ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks

http://www3.sympatico.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips.html

ANSYS® Tips
ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks Peter Budgell Burlington, Ontario, Canada

© 1998, 1999 by Peter C. Budgell -- You are welcome to print and photocopy these pages. These tips and comments are intended for user education purposes only. They are to be used at your own risk. The contents are based on my experience with ANSYS 5.3 -- more recent versions may change things. The contents do not attempt to discuss all the concepts of the finite element method that are required to obtain successful solutions. It is your responsibility to determine if you have sufficient knowlege and understanding of finite element theory to apply the software appropriately. I have attempted to give accurate information, but cannot accept liability for any consequences or damages which may result from errors in this discussion. Accordingly, I disclaim any liability for any damages including, but not limited to, injury to person or property, lost profit, data recovery charges, attorney's fees, or any other costs or expenses. As one writer put it, This information is free, and may be well worth the price.

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The ANSYS manuals explain many things and give some examples, but they do not give many tips to the user. Here is a collection of things I have noted or learned. (Use at your own risk...) Necessity is the mother of invention, and I learned virtually everything here as a result of need, or as a result of trial and lots of error. I'm also thankful to my local ANSYS distributor for many helpful conversations. The comments in these pages are based on my experience with ANSYS 5.0 through ANSYS 5.3. I hope these tips will shorten your learning curve. An analyst frequently does not have a mentor for guidance, so considerable effort can be needed to deduce how to accomplish some tasks. ANSYS users need to spend a generous amount of time reading the manuals and training materials, and returning to read them again as the user's knowledge of the program increases. Don't use anything here verbatim... understand why it works, and whether my comments are in error or inappropriate for your situation, before employing any of these suggestions. The teaching of FEA at the academic level is intended to educate the mind, teach how FEA methods are derived from first principles, and to develop students who can invent and code new elements, test their behavior, write research or industrial quality software, and apply it to difficult academic or research problems. Some professors feel strongly that the purpose of an undergrad course in FEA is further education in how applied math, engineering, continuum mechanics, energy methods, and analysis of structures come together, building on the Strength of Materials courses already taken -- I have no argument with that. A user with a comprehension of what underlies FEA work will know when to apply and how to evaluate FEA work, have more creativity, learn quickly, problem solve better, be more innovative, and make fewer serious modeling errors. The professors do not feel that the course is intended to concentrate on modeling details or learning the interface to a commercial FEA program. (Students, on the other hand, want to graduate having used an FEA package to do something significant. Assignments and projects with ANSYS/ED are a good way to get there.) I've heard the opinion expressed that with FEA technology maturing, there is less research grant money for FEA work in universities, and the supply of advanced FEA graduate students may be shrinking. The teaching of commercial FEA program use is principally focused on training people to use the interface to and commands of the particular software package, and how to perform basic analysis types. Some instructors pepper their presentations with tips, but the attendees may be drowning from information overload. Little is available to lead the user through the techniques that can be used in modeling complex structures, and around the traps that exist, except help from good vendor support people, co-workers, or other users, and substantial reading, thought, trying examples, and testing techniques on the part of the analyst. I hope that these pages will provide some helpful details.
CONTENTS: Tip 1: Use Annotations

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ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks

http://www3.sympatico.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips.html

Tip 2: Making Room for Annotations Tip 3: Using Parameters in Annotations Tip 4: Use Small Annotations Tip 5: Mathematical Functions Available Tip 6: Start 16-Bit Applications before Starting ANSYS under Windows NT Tip 7: Running ANSYS at Low Priority under Windows NT 4.0 Tip 8: Operating on (Scaling) Loads Tip 9: Ramping Loads Down to Zero Tip 10: Starting ANSYS Graphs at t=0 Tip 11: Pressure on Lines Tip 12: Ramping Some Loads, Not Others Tip 13: Force and Pressure on Flat Plates or Flat Shells Tip 14: Linear and Nonlinear Buckling Tip 15: Nonlinear Analysis and the Arc-Length Method Tip 16: Animating Results from a Nonlinear or Other Analysis Tip 17: Getting the Mass or Weight of a Model Tip 18: Using Fnc Calls from Macros Tip 19: Use ENSYM and ENORM to Turn Over Shell Elements Tip 20: Shell Types to Try Tip 21: Moving a Model from ANSYS Mechanical to ANSYS Linear/Plus Tip 22: Deleting Nodes with Nodal Coupling Tip 23: Convergence with Shell Finite Element Models in Nonlinear Analysis under ANSYS Tip 24: Working with Load Step Files in ANSYS Tip 25: Plotting Shell Stress -- Surface, Mid-Plane Stress, Load Paths, ESYS and RSYS Tip 26: Nodal Coupling (CP) versus Rigid Region (CERIG) Tip 27: Vibration Modes with Pre-stress Tip 28: Creating New Elements by Copying or Reflecting Existing Structure Tip 29: Adding to a Model Comprised of Elements and Nodes Only Tip 30: Zero Mass Beam Elements Form Rigid Region Tip 31: Turn off Symbols When Changing a Model after Solution Tip 32: Are the "Free-Free" Vibration Modes Relevant? Tip 33: Selecting a CAD or FEA System -- Cover Yourself Tip 34: Creating Lines Perpendicular to, or at Angle to Existing Lines Tip 35: Use the /UI command in Your ANSYS Toolbar to Bring up GUI Dialog Boxes Tip 36: Reaction Force, Nodal Force, and Load Paths Tip 37: Inputting Temperatures with BF, BFE, and TUNIF in Structural Analysis Tip 38: ANSYS Toolbar Use Tip 39: ANSYS Piping Element Lengths Tip 40: Graphical Output from ANSYS Tip 41: Check Nodal Loads at Bolts, Rivets, Spot Welds and Links Tip 42: Use QUERY to Check Results with Picking Tip 43: Loads on Geometric Entities Overwrite Loads on Nodes and Elements -- Easy Error to Make Tip 44: Use Components for Load Input, and for Results Review Tip 45: Simple Substructuring Examples -- Bottom Up and Top Down Tip 46: Plot Applied Temperatures Tip 47: Skipping Over Statements in an Input File Tip 48: Static Analysis Followed by Transient Analysis Tip 49: File Compression for Model Storage Tip 50: Organizing Large FEA Models Tip 51: Selecting Nodes in a Stress or Strain Range Tip 52: Selecting Nodes that are Subjected to Nodal Coupling Tip 53: /NOPR and /GOPR Speed Up Input Files and Macros Tip 54: Using Commands IMMED and /UIS and /SHOW,OFF Tip 55: What's the Bauschinger Effect? Comments on Material Yield Tip 56: Thought Experiments Tip 57: Control of Meshing Tip 58: Four View Plot Tip 59: Quick Review of Mode Shapes Tip 60: Using ANSYS Help Tip 61: The FEA Job Hunt Tip 62: *VPUT and DESOL Tip 63: How to Divide One Element Table Column by Another Tip 64: Element Tables (ETABLE) and Arrays -- An Example Tip 65: Error Estimation, PowerGraphics, and ERNORM Tip 66: Concatenate and Mesh Last Tip 67: ANSYS Output of Data to Files for Use by Other Programs Tip 68: Writing Array Columns to Output or to Files

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Tip 69: Synthesizing Parameter Names and Manipulating Jobnames and Long Strings in APDL Tip 70: Solid Elements 95 and 92 -- Efficiency and Interconnection

Tip 1: Use Annotations: Only a one-line title is possible on the ANSYS screen or plot. Considerably more information can be included in annotations on the screen. The annotations are kept through all plots until they are deleted with the command: /ANNOT,DELE or via picking with the graphical user interface (GUI). At the top of the Annotation dialog box, there is a list box from which the user can choose Text, Lines, etc., on down to Controls. These selections bring up different menus. The Controls selection offers a SNAP setting that makes it much easier to get the text aligned nicely. (Hint: ANSYS, Inc. should put this SNAP selection up front under Text, or even on every menu.) Activate the Snap setting, then go back to Text to enter the annotations. Tip 2: Making Room for Annotations: The /PLOPTS command controls what goes into the legend at the right (by default) side of the ANSYS screen and plot. If you turn off LEG2 (the relatively useless "view" information), you will get extra room at the bottom of the legend. This area can be used for annotations if the number of contour levels in stress plots is not too great (the default is fine). Tip 3: Using Parameters in Annotations: Just as in a title created with the command /TITLE, ANSYS permits the use of a parameter in an annotation, as discussed in the Commands Manual description of the /TLABLE command. When typing the annotation using the GUI, include the parameter in percent signs like this: %pname% where pname is the parameter name. The parameter can contain either numbers or text. The value of the parameter will be plotted in the annotation string. The ANSYS function NINT can be used to round a number the nearest integer, sometimes improving the appearance of the annotation for large numbers in which the fractional part is irrelevant (e.g. NINT(123.456789) = 123 ). For this, the parametric expression should be enclosed in percent signs. Annotations are usually created in the GUI, but can be entered with code like that shown below. Entering a single annotation line containing Result = %pname% generates log file contents such as:
! The following commands place an annotation on the screen. ! For information only. Use at your own risk. ! In this example, "pname" is a parameter with a numerical value such as 123.456789 /ANUM ,0, 1, 1.2303, -.74699 /TSPEC, 15, .600, 1, 0, 0 /TLAB, 1.010, -.747,Result = %pname%

The last line in the above example contains the string that the user types manually. The other data set up the string positioning on the screen, and the properties of the characters. To apply the NINT function to the parameter, manually enter Result = %NINT(pname)% as the annotation:
! For information only. Use at your own risk. ! Type the annotation in one line, so the log file contains: /ANUM ,0, 1, 1.2303, -.74699 /TSPEC, 15, .600, 1, 0, 0 /TLAB, 1.010, -.747,Result = %NINT(pname)%

The beauty of doing this is that if the value of the parameter pname should change, then when the next plot command is executed, the annotation will automatically update to reflect the new value! Try it: after creating an annotation on the screen that includes a parameter, change the parameter's value, then do a /REPLOT. Running a macro could get information that goes into the parameter that a /REPLOT will automatically put it on the screen. This makes it possible to automatically include far more information than can go into the title, and to do it for a series of automatically generated plots or graphs. Tip 4: Use Small Annotations: The default character size setting for an annotation is 1. The size of an annotation can be decreased using the GUI. A size of 0.6 is quite readable and permits far more information to be packed into a plot. Note that there is a limit to the number of characters possible on an annotation line – this is character size independent. Tip 5: Mathematical Functions Available:

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Natural log (to base e) Log (to base 10) Modulus (X/Y). returns zero (0) Nearest integer (nice for outputs of stresses to /TITLE or annotations (see Tip 3 above)) Random number. The commands are usable anywhere. Chapter 14 of the Modeling and Meshing Guide.Y) Absolute value ArcCosine ArcSin ArcTangent ArcTangent of (Y/X) with the sign of each component considered (see a FORTRAN manual if you don't know what this means. Another list is in the ANSYS User's Guide on APDL. Tangent Hyperbolic Tangent COS(X) COSH(X) EXP(X) GDIS(X. etc. and Y is the upper bound. Sine Hyperbolic sine Square root.) Absolute value of X with sign of Y. Y=0 results in positive sign. it returns the remainder of X/Y. The *VFUN command has a list of functions that act on an array entry. They include: ABS(X) ACOS(X) ASIN(X) ATAN(X) ATAN2(X. the array and ETABLE algebra commands can be surprisingly powerful. (Useful for Monte Carlo Simulation.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. Creatively used.see the APDL guide mentioned above for a listing of available functions. If Y=0.sympatico. The Commands manual lists functions that act on Element Tables in the section "POST1 Command for Element Table". Might be used in a Monte Carlo Simulation to explore the distribution of outputs based on randomized loadings and material properties. see a good modern engineering design textbook. For an explanation.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. Tip 6: Start 16-Bit Applications before Starting ANSYS under Windows NT: 4 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 .Y) SIGN(X.Y) LOG(X) LOG10(X) MOD(X.Y) NINT(X) RAND(X. and Y is the standard deviation.html Under the Help listing for the *SET command there appears lists of mathematical functions available in ANSYS. The APDL guide also gives functions to retrieve the values of parameters. where X is the lower bound.) Cosine Hyperbolic cosine Exponential Random sample of Gaussian distributions where X is the mean. both numerical and character.Y) SIN(X) SINH(X) SQRT(X) TAN(X) TANH(X) Note: The function form of the *GET commands can also be used to get information from the model -.

If you intend to work with those 16 bit applications in the foreground while the ANSYS SOLVE is running in the background.sympatico. If you start them before launching ANSYS. The transfer will overwrite any scaling of loads that you have applied.0 as the factor resulted in NO change to the applied displacements. which multiplied displacements by a factor of roughly 10^(-31) and reduced loads to virtually zero. there will be no problem. If any load on your structure has been applied to a geometric entity. Method 4 : Transfer loading from geometric entities to the elements and nodes.DETA command. The element and node loading can be scaled after it has been transferred from geometric entities. this will be a useful tip. return the priority to "Normal" so that ANSYS is not slowed down when you start doing plots through the GUI. Set the priority to "Low" to help make foreground applications run more smoothly while ANSYS is running SOLVE in the background. To do this. lines. and "Set Priority >" comes up. as long as you do not forget and re-select the geometric entities -.0: Setting Process Priority in NT Under Windows NT 4. see the "LSCLEAR.ALLSEL will do this.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. What did work for me was to use "_TINY" as a value.DETA. Unfortunately. Delete the loading on geometric entities. An un-selected geometric entity will not transfer its loading to elements or nodes when SOLVE is executed.g. Save the model under an appropriate file name before executing MODMSH. Tip 7: Running ANSYS at Low Priority under Windows NT 4. scaling loads on geometric entities (keypoints. Scaling displacements (nodal constraint values) is also possible. Method 3: Transfer the loading from geometric entities to the elements and nodes. that load will be transferred to the elements and nodes at solution time.0 as the scaling factor. which will not require writing a load step file. (Guess how I figured this out!) So what can you do about this? Method 1 : Transfer the loading from geometric entities to the elements and nodes.EXE".ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. I have seen other applications start up very slowly (e. Method 4 is fine. Method 2: For a faster method.exe for many Windows install programs). then write a load step file. Internet Explorer) or wait until ANSYS was done before proceeding (setup. and click the tab for "Processes".html It has been my experience that some large commercial 16-bit applications will not start properly when ANSYS is already running. rather than directly to elements or nodes. When ANSYS has completed the SOLVE process. then un-select the geometric entities. Attempts to use 0.0 the priority level of individual processes can be user-adjusted.SOLID" command. Now the loading can be scaled up or down freely. bring up the Task Manager (right click on the Windows NT taskbar). Right click on the process titled "ANSYS. Tip 9: Ramping Loads Down to Zero: 5 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . Warnings: Method 3 ruins the relationship between geometry and the mesh. This records loading on elements and nodes. areas and volumes) seems not to be available. then delete the relationship between geometry and the FEA mesh with the MODMSH. before executing SOLVE. One thing that has not worked for me is an attempt to reduce applied displacements to zero by using 0. then read the load step file that was just written. Tip 8: Operating on (Scaling) Loads: You can operate on loads on nodes and elements in order to scale them up or down. This may help more if you have a large RAM in the computer.

ramping from zero only if appropriate.0000001. The only way to get a graph from zero that I have found is to do a first load step with "t" extremely small. run a first load step with all the loads at their starting values. and the elements are selected.0.SOLID" command.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. The load at this time must be appropriate so that the response ramps up correctly. This difference will govern how loads should be applied in some models. deleting all the loads on geometric entities. of course. If you delete the applied load. and reading in the load step will protect your load case. and do not address this concept. Setting displacements to zero or near zero is. Alternatively. Tip 10: Starting ANSYS Graphs at t=0 Graphs start at the first data point. transferring loads from geometric entities to nodes and elements. just leave the loads as zero. then divide the force by the length and use the result as the pressure.g.) The next load step continues as usual. I have not experimented with it. you get the default 1. Codes that I have seen were generally started before FEA was widely available. The time substep sizes to use will depend on your model. The thing to do is to set the loading to virtually zero or the scaling factor to virtually zero. Note that pressure on a line acts in the plane of the area that is attached to the line.html If you are ramping force. you can use a *GET command to find the length of the line. such as 1. you may want to return loads to zero. t=0. or else your carefully crafted load case can be overwritten. acting in each of the area plane directions. the loading will drop immediately to zero. The TIME command can be used with a new value. for the purposes of ramping loads. 0. Find out what is considered good practice in your industry. In some cases. If you want to apply a total force to the line. which means that if you do a time-history trace. (You will want to check the codes that regulate your design work before deciding on this. you don't get a t=0 data point. I do this when I want to inspect permanent deformation that results from plastic yielding. and make scaling the loads possible.0 in your output. Change those loads to be ramped from their starting values to new values. with ramping activated. NOTE: Pressures on surfaces follow the deformed shape during a Large Displacement (geometrically nonlinear) analysis. in comparison to other times in the analysis.any opinions? 6 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . As above. not delete the load. e. Tip 12: Ramping Some Loads. pressure. this could give a more realistic assessment of nonlinear buckling caused by applied forces other than gravity loading. If you leave time as 0.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. pressure on the line will only be exerted in the direction of the area that is selected.) Applying gravity first can give much better convergence when assessing the effect of thermal expansion moving structures across friction contact elements. Forces on nodes maintain their orientation in space. even under Large Displacement. If two areas are attached at 90 degrees or another angle. The select logic must still be in place when you SOLVE.0000001. but do not see how controlled ramping of only some loads could be implemented under Arc-Length control of applied loading -. and acceleration loads up and down as part of an analysis. Then set up a second load step. Not Others: To hold some loads constant and ramp up or down others.g. writing them as a load step. use an extremely small value on the TIME command. You can use select logic on the areas to get some interesting effects as to the direction in which the applied forces act. The loads on the nodes that the FEA program applies will be appropriate given the formulation of the elements. two loads are set up. very different from deleting constraints. If you want. I suspect that this is not possible with the Arc-Length method. An example is the application of a gravity load before other loads are to be ramped up from zero. e.0 on the TIME command. It is important to appreciate that to ANSYS.sympatico. even if you have load ramping turned on. reducing a load to nearly zero is not the same thing as deleting it (zeroing it). and run this as a first load step. where the normal load on the contact elements is caused by gravity. Hold the other loads constant. Tip 11: Pressure on Lines: Applying pressure on a line results in loads being applied to the nodes associated with that line. (If your intent was to ramp up from zero load. but only if both areas are meshed. consider the "LSCLEAR. If you un-select one of the areas.

it may be desirable to do a combined Large Displacement and Plastic Deformation model. OR in grossly inadequate underdesign. buckling failure may occur before the first eigenvalue. but the ANSYS manuals go to considerable pains to point out that in many situations. The arc-length method can sometimes cope better with nonlinear solutions. I've encountered this with shell structures under compressive stresses. In ANSYS. Know what you are doing. and the Arc-Length method may be needed for convergence control. My experience with the arc-length method is that in its default settings for step size multipliers. I found this to help 7 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . Tip 15: Nonlinear Analysis and the Arc-Length Method: The basic way to do nonlinear analysis in ANSYS is to use NR iteration and many default settings. Linear eigenvalue buckling has to assume that gap and contact elements are either closed and active. a Large Displacement solution (geometric nonlinearity) needs to be run also as a check on the buckling adequacy of a design.e.a. that if the out-of-plane deflection of a flat plate or shell is greater than half the thickness. the structure may not be adequate. Ignoring this can result in your design missing out on inherent strength. this calls for activating a Large Displacement solution (a. Combined bending and axial compression in a beam is a classic place where inadequacy in strength can be predicted in FEA only by Large Displacement nonlinear analysis (i. it may begin to collapse (perhaps only locally). then membrane forces start to become significant in resisting the applied load. so that each substep is 1/10 of the load step. it does not give satisfactory results when compressing some shell-based models. because of its ability to follow force-deflection curves that rise and fall. If elastic stress limits are exceeded in the Large Displacement model. A need to strengthen the structure may be predicted or identified. If significantly overstressed. when the loading is applied.html Tip 13: Force and Pressure on Flat Plates or Flat Shells There is a rule of thumb. see whether the elastic stress limits have been exceeded (this includes the surfaces of shell elements. Tip 14: Linear and Nonlinear Buckling: Linear eigenvalue (classical Euler) buckling is a "quick" check on a structure.1.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. Set the Arc-Length minimum multiplier MINARC to 0. Be prepared for long run times if your model is large. and suppliers. If the structure is overloaded. At times. The material properties to use are application domain and industry specific -. so that the smallest load substep is 1/100 of the full load step.start by talking to your co-workers. a diagonal tension field is developed in a web. In other structures. Set the Arc-Length maximum multiplier MAXARC to 1. supervisor. and be careful that nodal averaging does not hide anything).ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. For some structures undergoing elastic Large Displacement analysis without contact and gap elements. such as 10. nonlinear buckling may need to be assessed with respect to a number of load cases. and elastic buckling failure does not develop at the first eigenvalues predicted. In some structures.k. As with linear buckling. Nonlinear analysis will follow the effects of these elements as they go in and out of contact. a linear analysis says it is OK. What may work is to set a number of time substeps. or open and inactive. the user may want to consider a Southwell plot. After any Large Displacement nonlinear elastic buckling analysis (if it doesn't diverge). geometric nonlinearity). convergence will become a problem. and only nonlinear analysis will predict this. but a nonlinear analysis shows it is NOT).0 so that no substeps larger than 1/10 of the load step are taken.sympatico.

by having run a preliminary load step. Animation files under Windows NT (AVI files) from ANSYS often compress very well for storage purposes. even though some displacements are visibly getting larger. Do a stress plot of interest to set the type of stress plot to be animated by the macro that will be run. As you move forward through the plots. and choose Animate to get a sub-menu of choices. in addition to other applied loads. Use the PlotCtrls menu selection on the Utility Menu. The media player can be stepped manually for slow viewing. I have not found that any of the ANSYS supplied animation macros do the one simplest thing I want. Choose "Dynamic Results" to create an animation of your saved load substep results with the time shown in the legend. put on a web site. and a number of substeps. In animating a changing stress or other contour plot. the TIME value on the ANSYS plots shows the decimal fraction of the full load being applied to the model. As mentioned above. The solution may still diverge but it is likely that you will get more information than without arc-length analysis. Tip 16: Animating Results from a Nonlinear or Other Analysis: It can be helpful to watch the increasing stress levels that result as a nonlinear analysis loading is ramped up. it may not be satisfactory to have /ZOOM. Note that this simple macro does not update element table data at each frame. or other data with amplitude information are to be plotted. The resulting AVI file can be viewed with the media player. You may want to user a larger or smaller MINARC setting. if size matters. View the load step or substep with the worst results as part of deciding where to set the contour levels. distributed. the user may want to fix the contour map levels ahead of time. first run your analysis with loads ramped up. This seems to work only for the last load step (read the ANSYS macro). you may wish to specify the contour levels before generating the animation file. Make the ANSYS Graphics window as small as you want the animation window to appear (most screens will have lower resolution than a CAD workstation).ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. Obviously. the decimal fraction will fall. There is virtually no error checking in this macro. then the user may face the prospect of gravity being ramped up and down. When you review the results of a single load case run under Arc-length control. strains. The following simple macro does this for me under Windows NT. Usually I want to animate every substep of every load step stored in the results file. The user will want to set the displacement amplitude scaling with /DSCALE in advance--automatic scaling will not be satisfactory. You will want to set a termination condition for the analysis if buckling is expected to result.OFF 8 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . Consequently it will not work properly for plots of element table data. but my experience to date suggests that one should not get greedy with MAXARC. Have all substeps written to the results file.sympatico. To create an animation. something I have not tried is to get the Arc-length solution control to ramp some loads and not others. and so on. and the physical realism of the model may be affected. If stresses. Is this even possible? If not. you may want to play with the number of time substeps. Smaller graphics windows result in smaller animation files. I find it desirable to save the results at every time substep when doing this type of analysis (it helps to have a large hard drive) in order to review the process. keeping the aspect ratio correct. if the load/displacement curve for the structure is falling. It makes it easier to watch the changing stress pattern or deformation as nonlinear effects take over the model. In general.html considerably.

1 set. by using commands available in /PREP7.1.html active.NTOTAL. The volume of a series of areas or "volumes" can also be retrieved with the *GET command after a "sum" command is used. The user would then not need to specify the number of substeps to plot.ar11 set.SOLU. GSUM" respectively. and letting the solver use variable substep sizes without the user having to check on the number of substeps that resulted. depending on your units) of keypoints.off anim.see Tip 59 below for the example of automatically plotting all mode shapes. lines. improving the automation. The *VGET command can also be used. Manually setting a view may yield a better animation.delete /seg.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. and the *IF and *EXIT commands can check this and break out of a do loop -. or volumes in a model can be retrieved.multi. enter into "PreprocessorOperateCalc Geometric Items" to see the choices: "Of Keypoints.temp /seg.xxx. number_of_frames_including_first ! ar11=arg1 *if.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. Of Volumes. unit densities are assumed in reporting mass and center of gravity information. Of Areas.arg2. VSUM. The file that contains the results must have already been selected.gsav /gopr *endif An alternative to this macro could step through all substeps on the RST file by using a *GET command of the type *GET. Tip 17: Getting the Mass or Weight of a Model: A reader has been helpful by pointing point out that mass (or weight. If no attributes have been assigned to the geometric entities. ! The number of frames needed must exist in the RST file._iii.NCMSS to check the number of substeps as the SET.FIRST command internally ! User implicitly indicates how many times to use the SET. the *GET command can be used to assign to a variable the implied volume of an area (based on the thickness associated with its attributes) or the volume of a "volume".eq.first /replot *do.0.1 *endif *if.ACTIVE. time_delay_for_frame. then /NOPR /gsav. After the execution of these commands. areas. ! ! Call with: ! ! my_anim. This macro must be called from within /POST1.1. and a prototype plot command executed so that calling /REPLOT will generate the type of plot the user wants: ! -------------------------------------------------------------------! MY_ANIM. The parameter NTOTAL will be re-set to 1 when the animation is complete. else errors.arg2-1. are all based on the last user plot. Of Geometry". ! Plotting element table results would require a macro in which ! the element table results are updated at each substep.0.next /replot *enddo /seg. LSUM.ar11 /gres. ! Scaling.xxx. since the view will change if plots of significant deflection are included in the animation.0. etc. on the last user plot executed ! before this macro is called. ! User must indicate how many frames are to be animated ! This macro starts with the first substep in the results file ! by using the SET. in retrieving information made 9 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . where appropriate.then ar11=0. ! ! Virtually NO Error Checking Is Performed ! ! ! ! ! ! ! What will be plotted is based on /REPLOT therefore.sympatico. Of Lines. ASUM.gsav. ! NOTE: This does NOT work for plots of data in an element table. These items execute the "sum" commands: "KSUM. Using the graphical user interface..arg1.1.NEXT command.NEXT command is issued. Only the SET value is updated. Use at your own risk.. Modify this macro as you wish.ne.MAC A quick-and-dirty animation of all of the substeps ! -------------------------------------------------------------------! For information only. when attributes have been assigned to these entities.

or until two or more elements are attached to one element edge. nodal coupling. then re-mesh. Sum the masses or weights of all the material types. There is no *GET command that directly returns the weight of selected elements. Tip 18: Using Fnc Calls from Macros: Before using macros for the first time. However. These commands work with shell elements that are attached to areas. nodal rigid region. the volume of an element can be returned. Note a slight difference in calling parameters AR19 and AR20 when the *USE form of a macro call is used. (Hint: ANSYS ought to do this re-orientation for Areas. The function must be called with the exact use of upper case and lower case characters.ENSYM for information on what this command will do. Tip 19: Use ENSYM and ENORM to Turn Over Shell Elements: ANSYS has two commands. In such a run. the stress results will no longer apply to the correct shell surfaces and a meaningless mess will result. a partial solve will give the answer more quickly (but not put it into a variable). the results are not re-oriented in the database when these commands are applied. you can get the weight (assuming you gave densities in the material definitions) by removing all loads (don't let thermal expansion.html available after one of the "sum" commands is executed. Depending on your system of units. Note: If you clear the elements attached to an area. for re-orienting shell elements so that a set of shell elements can all have their "top" surface face the same way. until it hits the edge of the model. and finding the vertical reaction force. nor in the results file. re-orienting a connected set of shell elements so that they face the "same way" (this takes some interpretation). in addition to other relevant parts of the ANSYS manuals. see HELP. This makes application of pressure. versus the "unknown command" form.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. and review of results more feasible. The user can run a partial solve in order to get this weight or mass printed reasonably quickly. However.use the minimal constraints needed to stabilize all bodies in 3-D). You can get the weight of many models into a parameter by: step through all material types. or loads on constrained nodes trip you up -. because the capital F is missing. The user should experiment with this command in order to understand exactly what it does. a combination of the FSUM (select vertically restrained nodes only. 10 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . not weight. making it easier to pressurize the interiors of containers defined with shell elements. In Imperial units. and multiply by the density of that material type. For some unstated reason. read about the *USE command in the ANSYS Help manual. To do this would require reversing the node order in the database so that Face 1 (Bottom) and Face2 (Top) get switched. whereas fnc_ENSYM will not. remember. ENSYM can be used to "flip over" a shell element so that the opposite side (Top or Bottom) is showing. For more powerful capabilities in re-orienting shell elements. the new elements will have the same orientation as the area. I base my comment. except to print it to output during the solution of a problem.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. This command will search outward from a chosen element that the user considers "correct". as well as with independent shell elements. The *USE command help discusses the macro calling parameters and their local scope. so if the elements are re-oriented after SOLVE. running SOLVE in a linear analysis. ANSYS will not directly give the total weight or mass of a model (retrieved from the mass matrices of the elements). ENSYM and ENORM. applying 1 g vertical. even working around corners. The optimization examples work to reduce model volume.) See HELP. An example: Fnc_ENSYM will work. There are times when calls from macros directly to the Function form of an ANSYS command will be the only way to get the function called with picking. It may be desirable to sent the user a message that explains why the picking has been requested. and the volume of a set of elements can be put into an element table. on comments in the manuals on Optimization. Of course. and summed. you may want to convert between weight and mass . with all attached elements) and *GET commands in /POST1 might help you to get the weight into a variable. it may be desirable to convert between pounds mass and pounds weight. having constraints on vertical motion. This will not include added mass and mass elements at nodes (check this carefully against the output mass in the solve module) or other things that I may not have thought of. This orientation should be done before running SOLVE . various gap and contact elements.ENORM. about the inability of ANSYS to directly return the weight of the model with *GET. It searches elements from the selected set of elements. contact elements.sympatico. Get the volume of those elements. selecting elements for each material type.

) If the structure has pressurized flat surfaces. with the KEYOPT stress-stiffening set. The correct use of ENORM can make the application of pressure or contact elements to a complex model substantially easier. or it may be desired to have a curved fit to an outside edge.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. for Elastic & Plastic). I get different colors for Face 1 and Face 2 of shell elements when PowerGraphics is ON. in the interior of the area. mesh the area of interest with the elements sides set straight. or for solid elements. Next. It could even be done for beams displayed with /ESHAPE showing the outer envelope. Tip 20: Shell Types to Try: I have used Shell 63 (for Elastic). and "No Numbering" plus "Colors" or "Colors and Numbers" has been chosen under PlotCtrls. A similar command for plotting areas would help. then clear the surrounding areas. I have occasionally had mid-side nodes created. This does not happen for areas. This will leave the plane area of interest meshed with elements that have straight edges in the interior. "Trouble" here means poor representation of curved boundaries--other elements on these boundaries may need to curve to follow curved surfaces. such that there was too much element curvature distortion in the plane of the element. Stress stiffening for Shell 93 is activated at the solution phase of the analysis. because of its ability to follow curved surfaces. having mid-side nodes. Set the angle subtended by Shell 93 elements during meshing to a value that is small enough to avoid warning messages.sympatico. The Revision 5. Shell 93 often converges better when stress stiffening is activated for Large Displacement analysis. a line plot of element edges shows extreme distortion in the plane.Numbering. (I have obtained different Large Displacement convergences with Shell 63 with no stress-stiffening set. I have not seen this documented.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips.4 for ANSYS will include a bug fix for a Shell 181 problem. then start by meshing areas on the other side of the perimeter with elements that have curved sides--these elements could even be triangular. but is still embedded (hidden) in Revision 5. All these elements are Shell 93.html and inspect the model thoroughly after ENORM is applied. or need better element shape control. One fix is to have the elements created with the sides straight. with stress-stiffening set in /SOLU. to verify that the results are as desired. It would be very helpful if ANSYS had a special command that would plot shell elements with the sides colored according to whether they were FACE1 or FACE2 of the element. and Shell 181 (for Plastic). and can make a mess of a general curved surface under free meshing. An intended hole is meshed with triangles.) Like Shell 63. so the number of elements on an area fillet can be large. At present. and if it does not cause trouble on the perimeter of the plane area being meshed. When forcing mapped meshing of curve-sided Shell 93 elements on a plane area by concatenating perimeter lines. whereas Shell 63 is (apparently) only stress-stiffened by setting one of the KEYOPT values. Shell 93 also has the virtue of being supported by the Linear/Plus version of ANSYS for Large Displacement elastic analysis. Shell 143 is no longer supported. Shell 93 (8-Node.3 running on Windows NT. and with stress-stiffening set in both places. if the surrounding areas are not intended to be meshed. and curved edges on the perimeter. If flat element sides cause trouble on the perimeter.) Shell 93 gave me good convergence for both elastic and plastic Large Displacement (nonlinear geometric) analysis. too.3 of ANSYS for compatibility reasons. according to their face number. This is illustrated by the following images of an intentionally extreme example. In the first image. with ANSYS 5. 11 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . Shell 143 (for Plastic). Shell 43 (for Plastic). I have recently found Shell 93 to be useful in modeling some curved structures. Watch out for aspect ratio warnings. (Shell 63 elements are flat. (Lack of warnings is not a complete guarantee of acceptable element shapes. This command could be extended to color the (up to) six sides of solid elements. so models can be moved back and forth. which is tolerable if the elements are flat. It does not like to follow too large an angle of curvature with one element.

The same problem and a similar fix can be encountered with mid-side noded SOLID95 brick elements that have 20 nodes.html In the second image.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. but with straight sides in the interior. There are rare occasions when this will eliminate element distortion warning messages. The surface areas of a volume can be meshed with 8-node SHELL93 elements with curvature. the elements bordering the hole are shown.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. The elements at the hole have a curved side. the consequence of meshing the part with straight-sided elements is shown.sympatico. meshing with mid-side nodes positioned on straight lines is being chosen. In the fourth image. 12 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . because the hole is already meshed with curved-sided elements. The interior of the plane area is meshed with straight-sided elements. The element curvature at the hole is visible. In the third image. This will leave the volume meshed with SOLID95 elements that are curved on the surface areas. then the volume meshed with SOLID95 elements with the sides straight. then the shell elements on the areas removed with the ACLEAR command. after the hole has been cleared of elements.

but not accept the commands to delete it (Hint: ANSYS should add this delete function to Linear/Plus. On rare occasions. The unsupported elements need to be deleted or changed before moving the model (e. A user can run into difficulty moving a model from ANSYS Mechanical (or ANSYS Structural. a company may own one version to be used for nonlinear models. A user-written program can expedite cleanup for a large model.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. Occasionally. Unsupported element types cannot be used in ANSYS Linear/Plus. coordination of loading with the numbering expressed in load step files is lost. a user could use CDWRITE to write out the element and node model and other model data to a file (the DB option). The Linear/Plus version limits the number of nodes allowed. a model from a more recent version of ANSYS may be moved back to an earlier ANSYS version. compress the numbering. When the node and element numbers are compressed.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. The way around this that I have used is to read in the original database. This includes modifying commands for element creation. then manually clean up the file so that the earlier version of ANSYS could accept it. 13 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . This is because the ANSYS Linear/Plus program will complain that the material nonlinearity is included. it implements this control by not allowing node numbers that exceed a limiting value. the database can be moved to the other program. must be repeated for every load case (a macro could be written to automate this. and several licenses for linear work. a model will be moved "down" from a fuller version of ANSYS to the Linear/Plus version.) before moving the database to ANSYS Linear/Plus. reading in the original database. the program quits without an opportunity to compress the numbering (more recent ANSYS versions may be more tolerant.) Finally. and the new database is written. and write the load step file. numbering is compressed. Otherwise. is that nonlinear material models must be deleted in ANSYS Mechanical (Structural. if the number of entities does not exceed ANSYS Linear/Plus limitations.) Of course. If IGES is not satisfactory.) to the less expensive ANSYS Linear/Plus. This means that compression of node numbers (and element numbers) may be required in order to get larger models to be accepted by ANSYS Linear/Plus. Unfortunately. the original database is read in. The next problem in moving models to ANSYS Linear/Plus. I found all this out the hard way. Then. etc. read in a load step file.g. change SHELL181 to SHELL63).html Tip 21: Moving a Model from ANSYS Mechanical to ANSYS Linear/Plus: Because versions of ANSYS sell for different prices..I haven't tried it. The process.. after deducing what format is needed. Writing the element data with EWRITE then cutting and pasting with the CDWRITE file may be easier -. but the numbering will have to be compressed at some point). etc. or just for model creation and results review.sympatico. neither can too large a wavefront (can the PCG solver get around this?).

(This may be more of a hindrance than a help when gap and other nonlinear elements will be changing status frequently. delete the coupling equations BEFORE deleting the nodes. the user can modify the Convergence Criteria. and 181 can (apparently) only be set with one of the KEYOPT values (Keyopt(2)) for the element (see Options when using Add/Edit/Delete to add element types with the GUI). large RAM. 181. hook elements. 143. and not generate warnings about being warped. by choosing it under Analysis Options in the GUI (SSTIF). The coupling equations are not automatically deleted when the nodes are deleted--is this a bug? Select the nodes to be deleted. If a Large Displacement solution is chosen. It apparently (I find the manuals difficult to interpret on this) can NOT be set within the Solve module. I seem to have had convergence differences with Shell 63 with stress-stiffening set and not set in the solve module.sympatico. Note that within the ANSYS manuals. I usually stick to letting the program decide how to use Newton-Raphson iteration and adaptive descent in the Solve module. remember that there are three basic kinds of nonlinearity: (1) Large Displacement (geometrically nonlinear) analysis. and Shell 181 are capable of both Large Displacement and material nonlinearity. Shell 93. You can evaluate the model quickly by doing a partial solve (Partial Solu in the GUI). However. 43. large hard drive. Stress stiffening for elements 63. then delete the nodes. I rarely try Line Search. and getting warnings (if any) and other information in the ANSYS Output window. In addition. too. not be pathologically deformed. I seem to have had some success with the Shell 93 element (can't say if the results were ideally accurate). If shell models 14 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . even though the GUI has a selection box for Stress Stiffening. The Shell 93 element is capable of both Large Displacement and material nonlinearity. then delete node coupling equations for which any nodes are selected. stress stiffening IS set within the Solve module. since "linear" may be perceived as meaning that there are no nonlinear elements present. Shell 143. I usually reduce the number of Equilibrium Iterations to 15 when doing shell models. If warped quad elements are unavoidable during meshing. high order elements are not considered to be ideal for nonlinear work. Shell 93 has the advantage that it can follow a curved surface. or the Shell 93 element. I find it very helpful to turn on the symbols for nodal coupling when checking for proper use of these details. However. For Shell 93. than a linear analysis. and fast hard drive data transfer (high-speed SCSI may help on PC's) for nonlinear analysis. and surface contact elements are used.html Tip 22: Deleting Nodes that have Nodal Coupling: When deleting a set of nodes for which some were members of coupled node sets. only generating the element matrices. ANSYS also has an 8-node shell element. in a model with gap or contact elements it may be desirable to have a much larger number of Equilibrium Iterations. Under the Nonlinear settings of the GUI. There are also shell elements for composite materials and for P-element solutions.) There are other settings that can be tried when attempts at convergence are not working. Note that SSTIF is NOT the same thing as the command PSTRES. it may be desirable to use either small triangles. 143. see the ANSYS manuals on this. The use of stress stiffening for convergence improvement is contraindicated by some conditions such as the substantial use of nodal coupling or nodal constraint equations. the Shell 63 element will do Large Displacement. Shell 43. Some beam elements are like this. unwanted coupling equations may be active if you create more nodes. I often use only convergence on forces (not moments) when analyzing shells if I am not inputting any moments directly.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. some solutions are improved by setting Stress Stiffening before running the solve process. preferring to use smaller substeps instead. it helps to have a computer with an extremely fast CPU. Making a good choice of time substep sizes is critically important in getting models to converge.) Clearing solid model entities is the same as deleting the elements and nodes simultaneously.. Tip 23: Convergence with Shell FEA Models in Nonlinear Analysis under ANSYS: First. A nonlinear analysis will take longer. These four elements are 4-node quad elements. not be ridiculously large or small.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. A second thing that helps many nonlinear solutions (both Large Displacement and plastic) to converge when substeps are being used is to activate the Predictor (PRED) in the Solve module. Because of (3) it is clearer to refer to a "linear" analysis as "small displacement elastic". 43. I will restrict my comments to the basic shell elements: 63. (You will have had to first delete the elements. For a large finite element model.. and 93. Otherwise. but is NOT capable of material nonlinearity (plasticity). The elements should have acceptable aspect ratios. However. In ANSYS. usually considerably longer. nonlinear solutions occur (3) when nonlinear elements such as gap elements. and (2) Plastic Material properties are the obvious types.

If these work without significant warning messages. the load step file can be read back in. and will be invalid. I don't use the default Arc-Length settings. If only a sub-region of a model will behave in a nonlinear manner. and possibly (3) a plastic small displacement solution. When using Arc-Length analysis. If the user deletes a load step file. or "simply will not converge" it may help to use the Arc-Length method. This speedup effect or may not occur with large displacement modeling. or manually modifies their contents. it is likely that small timesteps will be needed toward the end of the force application ramp. If you are trying a new technique. the shell will at first act as a flat plate in bending. The Arc-Length method can follow a rising and falling force-displacement relationship. This deletes all 15 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . it may reduce solution time to substructure the region that can be regarded as acting in a linear manner. 1/100 of the full load) may be needed to achieve convergence. Once the shell has curved.I have done only limited testing of this technique. I usually start with a number of substeps (NSUBST). I find PlotCtrls/Animate/Dynamic_Results to be useful in reviewing the behavior during an Arc-Length analysis. I let the Arc-Length solver use a maximum step size multiplier of one. consider (4) softening the normal and tangential stiffness values in a preliminary analysis (KN and KS).sympatico.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. invalid analysis might result. before applying it to a large industrial-sized problem that runs for hours or days. A load step file contains loads on elements and nodes. the node and element numbers in the load step file will no longer be synchronized with the model. permit automatic time stepping. when the substructure itself will be undergoing large displacement -. (2) a Large Displacement elastic solution. If gap or contact elements are being used. but allow the largest substep to be as large a fraction as 1/4 of the applied load. See below for a brief discussion and for simple examples of substructuring. Alternatively.SOLID" command. It does NOT contain loads on geometric entities. If you are having trouble with convergence . I let the Arc-Length solver use a minimum step size that is 1/10 or 1/100 of my substep size. and having trouble with convergence. and constraints. consider testing it on a toy-sized problem. The reader should take note of the ANSYS user guides comments on the LSCLEAR command. These preliminary studies may help you to find what settings help you to get convergence or discover modeling problems before you do more time-consuming accurate analysis. If desperate. you should be making some progress. If these approaches will not work. consider substructuring the linear regions of the model. by movement as small as half its thickness. In a model of this type. Consequently. save the results at intermediate substeps so you can review the stress and displacements. and other nonlinear analyses. a coarsely meshed model may improve speed enough for you to study what helps get an answer. and don't let the Arc-Length solver increase the size of a step beyond my maximum substep size. A way around this is mentioned elsewhere in these notes (See Tip 21). or if buckling is to be considered. loading. it is likely that convergence control commands in addition to time substep size will need consideration. consider the "LSCLEAR. If the model is re-numbered after load step files are generated. recovering all applied loads.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3.g. The user needs to be careful when manipulating load step files. You can also (5) try relaxing the convergence criteria on force and/or moment error. consider a study in which you do (1) an elastic small displacement analysis as a check on element shape. allow the program to bisection by setting the maximum number of substeps greater than the minimum number of substeps. starting with very small substeps (e. As I have noted elsewhere. Where there is no pressure or perpendicular force on flat shells. If gap or contact elements are the only nonlinearities in a model. and in the NSUBST command. These loads can then be scaled. If the structure is buckling or undergoing plastic failure. a load step file can be generated after all loads from geometric entities have been transferred to a model. After all loading on geometric entities has been deleted . If you are doing combined Large Displacement and plastic deformation. I usually use maximum displacement as the criterion for shell work. I prefer to save the results at every substep when doing this (Output Ctrls). If there are no perpendicular loads but the loading is causing Large Displacement. changes the order of their execution. The load step files may contain the KUSE instruction telling ANSYS to re-use the TRI file if the constraints have not changed. This can result in a tremendous increase in solution speed. Remember to ramp up your loads.html of flat plates subjected to pressure or perpendicular forces are included in the analysis. Tip 24: Working with Load Step Files in ANSYS: Load step files can be used to automate the application of a number of different load cases on a structure. but allow a minimum substep as small as 1/100 of the full load. I would start with a substep such as 1/10 or 1/4 of the applied load. in order to learn the peculiarities and pitfalls of a particular time-consuming method. the shell will start to carry the applied load with membrane forces. it is usually desirable to set a criterion to stop an analysis (NCNV). I would start with a very small first substep.

temp. and in a later load step set the value at only two locations within an element. The ANSYS manual comments on the LSREAD command.MAC in ANSYS 5. or require some intervention like writing an input file that calls load step files in using LSREAD. or when intermediate results are desired at in-between loads. It may help to use commands such as "nsel. Be careful with this.) If the user is deleting displacement constraints using DDELE. FMARD.3 contains the command "LSCLEAR. When using load step files: If loads on nodes and elements are set with BF and BFE commands (for example applying temperatures for a thermal deformation stress analysis). shell stresses (and strains) for the basic 16 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . You may need to look inside the load step files with a text editor..-999. LSSOLVE. Be warned that changing the contents of load step files with a text editor can be tricky because of unintended side-effects. It selects all DOF labels. and to see what LSSOLVE does to avoid trouble. for example. sets xCUM labels to "replace".SOLID" command that removes loads on geometric entities before reading in load step files.MAC macro can provide guidance on using LSREAD effectively. Because ANSYS does not permit the kind of analysis to be changed when applying a series of load steps. the temperature at the other two locations will still be "hanging around" at the previous value.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. error messages will be result if the user changes the value of NLGEOM in the middle of a set of load step files. loads on geometric entities overwrite loads on elements and nodes). In general the user will have to be careful that the "residue" from the loads and displacements from one load step do not appear inappropriately in later load steps. (Another thing I found out the hard way. then ANSYS would have to implement substantial checking to see whether a TRI file was safe to re-use.1" when your changes to constraints mean that a new TRI file should be generated. Before reading in load step files to solve with LSREAD. I do not consider the manuals to pursue this topic adequately -. and may apply when reading in load step files with LSREAD. check for this in your results.s.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. As noted. Be very careful with the BFE command.-999. and does a few other things. BMARK. either for transient analysis. It may compromise the use of load step files. and then writing an additional load step file.sympatico. read the manual).SOLID" to remove the solid model loads on the model before proceeding. the old constraint may still be present when the series of load step files is read in under LSREAD. ensure that loads on geometric entities and elements and nodes have been deleted. If it did.3 includes some undocumented commands including DMARK. It is very easy to make this mistake when running a series of load step files. Load step implementation can cause havoc when the user employs load step files in a manner for which the method was not designed. Mid-Plane Stress. Load Paths. four locations on an element with BFE. in a model where both piping creation commands and beam elements were used. then if you set up a subsequent load step.a user ought to read the macro.temp.s. SMARK. If Large Displacement analysis is going to be used in analyses run by load step files. It also uses an "LSCLEAR.MAC macro at ANSYS 5. implementing fix-up commands as needed -.be careful that a TRI file is not re-used because a load step file contains "KUSE. Tip 25: Plotting Shell Stresses -. It may help to read the contents of the LSSOLVE. ESYS and RSYS: In the ANSYS database. if these temperatures are to be returned to ambient it may be necessary to use the BF and BFE command to set the nodes and elements to the reference temperature (by default 0) rather than just deleting the loads using BFDELE and BFEDELE and using BFUNIF to input the uniform temperature. Statements in the LSSOLVE. The command does NOT clear ALL current loads on the model when it reads in a new load step file (it does clear some.99999" to select all of the nodes or elements to which temperatures have been applied. or for good nonlinear analysis convergence. What this implies is that the load step execution process does NOT execute an LSCLEAR command when a load step file is read in. unless you are keeping them intentionally (as noted.Surface.. LSSOLVE.bf. There will be no NLGEOM command generated in subsequent load step files. under the frontal solver (TRI file re-use saves considerable time). and a *GET command that retrieves the error number in the /SOLU process. if you are going to change them.bfe.99999" and "esel. for those cases when this is desired. The user will have to be careful to change loads between load steps in a manner consistent with getting smooth ramping of loads and displacements. As noted. If you set the value of the temperature at.MAC uses cleanup statements. the NLGEOM flag must be set in the first load step file.MAC macro in predicting what will happen.html loads and resets all load step options to their defaults. This is true when generating the load step files in the first place. This can "clean up" the load step data before using LSREAD to read a load step file for modification. The LSSOLVE.

43. These vectors can give insight into load paths in a structure. This will look messy.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. The fourth option in plotting shell stresses is to switch on the ANSYS Powergraphics feature.TOP" . Any time that nodal averaged plotting is done. This is true of both surface and mid-plane stress plots. or where elements of differing thickness meet. "SHELL. The mid-plane stress is based on the average of the stresses at the top and bottom ( this may not be correct. so that Powergraphics would plot mid-plane averaged stress neatly. when either top surface or bottom surface plotting is chosen. Sometimes it is important to select only regions of a model when doing nodal averaged mid-plane stress plots (using "SHELL. A mid-plane stress plot without Powergraphics can be done for element stresses. such as cracking.BOT". even averaged. An alternative I used is discussed elsewhere in these pages: I wrote a macro to get the mid-plane averaged stress (all components) at every node of every element (a given node has different results with reference to each of the elements to which it is attached. The user can has four options in ANSYS 5. using the "PLVECT. If nodal averaged plots are done. These will cause plotting of shell stresses (and strains) to be based on the values at the top surface. because a high stress that is washed out by nodal averaging could be a stress that causes serious fatigue or other damage.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. The method (under Powergraphics) does. but at least it doesn't hide an extreme stress. Where there are intersections of planes of shell elements. for the visible surface. In complex structures it happens all the time. This is one way in which excessive stresses will be unintentionally missed. 181. and bottom surface stress -. CAUTION: This ruins the results database. for example with "PLNSOL.S" command. and transfer it to the top and bottom surfaces.3 for plotting shell stresses (and strains). however. 143.MID".S. The user has few options here. so a given node will be looked up as many times as the number of elements to which it is attached). I'm going into this detail. and 93) are reported at the top and bottom surfaces of the shell element.) More insight into the flow of stress in a model can be gained by plotting the stress vectors. The only shortcoming is that Powergraphics will not work with mid-plane stress. considering Section 2. With shells.html shell elements (63. these vectors will be plotted for the mid-plane principle stress components.S. and forms the force per linear unit from a weighted average of top surface. If there is local compression. 17 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 .S. The macro is extremely slow to run. causing a misleading mess to be displayed. What constitutes the top and bottom of a shell element depends on the element's orientation when it was defined (see elsewhere in these pages).EQV" command to plot mid-plane element stresses without nodal averaging (without Powergraphics).4 of the Theory manual. which refers to stress on the mid-plane of a shell element separately from the top and bottom. mid-plane. Three of them are selected with the commands: "SHELL. using a command like "PLESOL. one with a "top" surface pointing upward. e. (See Tip 19 for commands that can re-orient shell elements. At times you will want to use vector graphics with no hidden surface removal. with discontinuities. at least for some elements. Options activated with the AVRES and /EFACET commands can refine the way the results are plotted under Powergraphics (look them up). the vectors point inward.MID" or "SHELL. mid-plane. or bottom surface of each shell element. the averaging of node stresses can render local stress plot information meaningless at the intersection. without Powergraphics) so that the averaging does not wash anything out. the plotted top surface and bottom surface results will get blended. corners or "Tee" intersections.3. it is possible for the averaging to "wash out" local stresses that may be important. Powergraphics has the options to discontinue the averaging of stress contours where there are certain discontinuities in the material or geometry in the model. or a weld being torn apart. This causes shell results to be displayed. to give the best view of these vectors.g. then with such adjacent elements. and its neighbour with the "top" surface pointing downward.what's going on here? ).EQV". give far better looking plots than using the "PLESOL. This is a bit misleading.EQV". yet it is common to do nodal averaged plots because of their much cleaner appearance (I do them myself).sympatico. It is possible to have adjacent elements.

(Clarification: PLVECT can plot vector arrows based on 3 ETABLE columns. and TXY data. the label used for the column should indicate the shell layer setting in use when the element table data was loaded. and TXY is as taken from the element in Element Coordinates. helping to illustrate the load paths. The element table data can be processed by the user to yield a new table column containing the "load-per-unit-length intensity" in the sense of a Mohr's circle.this could help to make load paths visible in a complex shell structure. and TXY values not being available under "Miscellaneous Element Output" at every node.) The Elements manual shows the TX. Warning: When plotting ETABLE shell element element table data with PLETAB the plot information legend will read TOP.EQV" that the column called SEQVMID will contain an average SEQV value for the mid-plane. or BOT according to the current setting of the SHELL command. Shell43.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. Y. Element table data from the CALC module (adding columns etc. as with "SEQVMID" above.TOP" or "SHELL. 2.EQV or S. shell "force per unit length" data can be obtained directly in an Element Table very quickly. Before plotting "load-per-unit-length" data. the values of TX.INT stress information can be extracted at the mid-plane. 43. TY. NOTE Also: The direction of the element table load-per-unit-length TX.sympatico. The Element Table data can be contour plotted. This bit of information DOES NOT reflect the SHELL surface setting conditions in effect when the ETABLE data was stored. The Elements manual does not explicitly show that S. Note: The Output Data section on Shell63. and Shell93 includes In-plane element X. For this reason.a simple test I ran shows the data to be force per unit length. The elements manual ought to clarify this.) is NOT updated and has to be explicitly re-calculated. Consequently. only at the centroid. The resulting values would yield a contour plot of force per linear inch (or other dimensional unit) "averaged" at the mid-plane of the shell -. the user needs to decide how to orient the results data coordinate systems with RSYS for information such as Sx or Sy that contains direction information (stress and strain with EQV does not contain direction information). "PLVECT. (For Shell63.BOT" is called. Unlike SX or SY.SEQVMID. and TXY appear to be insensitive to the RSYS setting. or 3 when generating the element table data. and could be misleading. the ETABLE value of SEQV will change if the update command "ETABLE. and XY forces called TX.S" plots that would now show arrows corresponding to the load-per-unit-length on the mid-plane and show the principal directions in which it points.REFL will re-fill columns with results data.MID" is followed by "ETABLE. but there are no principal stress style vector plots of table data.) The Theory Manual uses the term In-plane forces per unit length while the elements manual refers to just forces as above -.REFL" is executed. though with a resolution of one value per element. Their value is extracted with the component name method. particularly under free meshing. MID. The Element Coordinate System will vary orientation from element to element. TY. TY. but not the double-headed arrows for an ETABLE as in a principal stress vector plot. Consequently. A change of the SHELL layer setting can change stress results that are loaded in an update. and affects the usefulness of TX.html LOAD PATHS: The macro I mention above could be modified to multiply the mid-plane averaged stress components by the local shell element thickness at each node.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. and TXY. and 93. TY.S. Doing an element table update with ETABLE. If "SHELL. giving rapid if somewhat coarse plots of load path information along the shell mid-plane. TY. Brief experimentation shows that if the command "SHELL. use SMISC setting 1. loading shell element data must be handled very carefully in order that the layer choice is controlled. The plots 18 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . This macro would also ruin the database for any other use.

The following element plot of Sx shows the stress in the X direction. 19 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . ESYS assigned to elements can be modified after the fact but before SOLVE. The way around the problem of element coordinate systems being arbitrarily oriented is to define local coordinate systems before meshing areas (or otherwise generating shell elements) and use ESYS to get all shell elements oriented with the local coordinate systems. Each element has its coordinate system oriented differently. The next two images show a plot of TX done from an element table.html will usually be more informative without nodal averaging. Look at the sequence of node numbers for the three elements to see why the element coordinate systems point in such different directions. Curved surfaces would be difficult. by using the EMODIF command in /PREP7. the mid-plane stress is NOT simply the average of the top and bottom stresses. The results are shown in the global coordinate system.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. The plot consequently tells us too little.the suggestion is that internally.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3.4 of the ANSYS Theory manual discusses Forces and Moments per unit length on shell elements -. The elements are plotted using vector graphics.a time consuming process unless a macro is used.3. Section 2. at least for some shell elements. The values differ so much from element to element because of the difference in the element coordinate systems. with the element coordinate systems shown.sympatico. The problem of orienting coordinate systems in the plotting of results is illustrated by the images below. The image below it lists the elements and their node numbers. The first shows 3 elements that were created during free meshing. The element table was filled by the TX values for the elements (this is the load-per-unit-length in the element coordinate system X direction). It may be desirable to have a local coordinate system aligned with each flat area to be meshed with shell elements so that all shell element coordinate systems can be aligned in the plane of the area -.

The second plot with raster graphics is of Sx at the shell mid-plane. by the use of the ESYS command.0 were active when the Sx plot was done.SOLU was active when the Sx plot was generated. Because RSYS. If RSYS.sympatico. There are two local coordinate systems at work in this example -they are numbered 11 and 12 and their symbols are plotted. Sy. and aligned with number 12 in the other plane of elements. and TXY to be aligned in a known manner. there are Sx values shown in all elements.html The final images in this section show a group of Shell63 elements that have had their element coordinate systems aligned with local coordinate systems at the time of the creation of the elements. The first plot with vector graphics shows the elements with their element coordinate systems. This will permit element table results TX. Elements have been created aligned with number 11 in one plane.SOLU is active when plotting stress results.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. 20 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 .ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. TY. and help facilitate an evaluation of loading on welds. A line pressure has been applied in the global -Y direction. and Sxy to be aligned in the plane of the elements creation if RSYS. Note that they are aligned. the plane of elements that is perpendicular to the global X axis would show zero stress in the X direction in this example. reduce the total number of plots required in model assessment. This also permits Sx. Knowlege of the alignment of the loads and stresses can make plots more useful in understanding load paths.

html There is an alternative to using ESYS and RSYS.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips.sympatico.SOLU to align element coordinate systems for the purposes of 21 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 .

I leave the question of how a performer plays music with a hand saw and a violin bow as an "exercise for the reader" :-) Tip 28: Creating New Elements by Copying or Reflecting Existing Structure: In order to create new elements by reflecting or copying existing elements.sympatico. First. A rigid region grouping can be implied by tying nodes together with extremely stiff beam elements (zero-mass beam elements a few orders of magnitude stiffer than the structure to which they are attached. Exit Solution (click Finish or enter "/fini"). During postprocessing in /POST1. or Sxy. and do a modal analysis with the prestress flag set again. Sy. when the displacement rotations are significant (sin(theta) differing from theta. and Sxy. and can highlight other troubles. Re-enter Solution.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. before plotting Sx. and RSYS set to that local coordinate system. However. This does not seem to work when the stress run is done with Large Displacement activated. cracking. Note that rigid region constraint may not be appropriate for Large Displacement. Iyy. I needed elements. etc. There is a "PRESTRESS" flag to set under modal analysis. This created solver trouble.remember that flexibility is proportional to length cubed. (The nodes concerned were not at the same location in space. then some may be too stiff. or ill-conditioned matrices could result. and then make the offset number equal one plus the difference between the 22 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . I ran a model in which about one thousand beam elements were used to position gap elements. others too flexible -. Copy or reflect the nodes. and Area as a function of the element's length. I leave the topic of whether to plot surface or mid-plane shell stresses to the reader to determine. If you are running something like ANSYS/ED you may want to compress your node numbers first. noting the nodal number offset that will be used -. The beam elements should not be too stiff. select the elements to be copied and get their nodes with NSLE. Copy or reflect the elements. Sy. Tip 27: Vibration Modes with Pre-stress: Calculation of natural frequencies and modes of vibration CAN be done with pre-stressing of the structure under ANSYS. for if a node number results that exceeds the ANSYS/ED limit. Turning on the symbols for nodal coupling and for nodal constraint equations is very helpful in reviewing the correctness of a model. resulting in a lovely mess.html stress plots like Sx. If you make it smaller. do a static analysis with the prestress flag set. this would do nothing for TX. You could compress the node numbers. which set values for each BEAM4's Ixx. until I wrote a macro that assigned each beam element a unique REAL value. Izz. and imply possible overload or prying of welds and fasteners.) Rigid region constraint locks together a selected set of nodes so that they translate AND rotate in space as if they were locked together by an infinitely stiff structure.) The beam elements should have the advantage that they work under Large Displacement. These beam elements would ideally have been infinitely stiff. TY.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips.write it down. Nodal coupling locks together selected degrees of freedom (translation and/or rotation) individually. using the nodal offset number that you wrote down. Too much is industry or application domain specific. The beam elements were widely varying in length. This is because ANSYS uses a linear approximation to the rigid body rotation matrix. so that the same degree of freedom value will result for the nodes in the coupled set. because of thermal expansion considerations. Tip 26: Nodal Coupling (CP) versus Rigid Region (CERIG): I have seen analysts mistakenly use nodal coupling where rigid region constraint equations should have been employed. fatigue. First. and TXY which depend on the element coordinate system and are generated in an Element Table. a local coordinate system can be aligned with the plane of shell elements of interest. I found it sufficient to set their stiffness a couple of orders of magnitude stiffer that contact stiffness for the gap elements. Surface stresses and strains can cause local bending. there are a few things to do. the program will terminate immediately (the more recent ANSYS revisions may give a non-fatal warning message and quit some time later if you don't clean up). breaking of protective coatings. you run the risk of changing the location of nodes that already exist. instead of nodal coupling or constraint equations. Nodal coupling will not combine the rotations and translations that are necessary to imply rotation as a rigid body in space.). Hint: Check mid-plane plus both shell surface stresses. ANSYS should default to a nodal offset number equal to your highest numbered node. This is available in the dialog box for Modal Analysis Options. If the beams are of very widely varying lengths.

you may get a pretty mess. depending on what you are trying to accomplish. Caution: Such a macro would become complex if it checked for duplicate nodes at the first node location (ANSYS can't use zero length beams). because of the mirror imaging. and checked for widely varying beam lengths. This attaches the new geometry and mesh to the old elements and nodes.NODE command. the results database will be full of data. use "Generate Coupled DOF Sets with same DOF" for which you will need the same nodal offset number. (Remember that compressing node or element numbers will destroy synchronization with Load Step files.0" even though there were. (6) Select the nodes (new and old) along the interface between the old nodes and the nodes of the new geometry. new nodes will overlay them. The plotting speeded up considerably when symbols were turned off with "/PBC.it would usually be identical to the coefficient value for the structure that it approximates. REAL.I have found this to be a surprisingly error-prone operation. In the event of elements with mid-side nodes. so the nodal merge will still be needed. (5) Mesh the new geometry. 23 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . You still need to reflect the nodes on the plane of reflection. A macro like this is very fast to run. In order to copy nodal coupling. You can find these node numbers with *GET commands. This is an old FEA trick -. Tip 29: Adding to a Model Comprised of Elements and Nodes Only: It may happen that a model that consists of nodes and elements only has to have a section replaced.it is not perfect. do not select elements that lie in the plane of reflection when reflecting the structure. It is probably advisable to connect elements with mid-side nodes to other elements with mid-side nodes. The way to attach new geometry onto existing nodes and elements is to: (1) Place keypoints on the nodes onto which new geometry is to be built (i. Tip 30: Zero Mass Beam Elements Form Rigid Region: An analyst could use very stiff beam elements (a few orders of magnitude stiffer than the surrounding structure) in order imply a rigid region grouping of nodes. A separate material should be created for these beams. If you then change a model. that nodal coupling equations that in the past included those deleted nodes were also deleted. They Will Not Merge with the element from which they were reflected..sympatico. Turn off symbols with /PBC. They may have to be deleted.html maximum node number of the whole model and the lowest node number of those nodes to be copied or reflected.. Now the tricky part: elements lying in the reflection plane (shell elements will do this) get generated with the node order reversed.e. and create anything that plots a symbol. Be sure to double check that the merging has been done correctly and according to your intentions -. fully couple the PAIRS of nodes with the CP command.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. I wrote a macro to create a rigid region using beam elements. This gets messy if you are building solids. Presumably ANSYS is checking to see if any symbols should be shown. Alternatively (much more work unless a macro is written or the CPINTF command is used correctly). It is called after the set of nodes to be connected is selected. (4) Build new geometry outward from these keypoints and lines. and the appropriate MAT. If you forget. The beam element to use has to be set up in advance. Alternatively. lines will have to be created curved so that a single line spans three keypoints placed on the three nodes along the edge of an element.0 to speed things up.) The same nodal offset number will need to be used if nodal coupling is to be copied as well. I have found that plotting can become slow with very large models when loads have been applied. in fact.ALL. This is not a guaranteed method. no symbols to be plotted. Remember that if there are nodes on the plane of reflection. Do a replot to see the newly created nodal coupling. Merge commands may be wanted for the nodes on the reflection plane. (2) Join these keypoints with lines. and TYPE set by the user. which works under Large Displacement (a CERIG group does not work with large displacement). grafted). Tip 31: Turn off Symbols When Changing a Model after Solution: If you have run SOLVE. and be given zero mass (set the material density to zero) so that no gravitational or other inertial load acts on the material. in order to reflect the elements that will join them to the remainder of the reflected structure. and plots become extremely slow. I put this command in the Toolbox for convenience. The lowest numbered of the set of nodes is attached to each of the other nodes in the set by a beam element. (7) Merge ONLY these nodes along the interface using the NUMMRG. Caution: Be sure that if nodes were deleted earlier. A thermal expansion coefficient should be input if appropriate -. or requires the addition of more structure.ALL. all symbols become active. (3) Set mesh density along these lines to only one element. and even when applied and deleted.

L2ANG. you may get a few surprises. A better approach would be to characterize the flexibility of the constraint points.) Tip 34: Creating Lines Perpendicular to. or at Angle to Existing Lines When creating structures in the /PREP7 portion of ANSYS. Printing the Reaction Force would give this value. it may be desirable to run a modal vibration analysis with no constraints. I sometimes get odd results from the Hard Copy command when I do this -. be careful that you cannot be accused of leaking information unfairly from one vendor to another -. Nodal Force.D. You can use it in your Toolbar to activate certain GUI dialog boxes with one-click simplicity.S.D.) (The ANSYS vendor I've dealt with has been very professional.html Tip 32: Are the "Free-Free" Vibration Modes Relevant?: Simple supports on a structure may be appropriate for static analysis and gravity loading. More than six modes must be requested. as torsional and other vibration modes appear.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips.) Warn your boss(es) in advance that a few vendors pull this move and that you and your group will evaluate the products in a thorough manner. The command that meets another line at an angle may do better if it is entered manually. and so on) and making a huge mistake. or 1.UY $ NSEL. you 24 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . depending on your intention.I have no idea why. depending on what you are modeling. and work through your purchasing department if that is appropriate at your firm. since the first 6 represent the free translation and rotation. and been threatened with it once (I laughed at her). or at an angle to existing lines. uninformed. are extremely useful. perhaps you can make a few guesses.5.UX $ NSEL. Tip 35: Use the /UI command in Your ANSYS Toolbar to Bring up GUI Dialog Boxes Take a look at the /UI command in ANSYS. however the +/. or even to the head of your company.date your correspondence carefully. to protect the guilty.) WARNING: A number of things can go wrong with this approach. This is the force with which the nodes press on the supports. If you've been around the block a couple of times. I find that the commands that create lines that are perpendicular to existing lines. small amplitude vibrations may result in very little response from the support. We needed to know the load that the structure would apply to its foundations. With some structures. Also.A. since the structure will "sink" until the simple support reacts enough to withstand the applied load.sign is in the direction of the force that the constrained node (or nodes) applies TO the structure. Some sales-types are very greedy for their commissions. (NOTE: You may need to include nodes where there are constraints on rotation. If a modal vibration is excited. and give Zero eigenvalues. Tip 36: Reaction Force.D.0. (Names will not be mentioned. If nodes are selected with the three commands NSEL. If you ask for nodal forces without limiting the node selection to nodes where there are constraints. this could get awkward. 0.) A losing vendor writes a letter to your boss.A.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. I need the lines to be shared where areas contact each other. (Certain Dilbert cartoons come to mind.Cover Yourself It is common to evaluate a few CAD or FEA packages when trying to make the right choice for a purchase. and petulant when they lose. 1. Tip 33: Selecting a CAD or FEA System -. Write down some criteria and your assessments. If so. LTAN. and vibration similar to a structure that is free in space may result (this is obviously very problem dependent). These commands break lines where new lines intersect. with the first guess of the contact point set at 0. These commands give the connectivity I need. instead of finding your way though the menu system. Look at the commands LANG. as well as the others. claiming that the engineers are incompetent (stupid. can't spell. Watch out for this stunt: (I've seen it done. If the boss is not an engineer and cannot understand the issues. even though the original lines are already attached to areas. and Load Paths I worked on a model subject to aerodynamic pressure and gravity load.sympatico. This often succeeds when the interface command fails.0.UZ the Nodal Force at the constrained nodes can be printed. Since I often model shells that are to act as if they are welded together.

Then. If temperature is input on a nodal basis. the temperatures have to be changed at all the locations within each element to which temperatures were applied. ANSYS manuals information on the SPOINT command. based on the selected elements. read the ANSYS manuals on the FSUM and NFORCE commands. Caution: Getting the moment across the cut is not so easy. You would have to do extra work to pursue moment across a cut. and TUNIF in Structural Analysis As discussed by ANSYS in Chapter 2. and using other commands. You can plot the Nodal Force vectors along with your model (see the /PBC command). " This means that if both BFE and BF are applied to an element and its nodes. If you use piping commands to create pipe elements. When I tested this. Y. the nodal force and the reaction force magnitudes will differ. ANSYS will apply the temperatures on an element basis (to check this. The commands TUNIF and BFUNIF can be used to set all nodes to one default temperature that differs from the reference temperature. (For the curious. Inputting temperatures on an element basis with BFE permits control of things such as temperature differences between the inside and outside of pipe elements.) 2. then the contribution of those elements to the force at the node is not included and will be missing. For further information. I'm not sure what kind of effects nodal coupling would have. or between the top and bottom of beam elements.sympatico. What is being printed is the force with which the nodes react to the forces input from outside -. the temperature input at a node will influence all the attached elements. You may want to clean up with a BFEDELE or other cleanup command before starting. because moment is determined with respect to an axis. the reaction force that ANSYS listed was modified by the presence of a force applied directly to a constrained node. after SOLVE. generate a Load Step file and inspect its contents. giving visual cues during your review. Caution: If you have used a rigid region with the node of interest. If an input force has been applied to a constrained node. 3. The "cut" should follow a path along the edge of a set of adjoining elements. the BFE setting will govern. There are various other uses to which you can put Nodal Force. If elements attached to a node of interest are not selected. for example. Note my earlier comment Tip 25 on making load paths visible in shell models. Select the nodes on the "cut" side of those elements. whereas the nodal force (that is based only on element deformation) was not affected. Z directions. 4. See. a nodal "force" moment is output in reaction.6 of the Elements Manual. Body Loads are designated in the "Input Summary" of each element. and have applied temperatures.if a moment is input. The generation of Nodal Force (and Reaction Force. printing nodal forces when only pressure has been applied to shell and high order elements will illustrate that FEA software inputs a complex set of forces and moments because of how the elements are derived from first principles. As I discussed elsewhere.you may need to work from the set of nodes where the rigid region attaches to the flexible part of the structure. The sum that is printed tells you the total force carried across the "cut" in the X. with the element format taking precedence. IMPORTANT: All the elements to which the selected node is attached must be selected in order to get the total force with which the node pushes on the outside world (use ESLN after selecting the nodes).ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips.html will get nodal forces wherever forces and pressures have been applied to your structure. or use the BFLIST and BFELIST commands). "Either the nodal or the element loading format may be used for an element. it can be a little simpler to apply temperatures on a nodal basis with BF. Body Loads (temperatures for structural analysis that cause thermal strains and affect temperature dependent material properties) may be input in a nodal format or an element format. You can use NODAL FORCE to find out about the load being carried in certain Load Paths: Determine where to position a "cut" in the model. the old temperatures will still be there. Otherwise. if you change temperatures that were previously set with BFE. For the user applying temperatures directly. and the inputs differ. Locate it where you want to determine the force carried across the cut. since the nodes can be selected by location. Printing the Nodal Force (forces only) will tell you about the forces that your selected elements apply to those nodes. The element listing in the Elements Manual should be consulted before applying temperatures with BFE. BF or BFE commands can to used on specific regions of the model to put in other temperatures. the lack of element deformation means that you will NOT get the Nodal Force or Reaction correctly -. determining your "neutral" axis. Tip 37: Inputting Temperatures with BF. The BFDELE and BFEDELE 25 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . Select all the elements on ONE side of the "cut".ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. the temperature(s) input will influence only the element to which it was applied. BFE. if I remember correctly) is determined from the deformation and stiffness of attached elements. If temperature is input on an element basis.

The example here is sized for six rows deep. Consequently.the user can input thickness and density. This lets the added mass presence of heat exchanger fins be easily faked by inputting the product of fin_thickness x 26 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . ANSYS includes many output possibilities for the two piping element types. dz. To list or plot useful stress information from the piping model usually requires putting selected results data into element data tables. The toolbar editing is brought up from the menu item "MenuCtrls". and then a radius of curvature at the previous intersection can be applied. a variety of buttons have been enabled. I leave proper use of design codes within piping analysis as an "exercise for the reader. Keep the eventual sizing of your toolbar in mind. only one command can be executed. because Pipe18 elements always return a zero length. select the full model first. In order to modify the button sequence. can simplify the work required to create models of piping systems that will satisfy certain code requirements. it is easy to have zero-length Pipe16 elements generated. a macro can be called in order to perform a complex set of instructions. the buttons are not in a highly logical order. Tip 38: ANSYS Toolbar Use The ANSYS Toolbar can be very helpful in giving "one click" access to frequently used commands.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips." :-) Piping creation in ANSYS includes the possibility of added mass due to fluid in the pipes. Be wary of what happens when you use Load Step files. (This setting is destroyed if you modify the "GUI configuration" under your ANSYS Interactive startup dialog box. If you want to get fancy. For obvious reasons. and from insulation added to the piping. or the function form of commands. Use the "Save Menu Layout" menu selection to save the layout of all of your ANSYS windows including the toolbar shape. after I make sure that all pipe nodes are merged. and seven columns wide. The Pipe18 elements are taken out of the two Pipe16 elements that met at the last corner intersection. avoiding a zero-length element problem. Each run of pipe is entered as dx. If the user is defining U-bends. creating Pipe16 elements. so typical piping code requirements can be met. Piping commands can be used in /PREP7 to directly create models of piping. and delete them.) When you are happy with the layout of your toolbar. for example Fnc_Pl_Symbols to bring up the dialog box for setting symbols. In using piping creation commands. The command that gets executed cannot include the $ sign. My approach to this is to inspect the model for zero-length Pipe16 elements. a toolbar button could be used to activate an alternative toolbar. I have also seen users do a U-bend with a small extra space so that a very small Pipe16 element will remain between the two 90 degree bends that make up the 180 degree U-bend. Checks are included in the macro. however. Pipe16 and Pipe18. I use a macro to inspect the model and do the deletions. a user works out the intersection points of the runs of piping as if there are sharp angle bends. The insulation addition is simple -. Fortunately. See the element manual for these elements for information on the available output data. difficulties will result.if you want to remove all temperature application. and the use of appropriate PLLS commands. Toolbar buttons can also call macros. creating Pipe18 elements. save the toolbar (I suggest the unimaginative file name "toolbar") and re-order the lines in that file with a text editor. In the toolbar shown here. If these two Pipe16 elements are too small to encompass the Pipe18 bend elements. dy. this is because the captions are limited to only 8 characters. Tip 39: ANSYS Piping Elements The use of ANSYS piping elements.html commands only act on selected nodes and elements -. In the example toolbar shown here. you can append the toolbar file's contents to the end of the "Start.ans" file located in the ANSYS "DOCU" subdirectory. Some of the captions are a little cryptic.sympatico.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3.

If you select "win32c" for the graphics.set the zoom level manually with picking. You can use the /ANGLE command and the /REPLOT command to accomplish this. Hard copies of these Z-buffer plots. for ease of use. RUN.ALL. you may want to move out so that the model fits in all views. If accurate vibration behavior is to be modeled. so a reasonable and conservative value for coefficient of friction (as well as contact stiffness of the gap element) will have to be determined by the analyst. ANSYS does not differentiate between static friction and sliding friction coefficients. once you figure out how to use it. A simple macro does /REPLOT calls with the model set at a series of angles from 0 to 360 degrees. The user should get a front end for the Ghostscript program. the use of gap elements may be needed if sliding friction is to be included in the model. This could be a stress contour plot of a 3-D model. This is usually true of plots sent to a file.OFF or else the image will "move in and out" in order to fill the screen as the view is rotated -. This can be used to capture an ANSYS graphics window for pasting into a word processor document.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. Under Windows NT. They can be selected with the commands /SHOW. the stress plots will be shaded.sympatico. Under Windows NT. If there are thermal expansions in the piping. however. especially when plotted from ANSYS with HardCopy to ink jet printers.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. GIF files can be used in WEB pages to show the results of 27 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . for subsequent processing with the ANSYS DISPLAY program. you can do a /SHOW. You can even execute this command on one line using the "$" symbol to separate the commands.III. for your system of units. Plotting to the screen window with Z-buffering as the hidden surface control can give very satisfactory and often quicker results. If the plots have been re-directed to a file when this command is executed. You may need to experiment. and will usually look better when plotted to paper.WIN32C when using the GUI.3 level. This permits the DISPLAY program to do various things with the results. If accurate gravity-induced deflections and stress are wanted. being limited to a coarse resolution. then reviewing what element TYPE and REAL data has been created in the model database. Developing an understanding of the function of the ANSYS element creation commands (BRANCH. With the right options activated for a good VRML viewer plugged into a Web browser.355. better results will come from the use of a consistent mass matrix. Node plots without symbols are a quick way to assess the behavior while testing. A free conversion program is Ghostscript. and presumably above. There are utilities that can convert a Postscript output file from the ANSYS DISPLAY program into a bitmap image file. an animation can be generated as an AVI file. The command "*DO. in which I spin the model about the screen X or Y axis. Better looking hard copies to paper will usually result if the screen is set to "Precise Hidden" or even to Centroidal hidden surface control.0. the Alt/PrintScreen key combination will copy a window to the Clipboard. and so on) will require creating some elements with material and dimensional information.html fins_per_inch x fin_material_density as the "insulation" density. Model review is enhanced by plotting the elements with the /ESHAPE option active.5$/ANGLE.0$/REPLOT$*ENDDO" will achieve this for you. etc. including the generation of animations. the stresses on the 3-D model can be reviewed at any viewing angle with the positioning control a VRML viewer. Plots can be redirected to files by using the /SHOW command.) The deflection behavior of pipe elements is based on ANSYS beam elements. if element density between supports is low. This ought to be particularly interesting on a computer with a fast 3-D graphics accelerator. I occasionally find it helpful to generate an animation file based on a single stress plot of a load step. BEND.III. (Substitute the appropriate dimension for fins_per_inch.VRML plot to get a 3-D VRML file produced of a 3-D model plot. stresses predicted by the model will usually be reduced if the gaps in the support structure are included in the model (depending on the nature of the structure) rather than having "tight" fits at the sliding connections. will look "pixelated".WIN32 and /SHOW. the plots in the file can be animated by the ANSYS DISPLAY program. or into an image processing program for conversion to a GIF or other bitmap file. the stress plots will not be shaded. and fin height as the "insulation" thickness. The scaling of the display should NOT be set with /ZOOM. AT the ANSYS 5. at least several pipe elements will be needed between supports. Where piping is connected with sliding supports to the outside world. Tip 40: Graphical Output from ANSYS If you start up ANSYS under Windows NT with "win32" selected for graphics.YS.

as well as assessment of forces. for example. Plug welds are a stronger alternative.discuss this with an expert or consultant. and compared with allowables. ANSYS will not generate buckling information about the link. with pre-tensioning implied with initial strain. either. Additionally. Bitmap image size changes in an image processing program are not satisfactory with this type of graphical output. I recommend GIF over JPEG files for images from ANSYS. These very approximate techniques tell us little or nothing about stress. set its size to your satisfaction. or beam elements. The hole in which a bolt or rivet is placed must not be overloaded or too near an outside edge of a sheet or plate. This problem goes away if you set the Windows NT Display Properties to NOT show window contents while dragging. The connection devices should not be overloaded. and the links are slender. or fracture possibilities near or at the weld. More elaborate modeling (more nodes and elements. and material dependent. building codes usually forbid or substantially limit "prying" loads on bolted and riveted connections. Rivets. for spot weld representation. this element could be used to imply that no link can support compression for what may be a "worst case" evaluation of some models. select elements on "one side" of the node(s).it may be necessary to set a KEYOPT value to transmit rotation and torque about an axis perpendicular to the shell elements when a spot weld is crudely represented by single node pair coupling. and be checked for buckling. NOTE : With shell elements.) Re-sizing of the ANSYS graphics window under Windows NT is painful if a model has been plotted. generate a GIF file that contains an animation of a ANSYS model. Studying the "crack" that is hidden between the sheet metal layers in a spot weld is an "advanced topic" -.sympatico. and 2 color images (you have to reduce the colors to 256 or fewer levels in the image processing program. or spot welds has been represented by various simplifications or representations in an ANSYS model. including gap or contact elements. (Remember that CERIG is valid only in small displacement analysis -. fatigue. Alternatively. rotations should be coupled as well as translations. Where it is not known in advance whether all links will remain in tension. identifying the compressive stress and force. applicable to thicker steel sheets and plates. read the "drilling mode" comments in the ANSYS Elements Manual -. a high prying load can be demonstrated in some models (never assume your FEA model will automatically show you all trouble spots).consider how commonly aircraft use rivets and modern adhesives. the nodes can be fully coupled with the CP command if they are coincident. but also because of the fatigue considerations -. 28 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . and check nodal loads. One way to do this is to select the appropriate node(s) at the connection. Tip 41: Check Nodal Loads at Bolts. Contact elements between the joined shells or materials may want consideration. They can be joined as a rigid region with CERIG if the nodes are close but not touching as when shell elements are kept at the mid-plane position of two sheets that are spot welded together. (Animated GIF files can be generated from individual images with software that you can find on the Web or purchase. Spot Welds and Links Wherever connection by bolts. because GIF files precisely reproduce 256. when local stresses matter. (If the stays are woven rope or steel cable. Spot welds will be found. and calculating buckling information.) The shell nodes can be joined with a beam element that has properties that reflect the diameter of the spot weld. not only because of the difficulty of welding aluminum.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. If you want to get really fancy. The roughest approximation will merge or couple just one node pair. and only cross section area is entered. industry. and special element types) of each spot weld could give more information about local stresses. getting a representative crossection for the link elements will require some extra work. in many automobile body structures.coupling with zero-mass stiff beam elements could be substituted if large displacements were needed. or accept the default color reduction used when the GIF file is generated.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. not even in a Large Displacement analysis. rivets. The crudest and quickest representation of spot welds is to merge coincident nodes from the two joined layers where nodes have been intentionally created coincident at the spot weld. The ANSYS Link10 element supports a tension-only and a compression-only capability. An example would be the stays that support the mast on a sailboat. CERIG. 16. If nodal coupling is used.) Spot weld representation in large structures is usually an inexact science in FEA modeling. Since a link will be represented by one element that is pin connected at the ends. If the FEA model has good detail. links or "spars" that are loaded should be checked for stress.) Before capturing the Graphics window of ANSYS. the load on those connections should be checked. I keep my PC permanently set this way for this reason. I doubt that you would find many spot welds used with aluminum. Exactly what to do for spot weld representation is very problem.html ANSYS work. Similarly. A user could write a macro to step through all link elements. Spot weld review may require assessment of moments (especially about an axis perpendicular to the sheets that are spot welded together). merging. The user must do some work to compare compressive load with critical buckling load (use a good margin of safety). because ANSYS wants to keep re-plotting the image as the window edge or corner is dragged.

under different loading. 531 . For the shell element illustrated. as shown below. Dakin. strains. pp. Tip 43: Loads on Geometric Entities Overwrite Loads on Nodes and Elements -. If it is purely a soft caulking. Vol. 1992. which. The use of components is an alternative way to select parts of the model for loading. Heyes. S. 1995. the load on the keypoint OVERWROTE the load on the node. Stress colors have been gray scaled for printing to a black and white laser printer. P. D. C. S. The element query returns only data on energy and error estimation. 29 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . Presumably. according to how the SHELL command was issued (the usual rules as to what constitutes the Top and Bottom of a shell element apply). R. pp. and Strange. 1993. (There is a variety of other good reading at the site. "Estimation of Fatigue Propagation Life in Resistance Spot Welds. The same principle applies to loads on lines.Easy Error to Make My "dumb move of the week" was to retrieve an old model of a beam with redundant supports.549. British Standards Institution. "Fatigue Life Estimation in Resistance Spot Welds: Initiation and Early Growth Phase.185. Ed. J. The original model had the load applied to the keypoints. D. This is a plot of top surface bending stress." Engineering Fracture Mechanics. 245 . This may prevent corrosion in the gap. SAE Technical Paper 950711. F. and Grubisic. also. 1993. Radaj. In addition to rivets. Smith.293. 287 . and Cooper. 1995. The Welding Institute. Middle. I got the OLD loads on the nodes. When I listed the applied forces with FLIST before running SOLVE. and I got the old result. areas. pp. Sheppard. but if it functions as an adhesive. W. pp. S. deflections. the result will be reported for the Top. A. and StJohn. When I listed the applied forces with FLIST after running SOLVE. or Bottom. and used PLLS to plot the result.. change the load on a node. etc. 15. 169 . Advances in Fatigue Life Prediction Techniques. I have never worked in aerospace. I then updated the element table results. Code of Practice for Fatigue Design and Assessment of Steel Structures. "Computer Aided Dimensioning of Spot-Welded Automotive Structures". he noticed that the results were the same as the results the last time the model was run. EXCEPT when meshing may be changed in the future. a month before." ASTM STP 1211. "Local Fatigue Strength Characteristic Values for Spot Welded Joints. Eds. 6. J. Mitchell and R.250. although it is MSC/Nastran related. Landgraf. K. Note that the nodal stresses are based on averages if more than one element that is connected to a node is selected.. D.sympatico. but I recently had a look inside a old helicopter that was on public display. Vol.. and re-run the model. what was either a caulking or an adhesive appeared to have been used between some ribs and the outer shell. No. It will do this even if PowerGraphics is active for the plot on the screen. with gravity loading included. J. and help reduce vibration and fretting or galling. it might be ignored in FEA. To see an image of this in action Click to See Image and use your browser's Back button to return. there may be little reason to keep the loads on geometric entities after these loads have been transferred to nodes and elements. Upon inspection by a co-worker. M. 1988. No." SAE Technical Paper 951101. Both applied point loads and reactions are shown as colored arrows. Presumably the manufacturer has standards for this type of design." Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures. it happens with applied displacements. You can inspect the consequence of element selection on nodal stress easily with this feature. R. What was wrong? The model database file had been saved with the original loading and results.) by picking nodes.html There is a document on spot weld fatigue and FEA on the MSC/Nastran website. I saw my modified loads. and volumes.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. 1990. 37. M. E. 1.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. Stö rzel. V. I changed the load on a node. Tip 42: Use QUERY to Check Results with Picking In /POST1 the "Query Results" capability applied to nodes makes it easy to check on results (stresses. is interesting and includes the following references: Rupp. Sheppard. too. "Theoretical predictions of the fatigue life of shear spot welds. ASTM Philadelphia. Since loads on geometric entities cannot be scaled. BS 7608.) Take a look at the paper in PDF format by Heyes and Fermer. When I ran SOLVE. "The Assessment and Use of Linear Static FE Stress Analyses for Durability Calculations. Maddox. A. the load on the rivets is probably reduced." Fatigue of Welded Structures.

If you do not turn to expert help for substructure work. it will be applied during the "use" part of the analysis. the title already contained the load case name. g-loading. When the plots were diverted to a plot file. In the "Top Down" example below. Statements in the macro would put the component name and weight (based on volume only) in an annotation. plotting the stresses for each component from a couple of viewpoints. in Large Displacement substructuring studies. a detailed desctiption of this careful application is not included in the base ANSYS manuals. consider SHELL63 elements with very few MDOF nodes (8 nodes x 6 DOF/node = 48 DOF). vibrations. or when extremely large models are in use. The two simple examples below do not address use of multiple substructures. without material nonlinearity. An even more convenient use for components is for reviewing stresses due to a load. I recommend substantial testing of any techniques on small models before doing any real work. Should ANSYS add a warning message about SOLVE transferring loads from geometric entities. Warning: Read the ANSYS Elements Manual section on MATRIX50 the superelement. multiple load cases. I wrote a macro that automatically steps through all components.I have not yet done comparison runs to test this. Unfortunately. If the user has applied gravity to the model file that is read in. The components can be called up and stresses plotted without the need to do manual selection over and over for each load case. particularly with multiple substeps or multiple substructures. For serious use. then the "accurate" application of gravity loading to the superelement could be accomplished without counting gravity load twice. because of the capacity of modern computers for large models. The user will have to employ some insight to select substructures in a way that minimizes the resulting number of degrees of freedom and wavefront size. This presents a problem when there are elements with mass that are not included in substructures.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3.Bottom Up and Top Down ANSYS/ED is capable of only a small number of Master Degrees of Freedom (50 the last time I looked). rotational degrees of freedom are needed at the nodes. and gravity is applied during the "use" pass. which requires user acknowledgment? A potentially dangerous mistake -. There are still times when it is desirable.if it could be done. such as when gap elements or contact elements are employed in large models. I have not yet determined whether gravity could be applied to a superelement in the GEN pass.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. before archiving a model. without having a superelement mass matrix generated -.html Suggestion: The user should add a warning annotation stating that loading is on geometric entities. A 2-D element such as PLANE42 may be best for many substructure experiments with ANSYS/ED. so MDOF should be 30 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . so any use of substructuring in ANSYS/ED will have to be done with a very small number of nodes for master degree of freedom use.g. Substructuring is a relatively tricky procedure. The reader is reminded that the elements inside a substructure are treated as linear. I set "ACEL" for the model to ZERO in all three global coordinate directions during the "gen" part that generates the superelement. element tables must be used to hold and display beam stress information.watch for it! Tip 44: Use Components for Load Input. The problem with using beams elements for learning is that review of stresses is more complex. Tip 45: Simple Substructuring Examples-. Any nonlinear elements grouped inside the substructure will be treated as if they were in their initial condition. For an alternative. Unfortunately. and so only applied once to the superelement. linear acceleration loading (e. and ANSYS/ED will only handle very small numbers of nodes -. Note that non-zero applied DOF displacements are not to be applied by a load vector. gravity load would have to be introduced "carefully". the file could be used in ANSYS DISPLAY to plot stresses for all components for all load cases.read the manuals. it will be applied TWICE to the superelement substructure DOUBLING the gravity load on the superelement region of the model. Substructuring has become more rare in FEA work.sympatico. for each load case. In Large Displacement substructuring. Note its warning that if gravity is applied during the "gen" pass when the superelement is created. and other complications. The example does not address centrifugal loading or other complications. and for Results Review A user-written input file could be used to apply loads to components that the user has defined. For this reason. This may affect the accuracy of the solution -. the ANSYS manuals on substructuring should be purchased and studied in detail. Using rotated superelements introduces another set of problems with the direction in which loads are applied -. Nonlinearity (Large Displacement) is mentioned only briefly. gravity loading) is more accurately represented when applied as a load vector.2-D beams may be best for learning experiments with Large Displacement.

The following examples are fairly brief.kp. real=2.all.1.5.1.shell63 r.shell63 ! element type 2 set to SHELL63 r.3.1 ! mesh the area -. Use at your own risk.5.html applied to nodes where non-zero DOF values are to be applied during the analysis.0 lesize.5. the coupling command CPINTF is used to join the superelement with the non-superelement portion of the model.1.all ! automatically couple coincident nodes at interface eplo fini /solu ksel.-1.all. The exception to uniform scaling is with respect to angular motion -.1. fini ! finish whatever was active previously /clear ! clear the database /title.gen /prep7 et.1 ! set type 1 se.user can change this mesh the rectangle substructure analysis generation pass line at right side select all nodes on line make these nodes Master Degrees of Freedom line at left side select all nodes on line constrain nodes against all motion ! save this part of model as gen.subst seopt.use ! filename for the use pass /prep7 et.05 thick set value of E create a rectangular area 3 elements per line -. in my opinion.fy.3 ! keypoint at upper right corner nslk ! select node at this keypoint f.2.1. Brief testing I did suggests that load ramping DOES work for load vectors -.2.db" for later review by the user.1 amesh. In the bottom up example.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips.30000000 ! set value of E blc4.1. A *GET command could find the element number of the superelement right after the SE command. .05 thick mp.all. The commands manual does not explain this adequately in ANSYS 5.user can change this aatt.nostart /title.read the ANSYS tutorial and user's guide manuals on substructuring.leave out too many. .s.Shell elements are attached to a superelement /filname..1 fini /solu antype.db for expansion pass ! the save need not follow "solve" ! generates the gen.4 nsll.05 mp.sub file /clear..line.-1. (ANSYS 5.the user should check this independently.2 nsll.2 ! assign mat=2.50 ! element type 1 set to superelement MATRIX50 type. Loads and constraints created in the GEN pass (i.if SFE is used..0.30000000 blc4.all lsel.note superelement node numbers are not used cpintf.0. The SFE command is needed only if loads were applied to the superelement -.0. The example shows the stresses in the superelement after the expansion pass completes. The substructuring examples given in Chapter 4 of the ANSYS Advanced Analysis Techniques manual leaves out the routine steps -.-1 ! put a load on node at upper right corner 31 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 .) The command EXPSOL has to be added in the expansion pass of the bottom-up example in order to get any results in the expansion results file. create remainder of model: et..s.. The user should purchase an ANSYS manual and tutorial manual on substructuring before doing serious work.all.gen lsel. .1. The results of the use pass are saved in the file "use.gen ! read in the superelement matrix from generation pass ! after reading superelement.5.1 ! 3 elements per line -.ex.all.0 ! create a new rectangular area lesize.-.2.5 has added some helpful comments to its Advanced User's Guide on Substructuring.s. except by uniform scaling.s.Substructure Technique Test /filname.3.3. type=2 to the unmeshed area amesh.all allsel save solve fini ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! filename for the generation pass element type 1 set to SHELL63 shell is 0.ex.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. Bottom Up Substructuring Example: ! Substructuring demonstration ************************************* ! For information only.line. .. it has to point to the element number of the superelement that was read in with the SE command as well as the appropriate load step number.sympatico. in a load vector) cannot be changed in the "USE" pass..e.2.1 d.s.2.1 m.1.05 ! shell is 0.

SUPER. In order to create master degrees of freedom through the GUI. The intended substructure should. Top Down Substructuring Example The following example is NOT a substitute for a detailed understanding of ANSYS substructuring.1 /pbc. The example 32 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 .1 ! show displacement constraints /pbc. master degrees of freedom are needed throughout the substructure -they are not created by the example below.1 solve save fini /post1 /pbc. The SFE command used in this example expects loads to exist inside the superelement.1 ! show rotation constraints plnsol. The model must have had constraints and loads applied. and handling very large models that have already been generated. Get the ANSYS Substructuring Tutorial guide and the Substructuring Guide for serious work.. Note that for dynamic analysis.db" when it is loaded.gen ! filename for the expansion pass resume ! brings up gen..all ! SFE.1 plnsol.mast. master degrees of freedom are automatically generated for the nodes on the interface between the component "super" and the remainder of the model. If the superelement has master nodes that have the same node numbers as the existing model.ELEM. This can boost efficiency in a number of ways.use ! options for the substructure expansion pass expsol. It is for demonstration purposes only. It can be retrieved during the use pass by PARRES. so that none of the master nodes coming in with the superelement would replicate the node numbers of the existing elements. In the example presented.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. the superelement is read in with SE before the remainder of the model is created.. such as dealing with contact surfaces and gap elements. The numbers and positions of nodes along the common interface between the superelement and the normal portion of the model have to be the same for CPINTF to successfully connect the two parts of the model. and have a portion of it changed into a substructure.1. then the user would have to add statements to control the node numbering.cp. this statement not needed results go in the file use. This model in "model. the model nodes will be redefined.eqv fini ! ! ! ! select all nodes no load applied in generation pass. In the example presented below.html nsel. and a mess will result. In the "use" part of this example.f. (There is no check for redundancy with user-declared master degrees of freedom. and used to guide the offset of node numbers in either the already generated superelement with SETRAN.ALL. to prevent node replication problems.Stress in the Substructure /pbc. The PARSAV and PARRES commands can be used to put model parameter information into a coded file. .SELV. but should work without them.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. and look at the SETRAN command to act on the superelement. The top down substructuring technique makes it possible to take an existing model.the analysis is not limited to the selected set of elements in the file "model. the analysis type has to be Substructure. consist of linear elements.db" must have had a portion of the elements grouped into a component called "super" using the command CM. or at the NUMOFF command to act on the existing model.) The full model is used -.rot. the user can change the mesh density.db".s. If the remainder of the model was created before the superelement was read in.1.ALL ! not required for one load step solution solve fini /POST1 /title.nostart /filname.1.gen.rst save use.1 ! show master degrees of freedom symbols /pbc.db to review results in the non-superelements ! show applied force symbols ! show nodal coupling symbols ! plot the stresses in the non-superlements /clear.u.sympatico. This component will be rendered into a substructure. in general. In order to use the example below. or in the remainder of the model with NUMOFF. and retrieve it after the /CLEAR command has been issued. a model database is read in from a user-prepared file named "model. The model is created with the "bottom-up" approach.. Check the manual.on ! activate expansion pass seexp. The maximum node number can be put into a parameter by *GET and put into a file with PARSAV during the generation pass. Some nodes can have been declared by the user to be master degrees of freedom.usually to static analysis.s.1 ! THIS IS NEEDED ! (read about NUMEXP also) ! OUTRES. the analysis type will have to be changed back to the type desired after creating extra master degrees of freedom -.eqv ! look at the stress in the superelement ************** In the above example..db saved above /solu expass.

If there is no gravity.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. including plots of displacement and stress to look for compatibility in results among the substructure regions and the remainder of the model. otherwise.it could take as long to generate the superelement as to solve the model for one load case. the usual procedure would be to select all the linear elements in the model (not the gap or the contact elements). be sure a density was applied to the materials in the model. For this reason. not nonlinear elements like gap elements.ELEM". it will act internally as a linear elastic structure. and the analysis type defined. the user will have to click the "OK" button a few times. (If gravity is applied. Although a MATRIX50 substructure superelement can undergo Large Displacement. Give this selection set of elements the component name "super" with the command "CM. To address other types of analyis.RST". Nov. start with a look at the ANSYS Advanced User's Guide.see the image below. and (2) select a portion of the elements to become the substructure. I haven't thoroughly investigated this. The connecting regions between the substructures would be chosen to involve as small a number of nodes as possible. In dealing with extremely large models. It does not address centrifugal loading. once the substructure matrix is generated. and will plot results to plot files. ANSYS/ED supports very few master degrees of freedom. The example is for stress analysis. and a plot to the screen should result when done. gravity would be DOUBLED on the superelement if the user's model includes gravity -. but was getting warning messages about the nodal force and other results not necessarily being correct. and used in the "USE" pass.sympatico. where the objective is simply to deal with the size.RST" and "GEN. "USE. the example can have the "seopt" command changed to NOT generate the mass matrix for the superelement. to minimize substructure matrix size. The "POSTPROCESS" pass seems to work in loading stresses from the two different sources for viewing. although I haven't seen this documented. If run interactively. (3) The model should have loads and constraints applied. I tried the SUBSET command.In Development For information only. Automating a substructure analysis is somewhat tricky -.this file will NOT be applicable to all types of analyses. and model wavefront size. corrections to this routine have been added (Nov. I have added a plot of the results for the full model. Expect warning messages related to partial element selection. Because the substructure matrix is usually much smaller than the full model matrix. there may little advantage in turning the entire large model into a substructure -.html will automatically perform the substructure generation and the subsequent analysis. call them the component "super" for substructuring. and look at the table of loads applicable in a substructure analysis. This makes otherwise infeasible modeling into a possibility. the iterations required for convergence with gap and contact elements will usually run far faster than iterations involving the full model. and checks that reaction forces equal the total applied forces. For models that do not include inertial loads.see the Elements Manual for MATRIX50. NOTE: This example sets gravity load to ZERO in the "gen" portion of the analysis. I have been testing it with simple stress examples. Use at your own risk. The analysis type must be acceptable for substructure use. (4) Save the model with the database name "model. change the "seopt" command to generate 33 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . Graphical results for the last load substep in the results files will be plotted to disk files. This example has had limited testing--let me know about errors. WARNING: Gravity would be applied TWICE to the superelement if ACEL were not zeroed in the "gen" pass.db". This complication is NOT addressed in the present example.SUPER. There is no error checking in the example. with results files for both the substructure and the non-substructure being read. Methods to use MATRIX50 in nonlinear applications should be thoroughly tested by the user before application.) The loading on MDOF nodes would also be DOUBLED if it was used in the superelement load vector.4 1998). It would be more common to turn portions of the model into one or more substructures.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3.2. Warning messages will be generated. and in this example. and to reading from results files. A complication for substructuring: Only a master node from a coupled node set or a constraint equation node group can be used as an MDOF for substructuring. Have a close look at how the substeps are output with OUTRES and selected for expansion: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! "Top-Down" Substructuring Example -. When dealing with gap elements and/or contact surfaces. I have encountered difficulties combining Large Displacement with Substructuring -. There is no error checking in this example. (5) Call the routine below with the /INPUT command. To use the following example: (1) Create a model.

ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks

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! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

STIFFNESS only. See the Elements manual for MATRIX50. This example NOT designed for other inertial loads. WARNING: In the "use" pass, nodal loads on superelement MDOF nodes are deleted so loads on MDOF nodes are not counted TWICE. FDELE and DDELE are used. The model to be processed is in the file "model.db". The user must have identified the region to be substructured as the component "super" with the command "CM,SUPER,ELEM" and saved the model as "model.db". Anything nonlinear in the component "super" will be treated as linear. Analysis type is defined by the file "model.db" -- must be acceptable type. The "USE" pass has OUTRES set to write ALL substeps to the RST file. The "EXPAND" pass has a *DO loop that expands solutions at ALL substeps. The model must have had its loading and constraints applied. This example is for one load case only. Some Master Degrees of Freedom can have been applied by the user -- needed for dynamic analysis. Master Degrees of Freedom Nodes will be generated between the substructure and the remainder of the model. No check for redundancy is performed. Unless this file is run BATCH, the user will have to click the "OK" button whenever the CLEAR command is executed, and if error messages appear. ! finish whatever was active previously ! clear the database GEN GEN GEN ############ ############ ############ ! file for storing plots ! read the model to be processed ! - all loads and constraints must already be applied ! - the SFE command is employed in the "use" pass to ! apply loads to the substructure ! - only one substructure generated in this example ! filename for the generation pass ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! get the highest node number get the lowest node number select the elements identified as the component "super" select nodes of these elements select the elements that are not part of "super" reselect nodes connecting "super" to remainder of model make these nodes Master Degrees of Freedom (MDOF) select the "super" elements again select their associated nodes reselect all of these nodes that are MDOF (don't want nodes outside the "super" that the user called MDOF) delete loads on these MDOF nodes for "gen" delete displacement loads on these MDOF nodes for "gen" select nodes of the component "super"

fini /clear /COM,############ /COM,############ /COM,############ /show,part1,grp resume,model,db

/filname,gen /prep7 allsel *get,nmx,node,,num,max *get,nmn,node,,num,min cmsel,s,super nsle esel,invert nsle,r m,all,all cmsel,s,super nsle nsel,r,m,,nmn,nmx

fdele,all,all ddele,all,all nsle /pbc,mast,,1 /pbc,f,,1 /pbc,m,,1 /pbc,u,,1 /pbc,rot,,1 /title,Elements of the to-be-substructure eplo ! plot the elements of the to-be-substructure fini /solu antype,subst ! substructure analysis seopt,gen,2 ! generation pass -- generate STIFFNESS and MASS matrices ! - if no inertial load, change setting to STIFFNESS only save ! save this part of model as "gen.db" for expansion pass ! - SAVE need not follow the command "solve" ! - component "super" and its nodes currently selected acel,0,0,0 ! set gravity to Zero AFTER "save" but BEFORE "solve" solve ! generates the "gen.sub" file fini /COM,############ /COM,############ /COM,############ /clear,nostart /show,part2,grp resume,model,db USE USE USE ############ ############ ############

! bring the model in again. restores "acel" if any. ! "model.db" has to define the analysis type -- it should not

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/filname,use /prep7 allsel *get,nmn,node,,num,min *get,nmx,node,,num,max cmsel,s,super esel,invert nsle nsel,a,m,,nmn,nmx *get,ntp,etyp,,num,max et,ntp+1,50 type,ntp+1 se,gen

! be a substructure generation ! filename for the use pass

! select the portion intended for the substructure ! select the remainder of the model ! select nodes of the remainder of the model ! add MDOF nodes for visibility (not needed for solve) ! get max element type number in the model in parameter ntp ! new element type ntp+1 set to superelement MATRIX50 ! set type ntp+1 before reading "creating" superelement with SE ! read in the superelement matrix from generation pass ! - master D.O.F. nodes already are at the interface ! - no need to couple coincident interface nodes this example ! - new element number assigned should be above maximum *get,snm,elem,,num,max ! get the element number of the superelement just loaded ! - needed for SFE loading the superelement below ! - extra work needed if more than one superelement /pbc,all,,0 /pbc,f,,1 /pbc,m,,1 /pbc,mast,,1 /title,Remainder of model attached to substructure eplo ! plot the elements in the non-substructure plus "outline" view ! of the substructure fini /solu ! "model.db" analysis type for substructure is needed SFE,snm,1,SELV, ,1 ! load applied in generation pass was in "model.db" ! - apply load to to superelement number "snm" found above ! - extra work needed if more than one superelement outres,all,all ! save results for the all substeps of load step ! - change here and "EXPAND" below if desired to change solve ! results go in the file "use.rst" save ! save "use.db" to optionally review non-substructure results fini ! "use.db" and "use.rst" now contain non-substructure results /post1 set,last ! plot results at the end of the load step /title,Stress in the non-substructure elements plnsol,s,eqv ! show nodal stress in the non-substructure *get,lastlstp,active,,set,lstp ! get the last load step number *get,lastsbst,active,,set,sbst ! get the last substep number parsav,scalar,parameterstore,parm ! store them in file for retrieval below fini /COM,############ /COM,############ /COM,############ EXPAND EXPAND EXPAND ############ ############ ############

/clear,nostart /show,part3,grp /filname,gen ! filename for the expansion pass resume ! brings up "gen.db" saved above, "super" is selected parres,new,parameterstore,parm ! retrieve data on last load step/substep ! parres must follow resume statement /solu expass,on ! activate expansion pass seexp,gen,use ! options for the substructure expansion pass *do,iii,1,lastsbst expsol,lastlstp,iii,,yes ! expand result at last load step/substep ! - (read about NUMEXP also) outres,all,all ! all data written solve *enddo fini ! "gen.rst" now contains substructure results, last step /POST1 /title,Stress in the Substructure plnsol,s,eqv ! show nodal stress in the substructure save,stresses_in_super,db fini /COM,############ /COM,############ /COM,############ POSTPROCESS POSTPROCESS POSTPROCESS ! ! WARNING: ! ############ ############ ############ The following is my own invention; use at your own risk. Warning messages will be generated by ANSYS.

resume,model,db /show,part4,grp

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/post1 cmsel,s,super nsle file,gen,rst set,last esel,invert ! Select the elements NOT in substructure component "super" nsle ! Select the nodes of these elements file,use,rst ! Point to file "use.rst" that contains the rest of the results set,last ! Read in load step data for selected elements, last substep esel,all ! Select all elements nsle ! Select the nodes of the elements /pbc,all,,0 /pbc,f,,1 /pbc,m,,1 /pbc,mast,,1 /title,Stress in the Full Structure plnsol,s,eqv ! Show nodal stress for the full model. ! Because of averaging, PLNSOL stresses on the interface of the ! substructure and non-substructure regions cannot exactly ! match values for these locations plotted separately, above. ! Element stress and displacement should exactly match in ! a small displacement linear analysis. save,stress_allelem,db ! Save the model with all stresses on elements /show,term ! Back to screen -- only works if used interactively plnsol,s,eqv ! Show the stress results for all elements if interactive ANSYS

The "top down" example saves the results of the "use" pass and the "expansion" pass in database files. These can be loaded to inspect results in the non-substructure and in the substructure parts of the model, respectively. If the file is run interactively, the user will have to click the "OK" button each time the /CLEAR command executes, and for a variety of warning messages that can appear. It may be preferred to run the file under Batch control, and to later review the results in the plot files, and in the resulting database files. Remember to check for error and warning messages. Because of the complexity of substructure analysis, the user should run checks on balance of forces, and do other typical checking of results. Large Displacement Nonlinearity and Substructure: The ANSYS 5.5 Advanced User's Guide, Chapter 5 gives more help on large rotation (large displacement, geometrically nonlinear) substructured analysis than at the 5.3 level. Note the comment that constraints should be applied in the "use" pass, not in the "gen" pass, for large rotation analysis. If the file "model.db", used in the above example, has had Large Displacement activated with "NLGEOM,ON" then a nonlinear solution will be sought. Convergence criteria, ramping of loading, substeps, and other nonlinear controls may be desired. Because the substructure will act linearly internally, convergence may not be as easy as the user would wish. When the run does converge, the results will not be an exact match for the result without substructuring. The output plots should be examined to see if they read "Substep 999999", indicating failure to converge. If you test the above example with Large Displacement, use a Large Displacement model that converges easily without a substructure approach. An attempt has been made in the above example to cope with a model that develops the Large Displacement solution in a load step containing a set of substeps. This is the reason for statements that record the last loadstep and substep numbers. However, the example does NOT reserve application of all DOF constraints for the "USE" pass, as recommended in the ANSYS 5.5 guide, so it will NOT be appropriate for models with constraints applied to non-MDOF nodes in the substructure region. The user can get around this by manually assigning MDOF to all the nodes to which constraints are applied in the component "super", in "model.db". The master degrees of freedom for the superelement must have rotational degrees of freedom for Large Displacement work. The user can try assigning MASS21 elements to the master degree of freedom nodes if the elements in the model do not have rotational degrees of freedom. The MASS21 elements can have a REAL value that contains zero values for the masses and mass moments of inertia. This will introduce the requisite rotational degrees of freedom. When using elements like SHELL63, which have rotational degrees of freedom, I have encountered a rather odd result: The Large Displacement solution for the elements in the superelement (stored in "gen.rst" in the example) is for the displacement of the substructure nodes with respect to a coordinate system embedded in the superelement, not with respect to the global axes. This is not the case for small displacement solutions, which appear displaced correctly. Since the superelement can undergo large rotation, the displacement that is reported and plotted for the nodes inside the superelement will be far smaller than the displacement reported and plotted for the remainder of the model, in a Large Displacement solution. This is because the coordinate system

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and Large Displacement. rather than Euler or other angles. I will limit myself to displacements only. Rotational transormation of the stress and strain tensors could be very complex.html embedded in the superelement moves with the superelement. This would be for the usual reason that quaternions do not have a singularity in any orientation. It appears that the rotations reported at a node represent 3-D components of a single rotation vector. or that ANSYS uses to report node rotations. Transforming stress tensors would be a bit much! The above plot was generated using the above sample /INPUT file on a Large Displacement model of a cantilever beam created with SHELL63 elements. If I get anywhere with this. A possible visual displacement fix (for the displacement plot problem of 6 DOF elements in Large Displacement substructures) is to transform the displaced position coordinates of the non-MDOF nodes in the superelement on the basis of the rotations and translations of the origin of the superelement in Global Coordinates. A reading of the Theory Manual suggests that ANSYS internally uses quaternions for large displacement rotations in space.sympatico. Applying a transformation properly will require deducing or looking up the order of the sequence of rotations that ANSYS uses in Large Displacement work. See the image below for a result combining SHELL63 elements. if the load step that is to be expanded is identified properly. I have not investigated what happens to stress components in the Global and Element Coordinate Systems.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. in contrast to Euler angles.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. A similar displacement discontinuity results with BEAM4 elements in a similar application. plus translations. as shown in the images below: 37 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . In limited testing.. the SEQV stress plots appear to be OK. this will require checking. substructuring. so the transformation will need to be based on rotation about a vector that starts at a known point in space (the origin of the superelement). I will be working on this as my next project for this web page. Reader feedback would be appreciated.. The origin of the superelement will be the MDOF node that reports no displacements or rotations inside the superelement (in superelement coordinates). The reported rotation may be complicated by rotated nodal coordinate systems (NROTAT) or superelements that the user has employed. it appears to be the MDOF node with the lowest node number.

if the element thickness is shown with the /ESHAPE command before executing EPLO. so the numerical integration should be stable. (Check the BFE command and the element type in the ANSYS documentation for details on using BFE.EQ.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3.. to elements with the BFE command. temperatures can be made visible with contour coloring for these line elements.. not as weight. The time substep size for the transient analysis should be smaller than 1/20 of the period of the first few modes of vibration.) A colored element plot of applied temperatures can be generated by using the commands /PBF. Set a parameter ("SKIP" in this example) to a value that tells an *IF statement to jump over a section of code that you want to skip. the "skip" technique uses little time in choosing to execute or bypass the blocked off commands (ANSYS still has to read the blocked out code in order to check off the number of *IF and *ENDIF commands).sympatico. followed by a transient analysis. elastic energy. When using beam. or implied using other commands.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. A static analysis may be desired to develop the stored elastic energy. No gravity is used.SKIP. No damping has been applied. The model is of a cantilevered beam that has a force applied to the free end in a static analysis..0. ! Input code to ANSYS.html Tip 46: Plot Applied Temperatures In a thermal stress analysis. *IF statements that use this parameter could be located in a number of positions in the input file -.THEN ! ANSYS commands that are optionally executed.. before starting a transient analysis. temperatures will be applied as a "load". This is much quicker than commenting out a block of code. *ENDIF ! . given the ANSYS algorithm used. or both. the mass of the model must be input in the appropriate mass units. This is a linear elastic solution. or cutting and pasting as an input file is developed and modified. Tip 48: Static Analysis Followed by Transient Analysis Transient analysis by ANSYS can model transient vibrations. Another initial condition is an initial velocity. The transient vibration that results when the force on the free end is removed is obtained. ! . Here is a well known programming trick that can be used to temporarily skip over part of an ANSYS input file. This can permit very flexible and sophisticated use of the program.1 and EPLO. 0 to run the code inside the *IF... SKIP=1 ! Set to 1 to skip. which Shows body force loads as contours on displays . and pipe elements.this permits changing the value of one parameter at the beginning of the input file to cause skipping of input code in a variety of locations.TEMP... or the dynamics of a flexible mechanism in motion. and ANSYS defaults for the numerical integration are implicit. Initial conditions can be applied. more code follows Since there is no compilation of the input file.. followed by transient analysis. Stability in Large Displacement nonlinear transient 38 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 .*ENDIF commands *IF. in addition to more complex effects. Temperatures can be applied to nodes with the BF command. The stored energy can be potential energy of position. Tip 47: Skipping Over Statements in an ANSYS Input File ANSYS commands can be developed in a file that is executed with the /INPUT command.. (The user could tweak the ANSYS numerical integration parameters so that very high frequency response modes are numerically damped. One type of initial condition is a zero velocity initial position with stored energy. per the ANSYS Commands manual.. The following ANSYS input file illustrates the execution of a linear elastic static analysis that sets an initial condition. A model can have both initial velocity and stored energy. link. Remember that for transient analysis. It may be desired to exaggerate their displayed thickness with /ESHAPE in order to make the temperature information more visible.

4 F.0 will generally be wanted.) The use of a consistent mass matrix (default) should in general yield more accurate results than a reduced mass matrix if the element density is coarse.1..show vibration after force is released save all substep results activate transient analysis find the transient vibration of the beam ! automatic scaling.8.100 KBC. a /DSCALE setting of 1. static save all substep results no time integration -.2 ! graph oscillation of the tip of the beam FINISH NOTE: The use of the TIMINT command controls activation of the static and transient portions of the solution.all nsubst. the user will have to set a satisfactory displacement scaling value with the command /DSCALE. showing the transient vibration in action. 0. 1 ! mesh with beam elements FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE. the results file may not require archival if the results are also contained in the database file. and other files may be wanted for archival.1.rotz time. so that angles of rotation look correct. . 30000000 ! Young's modulus.1. If only one load step was written to the results file.1.on.1 pldisp.1.2. The database.1 fdele. ! Transient vibration. fini /clear ! Start fresh /title. 1.ALL timint.treat as Steady State two substeps to imply zero initial velocity for transient step change load find the static deformed shape time at end of transient (pre-determined to show oscillation) time steps small enough to show vibration step change load delete force -.U.RST) when archiving an ANSYS model.0. An animation of the transient solution can be generated for the full beam in /POST1.uy d. 7.sympatico. ! 10" long L.1.Y. cantilever beam. ! For illustration purposes only.1. it will often be sufficient to save only the model database file (*. timint.2. They often compress well using data compression programs such as the UNIX compress and gzip utilities (gzip is more 39 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 .FY.UY ! results variable for plotting /title.off.all OUTRES.OFF will usually yield a better animation. graphics output. however the use of a reduced mass matrix may shorten the solution time in large models. Tip 49: File Compression for Model Storage If no restart is to be executed on an ANSYS model.34E-04 ! beam mass density..1.ALL. If the model was generated from command input files. BIN units MP.it is not a perfect sinusoid because the initial deflected shape of the beam is not an exact match to a mode of vibration.BEAM3 ! 2-D model of beam R.1 ! 8 element divisions LMESH.2. graphics.html analysis is probably not guaranteed.0 ! keypoints K.002 NSUBST. The static solution is obtained at two time substeps so that an initial velocity of zero is implied. in X direction ! in Y direction ! and constrain rotation ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! small time increment. 2 ! line LESIZE. although damping and small time substep size should help.ALL.all.1 FINISH ! Select transient analysis ! apply down force on RHS node (unrealistically high) ! constrain first node at LHS.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. BIN units K.DB) and the results file (*. "plucking" the tip.1 ! beam crossection properties MP.EX..-50000 d. 10.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. Use at your own risk. For an animation.ux d.all solve fini /post1 /dscale.2 kbc.1 solve TIME. and results files can be extremely large.ALL. these will require storage.DENS. to easily view final result ! show final deformed shape /POST26 NSOL. The movement of the tip of the beam is plotted -. In the animation of the Large Displacement motions of a mechanism.Transient Vibration of Cantilever Beam: Motion of Tip PLVAR. A zoom setting other than /ZOOM.Transient Vibration of Cantilever Beam /PREP7 ET.1.0005 OUTRES. Load case. not use automatic scaling. 1.ALL. .

ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. An array (see the *DIM command) could correlate REAL values with other information. The use of components makes it possible to refer to either a part or a subassembly by one name. for analysis or for results review. will require that the identities. and the uncompressed file is removed. or nodes. as appropriate. and provides easy part selection with commands like ESEL. When EMODIF is used.) In a model made of shell elements or beam elements. This will destroy the identification scheme. However. could get cumbersome. applied to the geometric entity that is to be meshed with the element. than with the disk compression scheme that can be used by Windows NT 4.KP. CMLIST. though much slower. Where a group of parts will always be chosen with the same REAL value.ALL can make a mess and should not be used in this all-inclusive form -. Collections of components can be grouped into component assemblies. In that case. gzip is also available for NT (it handles long file names).ALL and NUMCMP. Individual parts. etc. In FEA work. This can be done when creating an element. Plots with coloring assigned according to REAL or MAT will help in checking a model. or include material nonlinearity. I find it helpful NOT to set any of the geometric entities or elements in a large model to a MAT or REAL value of one. Using material numbers for part identification. though you will need to dig on the Internet to find gzip for Windows NT -have a look at GZIP on the web and look for instructions and the version for your computer (test before use). There is no one way to do this. for example. or LSEL. because it will compress or merge out REAL and MAT values. Geometric entities may have a value of zero when nothing has been assigned. the user must be careful not to use a NUMCMP.stick to specific forms such as NUMMRG. because there are such a large number of individual material property settings.0. be cautioned that in a re-meshing the REAL assigned to the geometric entity will be used.ALL or NUMMRG. plotting them. or forced after the fact with EMODIF. 40 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . The data storage requirement may be reduced by roughly 25% to 80%. The data compression is significantly more effective. The NUMCMP command will have to be called with the specific quantities to be compressed individually identified. A very large structure represented with hundreds or thousands of individual beam elements or areas meshed with shell elements.ALL command on entity numbering. selecting and modifying portions of the model. in addition to the shareware ZIP utilities. or an annotation. The creation of a component can save a set of entities that were selected with a certain sequence of select logic. CMDELE. such as part names (with an 8 character limit). or a range of REAL values. such as NODE. This makes changing the shell thickness or the beam characteristics very simple. A macro can be written that will step through all components. both on the hard drive. beam size. the commands NUMMRG. each plate or beam could be described with its own REAL value. which also does not keep the files compressed when they are sent over a network.gz appended. and be used in the enhancement of the ANSYS select logic process. including the component name and information on it in the plot title. Macros can step through all the components using *GET commands. (The element type will have to support a REAL value if a REAL is to be created for that element type. I find the advantage of the gzip utility to be that the compressed file name is simply the original file name with . can be defined to be components that are accessed by names of up to 8 characters. and they may be temperature dependent in some models. however. or otherwise moved around. materials and REAL settings for large numbers of parts be organized and recorded. I can then select things that have a MAT or REAL of zero or one to check on whether I have forgotten to assign a value to any part of the model. according to their REAL value. ASEL. One is a default value that is sometimes assigned when no value has been assigned by the user. as in the manual. CMGRP. Either REAL values for elements and entities. An individual assembly could be created for those components that are to be selected under certain circumstances.sympatico. These parts can be geometric entities. a REAL value can be forced on an element even if the element type does not admit assignment of a REAL. or groups of parts. can be used to identify parts in a model with numbers. CMEDIT. and on tape or removable disk. When the element type does not accept a REAL setting. The database component commands are: CM.html powerful than compress). Hint: Make sure that those who will decompress the files in future will know how to do it! Tip 50: Organizing Large FEA Models Examining the results of an FEA model. The same approach can be taken with the setting of MAT values for describing the material properties. and easy to select it. elements. On Windows computers. they could share one REAL setting. and keeping a record of what MAT (material) and REAL (shell thickness. When REAL or MAT values have been used to differentiate between different parts of a model. or MAT values.) values were used for various parts of a model becomes very difficult with large FEA models. the R setting can simply be left blank. even though there may be many plates or beams of a given thickness or size within the model. and CMSEL.

S.999999 in order to show only the coupled nodes.FILE can be used for re-activation of writing to a file previously designated by a /SHOW. Once coupled nodes have been selected. making model review easier and less error-prone. If the above part identification scheme using REAL values has been employed. If the graphics output is intended to be sent to a graphics file.0 and /SHOW. and to have the option of using picking to delete nodal coupling.REPLOT.OFF to Suppress Plotting I sometimes develop a model interactively.OFF commands. or BOT). and the appearance of the FEA plot. Arrays could be used to set several values of a number of shell thicknesses or beam sizes to be examined in a series of analyses that are to be run automatically.TERM.0 and /SHOW. the command /SHOW. I don't want all of my various plot commands to be executed. a coloring scheme based on REAL or MAT can be used during element or geometric entity plots.S. and other criteria -.1 and /SHOW. The effectiveness of this command can be compromised somewhat by nodal stress averaging.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. Tip 54: Using Commands IMMED and /UIS and /SHOW. If the input files and macros are known to be fully debugged. If writing to a file. and other complications. the first file will be overwritten. The resulting log file becomes an input file that I can use for parametric generation of a model. As discussed above. the stress level selection command could be followed by a macro that selects all parts that match the REAL types of the selected elements. shell stress surface selection (TOP.CP. and to keep track of what REAL values were used by the elements within components. then manually modify and add to the log file that is generated. Tip 52: Selecting Nodes that are Subjected to Nodal Coupling Nodes that are coupled can be selected with commands such as NSEL. They can be re-activated with IMMED. they may execute faster if they start with /NOPR and end with /GOPR in order to switch off text output while they are running. the command NSEL. MID. a large quantity of text information will be written to output.. for example. When I run this input log file. This and similar commands can be used to get at only the portions of a full model that are significantly stressed. a speedup may result from temporarily switching off the generation of graphics with IMMED.html When the parts have been identified by different REAL or MAT numbers.1 and /SHOW.1. forces applied. Arrays could be used to assign numbers to component names. Arrays could assign 8-character names to the parts described by different REAL values. text information is written to the output screen and optionally to an output file. You may want to consider the /UIS command also. Tip 51: Selecting Nodes in a Stress or Strain Range The selection of nodes in a certain stress range can be effected with. The command would typically be followed by the two commands ESLN and NSLE to be able to plot the associated elements and their stresses. setting up some dimensions as parameters.I have not 41 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . /UIS. This can be implemented with the IMMED. This would make it possible to see all highly stressed parts. to improve identification of the parts of a model. This means that the /INPUT command will not re-run all log files unattended.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. nodes.TERM.EQV. or elements to be generated.sympatico. the immediate mode plotting is off by default. nodes can be selected according to their presence in constraint equations (CE). Similarly. or for other purposes. When re-running a log file using /INPUT the messages that required clicking "OK" will be generated and execution will pause. If their execution is causing geometry.see the NSEL command for further information.9999999 in order to get nodes with EQV (Von Mises equivalent) stresses from 40000 to 9999999.S.OFF.1 and /UIS/REPLOT. Tip 53: /NOPR and /GOPR Speed Up Input Files and Macros When a long input file or macro is read while running ANSYS interactively. This approach is helpful with complex models with parts visually hidden by other parts. If a significant number of *GET and similar operations are being executed.filename command. They can be re-activated with IMMED. Be warned that if you change to another output graphics filename with the /SHOW command. Caution: ANSYS does not use a "4 color map theorem" when plotting (can't do this in 3-D anyway) so parts of differing REAL or MAT may be adjacent and have the same color. their applied displacement (D). only those for finished model display and results review.0 (for interactive execution). then come back to the first filename. work to evaluate the forces resulting from the coupling can begin. this parameter information can be included in annotations during model and results plotting.40000.

such as when the /CLEAR command is issued. Essentially. with the yield portion of the curve fairly flat. buckling. and in the FEA work. You may substantially extend the number of things that you consider in the design." This is the Bauschinger effect.) Some design codes have rules for elastic-plastic or for fully plastic analysis that would have to be used. It was of value to show that one proposed crossection shape was significantly better than another. Still. nor attended an ANSYS course in nonlinear analysis. if such an analysis was needed to justify or qualify a design legally or to fulfill a contract. the first thing one has to decide on is whether to use Kinematic Hardening or Isotropic Hardening for the material model. You don't have to be Einstein to perform the following thought experiment: Suppose that you heard that some aspect of a design had failed in service.and for all load cases. If the material is compressed after tension loading. It may save someone's neck. Shell 43 apparently supports both. but can sometimes be used to assess whether structure failure is a concern when some portions of an elastic model are exceeding yield. After some poking around. Florida. wear or binding. Possibilities and "What If's": What could cause yielding -. either figuratively or literally. upon unloading. Krieger. "Thus the tensile test cycle raises the elastic limit in tension. This wouldn't do for models of metal forming in manufacturing. the deformed crystals reach their compression slip stress before the rest of the crystals. and how analysis could highlight what is or could be wrong. In quick-and-dirty checks on the possibility of failure of a structure. or the bounding load cases? Are the bounding load cases complete? Are stresses above yield over a significant region? Are surface stresses of shell elements doing something unusual? Were nonlinearities considered? Were all possible combinations of loading considered? Is there a high load situation that was not considered? Were all components evaluated in FEA? Is there an unusual boundary condition arrangement that has not been considered? Was the FEA mesh too coarse? Were relevant details that cause stress concentrations left out of the model? Can what was discounted as a local stress 42 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 .are fasteners or welds overloaded? Were their loads even checked -. I had taken neither an academic course in metal forming. what could have caused it.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. when multilinear curves are entered.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. The manual mentions the relationship between kinematic hardening and the Bauschinger effect. The failure could be yielding. 1976. Shell 63 does not support nonlinear material properties at all. I sometimes consider it sufficient just to use a bilinear model. It should be remembered that ANSYS requires a true strain curve in material characterization. Shell 181 supports isotropic hardening but not kinematic hardening. Fortunately. the onset of yield is raised because the deformed crystals do not reach their new slip stress until the load is higher than the first time. Unfortunately. Do this thought experiment for as many characteristics of the product as you can. Tip 56: Thought Experiments Nothing so focuses the mind on the design details of a product as hearing that it failed in testing or in service. (My use of the word "quick" in "quick-and-dirty" is overly optimistic. I finally found a basic description of the Bauschinger effect in Timoshenko's Strength of Materials Part II: Advanced Theory and Problems Third Edition.sympatico. within reason. Digging into the ANSYS manuals. After re-loading with tension. I wanted to know what I was doing. not the engineering strain curve. It may be desirable to load the structure beyond the design load in order to observe where significant failure starts. a tension test causing slight yielding permanently deforms (causes slip in) unfavorably oriented crystals before other crystals in a specimen. crack growth. but it is suggested that Shell 181 is more capable. One thing that may affect the choice of a yield model in ANSYS will be what is supported by an element type. or whatever is appropriate. with the result that compression yielding starts sooner than in a fresh unstrained specimen.html found the /UIS command to completely stop this. Running batch is sometimes desirable. Quoting Timoshenko. fracture. vibrating to death. but lowers the elastic limit in compression. This required me to use plastic material properties for steel. so the exact stress/strain curve and the choice of material yield rules were not a big concern. the permanently deformed crystals are in some compression. Tip 55: What's the Bauschinger Effect? Comments on Material Yield I first wanted to do elastic/plastic analysis in ANSYS to get a feel for the onset of failure in an automotive part. in nonlinear large deflection analysis in ANSYS. Brainstorm as to whether it could happen. in order to get a feel for margin of safety. Consequently. unacceptable deformation. This may require arc-length analysis. high precision was not needed for what I was doing.

interference.html concentration lead to progressive collapse or crack growth? Can buckling arise? Have both linear and nonlinear approaches to buckling possibilities been considered? Has a portion of the model been represented so simplified that buckling possibility is not detected? Has nonlinear buckling been considered at loads greater than the design loads. ! Put these lines in a macro ! Set screen to show four standard views: ! User may want to set /DSCALE to the same value in all windows /WIN. can be positioned in four windows that are located in the lower left quarter. or that could go wrong. The same type of command can be used to find the lines with other mesh densities. upper left quarter.S.1. The ship was launched and powered up.1 with these four views active will leave fewer ambiguities about what is happening with mode shapes than a single-view plot.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. (Other standard view layouts can be substituted). I have found it convenient (though slower) to generate ANSYS plots showing my model in four views on one sheet of paper or screen plot. Basic ANSYS training should have taught you that line and area concatenation can help you get mapped meshing.value".sympatico. I can't comment on the latest in ANSYS automatic meshing capabilities. The ship's engineer supplied a drawing.3. Side Elevation (right).LTOP ! Window 1 left top /WIN. and the propeller was mirror imaged! The following code can be put into a macro to generate a four-view screen. ! For information only.RTOP ! Window 2 right top 43 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . so that some sense of the margin of safety is obtained? Can restraint of thermal expansion cause stress and buckling? Crack Growth -. which gives relatively neat regular meshes such as all four-sided area elements.S. Tip 57: Control of Meshing Since I am using ANSYS 5. This can make a big difference in some models. Customize it as you wish -. lower right quarter. The only shortcoming is that the images are small -. or for convenience. collision. bending or torsional loading (applied forces and moments. ship entered a foreign shipyard needing a new propeller. the ship went backward -. but a couple of suggestions about the basics may be helpful.2.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. This permits clean plots on paper with large models. You can select the lines that have not yet had mesh density applied. and a propeller was cast and installed.I prefer to use 11" x 17" paper in landscape mode for these plots. respectively. NOTE: Users may want to set the /DSCALE value to the same level in all four windows with "/DSCALE. An annecdote I heard from a guy I knew: A U. Use at your own risk.0" as a check that all lines have had mesh density applied. The traditional views: Front Elevation (front). and Isometric (iso).what details exist that could possibly be sites for crack growth? Do surface stresses give any warnings? Where could details be included to reduce crack growth possibilities? Are regions that have geometry that could lead to crack growth highly stressed and/or cyclically stressed? Is direct tension on welds causing Type I fracture loading? Is shear. A displacement plot of a mode shape with PLDISP or PLDISP. Plan (top). contact with the surroundings.NDIV. binding. or excessive wear of moving parts? Is the design something that can be manufactured with the quality and uniformity required to avoid structural weakness? The analyst should extend the above items to everything that needs to be considered. with the command "LSEL. and/or applied displacements and rotations) on structural details causing Type II or Type III fracture loading on welds? Is the loading significant? Is fatigue an issue? Is fracture analysis warranted? Is there a reliable shortcut guide to what is tolerable? Is such a guide even possible? Could crack growth be so rapid that it happens between inspections and causes sudden fracture? Are cracks detectable at a size that does not immediately cause fracture? Should inspection intervals be more frequent when the product is new? Vibration -. and upper right quarter of the plot.what loading could stimulate vibration? What frequencies could drive vibration? Is there adequate structural damping or are there other mechanisms to suppress trouble? Where are the natural frequencies of vibration? Do steady state responses or random vibration responses need to be evaluated? Is flow induced vibration a possibility? Will sound and noise cause destructive vibrations? Have all possible boundary condition arrangements been included in assessing vibration? Will large deformations go outside of what is acceptable? Is the structure stiffness high enough for the product use? Will deformation cause loss of function.ALL.the shipyard used the European standard view interpretation of an American drawing. When set to go forward. or all six-sided solid elements. Tip 58: Four View Plot When assessing modes of vibration or deflection of a 3-D structure..I include commands to turn off PowerGraphics and to use Centroidal sort.

type: SET.full ! Not PowerGraphics (fewer facets?) ! User has to issue the plot command After running one of the above view-generating macros.4.COPY The dollar sign separates the commands that are grouped on one input line.ALL. the user has to issue a plot command to see the result. You may want to set the print to landscape mode.0 ! Don't show the view information /VIEW. Note that the SET.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3.1 /VUP.full ! User has to issue the ! Window 3 left bottom ! Window 4 right bottom ! Turn off Window 5 ! Window 1 top (plan) view ! Reference orientation ! Window 2 ISO (isometric projection) view ! Reference orientation ! Window 3 front (front elevation) view ! Reference orientation ! Window 4 right (side elevation) view ! Reference orientation ! Fit all windows ! Include information column ! Don't include view information ! Centroid sort.4.1 ! Front (front elevation) view /VUP.INFO.NEXT$PLDISP$/UI.0.5.RBOT /WIN.2.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips.1.2.SQUA ! Full square Window 1 /WIN.3.html /WIN.3. to get the rest of the modes printed.3. Tip 59: Quick Review of Mode Shapes To start printing plots of mode shapes directly from ANSYS mode shape results.0.1. Then.sympatico.1.LBOT /WIN.Y /VIEW.1.1.Y /VIEW.1 /VUP.1. having the hardcopy window pop up automatically.3.4. better print than Z-buffer /CPLANE.OFF ! Turn off Window 2 /WIN.COPY Simply keep repeating the second line (to avoid re-typing. first.OFF ! Turn off Window 4 /WIN.2 /CPLANE.OFF ! Turn off Window 5 /PLOPTS.0.Y /VIEW.Y /AUTO.0 /VUP.1. You may see the somewhat odd message: 44 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 .1 ! Info on for right column /PLOPTS.NEXT command will loop back to the first mode shape after the number of modes stored in the RST file has been exhausted. Again. and clicking the hardcopy OK button. the user may want to customize some of the lines: ! For information only.1.5. double-click it in the ANSYS Input window).0 /VUP.0 /graphics.ALL. better print that Z-buffer ! Cutting plane ! NOT PowerGraphics (fewer facets?) plot command The next code can be used in a macro to return to a front view in one window.1 /PLOPTS.LEG2.Y ! Reference orientation /TYPE.INFO. to print plots of the rest of the mode shapes.1.2.OFF /VIEW.0 /TYPE. Click the hardcopy OK button to kick off the hardcopy.2 ! Centroidal sort. Use at your own risk.LEG2.0 ! Cutting plane /graphics. type in an input line such as: SET.4. ! Set screen to show one front view in Window 1 /WIN.ALL /PLOPTS.1.0.1.OFF ! Turn off Window 3 /WIN.0.0.ON ! Turn on Window 1 /WIN.1$PLDISP$/UI.

In viewing mode shapes.freq *if..thefreq.cycles to 1 if all modes in RST done ! use this line if desired to get frequency into a parameter ! exit do loop if done ! plot the displaced shape Tip 60: Using ANSYS Help When using ANSYS interactively.COPY command. and can be used to type in other command names. The user will want to test and customize these commands: ! For information only.1. help on any command can be accessed immediately by typing HELP. or after the database and RST file for a mode case analysis are loaded. Execute this from within /POST1 after a mode case analysis was run. This will send the help program to the Commands manual for the command name typed. Consequently.commandname into the input window. The displacement plots will contain substep and frequency information. ! set to the first mode ! plot the first mode ! use a very large number ! set to the next mode ! cumulative substeps -.ntotal. the quick way to get help on a particular command is to use the "Navigate" and "Help On.sympatico. Use at your set. the "Help On" dialog box remains visible.9999999 set.eq.html This comes up because of the /UI. If you click the "Apply" button. then click the Apply button." menu choice. The following code fragment read from an input or macro file can automatically plot a set of mode shapes.0. The user does not need to know how many modes were generated.1 pldisp *do. If the HELP application has been launched independently.mode.1.ncmss *get. and has something to do with the /ZOOM command.1.ntotal. 45 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 .iii.then *exit *endif pldisp *enddo own risk. *GET commands are used to detect information on what substep and frequency are read.iii. This code should cope with degenerate eigenvalues or rigid body displacements. it will be typical to have zooming off.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3.next *get. so automated plotting to a file is simpler. so this must be used properly. There is no error check. Type the command name into the "Help On" text box that pops up.active. this method may not work satisfactorily if your zoom is not off .ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips.solu..

I was given a pre-screening interview over the phone. The applicant should be instructed to bring these to the interview. The applicant should have a portfolio of previous work. Of course. and post-processing possibilities of the examples. On the basis of my own small set of experiences I would 46 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . The Help application can be launched while ANSYS is running in the background.html The online ANSYS help system makes the need for trips to hard-copy documentation much less frequent.misrepresentation we don't need. techniques. so ANSYS documentation can be studied while a large model is solving. Still. which is of interest to all of us. I interviewed a guy who claimed experience with "a locally available product I wouldn't know. about their FEA experience. The FEA job applicant should be able to present evidence of academic and/or post-academic training. I heard of an applicant using another guy's FEA model images to present in a job interview as "evidence" of his own experience. articulate and confident presentation of self. Questions of the "how would you model this" and "how would you handle this" type are just as relevant as they are in other professional interviews.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. With some. with good references and personal networking.sympatico. I have had both excellent and very poor interviewers assessing me. the productivity of individuals can vary surprisingly. then I suggest a keen applicant independently develop a set of small models using ANSYS/ED that illustrate the FEA techniques with which the applicant is familiar. When job hunting it is challenge enough to compete with other experienced people -. The portfolio information can be a little awkward when the products are proprietary. Consequently." It became apparent that he had been coached and knew only the buzz words.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. Tip 61: The FEA Job Hunt Not strictly an ANSYS issue. compromises. I want to put in my own two cent's worth on this topic. The interviewer owned a consulting firm. many times and by many people. If it would be illegal to present any images of work done. Another time. the above situations are less of a concern. some of the modeling shortcuts possible. Some time back when I was job hunting during a recession. so was immediately suspect. pitfalls. as with computer programming. I had been using a company's proprietary FEA code and was not experienced with the major commercial programs. I've had to politely direct the interview just to be able to point out my range of skills. It rapidly became apparent that he had been lied to. the applicant should be able to describe what makes FEA productivity possible. The applicant should be able to describe the modeling considerations. and give an energetic.

you want a column of A/B values with their signs. on a permanent basis. Size up the potential employer carefully. Given ETABLE columns A and B. and ability to time-manage a set of responsibilities. trying to goad me into making negative comments about employers and ethnic groups (of all things--talk about playing with fire--a personnel manager who apparently fancied himself a psychologist). The command manual tells us that the effect is permanent for degree of freedom results (changing the database).html say that first impressions are very telling -. To divide with SEXP. element by element. There is a difference between writing to "nodal degree of freedom results". do a PLDISP plot (seeing unaffected degree of freedom data). Your boss will be very happy if you make everyone's life easier through your contributions. use a positive exponent EXP1=+1 for the numerator Lab1. Best of luck. you will get the absolute value of the answer you want. and a negative exponent EXP2=-1 for the denominator Lab2. I've had a thoroughly positive interview.sympatico. Another interviewer struck me as highly manipulative. To end this on a few positive notes: Employers want to hire someone who will be a success for them. Annotate plots and change titles to inform the reviewer. and to an element ETABLE. and the people you meet behave well and are socially skilled. It can be painfully slow to apply DESOL to every node of every element. Make sure the denominator is nonzero! Per the commands manual. A friend of mine got the job and detested it. and for any errors in what I have just said! Warning: In a shell model. If you see a place as being a welcoming workplace with a healthy environment. Ignore their hype: What you see is (most likely) what you get. and poorly structured leadership. and sure enough. got the job. energy. I had an unpleasant "stress interview".if you get a bad feeling about a place during the interview." The parameter ParR is the source of data. confidence. and then do another PLNSOL stress plot. the plot of temporary *VPUT derived data may make the plot legend indicator for the TOP. NOT what is changed by *VPUT. The DESOL command does write derived information into the database to the nodes of elements. I've had an interviewer keep me waiting for an hour and a half past the appointment time. Tip 64: Element Tables (ETABLE) and Array Data Exchange -. immediately do a PLNSOL plot to see the effect. and found that things were frequently out of control. but temporary for all others (derived results. If you use *VPUT to write to "element nodal stress results". Use SMULT to form C=A*B which has the same sign as A/B. Tip 63: How to Divide One Element Table Column by Another To divide one column of an element table (ETABLE) by another column. for your time is valuable. Writing stress data with *VPUT does not affect element plots with PLESOL. SEXP "forms an element table item by exponentiating and multiplying. Note that *VPUT can write to node results. not changing the underlying database). The command is powerful. saying the place was poisoned with political games." The result of SEXP is formed from (ABS(Lab1)**EXP1)*(ABS(Lab2)**EXP2).ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. Now the column E=A/B with its correct sign . ability to work with others. Some employers begrudge every penny. the latter PLNSOL plot shows original data that is unaffected by *VPUT. one way to get it would be to use a blend of SEXP and SMULT. The temporary modified PLNSOL stress plot effect does not cooperate with PowerGraphics to give a plot with contour discontinuities. communication skill. Use SEXP to form D=1/(ABS(B)**2) which is positive. Use SMULT to form E=C*D. and the guy was impossible to see. the place was cheap. but others are pleased to compensate you attractively if you produce well. Tip 62: *VPUT and DESOL I have no idea why the commands manual entry for *VPUT describes the parameter ParR as "The name of the resulting vector array parameter. had an unhealthy work life. test the method carefully for errors. MID or BOT surface of the shell elements meaningless -annotate the plot to inform the reviewer. The *VPUT command can write information to the node results which can then be plotted as if it was the nodal results. I got the job.An Example 47 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . option. If you must have the ETABLE column answer with its positive or negative sign. and potentially dangerous. using the PLNSOL command.S. life there will be OK. use the SEXP command. and giving me inaccurate data on hiring intentions. and what the manual calls "element nodal results" with *VPUT. Prepare yourself to give a picture of your range of skills. in a large model.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. and found I was with great people. it may be for a good reason. range of past experience. the odds are that as long as you function as a valuable employee. Because of the absolute value operations that protect ANSYS from complex numbers being generated. Before using the *VPUT temporary effect in plotting nodal stress (or other derived) results.

aaa(1). if the number of 48 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 .ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. Minimizing array size is a good reason for compressing node and element numbers when developing a large model. ! ETABLE and Array usage and interaction example.num. Augment this with an element plot using /ESHAPE. ! This example is used on SHELL63 elements.elem. A plot results. move the area array into an ETABLE column.. .an ETABLE update would not be sufficient. This macro is written to process Shell63 elements in the selected set of elements.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. shell element thick.-1 ! divide volume by area.elem. Here is a macro to generate the ETABLE thickness column and plot the model colored by element thickness. In brief testing. In order to use *VPUT on an ETABLE. the array and ETABLE column will have to already exist.geom ! put data into ETABLE "geom" column.xmin. divide volume by area to get shell element thickness for each element in a new ETABLE column. You could use *VGET to put the REAL values for the shell elements into an array.volu. before load cases.1 and coloring based on REAL constant values. It may help you catch some modeling errors. offset of the transferred data to minimize array and element table size.array.. it may be preferable to use a *VMASK during the *VGET and *VPUT calls to avoid warning messages.thick.aaa.aaa(1). information that can only be obtained in either an ETABLE or an Array can be moved back and forth for manipulation. Print a colored picture of this plot. this process generates an average for the element. or "cleanup" after execution.1 ! create dummy column to contain other data *vmask. You have to be inside /POST1 to use ETABLE. element selection may be reduced. and division of one ETABLE column by another using the SEXP command. Offset with xmin etable. 1=selected ! offset with xmin (see the manual) *vmask.ename. It illustrates movement of an array column into an element table column.max ! what is the highest element number selected? ! element number compression will be desirable *get. evaluation.xmax-xmin+1 ! array to hold areas has to be this big *vget.thick.sympatico. for example). In this way. Contour colors could be explicitly assigned to the different thicknesses found in the ETABLE column.geom ! fill the array with geom info on the elements ! for shell elements this is AREA.html Note that *VGET and *VPUT can communicate with an ETABLE and with an Array.63 ! re-select only the SHELL63 elements aaa= ! kill the array to be used *get. Use at your own risk.volu.0. /title.aaa(1) ! use element selection info as a mask *vget. ! Plot the ETABLE thickness data for a view of the Shell 63 elements ! that are contour colored according to the element thickness.min ! minimum element number *dim. and list the element table for the column containing the thickness. or by creating a new dummy column from model information.elem.num.. The macro has to be re-executed if the model is changed -. An example with shell elements: put shell element volume in an ETABLE. The *VMASK array contents can be based on a test of element selection. you could see the REAL and the thickness value side-by-side. If selection of only a subset of your elements is in place. If the shell element is of varying thickness.etab. ! Run from within /POST1 ! Put element volume in an ETABLE.geom. It is a basic macro with no testing to prevent error conditions.1.xmin. Give the new column an appropriate name for the data that will come from the array. ! An array is created called "aaa". use of masks. Create the ETABLE column by making a copy of an existing ETABLE column (you can use the SADD command. and do a colored ETABLE contour plot of your model's shell element thicknesses (do not average the values in the ETABLE plot).noav You can then select a few elements of interest. get avg.r. if you use an offset during data movement.volu ! create element table column with element volume sadd. This should help with "pesky visitors" who are always wondering how thick certain parts of a complex shell model are.volu. 0=undefined.elem.aaa(1).esel ! fill array with info on whether element is selected ! -1=not selected. element volume. and transfer that data into an ETABLE column. Offset with xmin sexp. or if there are gaps in the element numbering. Then when you list ETABLE information for a selected element. solutions and array dimensions are prepared. ! and element tables are used.xmin. ! For illustration only.xmin.aaa(1) ! use array as a mask (geom data is positive or zero) *vput.ETABLE Plot of Shell 63 Element Thickness Values pletab. The denominator that contains element area in the divide operation should automatically be nonzero because all shell elements have areas. for example. SOLVE has to have been executed in order for ETABLE data to be available. ! Element thickness value should be the average for variable thickness elements. and display.xmax. ! esel. shell element area in an array. I found partial solve execution not to be sufficient to make any data available for an element table. to get a numerical thickness value for those elements. ! Move the area array data into the ETABLE ! Divide element volume by element area to get an element thickness column.elem. Array size can be based on MIN and MAX values for selected element numbering.geom. and element area in an array.

If you turn off PowerGraphics. I've had occasions when this did and did not happen. and then be meshed themselves. The following simple macro makes the *VWRITE command easy to use: ! Put this code into a macro file called "writer. close the file with *CFCLOSE *vwrite. A macro could (1) have the user pick nodes or keypoints to define a local coordinate system. I suggest that boolean operations happen first -. Sy. When only two areas are concatenated. unless ANSYS revisions have fixed up mapped meshing concatenation.FULL. Tip 65: Error Estimation. solid modeling problems are reduced with each version. and (5) finally cleans up and restores the original element selection. are meshed first. The possibilities are endless. The *VWRITE command only works when called from an input file that includes a format statement similar to FORTRAN. PowerGraphics.8) The following ANSYS /INPUT data test will demonstrate the use of the above macro. until I had poked around for a while. In this test. it may happen that an adjacent volume defined by an area that is part of the concatenated set will not mesh until the "pseudo-area" that results from the concatenation is deleted. also. and stress values of those elements. (2) checks that there is results data in the database.arg1 (E16. and ERNORM Error Estimation will not be available when you enter /POST1 if PowerGraphics is active. then (4) generates and prints the ETABLE values for the REAL. The resulting data would be similar to TX.data ! write data in arg1 to a file previously opened with *CFOPEN ! later on. You could place a button on the toolbar that calls a macro that (1) checks that the user is in /POST1. Tip 67: ANSYS Output of Data to Files for Use by Other Programs Numerical data contained in parameters can be output into ASCII files using the *CFOPEN. then the "Options for Output" in the GUI will offer the ERNORM setting that activates error estimation. The concatenated lines may need cleanup. It may be necessary to go to tetrahedral elements for easy meshing. (3) develop this ETABLE data and generate plots colored by load-per-unit-length in the known directions. then the "Options for Output" in the GUI will not offer the AVRES setting that controls discontinuity of contours at changes of material and REAL value for elements. I had entered /POST1 with /PowerGraphics active.mac" ! call with: writer. (2) make it active. Tip 66: Concatenate and Mesh Last One of the things I have seen go wrong in model development is: I have concatenated lines and/or areas. without error messages. Another use: Put shell element mid-plane Sx. (This was with ANSYS 5. and multiply them by the element thickness column.) I have found that when three or more areas are concatenated. then (4) clean up. but now would be in the direction defined by the active coordinate system. A neighbour told me that "concatenate" is based on the Latin word for "chain". and couldn't imagine why.html thicknesses was not too great.concatenate and mesh last. This could be done for SINT or SEQV if desired. ERNORM is ON by default when you enter /POST1. When concatenated areas are used to map mesh a volume. and Sxy into columns. but only if PowerGraphics is OFF with /GRAPHICS. TY.sympatico. Model problems resulted and I had to start from scratch (I re-ran most of the log file). (3) asks you to pick elements with the mouse. Trivia: I first encountered the word "contatenate" when using an IBM 370 a long time back. that the remaining volumes can have area and line concatenation created after.mac" and it is in the current directory.3. It is possible that if the volumes that do not require concatenated areas in order to be meshed. This consideration may compromise easy mesh refinement and adaptive meshing. the macro has been called "writer. If PowerGraphics is not active. The first time I encountered this was when I couldn't get an error report. and TXY data that can be obtained directly.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. the lines concatenate automatically. the *VWRITE. and the *CFCLOS commands. then performed a boolean operation on them. the lines that are implicitly concatenated have to be concatenated manually before successful mapped meshing will proceed. thickness.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. Either numbers or parameters that evaluate to numbers can be used in the following commands: 49 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 .

sympatico. it can be moved to an external file.23400000E+03 . Note that certain list information will not go to the file when the GUI is in use (read the manual).dat". with the array parameter name surrounded by single quotes in order to delay the evaluation.'COL1DATA'.lin_path. The array position from which the printing will start must be indicated when executing the *VWRITE command.arg1(arg2) (E16. Note that the *VGET and *VPUT commands can move data between element tables and arrays. Inc. ! The following code switches /OUTPUT to a file.34500000E+03 .myoutput. ! then returns /OUTPUT to the default.345 writer. ! writes two comments. If this macro is called WRITEAR1. *vwrite. and demonstrates that the output file remains open in spite of the /CLEAR command.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. The macro call will include the row and column position from which to start. writes PRSECT information on ! linearized stresses along a previously defined path. Similar methods can be used to move arrays full of data.MAC and an array called COL1DATA is to be printed from position COL1DATA(1) to the end of the array then call this macro with the statement: WRITEAR1.dat" so that the data would be accessible to the MathCad program from MathSoft. The output that results can be re-directed with the /OUTPUT or with the *CFOPEN and *CFCLOS commands. This approach can help to reduce data errors in reports. it has to be executed from an input file or macro. The *VWRITE statement will cause printing of a column of the 2-dimensional array. having been created with a *DIM command. and the arrays can be used to put data into external text files.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. When calling the macro.0 /output This gives a permanent record that is independent of plotted results. as above. The user may wish to change the FORMAT statement.1 setting the name of the array in single quotes. the array parameter name is. The following is the content of the file "myoutput. . the *VWRITE command cannot be executed inside the GUI.12300000E+03 . /output. Data can be read back into ANSYS with the *VREAD command. in addition to scalar parameters. enclosed with single quotes to delay evaluation.html ! Example of data output to file from ANSYS *cfopen.dat": .8) The second works on a 2-dimensional array parameter. Here is an example of temporarily switching the ANSYS /OUTPUT information from the default. Tip 68: Writing Array Columns to Output or to Files The *VWRITE command can be used to output an array column. so significant automated data movement is possible.dat writer.123 writer. The above procedure makes it possible to get ANSYS information out into another program without errors in manual transcription. The *VWRITE command prints the data from the starting position on down to the end of the column. As mentioned above. Note the instruction on how to call the macro. If you can get the ANSYS information into a parameter.456 *cfclos Executing the above commands from within ANSYS generates the following data in the file "myoutput.45600000E+03 The filename used in the demo ended in ". 50 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . to a file. The first macro works on a 1-dimensional array parameter.234 /clear writer.out /COM. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! This macro will print a 1-dimensional array according to the starting position indicated. The following two macros can be used to make calling the *VWRITE command easy.Compare Results with Code Allowables PRSECT. The array must exist.Linearized Path Results from PRSECT /COM.

A scalar need not have its name enclosed in single quotes in calling this macro.arg2.MAC and an array called MYDATA2D is to be printed from position MYDATA2D(1. and check what turns up when the *STATUS command is issued (scroll down to the bottom of the STATUS text window that pops up): aaa='qwer' bbb='tyui' %aaa%%bbb%=12345 *status %aaa%1234=5 *status *do. Indicate the starting position for *VWRITE if an array is used. then they presumably were not entered.then *if. The macro for a 3-dimensional array could be written so that it tests ARG2.8) Given that all ANSYS arrays are implicitly 3-dimensional.1.arg3) (E16. Its use would be very error prone without error checking code.html ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! This macro will print a column of a 2-dimensional array according to the starting position indicated. and ARG4 to see if they are zero. Note that they contain no error handling code.'MYDATA2D'. A user may want to customize this macro to change the FORMAT statements. 1-D array. 2-D array. If a term in the array is MYARRAY(III.arg1(arg2.eq.9$abc%iii%=iii$*enddo *status For what it's worth.2 ! if bbb is a 3-D array parameter Note the /NOPR and /GOPR commands. Remember that there is a limit on the number of parameters in a model -.1.8) *else *vwrite.2) to the end of column 2 then call this macro with the statement: WRITEAR2. They will overwrite user settings. Such a macro is illustrated below.1. ARG3. Try these statements in ANSYS -.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips.arg4) (E16.ne.arg1 (E16.JJJ. if this macro is called WRITER. ! reduce the amount printed to /OUTPUT ! if nonzero an array is used ! if not a 2-D array ! if not a 3-D array /nopr *if. if it is a problem. and execute them.arg3.arg1(arg2. A similar macro can be written to print a "column" of a 3-dimensional array.0. but an array would have to be enclosed in single quotes as in the above examples. The ability to synthesize parameter names. you can even store ANSYS commands in parameters. If this macro is called WRITEAR2. and the correct form of a *VWRITE command could be used to print a scalar.'bbb'. and presumably will in future.arg4.aaa ! if aaa is a scalar writer. ################# Examples. or to remove the /NOPR and /GOPR commands. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Macro to write a scalar or an array column.arg3. or 3-D array.2 setting the name of the array in single quotes.0. could lead to some very creative activities in "programming" ANSYS methods and in macro writing. as appropriate.3. Tip 69: Synthesizing Parameter Names and Manipulating Jobnames and Long Strings in APDL Although I haven't found documentation reference to the following tricks.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. and to do other text manipulation.iii.arrays must be used to get around this.0. If they are zero. *vwrite. The user may wish to change the FORMAT statement.sympatico. I encountered some 51 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 .MAC: writer. the second macro above could be used to print out a 1-dimensional array if the second calling parameter is set to one.eq.8) *endif /gopr ! if a scalar ! switch on /OUTPUT Test these macros thoroughly before use.KKK) then the *VWRITE command will cycle through the values of the III index when printing out data.then arg4=1 *endif *vwrite. as appropriate. Parameter names themselves can be synthesized by chaining text strings together.manually enter these lines one at a time in the ANSYS Input window.then arg3=1 *endif *if.3. Enclose an array parameter name in single quotes. they work in ANSYS 5. Warning: It is particularly difficult to remember to surround the name of the array parameter with single quotes.

all. or 4 terms in an array parameter. or several terms of an array parameter.%a%.%aaa%%num%. but the following worked.iii. in which parameter "aaa" is text and "num" is an integer. The user should experiment to see how blanks are truncated. The contents of "num" could be the results of a load step "num" and the file name would identify the load step number: aaa='model' num='456' SAVE.%aaa(1)%%aaa(2)% /repl A database could be saved with statements such as these.xxx.'s%jjj%' *endif *enddo Both the RESUME command and the /CLEAR command can destroy the counter used in a *DO loop.st3 *if. which was used to delete load step files in a complex application: ! Parameter "compname" contains the Jobname of a load step file *do. The method can use several parameters.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. An example of array use is: *DIM.%c%. would be needed.%xxx%%yyy% /REPL Situations when this trick might be used could be to save and employ long title strings. Look at this /CLEAR example. The following example illustrates chaining. and the PARRES command immediately after.%b%.jjj. and the /REPL command shows the result in the plot title.then /delete. annotation strings.%d%.lt. The user should test this technique before using -.sympatico.%f% *status. Note that the *GET command can read in a jobname. or job names for the /FILNAME command. so up to four parameters. in order to recover the counter and other looping parameters when placing RESUME inside a *DO loop.myjob%num%.html trouble executing commands with commas embedded inside the character parameters.compname.%b% thetime=%b% /title.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips.db SAVE.db Another use is with a parameter inside percent signs grouped with text with all inside single quotes.db SAVE.aaa.st1. Give them a try: aaa='nplo' %aaa% a='*get' b='xx' c='active' d='0' e='time' f='wall' %a%.%c%. I have used the PARSAV command before RESUME. A jobname can be up to 32 characters long.%aaa%123.'s0%jjj%' *else /delete.10.1. with the *GET statement pointing to the character in the jobname where the parameter will begin to read the string.%e%.parm ! exit whatever is active 52 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 .the parameters saved and restored may undesirably overwrite parameters in the file that is resumed.%d%.st2.char.jjj.3 parsav.%e%.%b%.%f% /repl yields %thetime% Parameters that hold text data are limited to 8 characters. xxx='The 1st' yyy=' & 2nd' /TITLE.compname.4 aaa(1)='First te' aaa(2)='rm & 2nd' /TITLE. it illustrates what can be done: ! test of looping fini *do. The strings are concatenated in the /TITLE command. Several text variables can be chained together (concatenated) using the "percent" sign. Consider this example.

These elements that have a mid-side node missing are considered to be degenerate forms in the ANSYS manuals.xxx. commands. it executes significantly faster than the 10 node Solid95 element. parameter contents.html /clear parres. so there should not be a big mismatch problem at the interface.the higher order Solid92 and 95 tetrahedral option elements do not have these warnings. and file names from letters and numbers. pyramids may be generated by the mesher at the interface between the brick form. my testing suggests that the prism and pyramid forms are not generated by the automatic volume mesher. Up to Contents Return to Main Page FEA and Optimization Introduction Page FEA Modeling Issues Page © 1998. Solid element 95 is a 20-node brick element. so Solid92 elements should be considered where Solid95 tetrahedral forms would otherwise be employed in large structural models. presumably because the software is not dealing with the redundant extra 10 nodes.5 revision. In large models. this speedup will be of value to users. Brief testing I did suggests that meshing of volumes can successfully interface the brick and tetrahedral forms. or where exace stress values are important. using the ability to assemble parameter names.You are welcome to print and photocopy these pages (don't plagiarize or sell the contents). At revision 5. At the 5.Efficiency and Interconnection These two solid elements have mid-side nodes.ANSYS Tips and ANSYS Tricks http://www3. and may be preferred in some cases. Note the ANSYS manual comments that the simpler flat-sided elements may be preferred for material nonlinearity. so they follow curved surfaces nicely.ansys.new. Return to Links on Main Page.sympatico. However. May 27. Budgell -. However. and tetrahedral element shape option. nonlinearity is supported by Solid92 and Solid95.3 of ANSYS.parm *enddo ! be prepared to hit OK button These methods can make it possible to program considerable automation into ANSYS. It also supports a prism. and are not recommended in regions with high stress gradients. Tip 70: Solid Elements 95 and 92 -. 1999 E-mail Address: Please see my main page. The Solid92 element is a 10 note tetrahedron -.it should act the same as the 10 node version of the Solid95 element in producing results.ca/peter_budgell/ANSYS_tips. 53 de 53 10/11/2009 19:51 . and the tetrahedral form. The tetrahedra formed at the interface with brick elements do not have mid-side nodes where they would not exist on the matching brick elements. The Solid45 tetrahedral element is "not recommended" in the ANSYS manuals because of its low accuracy in predicting stresses -. Link to: The ANSYS® Home Page at www. Fewer elements are needed than with Solid45 8-node bricks. for equivalent accuracy. pyramid.com Link to: ANSYS Technical Overview Recommended Reading For more links. 1999 by Peter C.

3 -. 19. 18. 7. but cannot accept liability for any consequences or damages which may result from errors in this discussion. attorney's fees. FEA is Approximate Meshing Shell versus Solid versus Beam Elements Reduction of the model to a shell structure Pressure on Shell Elements Reflecting Part of a Model Representation of Bolted Connections Warning about Nodal Coupling Development of geometry in which surfaces cut each other with shared lines Application of boundary conditions Application of loading Pressure loading of a wall containing granular material Deformation of thin flat panels by pressure loading Use of Units Buckling analysis and failure Ramping Loads in ANSYS Plotting results Coping with Design Changes Computer Aided Engineering Environment FEA versus Hand Calculations 1 de 21 10/11/2009 19:51 . and develop new ways to get useful output information from the models. Writing the macro required a few lines of code that: determine the number of elements. © 1998 & 2004 by Peter C. 6. Force or pressure on a flat shell may require Large Displacement (geometrically nonlinear) analysis. report the result.You are welcome to print and photocopy these pages.Modeling Issues in FEA with ANSYS http://www3. injury to person or property. but not limited to. 14. Budgell -. Accordingly. for smooth force application. put the areas of the elements into the array.sympatico. discover more ways to represent or approximate features. 17. lost profit. 8. I will mention some that have been relevant to my experience. sum the array entries. 3. 9. 12. I disclaim any liability for any damages including. if the elements are flat. These tips and comments are intended for user education purposes only. 15. get the first element identity. 11. 2. 4.html Finite Element Analysis Modeling Issues and Ideas Peter Budgell E-mail Address: Please see my main page. After almost six years of continuous use of the ANSYS program. or any other costs or expenses. The contents are based on my experience with ANSYS 5. I have attempted to give accurate information. Modeling issues include a host of topics. 10. 16. 20. and delete the variables and array. CONTENTS: 1. data recovery charges. It is your responsibility to determine if you have sufficient knowlege and understanding of finite element theory to apply the software appropriately. 5. They are to be used at your own risk. Example of Approximation: I wrote a macro to give the surface area (one side) of a previously selected set of shell elements. 13. I continue to learn new features of the software. NOTE: The user must be careful to apply the pressure to the CORRECT FACE of the set of shell elements. create an array of correct size to hold data. Return to Main Page FEA and Optimization Introduction Page A Quick Overview of FEA ANSYS® Tips Page My Collection of Tips on ANSYS Use. A force divided by this area can be applied as pressure over these shell elements.ca/peter_budgell/Modeling_issues.more recent versions may change things. The contents do not attempt to discuss all the concepts of the finite element method that are required to obtain successful solutions.

In ANSYS. The finite element itself approximates what happens in its interior with interpolation formulas. Production of a good quality mesh is a major topic.NDIV. Choosing an Appropriate Shell Element Using P-Elements Harmonic Response Failure Modes to Consider Stress Limits and Margin of Safety Representation of a group of bolts (or rivets) Adequate Computer Hardware for FEA MODELING ISSUES that are faced include (but are by no means limited to): FEA is Approximate. Integration over the body of the element is often approximated by Gaussian Quadrature (depending on the element. A mesh should have well-shaped elements -. The underlying mathematical model may be an approximation of the real physical system (for example. The result of an analysis contains the accumulated errors due to all of the contributing approximations.S. the Euler-Bernoulli beam ignoring shear deformation). warping or extreme aspect ratio) elements can give less accurate results.ca/peter_budgell/Modeling_issues. 23. Stress and strain results are based on the derivatives of the displacement solution. Good analysis and interpretation of results requires knowing what is an acceptable approximation. but I suspect that the discussion is more 2 de 21 10/11/2009 19:51 . 26. On a curved surface. not continuously evaluated with the interpolation functions over the whole element interior. The loading of the model is an approximation of what happens in the real world. so a severely distorted element can not deform in a manner that has an accurate match to the real physical response. or ignored. 27. The user should put considerable effort into the generation of well-shaped meshes. some elements are said to be more accurate with numerical integration at a limited number of points). despite FEA software promotional claims of automatic good meshing. The overall dimensions of the model approximate real structures that are manufactured within a tolerance.I've done a few with the computer algebra system MACSYMA and the number of terms can explode unless constants are extracted during the derivation and the integrand is kept factored. The boundary conditions approximate how the structure is supported by the outside world. A linear analysis is an approximation of the real behavior. This will include setting element densities. and comprehension of what remains unknown after an analysis. Elements approximate the local shape of the real body. 24.only mild distortion and moderate aspect ratios. 25. The first issue to understand in Finite Element Analysis is that it is fundamentally an approximation. Badly shaped (by distortion. This can require considerable user intervention. or the analysis will require considerable time and space in the computer. The continuity of deformation between connected elements is interrupted at some level. Element results may be reported at integration points or nodes. (The theory manual discusses shell element warping. Numerical analysis difficulties such as ill-conditioned matrices may reduce the accuracy of calculated results. concatenation of lines or areas to permit mapped meshing.. but not too fine.Modeling Issues in FEA with ANSYS http://www3. the command "LSEL.sympatico. development of a complete list of what should be evaluated. an analytical integral can be either impractical or exceedingly difficult -.0" will select all the lines that have not had mesh density assigned. appreciation of the need for margin of safety.html 21. The interior of a 2-D or 3-D finite element has been mapped to the interior of an element with a perfect shape. 22. quadrilateral shell elements should not be generated with a warped form. The mesh should be fine enough for good detail where information is needed. Many details are idealized. Meshing. This can help find missed lines when setting mesh densities manually. and re-meshing individual areas and volumes until the result looks "just right". gradients in element size. Flaws are not represented unless the analyst incorporates a model of a flaw. amplifying the errors. simplified. The material properties assumed are approximate. playing with automatic meshing controls.

as well as transferring shear. Structural steel tubing and rolled sections can sometimes be simplified as beam elements. A fine mesh generally gives an answer closer to the exact solution. and out-of-plane deflections. and join the nodes in two locations in order to imply continuity of rotations. In the ANSYS manuals the PCG solver is not recommended where significant numbers of coupled nodes 3 de 21 10/11/2009 19:51 . beam elements are even simpler and more efficient. in order to examine in detail how they are behaving. They include out-of-plane bending effects in their fundamental formulation. For these elements. I have seen the opinion that the ANSYS PCG solver is not significantly faster than the frontal solver with shell elements. and supports nonlinearity.ca/peter_budgell/Modeling_issues. and compression in the plane. for this would eliminate the problem of positioning the mid-plane of shell elements. and the other dimensions of the elements would have to be kept small so that the aspect ratios of the elements were acceptable.) Quad shell elements can sometimes be fitted to a cylindrical curve so that they are rectangular in shape and not warped. or interacting with the structure where they are connected to other parts. The 8-node Shell93 shell element of ANSYS has mid-side nodes. tension. web buckling. the number of elements would be unbelievably large. Developing an interface between a shell portion and a solid element portion of a model has a difficulty: Most solid elements do not include rotational degrees of freedom at the nodes. A modeling trick that is often used is to overlap one shell element with the first element in a solid. Of course. Consequently. Rigid regions with node pairs (rigid links with CERIG) may be used to enforce connection. when structures employ beam-like details. Unfortunately. Some finite element software may have tools to address this problem. Shell versus Solid versus Beam Elements. exactly represent the sectional properties of components. structures would be represented for Finite Element Analysis by solid elements. high order solid elements like these are not usually capable of nonlinear analysis. follows curved surfaces. Shell elements were originally developed to efficiently represent thin sheets or plates of steel or aluminum. On the XANSYS listserver. so caution must be used. This is not a perfect fix. Ideally. so if they are capable of any nonlinearity that will be needed. they may be acceptable and preferred. there would have to be several solid elements through the thickness of sheets of steel or aluminum to capture local bending effects with any accuracy. and overpredicts buckling load and vibration frequency.sympatico. Even if a solid element with rotational degrees of freedom is used. Mid-side node elements can follow complex curved surfaces. A coarse mesh is less sensitive to and "hides" stress concentrations. as well as deflections. although high local stresses will result.these solid elements were intended to be connected to each other. a coarse mesh generally results in a structure that underpredicts deflection. In addition. On other curved surfaces.html relevant to element deformation under load. finely meshed triangular 3-node or four-sided curved 8-node shell elements may be needed. There are occasions in FEA work when structural beams (including I. NOTE: Remember that when shapes are simplified as beam elements. Link elements will not show bending stress or Euler buckling of a link. wide-flange. channels and angles) will be more fully represented as shells or solids. and position welds in their design location. Remember that most finite elements are stiffer than the real structure. A fine mesh also results in larger models. because of the great stiffness difference between in-plane deflections of shell elements. and this results in a rotational "joint" if shell elements are connected to a solid. ANSYS will give warnings if there is more than very slight warping of the original un-deformed quad shell element shape. and longer model solution and display times. It is not feasible to model many thin-wall structures with solid elements. than to the initial un-deformed element shape. both flat and curved surfaces. and concentrated stresses. the rotational stiffness at a solid's edge node is not appropriate for connection to shell elements -. more data storage.Modeling Issues in FEA with ANSYS http://www3. we lose the possibility of predicting flange buckling.

The problem with this technique is that it requires proper mesh control if the user wants to automate generation of the model. Input from external programs such as CAD packages sometimes generates such elements and information. for better behaved models. Join those nodes in pairs with rigid regions (CERIG) or with massless high-stiffness beam elements. I achieved good convergence with the PCG solver. ANSYS supports shell elements for which the element thickness varies within the element. since the plates of steel are thin in comparison with their other dimensions. Of course. all about the same shape and size. There is a helpful if less-than-ideal fix for the case when somewhat thick shells overlap each other. requiring more work. which would have resulted in bisection with the Frontal solver and adaptive time stepping. The PCG solver is not recommended for use with nonlinear solutions. Place the shell mid-surfaces correctly in space. Mesh densities have been set so that the rigid region pairs can be created. a variety of approximations are needed to link parts of the model together. Reduction of the model to a shell structure.ca/peter_budgell/Modeling_issues. Lines have been created so that the CERIG command can be used to join them as if they were welded together. with shell elements. when modeling a perforated flat plate with shell elements that were roughly square. and surface contact elements will be needed. and it is tedious to implement manually. One time I tried it I got a negative on the diagonal. but crashed ANSYS with the PCG solver. too. using about 200. However.000 degrees of freedom.Modeling Issues in FEA with ANSYS http://www3. The following figure shows two areas that are offset with one above the other. Gap and contact elements may introduce the same problem. You know you are having PCG convergence trouble when the convergence error is not decreasing monotonically (when it goes up and down instead of dropping smoothly). The frontal solver could not fit this problem into my computer because of the size and large wavefront.html (CP) and rigid regions (CERIG) have been defined. so they will not be applicable in large displacement analyses (unless you can live with the error). in nonlinear Large Displacement runs. Consequently. 4 de 21 10/11/2009 19:51 . with the thickness that is assigned being based on node position. and as thick as they were wide. Shell elements are appropriate for many steel structures. (This applies to aluminum and other materials.sympatico. and mesh them so that nodes where welds are used are positioned directly "above" one another on the two surfaces. In some cases it will be desired to place gap or surface contact elements (with the gap set closed) between the nodes or elements in the interior of the pair of shells. I have achieved apparently good results with the PCG solver. This has usually been my experience. and are welded together. User-written macros are sometimes employed to generate elements with varying thickness. However. Surface contact elements on shell elements must be applied to the correct face of the shell elements. so that the surfaces act as if they are welded together. you can speed up the "solution" of the PCG solver by accepting a larger convergence error. The beam elements have the advantage of working properly in large displacement (geometrically nonlinear) solutions.) The ideal position for the shell element is on the mid-plane position of the sheet of steel. This could require a REAL value for every element in order to input a different shell thickness at each node. The gap elements keep their original orientation in a large displacement solution. or to set up REAL values for existing elements.

Modeling Issues in FEA with ANSYS http://www3. Alternatives to using a macro include applying the CEINTF or the EINTF commands with appropriate tolerance values. 4. Steps through the nodes on the first set of lines. The shell elements have been plotted with the shell thickness shown. For each node on the first set of lines.html The next figure shows the same two areas after meshing and the creation of the rigid region pairs with CERIG. Automating the creation of these CERIG pairs could be done with a macro that: 1.sympatico. A similar macro could join the node pairs with the massless high stiffness beam elements mentioned.ca/peter_budgell/Modeling_issues. Remember that rigid regions only apply accurately with Small Displacement analysis. and the set on the other surface. The reader is cautioned that 5 de 21 10/11/2009 19:51 . The macro would work as long as the nodes for the sets of lines are located "above" one another by appropriate mesh control on the lines. uses a *GET command to select the closest node from the nodes on the other set of lines. 3. Create a rigid region from the pair of nodes. so that the positioning of the nodes in the center of the shell elements is visible. and the touching of the plates is implied. 2. Has the user identify the set of lines on one surface.

or for which the user sees only FACE 1. They are also known as FACE 1 (the BOTTOM) and FACE 2 (the TOP). then the thumb points out of the TOP surface (FACE 2). If positive (into the element) pressure is to be applied to FACE 2.K. These are known as the TOP and the BOTTOM faces. For the user to apply pressure. or when it points into the screen. If a simple primitive solid (for example a cube) is created in ANSYS. a positive pressure vector points into FACE 2. This lets the user plot only those areas or elements for which the user sees FACE 2. Alternatively. Areas act similarly.html this technique tells us little about the stresses in the weld. it is bounded by areas. the pressure should be applied to FACE 1 on all sides. This helps in choosing whether to apply pressure to FACE 1 or FACE 2 when using picking to select areas or elements.Modeling Issues in FEA with ANSYS http://www3. The nodes I.J. Pressure on Shell Elements. The example does not illustrate good design practice for handling certain loads. ANSYS 5. depending on surfaces visible and sides to which the pressure was applied. If the "right hand rule" is used on this path. crack growth and fracture. The arrow plots for the elements are the ones to believe. A prying load applied to the above example could tear the weld apart if the weld was small in comparison to the shell thickness. If positive pressure is to be applied to FACE 1. the TOP. careful checking must be used to assure that the correct faces of shell element have been pressurized. while FACE 2 is on the outside of the solid. The FEA evaluation of loading of welds in shell structure models is a whole separate topic. the fingers of the right hand following the path.ca/peter_budgell/Modeling_issues.3 (and presumably later) plots shell elements with different colors for FACE1 and FACE2 under PowerGraphics when the numbering options are set with "No Numbering" and with "Colors" or "Colors and Numbers". Pressures have to be transferred 6 de 21 10/11/2009 19:51 . the direction of the pressure arrows (choose arrows to be shown to indicate pressures under the SYMBOLS choice under PlotCtrls on the Utility Menu) for areas may differ from the direction of the arrows shown for the elements attached to those areas.L form a path around the element. In ANSYS. shell elements have two sides. the FACE 1 and FACE 2 orientations get very scrambled. To add to the challenge. and the areas that bounded the solid were to be pressurized on the interior of the box that was formed. the BOTTOM. or about fatigue.sympatico. where Boolean operations have been performed. ANSYS can plot elements or areas for which the positive vector points out of the screen (when coming out of FACE 2). The areas will have FACE 1 on the inside surface. In other models. If the volume was deleted. a positive pressure vector points into FACE 1.

YZ. only a partial model need be built. the rest can be created by reflecting (mirror imaging) the geometry. If contact surfaces are added between the shells that are bolted together. or ZX plane about which the reflection took place. The only rotation that is free is that about an axis perpendicular to the planes of elements (about the axis of the bolt). Have fun! Final notes on pressures: ANSYS can include a gradient in the applied pressure to show the effect of. Where symmetry in the design exists. The hydrostatic pressure of oil floating on water might be modeled by setting the "zero" position of the water pressure gradient above the position where the water starts. Where structure is repeated (e. or with detailed 3-D representation. A variety of other tricks can be applied. Another bolt representation is to use a rigid region to link pairs of nodes. This representation has the advantage that the shells can be positioned properly in 7 de 21 10/11/2009 19:51 . When any rotations in a 3-D analysis are coupled (a result of the bolt clamping surfaces together) the rotation coupling is generally valid only in a small displacement (geometrically linear) analysis. for example. These elements may have to be deleted. If the reflection included geometry. in order to include the pressure of the oil. taking several times longer.ca/peter_budgell/Modeling_issues. nodes. a set of posts) multiple copies can be made. Remember that "suction" in physically realistic models cannnot be applied beyond the point at which a liquid boils.sympatico. Since the active coordinate system can be any local system that the user has defined. ANSYS. elements lying in the plane of reflection get copied with the node order reversed. Reflection in ANSYS can be done across the XY. Warning: As discussed elsewhere. but the solution becomes a nonlinear iterative process. or ZX planes of any ACTIVE Cartesian coordinate system. You have to activate plotting of arrows with the /PSF command -. ANSYS only plots pressure arrows on shell elements when the arrows point into the screen. or elements that were on the XY.shell element orientation may need to be doctored to get this to work.g. This non-trivial item can be tackled at a simplified level. The degree of freedom for rotation about the axis of the bolt must be free at one end of the rigid region node pair. however. Representation of Bolted Connections. for bolt representation.Z location in space.Y. so you have to look at a model from all directions when inspecting a shell model. Y. or below zero absolute pressure. It will generally be desirable to tie two of the three rotations as well. Entity appropriate merge (NUMMRG) commands will be needed to connect the original and reflected entities. The simplest approximation is to represent the bolted (or riveted) connection of overlapping shell structures by locating a node of each surface at the location of the bolt. the coupling of rotation is not needed. NOTE: Contact surfaces on shell elements have to be defined carefully. does not limit the negative pressure values that a user enters.by default surface symbols are used. One then uses nodal coupling (the CP command in ANSYS) to tie the X. copies of those entities will overlay the original copy on the plane of reflection. Large displacement (geometrically nonlinear) analysis introduces an error based on the difference between "sin(theta) and theta" (expressed in radians). pressure increasing as a depth of water increases. YZ. depending on your intentions. "Suction" can also be applied by using a minus sign. and Z locations in space.Modeling Issues in FEA with ANSYS http://www3. so that the correct surfaces (Face 1 or Face 2) of the shell elements are the ones in contact -. Rigid regions in ANSYS assume small displacement (geometrically linear) analysis. The nodes have to be located at the same X. Reflecting Part of a Model. any kind of reflection in 3D Cartesian space can be accomplished. and will NOT merge with the element from which they were generated. This means offsetting one or both shells from its nominal position so that the nodes and shells can touch.html from geometric entities to elements in order for these plots to take place.

Note: Gap elements keep their original orientation in a large displacement analysis. and apply a temperature difference to the bolt to cause it to "shrink" an intended amount. Temperature setting. the rotational degree of freedom about the beam axis is free at the end with the nodal coupling. If the bolts are not overloaded when the structure is loaded. Other ways to represent bolt preload include: 1. and the other beam end attached to the other shell. The problem of contact surfaces remains. friction coefficients may need to be zero. The ANSYS rigid region (CERIG) couples rotations about global axes. Link8 (3-D Spar). An iterative process may help. be identical. They must be squeezing surfaces together. My experience has been that if a full 3-D model of a bolted connection (bolt and materials represented with 3-D elements. so that the bolts take all the load. Two of the previous bolt representation methods (nodal coupling and rigid region CERIG) are missing the possibility of representing bolt preload. The analyst may do better to use a very stiff beam element. interference setting.ca/peter_budgell/Modeling_issues. but be time-consuming. The nodal coordinates systems of the coupled nodes should. Beam4 (3-D Elastic Beam). use contact elements. in general. the bolt preload will be nearly unchanged when the structure is loaded. The ability of nodal coupling to act in the nodal coordinate system means that the user is not restricted to coupling in global coordinate system directions. loading on bolts should be assessed using established criteria. Use all 3-D representations of bolts and parts. depending on the dimensions of the clamped parts. 2. When postprocessing. In ANSYS these include: Link1 (2-D Spar). and will not be applicable where there is significant rotation. The previous warning about applying a contact surface to the correct side of a shell element applies. convergence may be difficult when the solver begins 8 de 21 10/11/2009 19:51 . Beam3 (2-D Elastic Beam). so the gap elements are perpendicular to the two shell surfaces. for which the nodes of the two shell surfaces must be aligned "above" one another.sympatico. Preload can be implied if a bolted connection is represented with a link or beam element that is capable of "initial strain". Setting the surface normal stiffness value appropriately is nontrivial. with incomplete nodal DOF coupling at one beam end and shell. For conservatism and safety. and setting the "surface normal stiffness" value of surface contact elements in ANSYS must be carefully done to result in the intended preload. However. such that the initial interference results in the intended preload. and Link10 (Tension or Compression Only Spar). contact surfaces may become desirable. and contact elements on the surfaces) starts out with the bolt loose and none of the contact elements touching. Use 3-D elements and contact surface elements. Note that nodal coupling acts in the coordinate system of the nodes coupled. It can be partially addressed by using gap elements at nearby nodes. Contact surfaces (with the gap closed) may be needed where there will be large displacement. or that surface contact elements must be used on the interface between touching 3-D solid elements or touching shell element surfaces. which means that either nodal contact elements (gap elements) or surface contact elements must be in use between separated shell element surfaces. with an initial interference between bolt and parts. A beam with arbitrary orientation may require the nodes at the coupled end to have their coordinate system rotated to have the rotational degree of freedom oriented properly (I haven't tried this).html space. Whether any gap or contact element friction coefficient should be included in the model needs to be considered carefully for it can hide or prevent shear loading on the bolts. so the axis of the bolt would have to be along one of the global axes for the rotational degree of freedom to be correct.Modeling Issues in FEA with ANSYS http://www3. The intended preload must exist BEFORE the structure is loaded.

It is necessary to cut an original area into two areas. the elements where the single node support will be applied might be artificially stiffened. Considerable care and checking is always necessary as a model is built. I consider this unfortunate. Hopefully.Y. TYPE.a quarter model could be sufficient). The boundary conditions in a finite element model must limit translation or rotation in a manner appropriate to the case at hand. if there is a surrounding "pad". Various analyst "cheats" may help. It is an easy way to forget to assign attributes. you can't have a line that cuts half way through an area. Development of complex structure solid-model geometry with /PREP7 calls on analyst creativity. and much prefer the more recent ANSYS versions. when the solver is working to converge.g. and run again. This tends not to be understood by those who have never done the work. This single node support. The solid modeling engine does not like singularities. There are occasions when a displacement boundary condition needs to be applied to a single node so that the structure can rotate around the support point. as well as a good dose of patience. and an external couple would result if the coupled nodes were not located at the same position. so that the model size can be halved.html work. where a warping displacement is applied to a symmetric structure (envision twisting a shoebox about the long axis -. a beginning ANSYS user will have had some training in the development of ANSYS solid geometry within /PREP7. an even pressure could be applied to the pad. the way that you can cut half way into a sheet of paper with a pair of scissors. The reaction could be spread over nearby nodes at stiffeners.Z directions. such as moving the bolt or parts so that there is some contact.0 and 5. with not all improvements being publicized. I lived with ANSYS 5. Structural FEA displacement boundary conditions are the limitations on movement of the structure at places such as anchor locations. Depending on the model. More exotic applications can be invented. that generates a force equal to the reaction otherwise found at the constrained node. High local stresses. Recent ANSYS versions appear to be more tolerant of cusps and some other difficulties. for example.Modeling Issues in FEA with ANSYS http://www3. Nodal coupling has its uses: one is a quick-and-dirty representation of a bolted or riveted connection with shell elements (see above). Boundary conditions can also be used to imply anti-symmetry. Alternatively. the nodes that are coupled must occupy the same position in space. for they sneak in even when being careful.Y. Otherwise. to see that connectedness is complete. (2) Take the reaction. Warning about Nodal Coupling. MAT. When nodal coupling is used to represent a bolted connection of 3D shells. quartered. if the loading of the structure is also symmetrical. e. Area. or Volume) to the entities that are formed by a Boolean operation such as dividing the original entity into parts. 9 de 21 10/11/2009 19:51 . I can still make errors of this type. since it increases the work required of the analyst who is developing the model. Application of boundary conditions. body rotation at that part of the structure will result in an artificial mechanism acting on the structure. ANSYS does not assign the attributes (REAL. The lines must be shared between different areas if the finite elements are to act as if the surfaces are welded together. and puzzle-solving skills. and/or using some very soft spring stiffness combination elements to keep the model from "flying off into space". New revisions of ANSYS improve the capability of /PREP7. can result in a serious local stress spike. spread it smoothly over the pad as a pressure.sympatico. This is not good! Development of geometry in which surfaces cut each other with shared lines. however. when meshing takes place. and ESYS) of a parent geometric entity (Line. If the nodes were tied in the X. intelligence. or similarly reduced.1. Boundary conditions can be used to imply symmetric behavior in a structure that has symmetry. structure rotation would not result in the necessary change in the relative X. in order to get a line that extends into the interior of the original area. Two stress runs could be used: (1) Run without the pressure on the "pad" and find the reaction at the constrained node.ca/peter_budgell/Modeling_issues.Z positions of the two nodes.

Artificially stiffening a local region where a point force is applied can help. (Of course. The Rankine formula describes granular material pressure on a vertical wall. or other granular material pressure is a civil engineering topic. getting a conservative result is often satisfactory. or large volumes manufactured. On the other hand.Modeling Issues in FEA with ANSYS http://www3. Earth. and varies if the slope of a wall changes (a horizontal surface could see hydrostatic pressure). application of pressure over a region of elements. depending on the nature of the model and structure. I once sighted a non-professional driver pulling a simple trailer grossly overloaded with crushed stone. in a long column filled with granular material.you wouldn't want the tires to blow out from the increased force due to a vehicle roll-over. After creating loads that represent a granular material in a container. Extra analyst work is needed to apply a series of gradient loads that increase smoothly in intensity if curvature of a wall or container surface causes change of slope. For some dry materials. grain. how would you prove that tire failure did not cause the accident?) This would call for the tires to stand at least twice the "normal max rating" without immediate failure. the vertical component of the applied pressure should result in a total force that equals the weight of the granular material. It may be desired to scale the granular material pressures so that the total 10 de 21 10/11/2009 19:51 . because of the new load that has been introduced. As discussed above. can help avoid a local stress spike. An analyst will develop a feel for this as the result of experience in a particular industry. where there are high material costs. Somebody did good tire design! (Some transportation structures have to be limited in size under the knowlege that users will fill them to the maximum possible volume. in some cases.0 g vertical load. if this is acceptable. The pressure load must be applied to the correct face of a shell finite element. It is often sufficient to apply forces directly to a small set of nodes. Non-vertical sides might require the Coulomb formula to give a higher accuracy representation of how non-vertical slope affects granular material pressure on a wall (go visit a library. Pressure loading of a wall containing granular material is particularly challenging. the lateral pressure on walls is usually less than simple hydrostatic pressure would be for a liquid of the same average density. Application of loading in a manner that is of satisfactory accuracy.) NOTE: If you do this. The load to consider may need to be increased because of the possibility of dynamic effects. if you are doing only a static analysis. the pressure would be roughly 40 to 60 percent of hydrostatic pressure (look up a proper value) on a vertical wall. However. the reaction forces will no longer equal the previous applied load plus gravity load on the structure. without becoming overly complex. sand.ca/peter_budgell/Modeling_issues. Your industry may have standards for this. extra modeling detail to reduce unjustified conservatism may be economically sound. Consider road vehicle design -. it will be necessary to exactly model a support complete with many non-linear complexities. producing the desired force. plus talk to a civil engineer). Take a look at EJGE/Magazine Feature for more information. The goal here is to approximate reality in an acceptable way. However. (If they did.) For structures that do not have a severe weight penalty (e. while avoiding the time-consuming use of contact and other non-linear elements.this affects the function of an hourglass. so pressure can ramp up smoothly as the depth increases. Because of internal friction in the material. Considerable FEA checking is needed to assure that the whole structure model is properly loaded. The pressure loading varies with the depth of the material. coal.g.html instead of applied as a pressure. It appeared that the wheel bearings failed before the tires let go (there was a lot of smoke so it was hard to tell). The ANSYS Finite Element program is capable of applying a pressure with a gradient.sympatico. under a 1. better representation of loading can be needed to avoid local stress spikes in some analyses. without regard to the density and total weight of the material loaded. those that do not have to fly). the pressure may be constant past a certain depth -.

when mass and mass density have been defined this way (the density of steel. However. Material properties such as Drucker-Prager are included in ANSYS and some other FEA packages. Fast computers are very desirable when doing this kind of work with a large model. A perfect FEA model of containers (bin. box. In other cases. In consequence. A rule of thumb is that membrane forces begin to be significant when the out-of-plane deflection exceeds half the thickness of the panel. In the metric world. hopper.html vertical force component under 1. Nonlinear analysis requires considerable experience. When flat panels are loaded on one of their surfaces.0 g of gravity pulls on the mass. and has no effect on the analysis or data). the curvature can lead to significant increases in strength of the structure. An engineer often settles for a model and design thought to be conservative or adequate. Loads will be entered in pounds. Some North American industries normally work in inches-pounds-seconds. Forces are expressed in Newtons (1 Newton accelerates 1 kilogram at 1 meter per second squared). which depends on the alloy. Nonlinear analysis becomes very time consuming because of the iterative solutions needed. This is because of the internal friction in the material. then start to carry applied loading with membrane forces. fundamental units are meters-kilograms-seconds. given industry experience. by the number 386. in engineering work. etc. in some cases. which is the acceleration due to gravity expressed in inches per second squared (in/sec^2).1 in/sec^2 to let ANSYS apply the correct force due to gravity on the structure. the panels curve. Failure to consider that significant out-of-plane deflection can result during nonlinear analysis can. The only way in which this can be represented is to activate large displacement (geometrically nonlinear) analysis. Deformation of thin flat panels by pressure loading causes the panels to curve. because of the difficulty in achieving converged solutions. hold. The pressure required to push inward and deform a surface of a granular material is greater than the load with which the granular material pushes outward.0007345) it is necessary to enter 1. The worrying starts when a design departs significantly from previous practice.) loaded by granular material may be impossible. Use of Units. This should be checked in reviewing the results of the analysis. A pressure of 1 Newton per square millimeter is referred to 11 de 21 10/11/2009 19:51 . Failure to use nonlinear analysis where it is appropriate can result in considerable ignorance of the real structural mechanics involved. However. as the container deforms under various loads.sympatico. Pressure is Newtons per square meter (1 Newton/Meter^2 = 1 Pascal). This requires that mass be represented as pounds/in/sec^2. or expands outward.0 g of gravity as 386. the force with which 1. analysts often use millimeters-kilograms-seconds.ca/peter_budgell/Modeling_issues.0 g equals the weight of the contained material. The designer needs to be aware of the need to include nonlinear effects in some work. or the density in pounds/in^3. that pressure will not be adjusted according to whether the wall moves inward. I have not been able to find an expert who would say that a granular material nonlinear solid element finite element model can be included inside a shell structure container model in a successful manner. trailer. Pounds here means "pounds force".2836 lb/in^3 would be entered into ANSYS as 0. This means dividing the weight in "pounds force". ANSYS refers to these units as "BIN" (see the /UNITS command for "British system using inches".4). but I don't know if they are applicable to this type of structure and granular material modeling. Pressures and stresses will be referred to as pounds per square inch.Modeling Issues in FEA with ANSYS http://www3. if given as 0. exact representation of the pressure loading will be unachievable. noting that the /UNITS command is for annotation of the database. lead to inadequate designs. ANSYS manuals discuss this material option briefly. A finite element model of a loaded wall can include pressure on the inside surface that would result from contained material.2*12=386.1 (more accurate than 32. Since an FEA analysis results in deformation of the walls. using contact elements on the interface between the solid elements and shell elements (geotechnical engineers should know far more about this than I do). Vibration and transient analysis require that the mass of the structure be entered in units consistent with the other units in the model.

2836 and 1. and must be converted. Note that margin of safety is not a simple concept in a nonlinear analysis. Design codes may address this concept with reference to combined compression and bending of beams. they think the whole Imperial units business is insane -.g.1 in this example) to recover the weight of the model in "pounds force". "Why can't I enter density for steel as 0." My own policy is to always use the "correct" units. and geometrically nonlinear (Large Displacement) buckling analysis. (When I try to explain this to non-North American people. before complete collapse happens. or transient heat transfer work will be done. The analyst must be consistent in the set of units in one model.) The usual question on Imperial units is. to avoid errors. Acceleration due to gravity is 9. Many design codes will. Arc-length analysis would not satisfy the rules in most design codes. then when ANSYS reports the "mass" of the model during the SOLVE process. The ANSYS materials library includes material values in various systems of units. Eigenvalue buckling (also known as Euler buckling or classical buckling) will be sufficient for some structures. your answer will be garbage. The relationship between loading and consequent stress and deflection cannot be extrapolated linearly when a nonlinear analysis is used.ca/peter_budgell/Modeling_issues. The margin of safety will be based on the difference between the intended design load and either the load that reaches failure conditions or the load that exceeds allowables set by design codes. 12 de 21 10/11/2009 19:51 . When working in millimeters-kilograms-seconds.0007345 for steel). and usually not make good engineering sense. Buckling analysis and failure can be pursued in two ways: Linear eigenvalue buckling. since it will follow the load up and back down as the load/deflection curve first rises and then falls. transient. Simply basing margin of safety on the highest load reached in a plastic. but much greater detail about stress amplification and margin of safety can be found with geometrically nonlinear analysis. give densities in lb/in^3. solution convergence will become slow. similar to those that the ANSYS material library supplies for the BIN system. Getting the mass and mass density into the correct units is particularly important if any form of vibration. Plastic material property analysis is that the failure can be followed in detail (if the model is small. 0. An advantage to Large Displacement.0 g of gravity as 1. in case vibration or other work is done in future. it is common to refer to pressures. Tip: Check the values for typical materials in the ANSYS material library as a guide. nor does it issue warnings. even if you do not use these exact materials. The fact that the FEA solution stops converging at some level does not guarantee that the failure load has been reached -. as the load is ramped up. if this is permissible. but many codes were written before the availability of nonlinear finite element analysis. If the structure starts to buckle in a Large Displacement analysis.I can't blame them. A comparison will indicate if your values are in the right range. Defining margin of safety still requires a human decision as to what load "reaches" unacceptable stress and deflection. where pounds is actually the weight expressed as "pounds force". but if you ever do vibration or transient analysis on the same model in the future. "This would work for gravity loading on a structure.html as 1 megapascal. This Imperial value cannot be used directly for vibration and transient work.Modeling Issues in FEA with ANSYS http://www3. so the analyst will need to comprehend the intent of the design code and interpret it.sympatico.2836/386.1=0. that mass will have to be multiplied by "g" (386. If densities have been entered "correctly" in Imperial units (e.807 meters/sec^2. and Young's modulus in megapascals or kilopascals. Large Deflection.0 ?" The answer is. or the computer is very fast).it could be just a numerical analysis difficulty. stresses. A difficulty here is to establish what level of loading has reached "failure" conditions. or 9807 mm/sec^2. for example. The Arc-length method is useful here. and even recent Canadian graduates. or when it is needed. ANSYS does not care what units are used.

This method works in general for keeping the loading that geometric entities transferred to elements and nodes. thickness discontinuities. A more satisfactory way to ramp loads that were originally applied to geometric entities will be to write and read load step files. then delete the relationship between geometric entities using the MODMSH.DETA command from /PREP7 (Warning: make sure your model is saved before doing this -. and so can be quite convenient. or element selection must be limited to continuous panels of material. The full loading on the geometric entities can be transferred to the elements. One solution is to reduce forces and pressures to an extremely small number. or undergoing deflection significant enough to merit concern. Finally. it cannot be scaled down directly. Plotting results can show the stresses in the structure with colored contour maps. Deflection can be set 1:1 or exaggerated using the /DSCALE command.sympatico. A possible advantage of a geometrically nonlinear Large Displacement run is that if convergence of the model is achieved. If the loads are deleted. Ramping Loads in ANSYS. but applied displacement is not the most common way in which loads are analyzed. this should be done for both mid-plane and surface (use Powergraphics) stresses and for deflection plots. then scale down the loading on the nodes and elements. Plotting with stresses averaged at nodes (PLNSOL) results in smoother cleaner contours that are easier to study.html A problem with eigenvalue analysis of some structures is that localized "popping" of panels or other components happens long before the whole structure begins to fail via buckling induced deformation. If you merely scale down the loading on the nodes and elements. that loading can be scaled down to an extremely small number. Another problem is that if the loading has been applied to geometric entities. Loads are ramped up if the appropriate settings are used for time stepping. for ANSYS lacks commands to do this. such plots have the disadvantage that they average stresses at shell intersections (at corners. the load step file can be read. so that the averaging is not performed where it is not appropriate. The load step file includes pressures on elements. This is a very common error in the reporting of results from shell models (and solid models with material type changes). and convergence may be a problem. This is particularly true when applied force is ramped up. An unsatisfactory but adequate fix is to transfer the loading to the nodes and elements. The substep results should be examined carefully to see whether sudden changes in the stress or deflection patterns develop.ca/peter_budgell/Modeling_issues. A geometrically nonlinear analysis with loads that exceed the eigenvalue buckling level should have loading ramped up. Convergence of applied displacement is more successful in nonlinear studies. I have seen stresses hidden that would 13 de 21 10/11/2009 19:51 . The fun starts when the user tries to ramp the loads back down (as when wanting to find the permanent deformation that results from plastic deformation). without exceeding yield. With a shell model. "Tee" intersections. it will be replaced by the loading on the geometric entities when the SOLVE command is executed. and material changes. The ability of the ANSYS program to generate an animation file from the set of substep results is helpful here. with substep information saved in fine detail. Next. the force drops immediately to zero. while discarding the original assignment of loading to geometry. or allowable stress. The problem with geometrically nonlinear analysis of the same structure and loading is that convergence troubles may make analysis exceedingly difficult and/or time consuming. it may sometimes be shown that the structure will handle a load considerably greater than the first several eigenvalue buckling loads. Then.MODMSH ruins the connection between your geometry and your FEA mesh).Modeling Issues in FEA with ANSYS http://www3. However. the loading on geometric entities can be deleted. not information about loading on geometric entities. This results in considerable loss of information. there is nothing to ramp down to. and masking of high stress areas in some models. then a load step file written. and that tend to average out stress fluctuations due to local variations in element shape. for example). Either element stress plots with no nodal averaging must be used when this matters (PLESOL). bringing back in the pressures on the elements.

(I created equivalent solid models with a few solid elements through the wall thickness for the comparison runs that gave the "real" answer. In addition. fracture. torque causing torsion stress in open sections. so both mid-plane and surface stress plotting will often be required for complete model evaluation.it was about two seconds per SHELL 63 element on a Pentium-Pro 180 under Windows NT in a 70. The macro has to be re-applied every time stresses are plotted for new elements. local stress concentrations. Shell mid-plane stresses are often preferred for review of structures. or possible structure collapse. ANSYS gave me surprisingly good values for surface stress caused by torque applied to open sections modeled with shell elements. the keypoint moves will destroy curved lines. A fun topic! The analyst must be able to modify existing models. components may need to be examined from a number of viewing angles. The ability to do this can be enhanced if the model has been planned for later modification (see parametric design comments below). I set them to shades of gray when I want to plot to a black-and-white laser printer (directly from ANSYS. using the *GET command to find the max and min stresses. The commands that move keypoints can help a little. or the allowable stress. in order to inspect the stresses everywhere. I wouldn't extrapolate my test result to any structure.000 DOF model. not the DISPLAY program). locations for possible fatigue or fracture. I sometimes set all levels but the "red" contour to be evenly spread out up to the material yield. The ANSYS contour map colors can be customized. The automatic contour level mode should be returned to when done. because of nodal stress averaging with shell FEA models. ANSYS has introduced its "Powergraphics" setting that can show VISIBLE SURFACE shell stresses with discontinuity at intersections. or for a different stress plot type. so under rare circumstances the elimination 14 de 21 10/11/2009 19:51 . element-by-element. taking 7 hours to process one load case. There are also good reasons to review shell surface stresses. but it suggests that shell surface stress plots will help to detect a class of design problems (shortcomings) that mid-plane stress plots will miss. in order to calculate the custom levels. and let red color the region above.) Mid-plane stress plots don't hint that torsional load is causing high shell stress on the surfaces of open sections. and with cutting planes. Torsion on an open section can cause substantial shell surface stresses at shell intersections such as corners -. The problem with the macro is that it executes VERY slowly -. It is easier to move a set of nodes than a set of keypoints. Coping with Design Changes. so that the Powergraphics setting can show mid-plane shell stress with discontinuities and intersections. fatigue-causing stresses often need to be shown at shell surfaces. not just at the mid-plane. a user often wants stress at the shell mid-plane. non-linear buckling. The database is permanently modified by this macro. and changes in REAL and MATerial (see the AVRES command).Modeling Issues in FEA with ANSYS http://www3.. I wrote a macro to automate this.ca/peter_budgell/Modeling_issues. and calculates the mid-plane average when needed. I have written a macro that will move the mid-plane stress for each node of each shell element.an invitation to fatigue failure. so the analysis results database must be stored on disk BEFORE this macro is used. They include checks on: direct shell bending. It must be used with caution. ANSYS keeps track of the surface stresses in its database. and prying loads. to the top and bottom surfaces. In a complex model. In limited testing I did. However. The contour levels can be set automated to be evenly applied (default). and topology does not try to change. This phenomenon will be completely overlooked if only mid-plane stresses are plotted. and only work if affected areas are not severely distorted. Surrounding macro executable lines with /NOPR and /GOPR speeded up the process by roughly a factor of 3. ANSYS PowerGraphics plotting helps considerably. plastic hinge development and the onset of plastic failure..html cause fatigue troubles. KEEPING THE GEOMETRY on which the mesh was based is an important part of being able to do significant future modifications of models. stresses from design errors or modeling errors. or can be set by the user.sympatico.

and development of ANSYS models parametrically. but possible cost-saving 15 de 21 10/11/2009 19:51 . see the MODMSH command but do not use it without knowing exactly what you are doing). Development of geometry that respects dimensional constraints on the overall structure. Several concerns arise in the initial configuration. and the initial sizing of the parts has to begin with manual calculations. even though significant money might be at stake. bolted. The CAD models can be parametrically defined so that overall dimensions can be updated quickly with all associated part and assembly prints. high-volume production. Use of standard thicknesses. available maximum dimensions. For a complex model it can become very time consuming to modify a model's fundamental dimensions after model development has progressed significantly. and with failures. This makes exploration of cost-saving alternatives difficult on a tight time schedule (what other kind of time schedule is there?). Otherwise. There exist CAD systems that can link the 3-dimensional CAD model to a complex shell finite element model (e. Adjustments and modeling tricks are used to approximate some connections of thick parts and of bolted parts. bolt sizes. as well as the finite element model. and structural details must be present that will handle each kind of load in a manner that is acceptable for the type of structure being considered (e.sympatico. For existing designs. Design for manufacturing. and the bill of materials being automatically updated. shapes. fabrication expense.Modeling Issues in FEA with ANSYS http://www3. Discussions with suppliers regarding not just supply and cost. Sufficient wall and beam thickness and stiffening to avoid detrimental buckling of local regions. This can make exploration of design alternatives much more sophisticated. Minimizing cost: material cost. The "first cut" at a design must start with the invention of a configuration that supports the applied loads. material availability. welded steel structures. such as: Adequate section properties and crossectional area to handle applied loading. pipes and pressure vessels. weight penalties.html of geometry may be desired (nodes cannot be moved while they attached to underlying geometry. sometimes scaling dimensions off the drawings (I did say finite element analysis is approximate) when the dimensions are not explicit on the drawings (I don't like this). This issue comes up when a new design needs to be configured. uncut raw material size. The initial layout of the components of the structure.g. Pro/Engineer and SDRC IDEAS. I may get copies of a few dozen drawings. Such a finite element model "program" requires careful planning and experience. so that the ANSYS log files can be re-run with different fundamental dimensions. the analyst may be limited to exploring shell thickness alternatives. and risk. finishing. delivery dates and penalties.g. However. I adjust the position of parts in space to achieve a good mid-plane representation of steel sheets for shell element development. The presence of bracing and stiffeners that prevent structure instability. hot rolled sections. and others). Adequate weld and bolt size to handle all applied loads. I often develop finite element models the "hard" way: Generate all the geometry from scratch in the pre-processor of ANSYS.ca/peter_budgell/Modeling_issues. and carries these loads to the support points of a structure. any substantial model changes become very difficult when only elements and nodes are available. A variety of loads usually need to be supported. Significant money is involved with expensive structures. Avoidance of unacceptable stress concentrations by methods such as stiffeners. probably others as progress is made). or other details. Computer Aided Engineering Environment. and affordable material choices. FEA versus Hand Calculations.

so it gives "one size fits all" service. To change a model with 4-node elements. Meshing an area fillet has to be carefully controlled. the geometry for the FEA model can be created parametrically. deflection. after possibly modifying mesh density.ca/peter_budgell/Modeling_issues. not by setting a KEYOPT value as with Shell63. and Shell181. Other 4-node elements that are capable of plasticity include Shell43. it may not be feasible to create the geometry parametrically. The use of P-elements can reduce the effort required to mesh models. Progress with development and deployment of these CAD systems continues. a parametric model can be built in the CAD system. and presumably give degraded results. Remember that suppliers are familiar with the practices of others. so that the log file can be reused in the future to regenerate the design with different dimensional values. Given modern CAD software. 16 de 21 10/11/2009 19:51 . and nonlinear effects if these matter. because they do not want to curve too much. Note that the effect of stress stiffening is activated with shell elements like Shell63 by adjusting one of the KEYOPT values for this element.sympatico. and any significant warping of their shape during meshing will cause the FEA program to complain. the thicknesses of shells or beams can be varied in order to investigate the possibility of weight savings and cost reduction. a 4-node shell element. an 8-node shell element. vibration. the usual thing to do would be to clear elements and re-mesh. This element is capable of plasticity (ANSYS manuals note that lower order elements (4-node in this case) may be preferred for nonlinear and plastic analysis). Stress stiffening is activated for Shell93 in the Solution part of ANSYS. (4-node shell elements are flat. in addition to large displacement.181" to convert the elements to Shell181. This will require that there be no changes in the topology of the structure (e. to 8-node elements with mid-side nodes. since it is a curved element. complete lack of stiffeners where they are needed) and needs modification. The usual workhorse shell element is Shell63. and the finite element model will be created with exact dimensions entered numerically. Given an initial structural concept. to give satisfactory results for a problem I ran.1. buckling.they can be a valuable resource to a designer (and to a job-hunter.Modeling Issues in FEA with ANSYS http://www3. This element supports large displacement. including your competitors -. which has plastic capability. (If plastic material properties have been entered. Using P-Elements.) If your element type 1 was Shell63. but don't give away secrets). an FEA model can be created. This makes the modify-and-assess design loop much more effective and can lead to significant cost savings. you can directly enter (by hand) a command like "ET. The FEA package can be used to investigate stress. or if it has significant inadequate design details (e.g. You may want to modify the KEYOPT values after this command. I have recently found Shell93. and it follows curved surfaces very well. There are several shell elements types available under ANSYS.html customization of the scope of supplied material and parts. so treat them well. or shortening a part until it no longer meets another part) or else the parametric approach must include means to accommodate these changes.g.) Some user work is required with mid-side node elements. If the model is complex. The user is cautioned that the P-elements do not support large displacement or plasticity. The advantage to this element is that mesh density does not have to be as great. but not plastic material properties. they will be ignored by Shell63. Shell143. underdesigned. During the finite element analyses that follow. varying the number of stiffeners. Properly interpreted results will show where the structure is overdesigned. Choosing an Appropriate Shell Element. If the model is only of moderate complexity. Optimization may be possible if time and sufficient skill are available. An FEA model can be derived from the CAD model such that updating the CAD model leads to updating of the FEA model. Design sensitivity can be assessed with respect to variations in some dimensions.

full-penetration welds. Failure Modes to Consider. Strains reach fracture levels in brittle materials. allowable load. The /POST26 Time History postprocessor can plot amplitude for a node versus frequency (see the PLCPLX key value).sympatico. fatigue or fracture may never have been properly assessed. work quality variation. The output is complex numbers that imply amplitude and phase. or other connection devices are too high. Moments tear a bolt circle apart because it was represented as a pinned (one bolt) joint. 8.html Harmonic Response. Buckling of components leads to local damage. Remember that when materials are welded together there is an implicit crack formed except where good-quality full-penetration welds are used. 7. the /POST1 postprocessor can use the SET command to load either the Real or the Imaginary component. in addition to other design details. Loads on bolts. Buckling and high deflection or stress are not assessed with Large Displacement analysis. 13. Stresses that exceed yield over regions of "questionable" size are accepted. the material choice. Textbooks are written on this topic. flutter damage. bevel welds. and inspection frequency can be affected.ca/peter_budgell/Modeling_issues. Combined bending and compression leads to excessive stress and failure. fillet welds. "A tolerable crack size needs to be large enough that it can be detected by a tired inspector on a Friday afternoon a half hour before quitting time. sudden fracture conditions may be reached. Deformations cause lock-up of parts that should slide or rotate. when it was needed.Modeling Issues in FEA with ANSYS http://www3. Only the reduced and modal methods can handle stress stiffening. stitch welds. 3. The structure is destroyed by flow induced vibration. plug welds. 6. 2. 15. Bolt holes weaken a section. and representation of details where trouble can occur. 9. and modal. Prying loads are not considered or properly assessed. nails. the units of mass must be input appropriately. but not both. (The capacity of a crack to cause sudden fracture in a structure increases with the size of the crack and with the stress level. If the FEA model ignores stress concentrations. Dynamic loads exceed anything considered in load factors for static loading. This is what ANSYS calls Steady State Frequency Response to constant harmonic input (an input forcing frequency that is sinusoidal steady state). rather than checked with a model that includes material plasticity (within design rules and "good practice"). There are many things an analyst may overlook. Fatigue failure and/or sudden fracture is reached. 4. Vibration frequencies are located where applied loading causes damage through large amplitude response. Margins of safety are not high enough to deal with material variability. and unknown or unexpected loading. As with all vibration and transient analyses. A damping ratio can be input using the DMPRAT command. and depends on the properties of the material. Surface strains cause damage to protective coatings. 14. or to progressive collapse. or high-intensity sound 17 de 21 10/11/2009 19:51 . 12. reduced. The phase differs from the phase of the input if the input is not at an eigenfrequency. adhesives. Buckling of the full structure is reached. Compression of tie-rods or links reaches buckling levels (FEA will not detect this for link elements). Static loads lead to stresses exceeding yield (or allowable stress) over a significant region. allowable stress. and are too high. spot welds. The manuals say that the /POST26 postprocessor can do things with the components. links.) To paraphrase a writer whose name I unfortunately can't recall. rivets." To keep a crack of detectable size from causing sudden fracture. Just a few of the many things to think and worry about include: 1. If cracks grow without detection. There are three ways available in ANSYS: full. 5. tie-rods. 11. Growing cracks need to be of a detectable size without causing sudden fracture. Loads on bolt holes are too high. 10.

much of which may not be due to load path forces being transferred through the bolts. setting the contact element friction coefficient to zero. Because of looseness of fit. or. and of hole position. Steel producers note that the quality and uniformity of their steel is much better than two or three decades ago.html or noise. Y. and of moment applied to a "bolt circle. diameter and alignment. I am usually referring to checking for structure failure when loading leads to stresses that exceed material yield over regions of questionable size.g. Note. Two possible approaches to margin of safety are: (1) Amplify the loading. the structural members undergo strain when they carry loads. This will usually NOT be strictly according to the rules laid out in design codes. depending on whether bolt preload or initial interference was included. The approach will depend on the industry and the codes followed. A single bolt might be represented in an FEA model as preventing motion in the X. "secondary displacement-driven" stresses. tolerancing of bolt diameter. Please send me your favorites. I noticed some recent discussion on ASME changes in the fraction of ultimate tensile stress (UTS) to be applied to some pressure vessel materials (some carbon and low alloy steels below creep temperatures in Section VIII. as well as rotations. at the expense of much slower solution. Where members are bolted together. and checks on vibration characteristics. some industries may differ. buckling. except rotation about the axis of the bolt. Contact elements may be wanted between the layers that are bolted together. or under loading that is important but not included in codes. and on whether it was acceptable to let friction carry any of the "in-plane" load -. to add to this list of failure modes. stress allowables may be reduced by temperature and by high temperature creep considerations. fatigue.sympatico. Some design codes have rules for "elastic-plastic" analysis. Other considerations will be different allowables for thermal stresses. In discussing nonlinear material properties in these web pages. This makes the FEA report very high forces on the individual bolts. e. and a spring that had a crack along the length of the wire from which it was produced. I have seen new steel plate that had laminar cracks more than a foot in size (roughly half a meter). handling and erection loads are not considered. Still. or are underestimated. This would be true of structural tension.1). Div. not all bolts will act simultaneously when a real structure is loaded up. 18 de 21 10/11/2009 19:51 . the overall structural strain will create high local forces as the bolts try to make one bolted member's strain match the other bolted member's strain. and Z directions. compression.g. QC checking and conservative designs will not go away any time soon. but is added as a check that the intent of codes and safety needs are considered under severe or unusual loading. etc. or for "fully plastic" analysis. 16. and shear forces that produce shear forces in the bolts. e. to twice the maximum static applied load (or far more with many civil engineering and other structures). The UTS fraction settings were said to put some ASME regulated designs at a competitive disadvantage on the world market. which would have to be studied and applied during design and analysis. Representation of a group of bolts (or rivets). Friction with these contact elements might or might not be considered.it may be important or necessary (per codes or for safety) to let the bolts carry all the "in-plane" load. Some structures need extra stiffening and protection from impact loads. as they relate to inadequacies and oversights in FEA.Modeling Issues in FEA with ANSYS http://www3. Other factors may bear. Shipping. this can introduce a problem: In the FEA model. and the lesser of a fraction of material yield or a smaller fraction of ultimate tensile stress. Stress Limits and Margin of Safety. and use the lesser of material yield or a fraction of ultimate tensile stress as the allowable limit. bending or torsion during shipping and handling." It may be decided in FEA to represent all bolts as being "tight" for the purpose of analysis.ca/peter_budgell/Modeling_issues. (2) Use the maximum static applied load.

and good judgment to find the allowable net stress. Given the price of the ANSYS software. approach would be to consider a minimum number of bolts and directions of bolt action. and other fasteners. a finer mesh. It might be decided to average the reported forces acting on the full group of bolts for tension forces. Analysts have been known to change employers over this issue. understand the concepts used in bolting. dollars will purchase a computer with large RAM (2 GB or 4 GB). bearing force. and to use the standard analytical approaches to force on a group of bolts.S. some staff training. using codes. It wouldn't hurt to review standard textbooks. rivets. In general. although this could result in FEA reporting overloaded bolts and high local stresses if the bolts are on the primary load path. Computer hardware affects the mesh density possible in FEA models. to take analyst "short cuts" that save model development time but increase computational expense. In the Windows XP world. A company may save thousands of dollars by using inadequate FEA hardware. Such is life. and discuss with people with expertise. The presence of a bolt or group of bolts means that the crossectional area of the bolted materials is reduced by the presence of the bolt holes. welds. and to save.) The load on this reduced number of bolts could be considered to be spread over the group of bolts. A few thousand dollars not spent on computing hardware is a visible "saving".4 or more GHz). to check effects such as large displacement buckling and plastic deformation. An FEA analyst had limited modeling to a coarse FEA mesh with small-displacement elastic analysis. process. Proper computer equipment. In practice. (How's that for a euphemism?) When analysts living with deadlines spend an unacceptable amount of time waiting on computer hardware while performing FEA work. I once heard of a product failing when highly loaded. fast processor (2. to run solutions. some of the bolts could be modeled as "loose" in this direction. the analyst needs to do extra work to examine the stress in the zone of the bolt holes.Modeling Issues in FEA with ANSYS http://www3. and plot the results.ca/peter_budgell/Modeling_issues. If there is no significant load path force in one direction. 19 de 21 10/11/2009 19:51 . Y million dollars in cost reductions also remain only a daydream if not proven in a non-rigged demonstration. Adequate Computer Hardware for FEA. and to a bolt circle with net moment on the group of bolts. and lose significantly more as a result. to check for errors. a few thousand U. X million dollars in design errors that could be prevented remain hypothetical until they happen. a computer costing only a fraction of the software cost can do a very substantial amount of analysis work given present (2004) hardware costs. to check unusual loadings. If the holes are not represented in the finite element model. and to vary a design in attempts to reduce weight and costs. on an underpowered older computer.sympatico. cheap laser printer. to be acting to resist forces and moments. all the bolts should be "tight" in the direction in which they pull the joined materials together (the bolt axis direction). Time saved by using better hardware makes it possible to use better resolution in a model when it matters. and more thorough post-processing of results (PowerGraphics plots of shell element midplane and surface stresses) could have detected a structural weakness. and plotted nodal averaged stresses. the user will want to consult codes and standards used in the appropriate industry. In an ideal world. Prevention would have been easier than modification. Convincing management of this can be another matter. possibly conservative. large hard drive (60 Gig or more). the time to develop FEA models. Remember to avoid significant prying loads on bolts. and analyzed manually. An alternative. standards. nonlinear analysis (large displacement and material plasticity). significant differences of opinion about computer hardware can develop between analysts and management. funding for the computer hardware is often set by people who are either unfamiliar with FEA and engineering. review. or who have noticed that the analysis detail sometimes expands to fill the available computing capacity. Your firm or industry may have "standard" ways of dealing with this analysis. (Usually.html I can't think of a simple way out of this dilemma. adequate computer hardware would only rarely be an FEA modeling issue. and total force in that zone.

as should any decent modern graphics card.this will depend on your work. with additional capacity to handle ANSYS solver temporary files for large models. In FEA work. The availability of drivers for your operating system should also be checked before the purchase of extras. I have found both 17" and 21" monitors to be sufficient for FEA modeling. and one for the model being run. prior to developing a final report with color images. working from an input file. for this reason some companies have PC machines with 2 GB or 4 GB of RAM -. A laser printer can be a fast inexpensive way to get black-and-white listings and plots during FEA work and report writing.ca/peter_budgell/Modeling_issues. (My comments here will gradually become out of date. with little swap file disk thrashing. so the refresh rate is not relevant for static images (60 Hz works with this LCD monitor and this display device does not flicker).a CD or DVD burner is often employed. A large RAM will permit larger models to be run with the SPARSE and PCG solvers in ANSYS. I can't say it with authority. Make sure that the cheapest monitor purchased supports at least refresh rates of 70 Hz or higher at resolutions of 1024 x 768 pixels or higher.html colored ink-jet printer. and have to be properly set up by the end user. A budget of several thousand dollars will allow a PC with a 2 CPU motherboard. and cause eye strain.Modeling Issues in FEA with ANSYS http://www3. and graphics card to an ANSYS tested powerful OpenGL card. All that was wrong was that the refresh rate was at 60 Hz.) I currently use a 17" LCD monitor at 1280 x 1024. A large RAM will help your solutions work quietly in the background. Many PC computers are delivered running their monitors at a refresh rate of 60 Hz. I suspect that the money could be better spent on a larger RAM or dual-processor machine.g. A CRT monitor refresh rate lower than 70 Hz will cause the eye to perceive flicker of the image. RAM is currently very cheap. With large models. and using the frontal solver on very large jobs). The optometrist didn't know about this phenomenon or its fix. Today's graphics cards are cheap enough that this resolution should be supported with 24-bit color. this should be a helpful investment. Models too large for a 32-bit operating system with the any solver will require a move to a 64-bit operating system and RAM larger than 4 GBytes. The OpenGL cards that ANSYS suggests should result in much faster model graphics display. A new monitor should support a resolution of at least 1280 x 1024 pixels at 75 Hz or higher. change the hard drive to a fast version of SCSI. monitor to a 21" CRT or a 19" to 21" LCD. 17" or larger monitor. but I have the impression that a SCSI hard drive will transfer information with less interruption of operation of the computer. Printers can be relatively inexpensive. A substantial amount of work can be done cheaply with gray-scaled plot prints. Informed people prefer 75 Hz or more. I would prefer that it be set to 1280 x 1024 pixels running at 85 Hz. I keep both a gray-scaled and a colored ANSYS color map on my toolbar to move quickly between black-and-white and color.sympatico. including substantial results file storage. I have heard that having two SCSI drives. and an adequate backup device -. for disk-intensive aspects of FEA work (e. but if using a CRT monitor. although you can run up fairly high bills for colored ink if you generate large numbers of plots. 4 GB RAM.) Hard drives have become very cheap. A color ink-jet printer is the least expensive way to get 20 de 21 10/11/2009 19:51 . FEA work is one of the numerically intensive applications that justifies the extra expense of a very fast processor. one for the operating system including the virtual memory swap file. a hard drive should be able to store a significant amount of work-in-progress and recent completed work. Large budgets take the purchaser into the world of very fast Windows or UNIX machines with 64-bit operating systems and multiple processors. (I've known people who went to the optometrist because the computer screen was bothering their eyes. Your ANSYS vendor can probably advise on high-end equipment. can improve some FEA operations. graphics card with 32 Mbytes or more of RAM. Make sure that the graphics card matches or exceeds the monitor's resolution and refresh rates.

21 de 21 10/11/2009 19:51 . or a colored laser printer for high-volume high-priced work.ca/peter_budgell/Modeling_issues. E-mail Address: Please see my main page. If a larger budget is available. 1998. Budgell -. October 22. Return to Main Page. In some companies the speed-up in analysis work will pay for the equipment in short order.ansys.Modeling Issues in FEA with ANSYS http://www3.You are welcome to print and photocopy these pages (don't plagiarize or sell the contents).com For more links. consider an ink-jet that generates 11" x 17" plots.sympatico. minor update in January 2004. Link to: The ANSYS® Home Page at www.html helpful colored plots. Top of Page Return to Main Page FEA and Optimization Introduction Page ANSYS® Tips Page © 1998 by Peter C.

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