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of materials. Stress (normal) Stress is the ratio of applied load to the cross-sectional area of an element in tension and is expressed in pounds per square inch (psi) or kg/mm2. Load Stress, = Area L = A

Strain (normal) A measure of the deformation of the material that is dimensionless. change in length Strain, = original length � Modulus of elasticity = L L

Metal deformation is proportional to the imposed loads over a range of loads. Since stress is proportional to load and strain is proportional to deformation, this implies that stress is proportional to strain. Hooke's Law is the statement of that proportionality. Stress = Strain The constant, E, is the modulus of elasticity, Young's modulus or the tensile modulus and is the material's stiffness. Young's modulus is in terms of 106 psi or 103 kg/mm2. If a material obeys Hooke's Law it is elastic. The modulus is insensitive to a material's temper. Normal force is directly dependent upon the elastic modulus. � Proportional limit The greatest stress at which a material is capable of sustaining the applied load without deviating from the proportionality of stress to strain. Expressed in psi (kg/mm2). Ultimate strength (tensile) The maximum stress a material withstands when subjected to an applied load. Dividing the = E

load at failure by the original cross sectional area determines the value. Elastic limit The point on the stress-strain curve beyond which the material permanently deforms after removing the load . � Yield strength Point at which material exceeds the elastic limit and will not return to its origin shape or length if the stress is removed. This value is determined by evaluating a stress-strain diagram produced during a tensile test. Poisson's ratio The ratio of the lateral to longitudinal strain is Poisson's ratio. lateral strain = longitudinal strain Poisson's ratio is a dimensionless constant used for stress and deflection analysis of structures such as beams, plates, shells and rotating discs. � Bending stress When bending a piece of metal, one surface of the material stretches in tension while the opposite surface compresses. It follows that there is a line or region of zero stress between the two surfaces, called the neutral axis. Make the following assumptions in simple bending theory: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The beam is initially straight, unstressed and symmetric The material of the beam is linearly elastic, homogeneous and isotropic. The proportional limit is not exceeded. Young's modulus for the material is the same in tension and compression All deflections are small, so that planar cross-sections remain planar before and after bending.

Using classical beam formulas and section properties, the following relationship can be derived: 3 PL Bending stress,

b

= 2wt2 P L3 4wt3y

Bending or flexural modulus, E b= Where: P = normal force

l = beam length w = beam width t = beam thickness y = deflection at load point The reported flexural modulus is usually the initial modulus from the stress-strain curve in tension. The maximum stress occurs at the surface of the beam farthest from the neutral surface (axis) and is: Mc Max surface stress, Where: M c I Z

max

M = Z

= I

= bending moment distance from neutral axis to outer surface where max stress = occurs = moment of inertia = I/c = section modulus

� For a rectangular cantilever beam with a concentrated load at one end, the maximum surface stress is given by: 3dEt 2l2 the methods to reduce maximum stress is to keep the strain energy in the beam constant while changing the beam profile. Additional beam profiles are trapezoidal, tapered and torsion. Where: d = deflection of the beam at the load E = Modulus of Elasticity t = beam thickness l = beam length �

max

=

Yielding Yielding occurs when the design stress exceeds the material yield strength. Design stress is typically maximum surface stress (simple loading) or Von Mises stress (complex loading conditions). The Von Mises yield criterion states that yielding occurs when the Von Mises stress, exceeds the yield strength in tension. Often, Finite Element Analysis stress results use Von Mises stresses. Von Mises stress is: ( 1= 2 where

1, 2, 3 2

)2 + ( 2-

3

)2 + ( 1-

3

)2

are principal stresses.

Safety factor is a function of design stress and yield strength. The following equation denotes safety factor, fs. YS fs= DS Where Y S is the Yield Strength and D S is the Design Stress

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