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# Semiconductor Diode

Circuit Analysis
Prepared by: Armando V. Barretto
Load Line Analysis
• Below is a circuit which will be used to describe the operation of a diode
circuit.
VD ID (mA) Load line

## Anode (A) Cathode (K) E/R

Quiescent Point (Q point)
ID Diode
E IDQ Q characteristic
R VR
curve
Zener potential / voltage VZ

Reverse VD (V)
saturation VDQ E
current
Zener region

ID (pA)

## • The diode in the circuit is forward biased.

• The intersection of the characteristic curve of the diode and the load line
defines the current and voltage levels of the network.
Load Line Analysis
• Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law in the clockwise direction, the following
equation can be derived:
E  VD  VR  0 E  VD  IDR

## • Based on the equation above, if VD is equal to zero, ID = E / R.

• Also, if ID is equal to zero, VD = E.
• A straight line drawn between the two points defined when VD = 0 and ID = 0
yields the load line of the network.
• The point of intersection between the straight line and the characteristic curve
of the diode is the point of operation of the network, and it is called the
Quiescent (Q) point.
• The value of the current ID can be computed as:
E  VD
ID 
R

ID = IS (eVD/nVT-1)

## • The above two equations can be solved simultaneously to determine unknown

parameters, although this process could be cumbersome.
Diode Circuit Analysis
• An easier approach is to use approximate analysis in which we assume that the
voltage across a diode is fixed once it is forward biased.
• For a forward biased diode, the voltage drop across the diode can be assumed
to be:
0.7 volt for Silicon
0.3 volt for Ge
1.2 volt for GaAs
• Example: With the circuit in the preceding slides having the following
parameters, determine the quiescent voltage and current of the diode.

## E = 8 volts R = 4,700 ohms

Using the approximate approach, we assume that the voltage drop across
the diode is 0.7 volt (diode is assumed to be Silicon),

E  VD  IDR
E - VD 8 - 0.7
ID  IDQ    1.553 x10 3 A
R 4700
VDQ  0.7 volt
Diode Circuit Analysis
• For a reverse biased diode, the diode can be assumed to be an open circuit.
• Example: For the circuit below, determine the current ID, voltage across the
diode and voltage across the resistor. E = 8 volts R = 4,700 ohms
VD

## Anode (A) Cathode (K)

ID
E R VR

Since the diode is reverse biased, the current ID is the leakage current which is very
small. The current is approximately equal to 0 A.

The voltage drop across the resistor (VR) is equal to 0 volt since the current
passing through it is equal to 0 A (V=IR).

The voltage drop across the diode (VD) is equal to the supply voltage (8 volts).
E  VD  IDR 8  VD  (0)(4700) VD  8 volts
Diode Circuit Analysis
• Kircchoff’s voltage law is always applicable under any circumstances –
whether the voltages are dc, ac, pulses, or instantaneous values.
• Example: For the circuit below, determine the current ID, voltage across the
diode and voltage across the resistor. E = 0.4 volt R = 4,700 ohms

VD

## Anode (A) Cathode (K)

ID
E R VR

Since the applied voltage (E) is less than 0.7 volt, it is not sufficient to turn on the
diode and the current will be approximately 0 A.

The voltage drop across the resistor (VR) is equal to 0 volt since the current
passing through it is equal to 0 A (V=IR).

The voltage drop across the diode (VD) is equal to the supply voltage (0.4 volt).
E  VD  IDR 0.4  VD  (0)(4700) VD  0.4 volt
Diode Circuit Analysis
• Example: For the circuit below, determine the current ID, voltage across the
diodes and voltage across the resistor. E = 14 volts R = 4,700 ohms
VD1 VD2

D1 is a Silicon diode
D1 D2 D2 is a red LED
E ID R VR

Since the applied voltage (E) is greater than what is needed to forward bias the two
diodes, the two diodes will conduct, and the voltages across the diodes will be:
VD1= 0.7 v VD2 = 1.8 volts

The voltage drop across the resistor (VR) can be computed using Kircchoff’s
voltage law as follows:
VR = E - VD1 - VD2 = 14 – 0.7 – 1.8 = 11.5 v
VR 11.5
The current across the loop can be computed as: ID    2.447 x 10 3 A
R 4700
Diode Circuit Analysis
• Example: For the circuit below, determine the current passing through each
diode, current passing through R, voltage across the diodes, and voltage across
R. E = 14 volts R = 4,700 ohms

R D1 D2
E VD
D1 and D2 are Silicon diodes

Since the applied voltage (E) is greater than what is needed to forward bias the two
diodes, the two diodes will conduct, and the voltages across the diodes will be:
VD1= 0.7 v VD2 = 0.7 v
The voltage drop across the resistor (VR) can be computed using Kircchoff’s
voltage law as follows:
VR = E - VD1 = 14 – 0.7 = 13.3 v
VR 13.3
The current passing through R can be computed as: IR    2.83 x 10 3 A
R 4700
The current passing through D1 and D2 computed as:
ID1 = ID2 = IR / 2 = 1.415 x 10 -3 A
Rectifiers Using Semiconductor
Diodes
Prepared by: Armando V. Barretto
Half Wave Rectifier Using Semiconductor Diode
• A rectifier is a circuit which converts an alternating voltage into a pulsating dc
voltage.
• Rectifiers are used in power supplies to convert ac voltages to dc voltages.
• The power available from electric power companies are supplied using ac voltages
but many electrical and electronic devices need dc voltages, so there is a need to
convert ac voltages to dc voltages.
• A half-wave rectifier produces an output voltage during one-half (1800) of the input
ac signal. One half of the input signal is removed to establish a dc voltage.
• A half-wave rectifier using a semiconductor diode is shown below.
V
Vp
A K
t
IRL Io Input (Sine Wave)
AC Input VO = output voltage V
voltage (Pulsating DC voltage)
(sine wave) RL Vp

t
Half Wave Rectifier Using Semiconductor Diode Output (Pulsating DC)
Half Wave Rectifier Using Semiconductor Diode
• In practically all rectifier applications, the peak voltage of the input signal is
much greater than the minimum voltage required to forward biased the diode.
• During the positive half, the diode becomes forward biased when the ac input
signal becomes 0.7 volt (for Si), and it conducts.
– The input voltage practically appears across R during the positive half.
– The peak voltage of the output signal is approximately equal to the peak
voltage of the input signal (Vp of input signal minus 0.7 v).
• During the negative half, the diode is reverse biased and does not conduct.
Output voltage across R is equal to 0 volt.
• The average value (Vdc) of the input signal is equal to zero because the
algebraic sum of the positive half and negative half is equal to zero.
Vdc(input) = 0 volt (for sine wave input signal) = average voltage of input

• The peak voltage of the output of a half wave rectifier is approximately equal
to the peak voltage of the input signal.

## Vp(out) = Vp(input) = peak voltage of output signal

Half Wave Rectifier Using Semiconductor Diode
• If the voltage drop across the diode is ignored, the average value of the
output voltage (Vo) and output current (Io) can be computed as:
1  1
 
T 0

Vdc  Vp sin( t )  d ( t )  Vp  cos( t )
2
0

## Vp cos   cos 0  Vp- (-1)  (1)

1 1

2 2
Vp
Vdc   0.318Vp  average output voltage of half wave rectifier

Vdc 0.318Vp
Idc    average output current of half wave rectifier
RL RL

V
Vp
Vdc T = 2 = period
Vdc = average voltage
0  2 Vp = peak voltage
T

## Half Wave Rectifier Output

Half Wave Rectifier Using Semiconductor Diode
• If the voltage drop across the diode is ignored, the effective or rms value of the
output voltage (Vo) and output current (Io) of a half wave rectifier can be
computed as:
Vp 2 
Vrms 
1 
 Vp sin( t ) 2
 d ( t )   sin( t ) 2
 d (t )
T 0 2 0

Vp 2 1  cos(2t )  d(t ) Vp 2
 1  cos(2t ) d(t )
 

2 
0 2

4 0

Vp 2
4

t 
sin( 2t ) 
2 0

Vp 2
4


sin( 2 )
2
0 
sin(0)
2

Vp
Vrms   0.5 Vp  rms or effective output voltage of half wave rectifier
2
Vrms 0.5 Vp
Irms    rms or effective output current of half wave rectifier
RL RL
V
Vp
T = 2 = period of output voltage
Vdc = average output voltage
0  2 Vp = peak voltage
T rms – root mean square
Half Wave Rectifier Output
Half Wave Rectifier Using Semiconductor Diode
• If there is no capacitor connected at the output of the rectifier,
– the maximum reverse bias voltage that will appear across the diode is
equal to the peak voltage of the input to the rectifier. This will occur
during the negative half of the input signal.
– the peak inverse voltage (PIV) or the peak reverse voltage (PRV) of the
diode must be greater than the peak voltage of the input signal.

## PIV  Vp (if no capacitor is connected at output of rectifier)

VD V
Vp
A K
t
IRL Io
AC Input VO = output voltage Input (Sine Wave)
voltage (Pulsating DC voltage) V
(sine wave) RL Vp

t
Half Wave Rectifier Using Semiconductor Diode Output (Pulsating DC)
Half Wave Rectifier Using Semiconductor Diode
• The output of rectifiers needs to be filtered to provide an almost pure dc voltage.
• Capacitor filter is one of the most commonly used filter for power supplies.
• The output voltage of the filter is a dc voltage with some ripple (ac variation).
• When the output of the rectifier is increasing, the capacitor is charging, and when
the output of the rectifier is decreasing, the capacitor is discharging through the
load of the filter (RL).
• If the capacitor has no load, the output of the capacitor filter will ideally be a
constant dc voltage, because it will not be discharging.
• If there is a filter capacitor connected to the output of the rectifier,
– the capacitor will charge to the peak voltage of the input signal during the
positive half of input signal. During the negative half of the input signal, the
voltage that will appear across the diode is the sum of the voltage across the
capacitor and the input voltage.
– the peak inverse voltage (PIV) or the peak reverse voltage (PRV) of the diode
must be greater than approximately two times the peak voltage of the input
signal.
PIV  2Vp (if there is a filter capacitor connected at output of rectifier)
Half Wave Rectifier Using Semiconductor Diode
VD  2Vp (during negative half of input signal)
VD
A K
+
IRL
AC Input Io VO = output voltage
voltage (Almost pure DC voltage)
(sine wave) RL
-

## Vp = peak voltage Vp = peak voltage

Output Voltage of Half Wave Rectifier Output Voltage of Capacitor Filter Used With
Before Filtering Half Wave Rectifier
Full Wave Rectifier Using Center Tapped Transformer
• A full-wave rectifier produces an output voltage during the entire cycle (3600) of
the input ac signal.
• A full-wave rectifier using two semiconductor diodes and a center tapped
transformer is shown below. Vpsec

t
I+ +
D1 Voltage at Secondary
Vp1/2sec
I+ I-
VO = output voltage
RL (Pulsating DC voltage) Vp1/2sec
V1/2sec I-
AC Input I+ Io t
voltage
I+
Voltage At Each Half (½)
(sine wave) - of Secondary
I- I-

Vp1/2sec
V1/2sec I- Vp1/2sec
I-
Io= output current Vo = Output
D2 I+ = current during positive half (Pulsating DC)
I- = current during negative half
Full Wave Rectifier Using Semiconductor Diode and Center Tapped Transformer
Full Wave Rectifier Using Center Tapped Transformer
• During the positive half of the voltage at the secondary of the transformer, D1 is
forward biased while D2 is reverse biased.
– D1 conducts and current flows from the upper portion of secondary, to D1, to
RL, and then to the center tap of the transformer.
– The voltage at one half of the secondary appears across RL except for a small
voltage drop across D1.
– The peak voltage at the output (Vpout) is almost equal to the peak voltage of
one half of the secondary voltage.
• During the negative half of the voltage at the secondary of the transformer, D2 is
forward biased while D1 is reverse biased.
– D2 conducts and current flows from the lower portion of secondary, to D2, to
RL, and then to the center tap of the transformer.
– The voltage at one half of the secondary appears across RL except for a small
voltage drop across D2.
– The peak voltage at the output (Vpout) is almost equal to the peak voltage of
one half of the secondary voltage.
• The average value (Vdc) of the input signal (voltage at ½ of secondary) is equal to
zero because the algebraic sum of the positive half and negative half is equal to zero.
Vdc = 0 volt (for sine wave input signal)
Full Wave Rectifier Using Center Tapped Transformer
• If the voltage drops across the diodes are ignored, the average value of the
output voltage (Vo) and output current (Io) can be computed as:
1/2 sec cos(t ) 0
1  1
T 0

Vdc  Vp 1/2 sec sin(t )  d (t )  Vp

 Vp1/2 sec cos   cos 0  Vp1/2 sec- (-1)  (1)
1 1
 
2Vp1/2 sec
Vdc   0.636Vp1/2 sec

 average output voltage of full wave rectifier using center tap transfomer
Vdc 0.636Vp1/2 sec
Idc  
RL RL
 average output current of full wave rectifier using center tap transfomer

V
Vp1/2sec T =  = period of output voltage
Vdc Vdc = average output voltage
Vp1/2sec = Vpsec /2 = peak voltage of 1/2 of secondary
0  2 Vpsec = peak voltage of whole secondary
T
Full Wave Rectifier Using Center Tapped Transformer Output
Full Wave Rectifier Using Center Tapped Transformer
• If the voltage drops across the diodes are ignored, the effective or rms value of
the output voltage (Vo) and output current (Io) of a full wave rectifier using
center tapped transformer can be computed as:

Vp1/2sec 2
1 
Vp1/2sec sin(t )  d(t )   

Vrms   0   d (t )
2 2
sin( t )
T 0 
Vp1/2sec 2 1  cos(2t )  d(t ) Vp1/2sec 2
 1  cos(2t ) d(t )
 

 
0 2

2 0

Vp1/2sec 2
2
t sin( 2t ) 
2 0

2

Vp1/2sec 2

sin( 2 )
2

0
sin(0)
2

Vp1/2sec
Vrms   0.707 Vp1/2sec
2
 rms or effective output voltage of full wave rectifier using center tap transformer
Vrms Vp1/2sec 0.707 Vp1/2sec
Irms   
RL 2 RL RL
 rms or effective output current of full wave rectifier using center tap transformer
Full Wave Rectifier Using Center Tapped Transformer
• If there is no filter capacitor connected at the output of the rectifier, the peak
inverse voltage (PIV) or the peak reverse voltage (PRV) of the diode must
be greater than approximately two times the peak voltage of half of the
secondary or the peak voltage of the whole secondary of the transformer.
PIV  Vpsec (if no capacitor is connected at output of rectifier)
 2 Vp 1/2 sec (if no capacitor is connected at output of rectifier)
Vpsec

+ t
D1 I+
Vp1/2sec Voltage at Secondary
I+ I-
VO = output voltage
RL (Pulsating DC voltage)
V1/2sec I- Vp1/2sec
AC Input I+ Io
voltage
I+ t
(sine wave) - Voltage At Each Half (½)
I- I- of Secondary

Vp1/2sec
V1/2sec I-
I- Io= output current Vp1/2sec
I+ = current during positive half
D2 I- = current during negative half Vo = Output
(Pulsating DC)
Full Wave Rectifier Using Center Tapped Transformer
• If a capacitor filter is connected at the output of the rectifier, the output voltage
will be different.
• The output voltage of a full wave rectifier and output voltage of a capacitor filter
connected to a full wave rectifier are shown below.
Capacitor charging Capacitor Discharging

Vp1/2sec Vp1/2sec

Output Voltage of Full Wave Rectifier Output Voltage of Capacitor Filter Used With
Before Filtering Full Wave Rectifier

• The output voltage of the filter is a dc voltage with some ripple (ac variation).
• When the output of the rectifier is increasing, the capacitor is charging, and
when the output of the rectifier is decreasing, the capacitor is discharging
through the load of the filter (RL).
• If the capacitor has no load, the output of the capacitor filter will ideally be a
constant dc voltage, because it will not be discharging.
Full Wave Rectifier Using Center Tapped Transformer
• Whether there is a capacitor connected or no capacitor connected to the
output of the rectifier, the voltage that will appear across the diode when it is
reverse biased is equal to two times the peak voltage of half of the secondary
(2Vp1/2sec) or the voltage of the whole secondary (Vpsec).
• If there is a filter capacitor connected at the output of the rectifier, the peak
inverse voltage (PIV) or the peak reverse voltage (PRV) of the diode must
also be greater than approximately two times the peak voltage of half of the
secondary (2Vp1/2sec) or the peak voltage of the whole secondary (Vpsec) of
the transformer.

## PIV  Vpsec (if capacitor is connected at output of rectifier)

 2 Vp 1/2 sec (if capacitor is connected at output of rectifier)
Full Wave Bridge Rectifier
• A full-wave bridge rectifier using semiconductor diodes is shown below.

Vpsec
D1
D2 t

Voltage at Secondary
+

D3 D4 Io = Vo = Vpsec
output output
current Voltage
RL Vo = Output Voltage
- (Pulsating DC)

## Current flow during positive half of input signal

Current flow during negative half of input signal

## Full Wave Bridge Rectifier Using Semiconductor Diode

Full Wave Bridge Rectifier
• During the positive half of the voltage at the secondary of the transformer, D2 and
D3 are forward biased while D1 and D4 are reverse biased.
– D2 and D3 conduct and current flows from the upper portion of secondary, to
D2, to RL, to D3, and then to the lower portion of the secondary of the
transformer.
– The voltage at the secondary appears across RL except for a small voltage drop
across D2 and D3.
– The peak voltage at the output (Vpout) is almost equal to the peak voltage of
the secondary of the transformer.
• During the negative half of the voltage at the secondary of the transformer, D1 and
D4 are forward biased while D2 and D3 are reverse biased.
– D1 and D4 conduct and current flows from the lower portion of secondary, to
D4, to RL, to D1, and then to the upper portion of the secondary of the
transformer.
– The voltage at the secondary appears across RL except for a small voltage drop
across D1 and D4.
– The peak voltage at the output (Vpout) is almost equal to the peak voltage of
the secondary of the transformer.
Full Wave Bridge Rectifier
• If the voltage drops across the diodes are ignored, the average value of the
output voltage (Vo) and output current (Io) can be computed as:
sec cos(t ) 0
1  1
T 0

Vdc  Vp sec sin(t )  d (t )  Vp

 Vp sec cos   cos 0  Vp sec- (-1)  (1)
1 1
 
2Vp sec
Vdc   0.636Vp sec

 average output voltage of full wave bridge rectifier
Vdc 0.636Vpsec
Idc  
RL RL
 average output current of full wave bridge rectifier

V
Vpsec
T =  = period of output voltage
Vdc Vdc = average output voltage
Vpsec = peak voltage of secondary
0  2
T
Full Wave Bridge Rectifier Output
Full Wave Bridge Rectifier
• If the voltage drops across the diodes are ignored, the effective or rms value of
the output voltage and output current of a full wave bridge rectifier can be
computed as:

Vpsec 2
1 
Vpsec sin(t )  d(t )   

Vrms   0   d (t )
2 2
sin( t )
T 0 
Vpsec 2 1  cos(2t )  d(t ) Vpsec 2
 1  cos(2t ) d(t )
 

 
0 2

2 0

Vpsec 2
2
t sin( 2t ) 
2 0

2

Vpsec 2

sin( 2 )
2

0
sin(0)
2

Vpsec
Vrms   0.707 Vpsec
2
 rms or effective output voltage of full wave bridge rectifier
Vrms Vpsec 0.707 Vpsec
Irms   
RL 2 RL RL
 rms or effective output current of full wave bridge rectifier
Full Wave Bridge Rectifier
• If there is a filter capacitor or no filter capacitor connected at the output of the
rectifier, the voltage that will appear across the reverse biased diodes will be
approximately equal to the peak voltage of the secondary.

• If there is no filter capacitor connected at the output of the rectifier, the peak
inverse voltage (PIV) or the peak reverse voltage (PRV) of the diode must be
greater than approximately the peak voltage of the secondary of the
transformer.

## PIV  Vpsec (if no capacitor is connected at output of rectifier)

• If there is a filter capacitor connected at the output of the rectifier, the peak
inverse voltage (PIV) or the peak reverse voltage (PRV) of the diode must also
be greater than approximately the peak voltage of the secondary of the
transformer.

## PIV  Vpsec (if capacitor is connected at output of rectifier)

Rectifiers
• If the voltage drops across the diodes are considered, the voltage drops
across the conducting diodes must be subtracted from the peak voltages in
the equations for the average voltage (Vdc) or rms voltages (Vrms) at the
output of the rectifier.

• Example: For a half wave rectifier with Silicon diode, the equation for the
average voltage if the voltage drop across the diode is considered will be:
Vdc  0.318 (Vp  0.7)

• Example: For a full wave bridge rectifier with Silicon diodes, the equation
for the rms voltage (Vrms) if the voltage drop across the diodes is
considered will be:

## Vrms  0.707 (Vp  1.4)

Comparison of Rectifiers
Half wave rectifiers:
• Advantage is only one diode is used.
• Disadvantages compared to full wave rectifiers are:
– lower rms output voltage and lower average output voltage
– Higher ripple

## Full wave rectifier with center tapped transformer:

• Advantage over bridge rectifier is only two diodes are used.
• Disadvantages compared to bridge rectifier assuming the same voltages at
whole secondary are:
– lower rms output voltage and lower average output voltage (1/2 of bridge
rectifier)

## Full wave rectifier with center tapped transformer:

• Advantage is higher rms output voltage and higher average output voltage
(assuming the same voltage at whole secondary).
• Disadvantage is four diodes are used.
Positive and Negative Voltages Power Supply
• Below is a circuit which could be used to produce a positive and a negative
voltage using a transformer with center tap.
• During the positive half of the voltage at the secondary of the transformer, D1
and D2 conducts, and C1 and C2 are charged with the polarity shown.
• During the negative half of the ac voltage at the secondary of the transformer,
no diode conducts.

D1
I2
+ Output Voltage
+

C1

- 0 volt
+
C2
-
- Output Voltage

D2
Positive and Negative Voltages Power Supply
• Below is a circuit which could be used to produce a positive dc voltage and a
negative dc voltage using a transformer with center tap.
• During the positive half of the voltage at the secondary of the transformer, D2
and D3 conducts, and C1 and C2 are charged with the polarity shown.
• During the negative half of the ac voltage at the secondary of the transformer,
D4 and D1 conducts, and C1 and C2 are charged with the polarity shown.

D1 D2

+ Output Voltage
+

D3 D4
C1
-
0 volt
+

C2
-
- Output Voltage
Positive and Negative Voltages Power Supply
• Below is a circuit which could be used to produce a positive dc voltage and a
negative dc voltage using a transformer with no center tap.
• During the positive half of the voltage at the secondary of the transformer, D1
conducts, and C1 is charged with the polarity shown.
• During the negative half of the ac voltage at the secondary of the transformer,
D2 conducts, and C2 is charged with the polarity shown.

D1
I2
+ Output Voltage
+

C1 D1 is conducting

D2

-
0 volt
+
C2
D2 is conducting
-
- Output Voltage
Transformers
• Transformers are typically used to step up or step down the primary voltage, or
match a load impedance.
• A transformer can increase or decrease the voltage or current levels on the
secondary depending on the turns ratio of the primary and secondary.
• A transformer can also increase or decrease the impedance of the load
appearing at the primary of the transformer depending on the square of the
transformer turns ratio.
• Turns ratio is equal to the number of turns in the primary divided by the
number of turns in the secondary.
• The turns ratio can be used to match the impedance of the load (RL) to the
output impedance of the amplifier.
Transformers
• Assuming that the transformer is lossless (no power is dissipated in the
transformer), the following relationships can be derived:
N1 V1 rms V1 p V1 dc I2 R1
      a  turns ratio of transformer
N2 V2 rms V2 p V2 dc I1 R2

## where : N1  number of turns in the primary N1:N2

I2
N2  number of turns in the secondary
I1
V1 rms  rms voltage at the primary
V1 V2 RL =
V2 rms  rms voltage at the secondary R2
V1 p  peak voltage at the primary
V2 p  peak voltage at the secondary R1
V1 dc  average voltage at the primary Transformer
V2 dc  average voltage at the secondary
R1  input impedance at the primary of the transformer
 reflected impedance of R2 at the primary 2
R1 V1/I1 N1 N1  N1 
R2  RL  load impedance of the transformer       a2
R2 V2/I2 N2 N2  N2 
I1  current at primary
I2  current at secondary
Voltage And Current Relationships For A Sine Wave
• For a sine wave with a peak voltage = Vp, the rms voltage, rms current, average
voltage, average current, and peak current can be computed as:
Vp
Vrms   0.707 Vp
2
 rms or effective output voltage for a sine wave voltage
Vrms Vp 0.707 Vp
Irms    I
R 2R R V
AC voltage
 rms or effective output current for a sine wave (sine wave) R
where : R  resistor across which the voltage is measured

Vdc  0 volt
V
 average output voltage of a sine wave Vp
Vdc 0
Idc   0 t
R R
 average output current for a sine wave
Voltage (Sine Wave)
where : R  resistor across which the voltage is measured

Vp
Ip   peak current
R
Sample Problems
• Example: A half wave rectifier uses a step down transformer. The input to
the primary of the transformer is 220 volts rms and the turns ratio of the
transformer (N1:N2) is 10:1. Load resistance (RL) is 5,000 ohms. No
capacitor is connected at the output of the rectifier. Determine the
following:
a. Peak voltage at the primary
b. Average voltage at the primary
c. Peak voltage at the secondary
d. RMS voltage at the secondary
e. Average voltage at the secondary
f. Peak voltage at the output of the rectifier (across RL)
g. RMS voltage at the output of the rectifier (across RL)
h. Average voltage at the output of the rectifier (across RL)
i. Peak current at the load
j. RMS current at the load
k. Average current at the load
l. Minimum PIV of the diode (without capacitor filter)
Sample Problems
a. Since the power outlet voltage is a sine wave, the input to the transformer
is assumed to be a sine wave and the peak voltage at the primary is
computed as:
Vp
Vrms   0.707 Vp  rms or effective output voltage for a sine wave voltage
2
Vrms 220
Vp    311.174 volts  peak voltage at primary of transformer
0.707 0.707

b. Since the voltage at the primary is a sine wave, the average voltage at the
primary is 0 volt.

c. The voltage at the secondary is also a sine wave. Using the turns ratio and
the peak voltage at the primary, the peak voltage at the secondary can be
computed as:
Vp pri N1
  turns ratio
Vp sec N2
Vp pri 311.174
Vp sec    31.117 volts
N1 10
N2
 peak voltage at the secondary
Sample Problems
The peak voltage at the secondary can also be computed by first computing
the rms voltage at the secondary as follows :

Vrms pri N1
  turns ratio
Vrms sec N2
Vrms pri 220
Vrms sec    22 volts  rms voltage at secondary
N1 10
N2
Vrms sec 22
Vp sec    31.117 volts  peak voltage at secondary (sine wave)
0.707 0.707

## d. As computed above, the rms voltage across the secondary is 22 volts.

e. Since the voltage at the secondary is also a sine wave, the average voltage
at the secondary is 0 volt.

f. The peak voltage at the load (RL) is approximately equal to the peak
voltage at the secondary which is 31.117 volts.
Sample Problems
g. The rms voltage at the load is not the same as the rms voltage at the
secondary of the transformer and it can be computed as:
Vp
Vrms   0.5 Vp  rms or effective output voltage of half wave rectifier
2
Vrms across RL  0.5 Vp RL  0.5 Vp sec  0.5(31.117)  15.558 volts

h. The average voltage at the load is not the same as the average voltage at
the secondary of the transformer and it can be computed as:

Vp
Vdc   0.318 Vp sec  0.318 Vp RL  average output voltage of half wave rectifier

Vp sec
Vdc   0.318 (31.117)  9.895 volts  average output voltage of half wave rectifier

## i. The peak current at the load can be computed as:

Vp RL 31.117
Ip RL    6.223 x 10 3 A  peak current passing through RL
RL 5000
Sample Problems
j. The rms current at the load can be computed as:

Vrms RL 15.558
Irms RL    3.112 x 10 3 A  rms current passing through RL
RL 5000

## k. The average current at the load can be computed as:

Vdc RL 9.895
Idc RL    1.979 x 10 3 A  average current passing through RL
RL 5000

l. The minimum PIV of the diode (without capacitor) is equal to the peak
voltage of the secondary, which is 31.117 volts.
Rectifiers
• Example: A full wave rectifier is using a center tapped step down transformer.
The input to the primary of the transformer is 220 volts rms and the turns ratio of
the transformer (N1:N2) is 10:1. Load resistance (RL) is 5,000 ohms. No capacitor
is connected at the output of the rectifier. Determine the following: (Similar to
previous example except full wave rectifier with center tapped transformer)
a. Peak voltage at the primary
b. Average voltage at the primary
c. Peak voltage at the whole secondary and peak voltage at ½ of secondary
d. RMS voltage at the whole secondary and rms voltage at ½ of secondary
e. Average voltage at the whole secondary and average voltage at ½ of secondary
f. Peak voltage at the output of the rectifier (across RL)
g. RMS voltage at the output of the rectifier (across RL)
h. Average voltage at the output of the rectifier (across RL)
i. Peak current at the load
j. RMS current at the load
k. Average current at the load
l. Minimum PIV of the diode without capacitor
Sample Problems
a. Since the power outlet voltage is a sine wave, the input to the transformer
is assumed to be a sine wave and the peak voltage at the primary is
computed as:
Vp
Vrms   0.707 Vp  rms or effective output voltage for a sine wave voltage
2
Vrms 220
Vp    311.174 volts  peak voltage at primary of transformer
0.707 0.707

b. Since the voltage at the primary is a sine wave, the average voltage at the
primary is 0 volt.

c. The voltage at the secondary is also a sine wave. Using the turns ratio and
the peak voltage at the primary, the peak voltage at the whole secondary
can be computed as:
Vp pri N1
  turns ratio
Vp sec N2
Vp pri 311.174
Vp sec    31.117 volts
N1 10
N2
 peak voltage at the whole secondary
Sample Problems
The peak voltage at the secondary can also be computed by first computing
the rms voltage at the secondary as follows :

Vrms pri N1
  turns ratio
Vrms sec N2
Vrms pri 220
Vrms sec    22 volts  rms voltage at whole secondary
N1 10
N2
Vrms sec 22
Vp sec    31.117 volts  peak voltage at whole secondary (sine wave)
0.707 0.707

Vp sec 31.117
Vp 1/2 sec    15.558 volts  peak voltage at 1/2 of secondary
2 2
d. As computed above, the rms voltage across the whole secondary is 22
volts. The rms voltage at ½ of secondary is one half the rms voltage of the
whole secondary and is equal to 22 / 2 = 11 volts.

e. Since the voltage at the secondary is also a sine wave, the average voltage
at the whole secondary is 0 volt, and the average voltage at ½ of the
secondary is also equal to 0 volt.
Sample Problems
f. Since the peak voltage that appears across the load (RL) is approximately
equal to the peak voltage at one half of the secondary, the peak voltage at
the load (RL) is approximately equal to the peak voltage at ½ of the
secondary and it is equal to 31.117 / 2 = 15.558 volts.

g. The rms voltage at the output of rectifier or at the load can be computed as:

Vp1/2sec
Vrms   0.707 Vp1/2sec  0.707(15.558)  11 volts
2
 rms or effective output voltage of full wave rectifier using center tap transformer

h. The average voltage at the output of the rectifier or at the load can be
computed as:

2Vp1/2 sec
Vdc   0.636 Vp1/2 sec  (0.636)(15.558)  9.895 volts

 average output voltage of full wave rectifier using center tap transfomer
Sample Problems
i. The peak current at the load can be computed as:
Vp RL 15.558
Ip RL    3.112 x 10 3 A  peak current passing through RL
RL 5000

## j. The rms current at the load can be computed as:

Vrms RL 11
Irms RL    2.2 x 10 3 A  rms current passing through RL
RL 5000

## k. The average current at the load can be computed as:

Vdc RL 9.895
Idc RL    1.979 x 10 3 A  average current passing through RL
RL 5000

l. The minimum PIV of the diode (without capacitor) is equal to the peak
voltage of the whole secondary, which is 31.117 volts.
Rectifiers
• Example: A full wave bridge rectifier is using a step down transformer. The input
to the primary of the transformer is 220 volts rms and the turns ratio of the
transformer (N1:N2) is 10:1. Load resistance (RL) is 5,000 ohms. No capacitor is
connected at the output of the rectifier. Determine the following: (Similar to
previous two examples except full wave bridge rectifier)
a. Peak voltage at the primary
b. Average voltage at the primary
c. Peak voltage at the secondary
d. RMS voltage at the secondary
e. Average voltage at the secondary
f. Peak voltage at the output of the rectifier (across RL)
g. RMS voltage at the output of the rectifier (across RL)
h. Average voltage at the output of the rectifier (across RL)
i. Peak current at the load
j. RMS current at the load
k. Average current at the load
l. Minimum PIV of the diode without capacitor
Sample Problems
a. Since the power outlet voltage is a sine wave, the input to the transformer
is assumed to be a sine wave and the peak voltage at the primary is
computed as:
Vp
Vrms   0.707 Vp  rms or effective output voltage for a sine wave voltage
2
Vrms 220
Vp    311.174 volts  peak voltage at primary of transformer
0.707 0.707

b. Since the voltage at the primary is a sine wave, the average voltage at the
primary is 0 volt.

c. The voltage at the secondary is also a sine wave. Using the turns ratio and
the peak voltage at the primary, the peak voltage at the secondary can be
computed as:
Vp pri N1
  turns ratio
Vp sec N2
Vp pri 311.174
Vp sec    31.117 volts
N1 10
N2
 peak voltage at the secondary
Sample Problems
The peak voltage at the secondary can also be computed by first computing
the rms voltage at the secondary as follows :

Vrms pri N1
  turns ratio
Vrms sec N2
Vrms pri 220
Vrms sec    22 volts  rms voltage at whole secondary
N1 10
N2
Vrms sec 22
Vp sec    31.117 volts  peak voltage at whole secondary (sine wave)
0.707 0.707

## d. As computed above, the rms voltage across the whole secondary is 22

volts.

e. Since the voltage at the secondary is also a sine wave, the average voltage
at the secondary is 0 volt.
Sample Problems
f. The peak voltage that appears across the load (RL) is approximately equal to
the peak voltage at the secondary and it is equal to 31.117 volts.

g. The rms voltage at the output of rectifier or at the load can be computed as:

Vp sec
Vrms   0.707 Vp sec  0.707(31.117)  22 volts
2
 rms or effective output voltage of full wave bridge rectifier

h. The average voltage at the output of the rectifier or at the load can be
computed as:

2Vp sec
Vdc   0.636 Vp sec  (0.636)(31.117)  19.79 volts

 average output voltage of full wave bridge rectifier
Sample Problems
i. The peak current at the load can be computed as:
Vp RL 31.117
Ip RL    6.223 x 10 3 A  peak current passing through RL
RL 5000

## j. The rms current at the load can be computed as:

Vrms RL 22
Irms RL    4.4 x 10 3 A  rms current passing through RL
RL 5000

## k. The average current at the load can be computed as:

Vdc RL 19.79
Idc RL    3.958 x 10 3 A  average current passing through RL
RL 5000

l. The minimum PIV of the diode (without capacitor) is equal to the peak
voltage of the whole secondary, which is 31.117 volts.
Sample Problems
• Example: The average (dc) current at the load of a half wave rectifier is
50 mA and the load resistance is 4,000 ohms. Determine:
a. Average output voltage of the rectifier (or across the load)
b. Peak voltage at the output of the rectifier (or across the load)
c. RMS output voltage of the rectifier (or across the load)
d. Minimum PIV rating of the diode

Vdc RL
Idc RL   50 x 10 3 A
RL
 average current passing through RL  average current at output of rectifier
Vdc RL  Idc RL (RL)  (50 x 10 3 )(4,000)  200 volts
 average voltage at load  average output voltage of rectifier

## Vdc RL  0.318 Vp RL  average voltage at load

Vdc RL 200
Vp RL    628.93 volts  peak voltage at load or output of rectifier
0.318 0.318
Sample Problems
Vp RL 628.93
Vrms    314.465 volts
2 2
 rms or effective output voltage of half wave rectifier
 rms or effective voltage at the load (RL)

The minimum PIV of the diode (without capacitor) is equal to the peak voltage
of the secondary or load, which is 628.93 volts.
Rectifiers
• Example:
Rectifiers
• Example:
Rectifiers
• Example:
Clippers

## Prepared by: Armando V. Barretto

Clippers
• Clippers are networks which are used to remove or “clip” away a portion of
the input signal without distorting the remaining part of the input signal.
• The input signal could be a square wave, sine wave or any other waveform.
• A half wave rectifier is a clipper which removes half of the input signal.
• The two general categories of clippers are series clipper and parallel clipper.
• A series clipper is one where the diode is in series with the load.
• A parallel clipper is one where the diode is in a branch parallel with the load.
• The considerations in analyzing clippers are:
– Take careful note of where the output voltage is.
– Analyze which diodes are forward biased and which are reverse biased
under certain conditions.
– Forward biased diodes may be considered short circuits while reverse
biased diodes may be considered open circuits.
– DC voltages from batteries will add or subtract from the input signal and
the resulting voltages will determine the biasing of the diodes.
• If the voltage drops across the diodes are considered, the voltage drops across
the conducting diodes must be subtracted from the peak voltages in the
equations.
Clippers
• A series clipper which removes the negative half of the input signal is shown
below. This is also a half wave rectifier.
• During the positive half of the input signal, the diode conducts and the input
voltage appears across the load (RL).
• During the negative half of the input signal, the diode is reversed biased and
does not conduct. No current flows through the load and the output voltage is
equal to zero.

Vp

0v 0v
V
+ Input (Sine Wave)
ID
Vp
RL Output
0v 0v
Input - Output
Clippers
• A series clipper which removes the positive half of the input signal is shown
below. This is also a half wave rectifier.
• During the negative half of the input signal, the diode conducts and the input
voltage appears across the load (RL).
• During the positive half of the input signal, the diode is reversed biased and
does not conduct. No current flows through the load and the output voltage is
equal to zero.

Vp

0v 0v
V
Input (Sine Wave)

ID RL Output
0v 0v
Input -Vp
Output
Clippers
• A parallel clipper which removes the negative half of the input signal is
shown below.
• During the positive half of the input signal, the diode does not conduct and
the input voltage appears at the output.
• During the negative half of the input signal, the diode is forward biased and it
conducts. The output voltage is the voltage across the diode which is almost
zero volt.

Vp
V 0v
0v
Input D1
Output Input (Sine Wave)
t Vp

Input 0v 0v
Output
Clippers
• A parallel clipper which removes the positive half of the input signal is
shown below.
• During the negative half of the input signal, the diode does not conduct and
the input voltage appears at the output.
• During the positive half of the input signal, the diode is forward biased and it
conducts. The output voltage is the voltage across the diode which is almost
zero volt.

Vp
V
0v 0v
Input D1
Output Input (Sine Wave)
t Vp

Input 0v 0v
-Vp
Output
Clippers
• A biased series clipper which removes a portion of the negative half of the input
signal is shown below.
• When the input signal is 0 volt, the diode is forward biased because of the 3 volt
battery. The diode conducts and approximately 3 volts appear at the output.
• During the positive half of the input signal, the input voltage adds up with the 3
volt battery and the diode is forward biased. The diode conducts and the sum of
the input voltage and 3 volt battery appears at the output.
• During the negative half of the input signal, the diode remains forward biased
because of the 3 volt battery until the input voltage becomes approximately equal
to 3 volts. When the negative half of the input signal becomes approximately -3
volts or more negative, the diode is reversed biased and does not conduct. No
current flows through the resistor and the output voltage is equal to zero.
V= 3 volts Vp=10 v
Vp=10 v
0v 0v
+
Input (Sine Wave)
ID R Output 13 v Vp + V =10+3v
10 v
- 3v
Input Output t 0 v
Clippers
• A biased series clipper which removes the negative half of the input signal and a
portion of the positive half of the input signal is shown below.
• When the input signal is 0 volt, the diode is reverse biased because of the 3 volt
battery. The diode does not conduct and output voltage is equal to zero.
• During the positive half of the input signal, the diode remains reverse biased
because of the 3 volt battery until the input voltage becomes approximately equal
to + 3 volts. When the positive half of the input signal becomes more positive than
approximately 3 volts, the diode is forward biased and it conducts. Current flows
through the resistor and output voltage becomes greater than 0 volt. Peak voltage
is approximately equal to the peak voltage of input minus 3 volts (7 volts).
• During the negative half of the input signal, the diode is reverse biased. There is
no current and output is equal to 0 volt.
Vp=10 v
V=3 volts
Vp=10 v 0v 0v

## + Input (Sine Wave)

ID R Output Vp-V = 10 v-3v
7v
3v t 0v
-
Input Output
Clippers
• A biased series clipper which removes a portion of the positive half of the input
signal is shown below.
• When the input signal is 0 volt, the diode is forward biased because of the -3 volt
battery. The diode conducts and approximately - 3 volts appear at the output.
• During the positive half of the input signal, the diode remains forward biased
because of the - 3 volt battery until the input voltage becomes greater than
approximately + 3 volts. When the positive half of the input signal becomes greater
than approximately + 3 volts, the diode is reversed biased and does not conduct. No
current flows through the resistor and the output voltage is equal to zero.
• During the negative half of the input signal, the input voltage adds up with the - 3
volt battery and the diode is forward biased. The diode conducts and the sum of the
input voltage and -3 volt battery appears at the output.
V= 3 volts Vp=10 v
Vp=10 v
0v 0v

## Input (Sine Wave)

ID R Output
0v 0v
-3 v
Input -13 v -Vp-V= -10-3v
Output
Clippers
• A biased series clipper which removes the positive half and a portion of the
negative half of the input signal is shown below.
• When the input signal is 0 volt, the diode is reverse biased because of the 3 volt
battery. The diode does not conduct and output is equal to zero volt..
• During the positive half of the input signal, the input signal adds to the voltage of
the battery, the diode remains reverse biased and does not conduct. No current
flows through the resistor and the output voltage is equal to zero.
• During the negative half of the input signal, the diode remains reverse biased until
the input signal becomes more negative than approximately – 3 volts. When the
input signal becomes more negative than approximately – 3 volts, the diode
conducts, current flows through the resistor, and negative output voltage appears
at the output. Vp=10 v
V= 3 volts
Vp=10 v 0v 0v

## Input (Sine Wave)

ID R Output

0v 0v
Input -7 v -Vp + V= -10 + 3v
Output
Clippers
• A biased parallel clipper which removes a portion of the positive half of the input
signal is shown below.
• When the input signal is 0 volt, the diode is reverse biased. The diode does not
conduct and output voltage is equal to zero.
• During the positive half of the input signal, the diode remains reverse biased
because of the 3 volt battery until the input voltage becomes more positive than
approximately 3 volts. When the positive half of the input signal becomes more
positive than approximately 3 volts, the diode is forward biased and it conducts.
Output voltage becomes equal to 3 volts because the diode is effectively a short
circuit when it conducts.
• During the negative half of the input signal, input signal adds up with the battery
voltage, the diode is reverse biased and output voltage is equal to the input signal.
Vp=10 v

Vp=10 v 0v 0v
Input
V=3v Output Input (Sine Wave)
Vp=10 v
3v V=3v
0v 0v
Input -Vp = -10
v Output
Clippers
• A biased parallel clipper which removes the positive half of the input signal and
a portion of the negative half of the input signal is shown below.
• When the input signal is 0 volt, the diode is forward biased and it acts as a short
circuit. The output voltage is equal to – 3 volts.
• During the positive half of the input signal, the diode remains forward biased and
the output voltage remains at – 3 volts because the diode acts like a short circuit.
• During the negative half of the input signal, the diode remains forward biased
until the input signal becomes equal to approximately – 3 volts. When the input
signal becomes equal to or more negative than approximately – 3 volts, the diode
is reverse biased and it acts as an open circuit. The output voltage becomes equal
to the negative input signal.
Vp=10 v

Vp=10 v 0v 0v
Input
Output Input (Sine Wave)
V=3v
Vp=10 v

0v 0v
-V= -3 v
Input -Vp = -10 v
Output
Clippers
• A biased parallel clipper which removes a portion of the negative half of the
input signal is shown below.
• When the input signal is 0 volt, the diode is reverse biased. The diode acts like an
open circuit and output voltage is equal to zero.
• During the positive half of the input signal, the input signal adds up with the
battery voltage, the diode remains reverse biased and acts like an open circuit.
The output voltage is equal to the positive input voltage.
• During the negative half of the input signal, the diode remains reverse biased and
acts like an open circuit until the input signal becomes more negative than
approximately -3 volts. When the input signal becomes more negative than
approximately -3 volts, the diode is forward biased and it acts like a short circuit.
The output becomes equal to – 3 volts.
Vp=10 v

Vp=10 v 0v 0v
Input
Output Input (Sine Wave)
V=3v
Vp =10 v

0v
Input -V = -3 v
Output
Clippers
• A biased parallel clipper which removes the negative half and a portion of the
positive half of the input signal is shown below.
• When the input signal is 0 volt, the diode is forward biased and it acts as a short
circuit. The output voltage is equal to + 3 volts.
• During the positive half of the input signal, the diode remains forward biased and
the output is equal to + 3 volts until the input signal becomes equal to
approximately + 3 volts. When the input signal becomes equal to or more positive
than approximately + 3 volts, the diode is reverse biased and it acts as an open
circuit. The output voltage becomes equal to the positive input signal.
• During the negative half of the input signal, the input signal adds up with the
battery voltage, the diode remains forward biased and the output voltage remains
at + 3 volts because the diode acts like a short circuit.
Vp=10 v
Vp=10 v
0v 0v
Input
V=3v Output
Input (Sine Wave)
Vp =10 v
+V = + 3 v 0v
Input Output
Clippers
• A biased parallel clipper which removes a portion of the positive half and a
portion of the negative half of the input signal is shown below.
• When the input signal is 0 volt, the diodes are reverse biased and they act like
open circuits. The output voltage is equal to zero volt.
• During the positive half of the input signal, D2 remains reverse biased all through
out while D1 remains reverse biased until the input signal becomes more positive
than approximately + 3 volts. When the input signal becomes more positive than
approximately + 3 volts, D1 is forward biased and it acts like a short circuit. The
output voltage becomes equal to + 3 volts.
• During the negative half of the input signal, D1 remains reverse biased all through
out while D2 remains reverse biased until the input signal becomes more negative
than approximately - 3 volts. When the input signal becomes more negative than
approximately - 3 volts, D2 is forward biased and it acts like a short circuit. The
output voltage becomes equal to - 3 volts. Vp=10 v

Vp=10 v 0v
D1 D2
Input Output Input (Sine Wave)
3v 3v Vp=10 v
+3v
0v
-3v
Input Output
Resistor – Capacitor (RC)
Networks
Prepared by: Armando V. Barretto
RC Network
iC
S1
eC
(volt)
+
E R eR Capacitor voltage
10 v
(charging 1k
Charging current
voltage) -
+ 9
C
4 F
eC 6
-
3

t1 t2 t3 Time (t)
E = supply voltage
eR = instantaneous voltage across resistor R
ec = instantaneous voltage across capacitor C

## When S1 is closed, capacitor C will be charged towards the supply voltage

E. As the capacitor voltage increases, the charging current decreases.
RC Circuit Operation
• The instantaneous voltage across resistor R is
eR = E – ec

## Where: eR = instantaneous voltage across the resistor R

E = supply voltage
ec = instantaneous voltage across the capacitor C

## • The instantaneous current passing through R and C is

eR
iC 
R
E  eC
iC 
R
RC Circuit Operation
• If the charge on the capacitor C is zero at the instant that the switch is
closed, then at t = 0, the current passing through R and C is

E  eC
iC 
R
10 v  0
iC   10mA
1 kohm

• This current causes the capacitor C to charge with the polarity illustrated,
so that at time t1, the capacitor voltage eC could be 3 volts. This alters eR

e R = E – ec
= 10 v – 3 v = 7 v

## • Because C has accumulated some charge, eC is increased and the voltage

across R is reduced; thus the charging current through R is also reduced.
RC Circuit Operation
• Since the charging current is reduced, C is being charged at a lower rate
than before.
• After some longer time period, eC increases to 6 v., and the voltage across
R is
eR = 10 v – 6 v = 4 v

10 v  6 v
iC   4 mA
1 kohm

• The charging current has now been reduced further, and even longer time
period is required to charge C by another 3 volts.
• The capacitor does not receive its charge at a constant rate.
• When the voltage across C is increasing, the voltage across R is
decreasing, and the charging current is also decreasing.
• C is charged at a rapid rate initially, and then the charging rate decreases
as the capacitor voltage increases.
RC Circuit Operation
• The capacitor voltage follows the exponential equation
t
ec  E  (E  Eo)  -
RC

t
eR  (E  Eo) -
RC

## Where : ec  capacitor voltage at instant t (volt)

eR  voltage across R at instant t (volt)
E  charging voltage (volt)
Eo  initial charge on the capacitor (volt)
 exponential constant  2.718
t  time from commencement of charge (seconds)
C  capacitance of capacitor (Farad)
R  resistance of resistor (ohms)
RC Circuit Operation
When there is no initial voltage on the capacitor,
Eo  0 (initial voltage of the capacitor)
-t
ec  E  (E  0) RC (instantaneous voltage of the capacitor)
-t
ec  E(1 -  RC )
The instantaneous current flowing through the resistor and capacitor is
E - eC
iC 
R
-t
E - E(1 -  RC )
iC 
R
-t

iC  
E RC
R
-t
iC  I RC
E
Where : I  (initial charging current)
R
The capacitor will never become fully charged to the supply voltage,
as the charging current becomes smaller and smaller as the capacitor is charged.
RC Circuit Operation
• When the capacitor becomes charged to a certain voltage Eo, and is
discharged through a resistor R (without a supply voltage), the following
equation can also be used to compute for the capacitor voltage at any time
during discharge:
t
ec  E  (E  Eo) -
RC
t
-
ec  0  (0  Eo) RC

t
-
ec  Eo RC

## Where : ec  capacitor voltage at instant t (volt)

E  charging voltage (volt)  0 volt
Eo  initial charge on the capacitor (volt)
 exponential constant  2.718
t  time from commencement of discharge (seconds)
C  capacitance of capacitor (Farad)
R  resistance of resistor (ohms)
RC Circuit Operation
• Example: A 1 F capacitor is charged from a 6 v source through a 10
kohm resistor. If the capacitor has an initial voltage of – 3 volts,
calculate its voltage after 8 ms.

Solution:
-t
ec  E  (E  Eo) RC
- 8 ms
ec  6 v  (6 v  (3v))
(10 k)(1uF)

ec  1.96 volts
RC Time Constant
Capacitor Capacitor
voltage Charging voltage (E)
eC Initial Charging voltage while (10 volts)
current charging
(volt)

E =10 v

8v
99.3 % E
90 % E (at t = 5 RC)
6v

4v 63.2 % E
(at t = RC)
2v

2 ms 4 ms 6 ms 8 ms 10 ms 12 ms 14 ms 16 ms 18 ms 20 ms time (t) in ms

## Regardless of the value of E, R and C, the capacitor is charged to 63.2 % E

when t = RC, to 90 % E at t = 2.2 RC, and to 99.3 % E at t = 5 RC.

## In the diagram, it was assumed that E = 10 volts, R = 1 kohm, and C = 4 F.

Thus RC = 4 ms
RC Time Constant
• The product RC is the time constant of the RC circuit. It is the time when
the capacitor is charged to 63.2 % E, regardless of the value of E, R, and C.
(assuming initial charge of C is zero)
• At time 5 RC, the capacitor is charged to 99.3 % E, regardless of the value
of E, R, and C. (assuming initial charge of C is zero).
• For practical purposes, it is assumed that the capacitor is fully charged or
discharged at t = 5 RC.
• At t = RC, the current flowing through R and C is 36.8 % I. Where I is the
initial charging current which is equal to E / R.
• When a capacitor is charged from a DC voltage source through a resistor,
the instantaneous level of the capacitor voltage may be calculated at any
given time.
• There is a definite relationship between the time constant of the RC
network and the time required for the capacitor to charge to approximately
63 % and 99 % of the input voltage.
RC Time Constant
V Square
iC when C iC when C PW
wave
is discharging is charging input
t
S1
C eR eR
eC
V1 for
V2
Input RC= 10 PW
vi
voltage t
10 v
R eR Output eR V3 V4
(across resistor) eR
V1 for
RC=PW
V2
During the time that input voltage is positive, C is V4
t
charged towards the peak voltage of the input signal. eR V3
eR
The output voltage across R is equal to the input for
V1
voltage minus the voltage across the capacitor. When RC= PW / 10
the input signal becomes 0 v, the capacitor discharges V2
t
through R , during which the current is in the reverse V4
direction, causing a negative going pulse across R.
V3
Clampers

## Prepared by: Armando V. Barretto

Clampers
• Clampers are networks which shifts a waveform to a different dc level without
changing the appearance of the waveform.
• Clampers are typically constructed using diodes, capacitors and resistors.
• The dc shifts are typically provided by the capacitor which charges up to a
certain dc voltage when the diode is conducting.
• Additional dc shifts can be introduced in a clamper network by using dc supplies.
• When the capacitor is charging, the resistor is typically shorted out and the RC
time constant is effectively 0 sec. The capacitor is charged instantaneously to the
applied voltage because the RC time constant is 0.
• When the capacitor is discharging, the resistor is not shorted out and the RC
time constant of the resistor and capacitor combination must be high enough so
that the voltage drop across the capacitor is not significant while it is
discharging.
– It is desired that the RC time constant is much greater than 5 times the
discharging time of the capacitor (time when diode is not conducting).
– In the analysis of clampers, it is assumed that the voltage drop across the
capacitor while it is discharging is negligible.
• The input signal could be a square wave, sine wave or any other periodical
waveform.
Clampers
• The considerations in analyzing clippers are:
– Begin the analysis by taking note of which portion of the input signal is the
diode forward biased and the capacitor charged to a certain dc level.
– Assume that the capacitor is charged up instantaneously to the applied
voltage when the diode is “on”. Typically, the resistor is shorted out when
the diode is conducting and the capacitor is fully charged instantaneously to
the applied voltage because the RC time constant is effectively 0 second
when the capacitor is charging.
– With the capacitor is charged, it is like a battery whose voltage will add to or
subtract from the input signal.
– Determine the output signal while assuming that the capacitor is fully
charged when the diode is not conducting. It is assumed that the RC time
constant when the capacitor is discharging is high enough that the voltage
across the capacitor does not drop significantly.
– Check if the shape of the output waveform is the same as that of the input
signal except for the change in the dc level in the output waveform.
• In the succeeding analysis, approximate approach is used and it is assumed that a
diode is shorted when forward biased and voltage across the diode is 0 v.
• When considering the voltage across the diode (when it is forward biased) is
desired, simply replace the diode with a battery with the corresponding forward
biased voltage ( 0.7 for Si, 0.3 for Ge).
Clampers
• A Clamper which shifts the dc level from 0 volt to the negative peak voltage
(-Vp) of the input signal is shown below.
• During the positive half of the input signal, the diode conducts, the capacitor
is charged to the peak voltage (Vp) of the input signal with the polarity
shown, and the output voltage is approximately equal to zero volt because
the diode acts almost like a short circuit. The capacitor charges
instantaneously to the peak voltage of the input signal because the resistor is
effectively shorted out (RC time constant = 0).
• During the negative half of the input signal, the input signal which is –Vp
adds up to the voltage across the capacitor, the diode is reverse biased and it
acts like an open circuit. The output voltage becomes equal to two times the
negative of the peak voltage (-2Vp) of the input signal (voltage across
capacitor plus input voltage). T
Square
Vp PW wave
+ - Vp
input
0v 0v
Input D1 Output -Vp DC = 0 v

PW
0v 0v
-Vp DC = -Vp
-2Vp Output
Clampers
• A Clamper which shifts the dc level from 0 volt to the positive peak voltage
(+Vp) of the input signal is shown below.
• During the negative half of the input signal, the diode conducts, the capacitor
is charged to the peak voltage (Vp) of the input signal with the polarity
shown, and the output voltage is approximately equal to zero volt because
the diode acts almost like a short circuit. The capacitor charges
instantaneously to the peak voltage of the input signal because the resistor is
effectively shorted out (RC time constant = 0).
• During the positive half of the input signal, the input signal which is +Vp
adds up to the voltage across the capacitor, the diode is reverse biased and it
acts like an open circuit. The output voltage becomes equal to two times the
peak voltage (2Vp) of the input signal (voltage across capacitor plus input
voltage). T
Square
Vp PW wave
- + Vp
input
0v 0v
D1 Output -Vp DC = 0 v
Input
PW
2Vp Output
Vp DC = +Vp
0v 0v
Clampers
• A Clamper using a dc supply, which shifts the dc level from -2.5 v to + 10.5 v, is
shown below.
• During the negative portion of the input signal, the input signal adds up with the
voltage of the battery, the diode is forward biased and it acts almost like a short
circuit. The capacitor is charged to 13 volts (10 v + 3 v) with the polarity shown.
The capacitor is charged instantaneously to 13 volts because the resistor is
effectively shorted out (RC time constant = 0). The output voltage is
approximately equal to 3 volts because the diode acts almost like a short circuit.
• During the positive portion of the input signal, the input signal (5 v) adds up to
the voltage across the capacitor (13 v) , the diode is reverse biased and it acts like
an open circuit. The output voltage is equal to + 18 volts (5 v + 13 v).
5v Input
13 v
- + 0v 0v
DC = -2.5 v
Input D1 Output -10 v
3v
18 v Output

DC = 10.5 v
3v
0v 0v
Clampers
• A Clamper using a dc supply, which shifts the dc level from -2.5 v to - 10.5 v, is
shown below.
• During the positive portion of the input signal, the input signal adds up with the
voltage of the battery (5 v + 3 v), the diode is forward biased and it acts almost
like a short circuit. The capacitor is charged to 8 volts (5 v + 3 v) with the
polarity shown. The output voltage is approximately equal to - 3 volts. The
capacitor charges instantaneously to 8 volts because the resistor is effectively
shorted out (RC time constant = 0).
• During the negative portion of the input signal, the input signal (-10 v) adds up
to the voltage across the capacitor (-8 v) , The voltage across the diode is 15 v
(8v + 10 v – 3 v), the diode is reverse biased, and it acts like an open circuit.
The output voltage is equal to -18 volts (-10 v - 8 v).
5v Input
+ 8v- 0v 0v
DC = -2.5 v
Input D1 Output -10 v
3v 0v 0v
-3 v Output

DC = -10.5 v
-18 v
Clampers
• A Clamper using a dc supply, which shifts the dc level from -2.5 v to - 4.5 v, is
shown below.
• During the positive portion of the input signal, the voltage of the battery (3 v)
subtracts from the input voltage (5 v), the diode is forward biased and it acts
almost like a short circuit. The capacitor is charged to 2 volts (5 v - 3 v) with the
polarity shown. The output voltage is approximately equal to + 3 volts because
the diode is almost like a short circuit. The capacitor charges instantaneously
to 2 volts because the resistor is effectively shorted out (RC time constant = 0).
• During the negative portion of the input signal, the input signal (-10 v) adds up
to the voltage across the capacitor (-2 v) , The voltage across the diode is 15 v
(10 v + 2 v + 3 v), the diode is reverse biased, and it acts like an open circuit.
The output voltage is equal to -12 volts (-10 v - 2 v).
5v Input
+ 2v- 0v 0v
DC = -2.5 v
Input D1 Output -10 v
3v
3v Output
0v 0v

-12 v DC = -4.5 v
Clampers
• A Clamper using a dc supply, which shifts the dc level from -2.5 v to + 4.5 v, is
shown below.
• During the negative portion of the input signal, the voltage of the battery (3 v)
subtracts from the input voltage (-10 v), the diode is forward biased and it acts
almost like a short circuit. The capacitor is charged to 7 volts (10 v - 3 v) with
the polarity shown. The output voltage is approximately equal to - 3 volts
because the diode acts almost like a short circuit. The capacitor charges
instantaneously to 7 volts because the resistor is effectively shorted out (RC
time constant = 0).
• During the positive portion of the input signal, the input signal (5 v) adds up to
the voltage across the capacitor (7 v) , The voltage across the diode is 15 v (5 v +
7 v + 3 v), the diode is reverse biased, and it acts like an open circuit. The
output voltage is equal to + 12 volts (5 v + 7 v). 5 v Input
0v 0v
- 7v +
DC = -2.5 v
-10 v
Input D1 Output Output
3v 12 v
DC = 4.5 v

0v 0v
-3 v
Clampers
• A Clamper using a dc supply, which shifts the dc level from 0 v to – 13 v, and
with a sine wave input is shown below.
• During the positive portion of the input signal, the voltage of the battery (3 v)
adds up to the input voltage (10 v peak), the diode is forward biased and it acts
almost like a short circuit. The capacitor is charged to 13 volts (10 v + 3 v)
during the + peak of the input signal with the polarity shown.
• During the negative portion of the input signal, the input signal (-10 v peak)
adds up to the voltage across the capacitor (-13 v) , the diode is reverse biased,
and it acts like an open circuit. The negative peak output voltage is equal to -23
volts (-10 v - 13 v).
• The output voltage shifts by approximately - 13 volts.

13 v 10 v Input
+ -
0v
DC = 0 v
Input D1 Output -10 v
3v
0v 0v
-3 v
DC = -13v

Output
-23 v
Voltage Multiplier Circuits

## Prepared by: Armando V. Barretto

Voltage Multiplier Circuits
• Voltage multiplier circuits are used to step up the peak output voltage of the
rectified signal while employing a relatively low peak input voltage to the
rectifier (like lower transformer secondary voltage).
• The multiplication of the peak rectified signal could be by a factor of 2, 3, 4 or
more.
• Voltage multiplier circuits are typically made up of diodes and capacitors.
• In the analysis of voltage multiplier circuits, it is assumed that the capacitors are
not discharged significantly, and the capacitor voltage does not change
significantly while it is discharging.
Voltage Multiplier Circuits
• A half wave voltage doubler circuit is shown below.
• During the positive half of the secondary voltage, D1 is forward biased and
current flows from the upper portion of the secondary, to C1, to D1, and then
to the lower portion of the secondary. C1 is charged to the peak voltage of the
secondary (Vp) with the indicated polarity. D2 is reverse biased during this
period and does not conduct..
• During the negative half of the secondary voltage, the capacitor voltage (Vp)
adds up with the secondary voltage. D2 is forward biased and current flows
from the lower portion of the secondary, to C2, to D2, to C1, and then to the
upper portion of the secondary. C2 is charged to twice the peak voltage of the
secondary (2Vp) with the indicated polarity. D1 is reverse biased during this
process and does not conduct. The output voltage is twice the negative peak
amplitude of the secondary voltage (-2Vp).
• PIV of diodes is 2Vp. I + half Input
Vp D2 Vp=10 v
+ - (secondary voltage)
I - half 0v
- 0v
C1
AC Input C2 Output
voltage 0v
(sine wave) D1 = - 2Vp
- Vp= -10 v
+
- 2Vp= -20 v Output = - 2 Vp
Voltage Multiplier Circuits
• A full wave voltage doubler circuit is shown below.
• During the positive half of the secondary voltage, D1 is forward biased and current
flows from the upper portion of the secondary, to D1, to C1, and then to the lower
portion of the secondary. C1 is charged to the peak voltage of the secondary (Vp)
with the indicated polarity. D2 is reverse biased during this period and does not
conduct..
• During the negative half of the secondary voltage, D2 is forward biased and current
flows from the lower portion of the secondary, to C2, to D2, and then to the upper
portion of the secondary. C2 is charged to the peak voltage of the secondary (Vp)
with the indicated polarity. D1 is reverse biased during this period and does not
conduct. The output voltage is twice the peak amplitude of the secondary voltage
(2Vp).
• PIV of diodes is 2Vp.
I + half
Input
D1 I - half Vp=10 v
+ (secondary voltage)
AC Input + 0v
0v
voltage Vp
(sine wave) C1 - Output = 2Vp
2Vp = 20 v Output = 2Vp
+
Vp
C2 - -
0v
D2
Voltage Multiplier Circuits
• A circuit which could be used as a voltage doubler, tripler, and quadrupler is
shown below.
• During the positive and negative alteration of the secondary voltage, the
capacitors are charged with the indicated values and polarity.
• The outputs are taken at different points as indicated on the circuit.

Tripler (3Vp)
Vp 2Vp
+ - + -
C1 C3
AC Input
voltage Vp
(sine wave) D1 D2 D3 D4

C2 C4
+ - + -
2Vp 2Vp
Doubler (2Vp)
Quadrupler (4Vp)
Voltage Multiplier Circuits
For the voltage multiplier circuit in the preceding slide:
• During the first positive half of the secondary voltage, D1 is forward biased
and current flows from the upper portion of the secondary to C1, to D1, and
then to the lower portion of the secondary. C1 is charged to the peak voltage of
the secondary (Vp) with the indicated polarity. D2 and D4 are reverse biased
during this process and does not conduct.
• During the first negative half of the secondary voltage, the voltage across C1
(Vp) adds up with the secondary voltage. D2 is forward biased and current
flows from the lower portion of the secondary, to C2, to D2, to C1, and then to
the upper portion of the secondary. C2 is charged to twice the peak voltage of
the secondary (2Vp) with the indicated polarity. D1 and D3 are reverse biased
during this process.
• During the second positive half of the secondary voltage, the voltage across C2
(2Vp) and the secondary voltage add up while the voltage from C1 (Vp)
subtracts from the sum of the two voltages. D3 is forward biased and current
flows from the upper portion of the secondary to C1, to C3, to D3, to C2 , and
then to the lower portion of the secondary. C3 is charged to twice the peak
voltage of the secondary (Vp) with the indicated polarity. D2 and D4 are
reverse biased during this process and does not conduct.
Voltage Multiplier Circuits
For the voltage multiplier circuit in the preceding slide (continuation):
• During the second negative half of the input signal, the secondary voltage
adds up with the voltage across C1 and C3, while the voltage across C2
subtracts from the sum of the voltages. D4 is forward biased and current
flows from the lower portion of the secondary, to C2, to C4, to D4, to C3, to
C1, and then to the upper portion of the secondary. C4 is charged to twice
the peak voltage of the secondary (2Vp) with the indicated polarity. D1 and
D3 are reverse biased during this process.
• During the succeeding alterations of the secondary voltage, the capacitors
are charged with the indicated voltage and polarity.
• The PIV of the diodes is 2Vp.
• Adding more diodes and capacitors will introduce more voltage multipliers
in the circuit.
Zener Diode Applications

## Prepared by: Armando V. Barretto

Zener Diode Used For Voltage Regulation
• A circuit using a zener diode for voltage regulation is shown below.

D1
D2
15 volts

D3 D4 R1
C1
VZ = 5 volts
Output Voltage
-