network Enterprise Services .

5G GPRS/EDGE Voice: IS-136 Data: EDGE Voice: GSM Data: GPRS IS-2000 (1x) IS-2000 (3x) 3G UMTS ? UMTS FDMA TDMA CDMA .3G Technology Landscape 1G 2G GSM AMPS IS-136 D-AMPS IS-95A / B 2.

GSM # GPRS Summary of Changes New Modification No Changes Packet Core Network Nodes (SGSN. GGSN) New Interface – Gb (BSC – SGSN) BSC Hardware and Software Circuit Core Network (MSC/HLR/AuC) Air Interface (MS. BTS) A-Interface (BSC-MSC) .

2.5G GSM/GPRS Networks BSS BTS BSC A Interface Gb Interface IP SGSN SGSN GPRS PLMN GGSN MSC/VLR HLR SS7 MSC Intra PLMN IP Back bone GGSN GSM PLMN .

Iur (RNC – RNC) CN Interface – Iu (MSC–RNC & SGSN–RNC) MSC and SGSN for Iu Interface Circuit Core Network (HLR/AuC) Packet Core Network (GGSN) Modification No Changes .GSM/GPRS # UMTS Summary of Changes New WCDMA Air Interface (UE–Node B) RAN Interfaces Iub (Node B – RNC).

UMTS Networks GSM Node B W-CDMA UTRAN RNC Iu 3G MSC/VLR G-MSC UE Node B Iub Iur Node B Iub RNC PSTN / ISDN 3G SGSN GGSN GPRS Inter net .

HA/FA) New Interface (R-P) – BS .PDSN Air Interface (MS – BS) Network Interface (BS – MSC) Core Network Nodes (HLR. AAA. AC) .IS-95 # cdma2000 Summary of Changes New Modification No Changes Packet Core Network (PDSN.

cdma2000 Network Architecture Circuit Switched-CN MSC/VLR IS-41 HLR AC RAN BSC Packet Switched-CN AAA Server PDSN/ FA Private IP Network HA MS BTS Internet .

W-CDMA Protocol Stack Upper Layers Signaling Data User Data Manages Radio Resources Increases reliability Controls user access to the medium L3 Radio Resource Control (RRC) Radio Link Control (RLC) UTRAN Link L2 Layer Media Access Control (MAC) Physical L1 Layer Physical Layer Transports data over-the-air .

2 .3 Physical Layer Physical Layer – IS-2000.5 Packet Data Service Voice Services Circuit Data Service Traffic Link Access Control (LAC) – IS-2000.cdma2000 Protocol Stack Signaling Signaling Upper Layers Layer 3 – IS-2000.4 Link Layer Medium Access Control (MAC) – IS-2000.

CDMA Physical Layer Functions Digital Coding Techniques Channelization Code Downlink User Data BS Protect Data Channel Separation Source ID Separation Uplink Digital Coding Techniques Channelization Code MS .

2288 Mcps 3.75 MHz (3x) UMTS 5 MHz 3.Bandwidth and spreading Bandwidth Spreading Channelization codes 4-128 bits (1x) 4-256 bits (3x) 4-256 bits cdma2000 1.25 MHz (1x) 1.84 Mcps .

25 MHz Synchronous Direct spread (1x) Multi-carrier (3x forward link) Convolutional Turbo (Parameters fixed in the standard) Channel coding .2288 Mcps 1.84 Mcps 5 MHz Asynchronous Direct spread configuration Convolutional Turbo (Parameters flexible) (1) cdma2000 1.Air Interface Parameters UMTS Spreading rate Bandwidth Synchronization between cell sites Configuration 3.

40 and 80 msec for transport layer FDD and TDD Mode Time Switched Transmit Diversity Space Time Block Coded Transmit Diversity (2) cdma2000 QPSK in forward BPSK in reverse 5 (for signaling).Air Interface Parameters UMTS Modulation QPSK in both directions 10 msec for physical layer 10. 20. 40 and 80 msec physical layer frames Only FDD Mode Orthogonal Transmit Diversity Space Time Diversity Frame size Modes Diversity schemes .20.

Unique offsets are generated based on ESN.400 bits) Unique scrambling codes assigned by sector cdma2000 Walsh codes (same as OVSF) codes from 4-128 bits One PN code (32. Not assigned by sector .768 bits) 512 unique offsets are generated using PN offsets One long PN code (242 bits).Channelization & Source Identification Codes UMTS Channelization codes Source identification code for Sector Source identification for mobiles Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) codes from 4-256 bits 512 unique scrambling codes each identifying a sector (38.

GPS Asynchronous Cell Operations CDMA2000 PNt2 PNt1 PNt0 PNt3 PNt5 PNt4 PNt6 PNt3 PNt7 S0 S3 S5 S1-n .Scrambling codes ! ! UTRA-FDD S2 S1 S4 S6 S3 S7 PNt0-n .Time offset scrambling code ! ! Cell sites transmission and reception are synchronized through GPS timing Adjacent cell sites use different time offsets of same scrambling code for spreading Cell sites are not synchronized Each cell site uses a different scrambling code for spreading .

Power Control UMTS Open loop Power control for System Access Forward link Power control Reverse link Power control √ 1500/sec 1500/sec cdma2000 √ 800/sec 800/sec .

UMTS Packet data Network Architecture R TE MT Uu UTRAN Iu SGSN Gn GGSN Ga Ga Gp GGSN SGSN Other PLMN Gf EIR Signaling Interface Signaling and Data Transfer Interface CGF Billing System Gi PDN TE Gn .

IP. PPP..g. PPP. OSP PDCP RLC MAC UMTS RF PDCP RLC MAC UMTS RF GTP-U UDP/IP AAL5 ATM GTP-U GTP-U GTP-U UDP/IP UDP/IP AAL5 ATM L2 L1 UDP/IP L2 L1 UE Uu UTRAN Iu-PS 3G-SGSN Gn 3G-GGSN Gi . IP.UMTS protocol model Application E.g.. OSP Relay Relay E.

cdma2000 Packet Data Network Architecture 5 HTTP/TCP/Others Services 4 MIP: RFC 2002 3 PPP: RFC 1661 2 IS-707: CDMA Data Services 4 MIP: RFC 2002 HA 6 3GPP2:IOS (R-P) BSC IP PDSN 1 IS-2000 AIR I/F MS BTS 7 RADIUS AAA RADIUS Server .

Logical connection between UE and UTRAN 1. Establish Iu Signaling Connection 3. Attach Logical connection UE and SGSN ATM IP . Authentication UTRAN GGSN SGSN UE 4. Establish RRC Connection UMTS Call Flow 2.

Allocate IP Address UTRAN GGSN SGSN UE Radio Bearer 8. Activate PDP Context 6. Establish Radio Bearer 6. Establish Iu Bearer 6. UE can now send and receive IP datagrams GTP GTP ATM IP .Request dynamic IP address UMTS Call Flow 5. PDP Response 9. Establish PDP Context 7.

cdma2000 call flow Origination CM Service Request RAN Authentication Radio Link Setup R-P Session Setup IS-41 MSC HLR/AC BSC/ BTS Service Connect and Synchronization Radio Channel MS PDSN IP Network R-P Session Link HA Point-to-Point Connection Setup Mobile IP related connection/setup (if required) .

Status of UMTS standards Release 4 Optimization of UTRA Quality of Service Preparation for All-IP Release ’99 Voice Services Emergency Calls Short Message Service Internet Access Release 5 Open Services Architecture All-IP Multimedia Subsystem All-IP UTRAN High Speed Downlink Packet Access Quality of Service R 99 R4 R5 Developed by 3GPP .

Status of cdma2000 standards cdmaOne 1x/3x RTT Proposal IS-95A/ IS-95B cdma2000 IS-2000 IS-2000A IS-856 IS-2000B IS-XXXX 1xEV-DO (HDR) 1xEV-DV Developed by 3GPP2 .

2000 Proposed Auction Satellite PCS (2G) 1800 Spectrum allocation Terrestrial paired band 1600 1200 Satellite 1000 Terrestrial paired band Terrestrial unpaired band 600 800 Cellular (2G) Planned Auction (10-20 MHz) 1885 1900 1920 1980 2010 Terrestrial unpaired band Europe and Asia 2025 North America 1400 2110 2170 2200 MHz .

New Spectrum Operator A Operator B 2G Operator.3G Deployment New Operator. New Spectrum 2G 2G 3G 3G 2G 3G 3G 3G Core Network 3G Core Network 2G Core Network 3G 2G Operator 3G Operator .

Billing System) Dual Mode phone (2G and 3G) . Management Systems. Existing Spectrum GSM → UMTS Clear some part of the spectrum GSM 200 kHz 200 kHz UMTS 200 kHz 200 kHz 1.25MHz IS-95 cdma2000 IS-95 → cdma2000 Same Spectrum ! ! Shared Infrastructure (Core Network.3G Deployment 2G Operator.

Deployment Status UMTS Japan Korea Europe Oct-2001 2003 GPRS Started UMTS in 2002 GPRS in trials USA UMTS Not announced 2001 cdma2000 2002 SKT – Oct 2000 KTF – Dec 2000 Not announced .

Ericsson. Lucent. KDDI.Major Players ! UMTS (3GPP) ! cdma2000 (3GPP2) – Vendors ! Ericsson ! Nokia ! Nortel ! Motorola ! Alcatel. SKT… . … – Vendors ! Qualcomm ! Lucent ! Nortel ! Motorola ! Samsung. … – Operators ! NTTDoCoMo ! Vodafone. … – Operators ! Sprint PCS ! Verizon.

UMTS Air Interface WCDMA (FDD) Network MSC & SGSN/GGSN TD-CDMA (TDD) IP to RAN High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) All-IP Multimedia .3G and Beyond .

3G and Beyond – cdma2000 Air Interface cdma2000 (1x) Network MSC & PDSN/AAA cdma2000 (3x) 1x Evolution (Data Only) – 1xEV-DO 1x Evolution (Data & Voice) – 1xEV-DV IP to RAN All-IP Multimedia .

Summary – Air Interface UMTS Technology (Bandwidth) Chip Rate Mode of Operation Peak Data Rate Interoperability WCDMA (5 MHz) 3.25 MHz) 1.84 Mcps Asynchronous 2 Mbps GSM – UMTS Handover cdma2000 CDMA (1.2288 Mcps Synchronous (GPS) 614 kbps Backward Compatible w/IS-95 .

Summary – Core Network UMTS Circuit Switched Packet Switched Multimedia Global Roaming GSM-MAP MSC/HLR/AuC GPRS Based SGSN/GGSN Yes SIM Card cdma2000 IS-41 MSC/HLR/AC IETF Based PDSN/AAA/HA/FA Yes Limited (R-UIM) .

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