This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Page 1 of 6
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Missile guidance refers to a variety of methods of guiding a missile or a guided bomb to its intended target. The missile's target accuracy is a critical factor for its effectiveness. Guidance systems improve missile accuracy by improving its "Single Shot Kill Probability" (SSKP). These guidance technologies can generally be divided up into a number of categories, with the broadest categories being "active," "passive" and "preset" guidance. Missiles and guided bombs generally use similar types of guidance system, the difference between the two being that missiles are powered by an onboard engine, whereas guided bombs rely on the speed and height of the launch aircraft for propulsion.
1 Categories of guidance systems 2 GOT systems 2.1 Remote control guidance 2.1.1 Command to Line-Of-Sight (CLOS) 2.1.2 Command Off Line-Of-Sight (COLOS) 2.1.3 Line-Of-Sight Beam Riding Guidance (LOSBR)
2.2 Homing guidance 2.2.1 Active homing 2.2.2 Semi-active homing 2.2.3 Passive homing 2.2.4 Retransmission homing
A guided bomb strikes a practice target
3 GOLIS systems 3.1 Inertial guidance 3.2 Preset guidance 3.3 Celestial guidance 3.4 Terrestrial guidance 4 See also 5 References
Categories of guidance systems
Guidance systems are divided into different categories according to what type of target they are designed for - either fixed targets or moving targets. The weapons can be divided into two broad categories, Go-Onto-Target (GOT) and Go-Onto-Location-in-Space (GOLIS) guidance systems.  A GOT missile can target either a moving or fixed target, whereas a GOLIS weapon is limited to a stationary or near-stationary target. The trajectory that a missile takes while attacking a moving target is dependent upon the movement of the target. Also, a moving target can be an immediate threat to the sender of the missile. The target needs to be eliminated in a timely fashion in order to preserve the integrity of the sender. In GOLIS systems the problem is simpler because the target is
Homing Guidance: The guidance computers are in the missile and in the target tracker. The 2 variants are Command to Line-Of-Sight (CLOS) Command Off Line-Of-Sight (COLOS) Line-Of-Sight Beam Riding Guidance (LOSBR) . in order to fly inside the beam that the launching platform is using to illuminate the target.wikipedia. In the case of glide bombs or missiles against ships or the supersonic Wasserfall against slow-moving B-17 Flying Fortress bombers this system worked. The target tracking and the missile tracking and control is performed manually. the trajectory is controlled with the information transmitted via radio or wire. MCLOS is a subtype of command guided systems.Wikipedia. in other words. The operator watches the missile flight and uses some sort of signaling system to command the missile back into the straight line between the operator and the target (the "line of sight"). The missile will have to be in the line of sight between the launcher and the target (LOS).Missile guidance . Due to the amount of missiles that use this guidance system.org/wiki/Missile_guidance 17/2/2011 . Typically useful only for slower targets where significant "lead" is not required. the free encyclopedia Page 2 of 6 not moving. It can be manual or automatic.The missile tracker is on the launching platform. but as speeds increased MCLOS was quickly rendered useless for most roles. The target tracker is also placed on the launching platform.The missile tracker is on board the missile. Semi-Manual Command to Line-Of-Sight (SMCLOS). GOT systems In every GOT system there are three subsystems: Target tracker Missile tracker Guidance computer The way these three subsystems are distributed between the missile and the launcher result in two different categories: Remote Control Guidance: The guidance computer is on the launcher. Command to Line-Of-Sight (CLOS) The CLOS system uses only the angular coordinates between the missile and the target to ensure the collision. they are usually are subdivided into four groups: Manual Command to Line-Of-Sight (MCLOS). The target tracking is automatic and the missile tracking and control is manual Semi-Automatic Command to Line-Of-Sight (SACLOS). Remote control guidance These guidance systems usually need the use of radars and a radio or wired link between the control point and the missile. System include Command Guidance . correcting any deviation of the missile in relation to this line. It has already some orientation capability. The target tracking is manual and http://en. These missiles are totally controlled by the launching platform that sends all control orders to the missile.
and even the laser can be degraded by bad weather. radar or laser. A case in point is later versions of the RIM-8 Talos missile as used in Vietnam . Since the missile is typically being launched after the target was detected using a powerful radar system. *SACLOS has the advantage of allowing the missile to start in a position invisible to the user. both target and missile trackers have to be active.wikipedia. it makes sense to use that same radar system to track the target.Wikipedia. This means that they will not rely on the angular coordinates like in CLOS systems. Command Off Line-Of-Sight (COLOS) This guidance system was one of the first to be used and still is in service. This gave the enemy pilot the least possible warning that his aircraft was being illuminated by missile guidance radar. the missile tracker and the target tracker can be oriented in different directions. They are always automatic and the radar has been used as the only sensor in these systems. so the two systems are complementary. so in a smaller missile these systems are useful for attacking only large targets. in other systems the beam is part of an automated radar tracking system. Typically electronics in the missile keep the radar pointed directly at the target. the more accurate SARH homing being used at the last moment for the actual strike. To make it possible. Is similar to MCLOS but some automatic system positions the missile in the line of sight while the operator simply tracks the target. Laser beam riders are more accurate in this regards. but are all short-range. SARH becomes more accurate with decreasing distance to the target. and in "fire-andforget" air-to-air missile systems such as AMRAAM and R-77 Semi-active homing Semi-active homing systems combine a radar receiver on the missile with a radar broadcaster located "elsewhere". Automatic Command to Line-Of-Sight (ACLOS). Beam riding systems are often SACLOS. The target tracking.org/wiki/Missile_guidance 17/2/2011 . as opposed to search radar. Homing guidance Active homing Active homing uses a radar system on the missile to provide a guidance signal. typically radio. This is an important distinction.the radar beam was used to take the missile on a high arcing flight and then gradually brought down in the vertical plane of the target aircraft. thereby http://en. The guidance system ensures the interception missile-target by locate both in space. On the other hand. They will need another coordinate which is distance. LOSBR suffers from the inherent weakness of inaccuracy with increasing range as the beam spreads out. The SM-2MR Standard is inertially guided during its midcourse phase. ships or large bombers for instance. and the missile then looks at this "angle" of its own centerline to guide itself. but it is assisted by a COLOS system via radar link provided by the AN/SPY-1 radar installed in the launching platform. SACLOS is the most common form of guidance against ground targets such as tanks and bunkers. as well as generally being considerably easier to operate. as the nature of the signal differs. Active radar systems remain in widespread use in anti-shipping missiles. Line-Of-Sight Beam Riding Guidance (LOSBR) LOSBR uses a "beam" of some sort. missile tracking and control are automatic. Radar resolution is based on the size of the antenna. is pointed at the target and detectors on the rear of the missile keep it centered in the beam. but do not have to be. the free encyclopedia Page 3 of 6 the missile tracking and control is automatic. mainly in anti-aircraft missiles. and is used as a cue for evasive action. In this system.Missile guidance .
is a hybrid between command guidance. to image a field of view in front of the missile.Wikipedia. SARH is by far the most common "all weather" guidance solution for anti-aircraft systems. typically black and white. This has the potential to bring it within range of shorter-ranged IR-guided missile systems. it must contain preset information about the target. They are subdivided function of their missile tracker's type: Entirely autonomous .wikipedia. however they're not always entirely autonomous due to the missile trackers used. the free encyclopedia Page 4 of 6 avoiding problems with resolution or power. because most ground targets can be distinguished only by visual means. the electronics in the missile look for the spot on the image where the contrast changes the fastest. also called Track Via Missile(TVM). it has also been used in the anti-vehicle role with some success. These systems' main characteristic is the lack of target tracker. and even traditional camouflage can render them unable to "lock on". SALH is a similar system using a laser as a signal.Systems where the missile tracker is not dependent of any navigation external source. There is only one type of guidance system of this kind: Navigational Guidance. GOLIS systems Whatever the GOLIS guidance system. Retransmission homing Main article: Track-via-missile Retransmission homing. Typically used in the anti-aircraft role to track the heat of jet engines. including the AGM-65 Maverick. However they rely on there being strong contrast changes to track. semi-active radar homing and active radar homing. and can be divided in: Inertial Guidance With gyro-stabilized platform With strapdown platform http://en. something which did not prevail in the early days of guided missiles. which relays commands back to the missile. Passive homing Infrared homing is a passive system in which heat generated by the target is detected and homed on. For ships and mobile or fixed ground-based systems. These systems are also known as Self Contained Guidance Systems. this is irrelevant as the speed (and often size) of the launch platform precludes "running away" from the target or opening the range so as to make the enemy attack fail. It has the disadvantage for air-launched systems that the launch aircraft must keep moving towards the target in order to maintain radar and guidance lock. and then attempts to keep that spot at a constant location in its view. This means of guidance is sometimes also referred to as "heat seeking". both vertically and horizontally. Contrast seekers use a television camera. Contrast seekers have been used for air-to-ground missiles. which is presented to the operator.Missile guidance . The guidance computer and the missile tracker are located in the missile. an important consideration now that "all aspect" IR missiles are capable of "kills" from head on. When launched. The missile picks up radiation broadcast by the tracking radar which bounces off the target and relays it to the tracking station. The other two units are on board the missile. Navigational guidance is any type of guidance executed by a system without target tracker.org/wiki/Missile_guidance 17/2/2011 . both ground and air launched.
Modern systems use solid state ring laser gyros that are accurate to within metres over ranges of 10. maneuvers the missile to follow that path. All the guidance components (including sensors such as accelerometers or gyroscopes) are contained within the missile.000 km. An example of a missile using Preset Guidance is the V-2 rocket. GPS and radar terrain mapping to achieve extremely high levels of accuracy such as that found in modern cruise missiles. Preset guidance Preset guidance is the simplest type of missile guidance. the free encyclopedia Page 5 of 6 Preset Guidance Dependent on natural sources . Before firing. the trajectory of the flight path is determined. and no longer require additional inputs.Missile guidance . and no outside information (such as radio instructions) is used. but which provide an inexpensive means of attaining a fairly accurate fix on location (when most airliners such as Boeing's 707 and 747 were designed. Early mechanical systems were not very accurate. and required some sort of external adjustment to allow them to hit targets even the size of a city. Gyroscope development has culminated in the AIRS found on the MX missile. Today guided weapons can use a combination of INS.Navigational guidance systems where the missile tracker depends of some external source that is provided by any artificial means: Satellite Navigation Global Positioning System (GPS) GLObal NAvigation Satellite System (GLONASS) DECCA LORAN C Hyperbolic Navigation Inertial guidance Main article: inertial guidance Inertial Guidance uses sensitive measurement devices to calculate the location of the missile due to the acceleration put on it after leaving a known position.Wikipedia. From the distance and direction of the target.Navigational guidance systems where the missile tracker depends of some external source that is provided by nature: Celestial Guidance Terrestrial Guidance Topographic Reconnaissance (Ex: TERCOM) Photographic Reconnaissance (Ex: DSMAC) Magnetic Guidance Dependent on artificial sources . during flight. this information is programmed into the missile's guidance system. It uses star positioning to fine-tune the accuracy of the inertial guidance http://en. which.wikipedia.org/wiki/Missile_guidance 17/2/2011 . allowing for an accuracy of less than 100m at intercontinental ranges. GPS was not the widely commercially available means of tracking that it is today). Many civilian aircraft use inertial guidance using the ring laser gyroscope. Celestial guidance Celestial guidance was first used in the American Snark missile (Nortronics stellar-inertial guidance) first flown on 06/08/1953. which is less accurate than the mechanical systems found in ICBMs.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.