Some Basic Phrases Merhabā / İyi günler Hello / Good day Selâm / Merhabā Hi (merhabā is more common) Teşekkür ederim / Sağol Thank you / Thanks Sonra görüşürüz See you later Özür dilerim! Sorry! Nasılsınız? How are you? (formal) İyiyim. I'm fine. İsminiz? What's your name? (formal) Memnun oldum Nice to meet you. Nerelisiniz? Where are you from? (formal) İyi akşamlar Good evening Güle güle / İyi günler Bye / Goodbye (Good day) Bir şey değil / Ricā ederim You're welcome / My pleasure Görüşürüz! See you! Affedersiniz / Pardon! Excuse me! Nasılsın / Nāber? How are you? / What’s up? (inf.) İyilik. I'm fine. (informal) İsmin/Adın ne? What's your name? (informal) ___ Bey, ___ Hanım Mister, Misses Nerelisin? Where are you from? (informal) İyi geceler Good night Lütfen Please Hoş geldiniz / Hoş geldin Welcome (formal / informal) Yarın görüşürüz See you tomorrow Hadi gidelim! Let's go! İyi değilim / Fenā değil Not fine / not bad Evet / Hayır / Yok Yes / no / no (common inf. use) Adım / İsmim… My name is... Hanımlar ve Beyler Ladies and gentlemen

…lıyım / …liyim.
I am from...

Nerede oturuyorsunuz? Where do you live? (formal) Kaç yaşındasınız? How old are you? (formal) Türkçe biliyor musunuz? Do you speak [know] Turkish? (formal) Anlıyor musunuz? / Anlıyor musun? Do you understand? (formal / informal)

Nerede oturuyorsun? Where do you live? (informal) Kaç yaşındasın? How old are you? (informal) İngilizce biliyor musun? Do you speak [know] English? (informal)

…de/da/te/ta oturuyorum.
I live in... ____ yaşındayım. I am ____ years old. Biliyorum / Bilmiyorum. I speak [know]… / I don’t speak…

Anlıyorum / Anlamıyorum. I understand / I don’t understand.

Biliyorum / Bilmiyorum. I know / I don’t know.

Yardım eder misiniz? / Yardım eder misin? Can you help me? (formal / informal)

Tabii / Tabii ki Of course.

Efendim? What? Pardon me?

Where is... / Where are...?

İşte / Buyurun There it is / Here you are.

…var / ...vardı.
There is/are... / There was/were...

Türkçe’de ____ nasıl denir? How do you say ____ in Turkish?

Bu ne? / Bunun mānāsı ne? What is this? / What does this mean? Ne oluyor? What's happening? Acıktım / Susadım. I'm hungry / thirsty. Beni ilgilendirmez I don't care. Unuttum. I forgot.

Neyin var? What's the matter?

Önemli bir şey değil. It doesn't matter. Yoruldum / Hastayım. I'm tired / sick. Sıkıldım. I'm bored. Sorun değil / Önemli değil It's no problem. / It's alright.

Hiç bilmiyorum. I have no idea. Yandım / Üşüdüm. I'm hot / cold. Merāk etmeyin / Merāk etme. Don't worry (formal / informal) Gitmem lāzım. I must go. Kolay gelsin! / İyi şanslar! (wish of success) / Good luck! (less common) Seni seviyorum. I love you (singular)

Çok yaşayın / Çok yaşa! Bless you! (formal / informal)

Tebrikler / Tebrik ederim. Congratulations!

Sıra sizde / Sıra sende It's your turn! (formal / informal)

Sessiz olun / Sessiz ol! Be quiet! (formal / informal)

Notice that Turkish has informal and formal ways of saying things. This is because there is more than one meaning to "you" in Turkish (as well as in many other languages). The informal you is used when talking to close friends, relatives, animals or children. The formal you is used when talking to someone who is older than you or someone for whom you would like to show respect (a professor, for example). As in many Romance languages, personal pronouns can be omitted, and they are only added for emphasis. Turkish has Vowel Harmony. That’s why we have given a choice of suffixes in the example “I live in…”. This will be dealt with in later sections. In the examples used, we have used a vowel lengthener sign (as in ā, ī and ū) to differentiate between short and long vowels. Note that it does not show the stress; rather it shows that the vowel is pronounced longer. The “^” sign is used to soften the consonant that precedes it. The length and the softening of vowels is conveyed through this one sign “^” in standard writing. Even then it is only used in certain words or phrases nowadays. For that reason we have used two different signs and have put it at every point where needed, to help the new learner.

tekrar tabii. The subject pronouns for the third person singular and plural (o and onlar) are generally replaced by the noun they specify (i. Subject Pronouns ben I you (singular) he / she / it biz we you (formal&plural) sen siz o onlar they The plural you. tabii ki girl child book pencil paper dog cat kız çocuk kitap kalem kâğıt köpek kedi . oğul şu anda baby bebek her zaman hiç bir şey hiçbir şey de/da yine. the object) in the spoken language.e. General Vocabulary and but only now at the moment always never something nothing also / too again of course 5. the person. 4. Question Words what ne ve ama sādece şimdi friend man woman boy arkadaş adam kadın çocuk.3. gene. is also used for formal address. siz.

.why when where how how much / many niye ne zaman nerede nasıl ne kadar / kaç hangi / hangisi kim kimi kime kimin nereden nereye which / which one who whom to whom whose from where to where Nereden biliyorsun? How do you know? Kimi tanıyorsun? Whom do you know? Kaç dil öğreniyorsun? How many languages are you learning? Hangi üniversitede okuyorsun? In which university are you studying? Niye gülüyorsun? Why are you laughing? 6. The suffix “to be” and Vowel Harmony ben -im sen -sin o -dur biz -iz siz -siniz onlar -dırlar I am we are you are (sing. and they can sometimes be left out in the written language.) you are (plural) he / she / it is they are The suffixes –dur and –dırlar are mostly omitted in speech.

” The E-dotted group consists of the vowels e.” mutlu . Note: Instead of memorizing the subtleties of each rule. Vowel Harmony is easy to learn. • If the last vowel is e or i. “It’s me. “We are friends.u. then the vowel(s) of the suffix is ü. ben >> ben + im >> Benim.ö. “I am.i.The vowels used in the suffix “to be” shifts with Vowel Harmony. then the vowel(s) of the suffix is ı. thus gaining a sense of the language.” evde >> evde + y + iz >> Evdeyiz. then the vowel(s) of the suffix is i. hasta >> hasta + y + ım >> Hastayım.ü. "We are at home.o." .” • If the last vowel is o or u. The A-undotted group includes the vowels a. y is added before suffixes for “I” and “we”.ı. “You are upset.happy ( ending in a vowel ) mutlu + y + um I am happy mutlu + y + uz we are happy mutlu + sun you are happy mutlu + sunuz you are happy (plural) mutlu he/she/it is happy mutlu they are happy • If the word ends in a vowel. üzgün >> üzgün + sün >> Üzgünsün. then the vowel(s) of the suffix is u.”) • If the last vowel is ö or ü. “You are ill. The vowel used in the last syllable of a word defines the way vowel harmony is constructed. “I’m ill. tok >> tok + um >> Tokum. • If the last vowel is a or ı. “I am full. arkadaş >> arkadaş + ız >> Biz arkadaşız. The vowels are divided into two groups for this: The A-undotted group and the E-dotted group. it is more helpful to study the examples below by writing them down and repeating them with a loud voice.” hasta >> hasta + sınız >> Hastasınız.” (lit.

meşgūl >> meşgūl+üz >> Meşgūlüz. Study and to Learn okumak . In less formal situations. In this case. İpek. I’m reading Harry Potter. the words Bey and Hanım are used after the name. Ahmet. 8. Instead of addressing a teacher or a professor with siz. In formal situations. Amca. ‘my master’ or ‘my teacher’). Ahmet Bey. They are also used to address people who are totally unknown to the speaker. To Know People and Facts tanımak . students would prefer the word Hocam(which means app.” 7. “We are busy. is used to address a male who is older than the speaker. how are you? Merhabā Hocam. nasılsın? Hello Ömer amca. I’m learning Turkish.to know people bilmek . the endings for informal you. sen.to know facts tanıyorum tanıyoruz biliyorum biliyoruz tanıyorsun tanıyorsunuz biliyorsun biliyorsunuz . the endings take E –dotted vowels instead. how are you? 9. Respect Words There are respect words that are used in daily life. Harry Potter okuyorum.to read/to study öğrenmek .to learn okuyorum okuyoruz öğreniyorum öğreniyoruz okuyorsun okuyorsunuz öğreniyorsun öğreniyorsunuz okuyor okuyorlar öğreniyor öğreniyorlar Türkçe öğreniyorum. It can also be added to the name of people who are known to the person. Ne okuyorsun? What are you reading / Which subject are you studying? Edebiyat okuyorum. you have a visitor/guest. Ms.It should be noted that there are words that end with a soft L. as in the first example. meşgul müsün? Mr. can be used. nasılsınız? Hello Professor. Merhabā Ömer amca. To Read. are you busy? İpek Hanım. misāfiriniz var. I’m studying Literature.

tanıyor tanıyorlar biliyor biliyorlar 10. Numbers / Ordinals 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 sıfır bir iki üç dört beş altı yedi sekiz dokuz on on bir on iki on üç on dört on beş on altı on yedi zero first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth birinci / ilk ikinci üçüncü dördüncü beşinci altıncı yedinci sekizinci dokuzuncu onuncu on birinci on ikinci on üçüncü on dördüncü on beşinci on altıncı on yedinci .

The Present Tense Şimdiki Zaman -yorum I am ___ing you are ___ing (sing.) he / she / it is ___ing -yoruz we are ___ing -yorsun -yorsunuz you are ___ing (plural) -yor -yorlar they are ___ing .18 on sekiz on dokuz yirmi yirmi bir yirmi iki otuz kırk elli altmış yetmiş seksen doksan yüz bin eighteenth on sekizinci 19 nineteenth on dokuzuncu yirminci 20 twentieth 21 twenty-first yirmi birinci 22 twentysecond thirtieth fortieth fiftieth sixtieth seventieth eightieth ninetieth hundredth thousandth yirmi ikinci 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1000 otuzuncu kırkıncı ellinci altmışıncı yetmişinci sekseninci doksanıncı yüzüncü bininci 11.

then the vowel is ı. then the vowel is i. Furthermore. Yet. iç.>> gid + i + yor >> gidiyor “he/she/it is going” et. It is constructed by adding the suffixes above to the verb stem. making –uyor. This happens if the final vowel is u. making –iyor. making –üyor. ı or i. The final consonant of the verb stem t softens to d. I know Yunus Emre.The Present Tense covers the uses of the Present Continuous Tense in English. The construction is the same with the suffix “to be”. a vowel that connects the verb stem to the suffix is added in between. making ıyor.>> ed + i + yor >> ediyor “he/she/it is doing” 12. I’m coming right now. aç. ü. especially in the oral language. it also covers some uses of the Simple Present Tense. anla. to happen” • içmek “to drink” If the last vowel of the verb stem is e or i. ol. then the vowel is ü.>> ol + u + yor >> oluyor “it is happening” olmak “to become. oku. He/she/it is sleeping now.>> gül + ü + yor >> gülüyor “he/she/it is laughing” • gülmek “to laugh” • Verb stems ending in a vowel either drop this vowel to avoid vowel clusters. Days of the Week Monday Tuesday pazartesi salı .>> iç + i + yor >> içiyor “he/she/it is drinking” If the last vowel of the verb stem is ö or ü. gül. git.>> anl + ı + yor >> anlıyor “he/she/it understands” anlamak “to understand” • or the final vowel mingles with the vowel and they become one. Hemen geliyorum.>> aç + ı + yor >> açıyor “he/she/it is opening” – açmak “to open” • If the last vowel of the verb stem is o or u.>> ok + u + yor >> okuyor “he/she/it is reading” okumak “to read / to study” In all cases the ending –yor and the personal suffixes always remain the same in all verbs in the Present Tense. Yunus Emre’yi tanıyorum. Ne yapıyorsun? What are you doing? Şimdi uyuyor. then the vowel is u. • If the last vowel (or the only vowel) of the verb stem is a or ı. The verbs gitmek (to go) and etmek (to do) go through a consonant mutation when conjugated. following the rules of Vowel Harmony.

mother. cuma günü etc. Possessive Suffixes To say “my school”. unless they are used in an exact date. mom ( ending in a vowel ) annem my mother annemiz our mother annen your mother (singular) anneniz your mother (plural) annesi his/her/its mother anneleri their mother . Tuesday). as in 19 Ocak Salı (January 19th. This is true for other days of the week (salı günü.Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday the day the week this week the weekend today tomorrow yesterday çarşamba perşembe cumā cumartesi pazar gün hafta bu hafta haftasonu bugün yarın dün To say “on Monday”.). the expression pazartesi günü is used. anne . 13. “his car” in Turkish. we add certain suffixes to the word. It means literally “on the day of Monday”. Days of the week are not capitalized.

This is the same vowel with the one in the suffix. then the vowel of the suffix is ü. türkü >> türkü+müz >> türkümüz “our folk song” • The suffix for “their” is either –ları or –leri. as can be seen in the examples below. then the vowel of the suffix is ı. • For the suffixes “my” and “your”. āile >> āile+m >> āilem “my family” araba >> araba+m >> arabam “my car” • If the last vowel (or the only vowel) of the word is a or ı.house (ending in a consonant) evim my house evimiz our house evin your house (singular) eviniz your house (plural) evi his/her/its house evleri their house • When the word ends in a consonant. then the vowel of the suffix is i. then the vowel of the suffix is u. arabaları “their car(s)” ev . depending on the last vowel of the word being an A-undotted vowel or an E-dotted vowel.Possessive suffixes follow the rules of Vowel Harmony. kedi >> kedi+niz >> kediniz “your cat” (plural) • If the last vowel (or the only vowel) of the word is ö or ü. words ending in a vowel get –m and –n respectively. ev >> ev + i + miz >> evimiz “our house” . araba >> araba+mız >> arabamız “our car” • If the last vowel (or the only vowel) of the word is o or u. The construction is quite similar to the suffix “to be”. uyku >> uyku+su>> uykusu “his/her/its sleep” • If the last vowel (or the only vowel) of the word is e or i. a vowel is added before the suffix. without the need of an additional vowel.

the letter s is omitted from the suffix for “his/her/its”. at >> at + ı >> atı “his/her/its horse” • The suffix for “their” –leri/–ları remains unchanged even if the word ends in a consonant.köy >> köy + ü + nüz >> köyünüz “your village” (plural) • If the word ends in a consonant. Months of the Year January February March April May June July August September October November December the month this month next month last month ocak şubat mart nīsan mayıs hazīran temmuz ağustos eylül ekim kasım aralık ay bu ay gelecek ay geçen ay . 14.

the year this year yıl /sene bu sene To say “In May” for instance. Months are not capitalized. the words yazın and kışın are used. ekim ayında etc. the expression mayıs ayında is used. the locative suffix is used. Seasons spring bahar autumn sonbahar summer yaz winter kış To say “in the summer” or “in the winter”. unless they are included in an exact date. The same expression is used for all months. Colors and the Indefinite Article red kırmızı turquoise turkuaz pink pembe brown kahverengi orange turuncu azure gök māvisi yellow sarı black siyah green yeşil gray grī . 16. Thus baharda and ilkbaharda. thus. as in 20 Mart 2002 (March 20. Directions north kuzey east doğu south güney west batı northeast kuzeydoğu northwest kuzeybatı southeast güneydoğu southwest güneybatı 17. 2002). For “in the spring” and “in the autumn”. It translates as “in the month of May”. 15.

I’m a student. if it is an A-undotted vowel it gets –lar. Gümüş rengi bir saatim var. I have a silver-colored watch. The indefinite article bir comes after the adjective. but this is rare in the spoken language.blue light blue māvi açık māvi white beyaz gold altın rengi purple mor silver gümüş rengi kırmızı elma red apple yeşil yapraklar green leaves beyaz kapı There is no definite article in Turkish. Bahçemizde yeşil bir ağaç var. I’m coming in a week. There’s a green tree in our garden. Bi saat önce buradaydı. Öğrenciyim. To make words plural. He was here an hour ago. the last consonant of bir is not pronounced in daily life. add –ler or –lar to the word. according the vowel in the last syllable. white door Also note that it might be left out in some places where it is used in English. Formation of Plural Nouns Formation of plural nouns is fairly easy in Turkish. If the vowel in the last syllable is an E-dotted vowel it gets –ler. Bi hafta sonra geliyorum. it can sometimes precede the adjective as well. Most of the time. In poetry and creative writing. 18. evler houses arabalar cars okullar schools hastalar patients insanlar people There are some exceptions as well that can be memorized without much difficulty: saatler hours .

It's 5:05 It's 8:15 It's 9:45 (common use) It's 8:50 It's 5:35 (common use) It's 3:30 It is also common to give the hour and the minute simply. Dokuza on var.e. It's two/three/four. Sıcak.. İki/üç/dört… Öğle vakti.festivaller festivals Galler Wales (i. an easier way to tell the time (the two examples signed with parentheses show this). Hava kötü / bozuk.. Beş otuz beş. Beşi beş geçiyor. It's hot. . the country) 19. It's cold. It's noon. Gece yarısı. What time is it? It's one. It's midnight. 20. How's the weather today? The weather's nice. Weather Bugün hava nasıl? Hava güzel. Sekizi çeyrek geçiyor. Dokuz kırk beş. The weather's bad. Time Saat kaç? Bir. Üç buçuk. Soğuk.

there are” is conveyed through the word var. It's windy. Bahçemizde üç ağaç var. Kar yağıyor. There are five cars in the parking lot. To Have and There is / are The meaning of “There is. It's cloudy. It's snowing. It means “there is / it exists”. Rüzgârlı.Güneşli. Otoparkta beş araba var. . eş grandson granddaughte r uncle torun fish balık father baba torun horse at mother anne amca/dayı goat keçi son oğul aunt hala/teyze pig domuz daughter kız nephew yeğen cow inek child(ren) çocuk(lar) niece yeğen rabbit tavşan sister kız kardeş erkek kardeş cousin kuzen turtle kaplumbağa brother relatives akrabā mouse fāre 22. Family and Animals family āile sibling kardeş dog köpek parents ebeveyn grandfather dede cat kedi husband koca grandmother nine bird kuş wife karı. Yağmurlu. Bulutlu. It's raining. 21. It's sunny. There are three trees in our garden.

var and yok are used with the question particle. I have a (lit. He/she has a (lit. the word yok is used. We don’t have a (lit. Saying you have something is fairly easy in Turkish. Kedimiz yok.To say “There aren’t. To ask questions like “do you have. Work and School doctor dentist lawyer professor teacher engineer architect writer journalist musician artist pharmacist banker carpenter barber mechanic salesman electrician postman policeman soldier pilot secretary poet doktor diş hekimi / dişçi avukat profesör öğretmen mühendis mīmar yazar gazeteci müzisyen ressam eczācı bankacı marangoz berber makine ustası satıcı elektrikçi postacı polis asker pilot sekreter şāir history math algebra geometry science physics chemistry zoology botany geography music art drawing (noun) painting (noun) linguistics languages drawing (verb) painting (verb) tārih matematik cebir geometri fen fizik kimyā zooloji botanik coğrafya müzik sanat çizim resim dilbilim diller çizim yapmak resim yapmak . the possessive suffixes and the word var are used together. Küçük bir kaplumbağam var. making var mı and yok mu. yok is used in the same way. For negation. For this purpose. Apartmanımızda hiç Amerikalı yok. Arabanız var mı? Do you have a (lit. “your [pl. don’t you have”. There are no Americans in our apartment. “my”) small tortoise. “his/her”) house by the seaside. which means “there isn’t / it doesn’t exist”. “our”) cat. there isn’t”. or formal] car”) car? Bilgisayarları yok mu? Don’t they have a computer of their own? 23. Sāhilde evi var.

Either of these endings is added to the word. Biz de bilmiyoruz. 25. similar to the plurals. k. according to the vowel in the last syllable. işte at work Note: Proper nouns are separated from suffixes by an apostrophe in Turkish. Also and To Be at a Place The meaning of being at/in one place is conveyed through the particle –de or –da in Turkish.nurse hasta bakıcı 24. Arkadaşım da İngilizce biliyor. and an A-undotted vowel will get –da. Vegetables and Meat apple orange banana grapefruit lemon peach fig grape elma portakal muz greyfurt limon şeftāli incir üzüm lettuce cabbage cauliflower asparagus spinach tomato bean rice marul lahana karnabahar kuşkonmaz ıspanak domates fasulye pirinç ham meatball chicken turkey lobster water soda wine jambon köfte tavuk hindi yengeç su soda şarap . New York’ta in New York The particle de/da also means “too. used if the last letter of the word is a hard consonant (one of these letters: f. h. Gökay also wants to come. ş. also”. t. An E-dotted vowel will get –de. ç. arabada in the car evde at home okulda at school Note that there is also –te and –ta. s. p). It is then written separate from the word and is not bound with hard consonant rules. My friend knows English too. We don’t know either. Fruits. Gökay da gelmek istiyor.

ol. then the vowel is ı. – ağla.>> ağla + mı + yor >> ağlamıyor “he/she/it is not crying” • If the last vowel of the verb stem is o or u. not working” . Negative Sentences Negation in verbs is conveyed through the suffix –me or –ma.>> ver + me >> vermemek al. börek beef garlic sarımsak ice cream dondurma sausage sosis potato patates pancake with meat filling lahmācun 26. then the vowel is u.ü through Vowel Harmony. the vowels a and e in –ma and –me change into the vowels ı. This suffix is added to the verb stem.pear plum cherry pineapple melon watermelon strawberry raspberry blackberry armut erik kiraz ananas kavun karpuz çilek ahududu böğürtlen sığır eti.>> ol + mu + yor >> olmuyor “it is not happening. • If the last vowel (or the only vowel) of the verb stem is a or ı. making –muyor. biftek carrot turnip onion cucumber artichoke eggplant radish broccoli pepper havuç şalgam soğan salatalık enginar patlıcan turp brokoli biber pork pancake corn sauce pasta beet egg cake pie domuz eti gözleme mısır sos makarna pancar yumurta kek turta. making mıyor. forming the negative infinitive.u or i.>> al + ma >> almamak “not to give” “not to take” To form the negative verb in the Present Tense. vermek almak “to give” “to take” ver.

To and From Places . iç. Hiçbir şey bilmiyorum.. Neither he.. Consonant mutation does not occur in the verbs gitmek (to go) and etmek (to do)... nor want to Ne kalmak istiyorlar. nor my son remember anything. it should also be noted that some speakers still observe double negation with "ne. then the vowel is i... The children aren’t eating anything.. making –miyor..>> iç + mi + yor >> içmiyor “he/she/it is not drinking” • If the last vowel of the verb stem is ö or ü. ne bir şey yemek istiyorlar. Sigara içmiyorum.. In either case. eat something.>> et + mi + yor >> etmiyor “he/she/it is not doing” 27. the meaning (neither.ne (de)" are used.>> anla + mı + yor >> anlamıyor “he/she/it does not understand” Bugün okula gitmiyoruz.. nor his brother know German. Neither me.ne (de)". making –müyor.nor) does not change (that is. They neither want to stay. Çocuklar bir şey yemiyorlar.. Ne o ne de kardeşi Almanca biliyorlar. (lit. We’re not going to school today. then the vowel is ü. I’ve never been to New York (lit. I don’t know anything (lit.”) There is one exception to this rule: Sentences in which the particles "ne. unlike the positive conjugation. unlike the positive conjugation.>> gül + mü + yor >> gülmüyor “he/she/it is not laughing” • Verb stems ending in a vowel do not drop this vowel.ne (de)" has the meaning of "neither. Yet. "ne.”) Bana hiç kimse yardım etmiyor. I don’t smoke.. “No one is not helping me..>> git + mi + yor >> gitmiyor “he/she/it is not going” et. 28..nor" in English. the sentence pertains the negative meaning). “I haven’t never went to New York .• If the last vowel of the verb stem is e or i. gül. anla. No one is helping me. “I don’t know nothing.. git.”) New York’a hiç gitmedim. Double Negation Double negation is observed in Turkish. Ne ben ne de oğlum hiçbir şey hatırlamıyoruz.

In a noun compound.o.The meaning of the particles “to. t.ö. An Edotted vowel (one of e. evden üniversiteden kütüphāneden from the house from the university from the library Note that there are also –ten and –tan.ı. an A-undotted vowel (one of a. öğrenci >> öğrenci + si >> üniversite öğrencisi “university student” If the word ends in a consonant. eve okula İstanbul’a arkadaşıma to the house to school to Istanbul to my friend If the word ends in a vowel. ş. while the construction remains the same. and the second one is the possessed. the first element is the possessor. y is included between the word and the suffix. ç. This is the same with the possessive suffix for the third person singular (“his/her/its”). into” in English is conveyed through the suffix –e or –a in Turkish. they form a noun compound. arabaya hastāneye Fransa’ya to the car to the hospital to France The meaning of the particle “from” in English is conveyed through the suffix –den or –dan. Noun Compounds When two nouns come together (like “school bag”). the possessed noun in an indefinite noun compound takes a suffix. Noun compounds are used very often in Turkish. s. k. h. the letter s is omitted from the suffix.ü) in a word’s last (or the only) syllable gets –e.u) gets –a. used if the last letter of the word is a hard consonant (one of these letters: f. In Turkish. Teksas’tan Mehmet’ten kitaptan from Texas from Mehmet from the book 29. otobüs >> otobüs + ü >> okul otobüsü “the school bus” . p).i. as explained in possessive suffixes.

Countries and Nationalities Country Germany Argentina Australia Bolivia Bosnia Turkey Canada Columbia Costa Rica Cuba Croatia Almanya Arjantin Avustralya Bolivya Bosna Türkiye Kanada Kolombiya Kostarīka Küba Hırvatistan Nationality Alman Arjantinli Avustralyalı Bolivyalı Boşnak Türk Kanadalı Kolombiyalı Kostarīkalı Kübalı Hırvat . İş adamları bu akşam İstanbul’da toplanıyorlar. Türk yemekleri çok lezzetli. beyaz at “white horse”. it takes the possessive suffix for “their”. yüksek dağlar “high mountains” • If the first word is a name of a material. tahta masa “wooden table” Üniversite öğrencisiyim.adam >> adam + ı >> iş adamı “businessman” If the possessed noun is in plural. altın yüzük “golden ring”. I am a university student. 30. Businessmen are meeting in Istanbul this evening. yemek >> yemek + leri >> Türk yemekleri “Turkish dishes” There are certain cases where no suffix is needed. Turkish dishes are very delicious. Some of them are: • If the first word is an adjective.

Kazak Türkü Litvanyalı Meksikalı Norveçli Polonyalı Portekizli .Chile China Ecuador Egypt Georgia Spain United States Albania France India England Hungary Italy Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Lithuania Mexico Norway Poland Portugal Şili Çin Ekvador Mısır Gürcistan İspanya Amerika Arnavutluk Fransa Hindistan İngiltere Macaristan İtalya Japonya Ürdün Kazakistan Litvanya Meksika Norveç Polonya Portekiz Şilili Çinli Ekvadorlu Mısırlı Gürcü İspanyol Amerikalı Arnavut Fransız Hintli İngiliz Macar İtalyan Japon Ürdünlü Kazak.

Person Imperative Form gitmek–to go . Commands The imperative form is constructed simply by dropping the infinitive suffix from the verb root. as it is complied of the verb root. The imperative for you (sen) does not get a suffix. Common verbs with etmek: reddetmek – to refuse hapsetmek – to imprison kabul etmek – to accept emretmek – to command fark etmek – to notice hak etmek – to deserve 32. To Do or Make yapmak etmek yapıyorum yapıyoruz ediyorum ediyoruz yapıyorsun yapıyorsunuz ediyorsun ediyorsunuz yapıyor yapıyorlar ediyor ediyorlar The verbs yapmak and etmek both mean “to do / to make” in English. There are no exceptions. While yapmak is used more as a stand-alone verb.Russia Serbia South Africa Sweden Syria Rusya Sırbistan Güney Afrika İsveç Sūriye Rus Sırp Güney Afrikalı İsveçli Sūriyeli 31. As noted earlier. Vowel Harmony is observed. and adding the necessary suffixes. etmek has many uses as an auxiliary verb. Studying the earlier mentioned rules of Vowel Harmony is sufficient to master the imperative construction. the verb etmek goes through a consonant mutation: t turns into d when conjugated.

lütfen! Please hurry up! (formal / plural) Çocuklar uyusunlar.sen siz (formal / plural) o onlar git! gidin! / gidiniz! (more formal&less common) gitsin! gitsinler! As in the Present Tense. Holiday Phrases the new year birthday yeni yıl doğum günü . dish glass cup salt saltshaker pepper pepper shaker sugar sugar bowl vinegar coffeepot teapot tray masa örtüsü peçete çatal bıçak kaşık tabak bardak fincan tuz tuzluk biber biberlik şeker şekerlik sirke cezve çaydanlık tepsi 34. Sabırlı ol! Be patient! Buraya gelin! Come here! (formal / plural) Acele edin. Food and Meals breakfast lunch supper meal food bread roll butter meat fish vegetable s fruit cheese crackers candy sandwich ice cream kahvaltı öğle yemeği akşam yemeği yemek yiyecek ekmek tost ekmeği yağ et balık sebze meyve peynir kraker şekerleme sandviç dondurma tablecloth napkin fork knife spoon plate. Şuna bak! Look at that! 33. Let the kids sleep. in the imperative form for siz. t in the verbs etmek and gitmek softens to d.

Mother’s Day Father’s Day may it be blessed! Eid-al-Fitr Christmas Feast of Sacrifice anneler günü babalar günü kutlu olsun! Ramazan bayramı Noel bayramı Kurban bayramı Yeni yılınız kutlu olsun! / Yeni yılın kutlu olsun! (formal / informal) Happy New Year! Doğum gününüz / günün kutlu olsun! (formal / informal) Happy Birthday! Anneler gününüz / günün kutlu olsun! Happy Mothers’ Day! Ramazan bayramınız / bayramın kutlu olsun! Happy Ramadan Bayram (Eid-al-Fitr)! Noel bayramınız / bayramın kutlu olsun! Merry Christmas! Kurban bayramınız / bayramın kutlu olsun! Happy Feast of Sacrifice (Eid-al-Adha)! 35. Nature air bay beach branch bridge cave city climate cloud daisy darkness dust soil grass moon mountain hava koy sahil dal köprü mağara şehir iklim bulut papatya karanlık toz toprak çimen ay dağ .

Parts of the Body eye arm ear mouth eyebrow face finger hand foot forehead hair head leg knee nose shoulder tongue su göz kol kulak ağız kaş yüz parmak el ayak alın saç baş bacak diz burun omuz dil .water 36.

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