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# PROFOUNDLY PERPLEXING PUZZLES

DEVIOUSLY DIFFICULT DEDUCTIONS

**SUPREMELY SATISFYING SOLUTIONS
**

by

Phil Lloyd

First Published 2007 Published by LULU © Phil Lloyd 2007 All Rights Reserved

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to Pip with all my love: always a puzzle, never a problem

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CONTENTS

Page 1 Page 3 Page 33 Page 95

Introduction Profoundly Perplexing Puzzles Deviously Difficult Deductions Supremely Satisfying Solutions

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INTRODUCTION

If you enjoy Sudoku number-based puzzles and are looking to 'raise your game' to the ultimate level then this is the book for you. Even if you are new to number puzzles, the startlingly simple instructions and crystal clear grids provide an easy introduction to this totally absorbing and intellectually stimulating pastime. To solve any of the puzzles in this collection, all you need is a natural ability to apply sequential logic and deductive reasoning. Every puzzle is a whodunnit in its purest form with each page being a scene of crime and each clue providing vital forensic evidence. However, unlike those misleading murder mysteries, there are no lateral-thinking conundrums, no ambiguous instructions, no contradictory revelations and no specialist knowledge necessary. By determining means, motive and opportunity as well as moving from the possible to the probable to the provable, every ‘crime’ contained herein can be solved by using deductive reasoning. All you need is the perception and intelligence to identify and pursue the right line of enquiry. The only technique to rely on is sequential logic. As when peeling an onion, every clue you identify will expose another clue that would otherwise have remained hidden. In every case there are dozens and dozens of such layers, each providing another piece of crucial information that, when analysed correctly together with all of the other clues you have identified, will enable you to solve each mystery. Although these puzzles use numbers as clues, no maths is involved apart from very occasional and very simple addition and subtraction, as if you were deducting the number of murder victims from the number of people present… and don’t forget to include the butler! Each set of digits could have been a cartel of corporate criminals, a network of international spies or an organisation of political anarchists

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whilst the squares in each grid could have been warring European states, antechambers of intrigue at a medieval royal court, a treasure map or a series of secret meeting places on a mist-shrouded moor. All of this dressing up has been rejected so as to present you with the bare bones of 28 mystery stories for you to solve by using pure skill, detection and logic - with definitely NO red herrings. An added bonus is that there are four puzzles of each generic type, which means that, like a specialist investigating a specific type of crime such as murder, blackmail, fraud, etc., you can develop a preferred strategy and ‘best method’ for each genre. You will become more expert with more experience. As with all investigators, each time you start a new case, you can refer back to your notes on how you solved the last one of its type to help you in your quest. This is not to say that the different genres are in any way similar. Each group of puzzles may look alike with regard to the layout and the characters (as, indeed, the layout and the characters in ‘Murder at the Manor’ mysteries do) but, with regard to the plot and method of deduction, they are totally different and each have their own individual and intriguing idiosyncrasies. The solutions are provided but only to check against the completed grid. It does not help in any way to refer to the solution, as it doesn’t ‘prove’ your deductions. If you do need a helping hand, one deduction for each puzzle (of many, as there are many different ways of reaching the solution) is given in full. Simply read through the deductive process until you realise how to proceed and then STOP READING! Puzzles have never been so profoundly perplexing, nor deductions so deviously difficult, nor solutions so supremely satisfying. Good luck! Phil Lloyd Summer 2007 Stratford-upon-Avon

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PROFOUNDLY PERPLEXING PUZZLES

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PUZZLE 01

A L M N P R S T U K

B 1 4 7 6 5 2 8 3 B

C D E F G H J 7 3 2 4 5 8 6 2 1 8 4 3 7 4 2 8 7 1 6 5 C D E F G H J

K L M N P R S T U A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 64 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 8 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 8 appear exactly eight times each. • Digits in the 28 outer squares are shown but not those in the 36 inner squares. • No digit is repeated in any row, column or diagonally adjacent squares. • One corner-to-corner diagonal contains two 8s and two 4s. • The other corner-to-corner diagonal contains two 7s and two 6s. • All of the repeated digits on the two long diagonals have been given. • Can you deduce the whereabouts of all 36 digits?

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PUZZLE 02

A B C D E F G J K L M N P H B C D E F G

H J K L M N P A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 36 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 9 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 9 appear exactly four times each. • No digit is repeated in adjacent squares, including diagonally. • The six digits in each of the fourteen lines add up to the following totals: A 29(6)(4) B 37 C 27 D 26(1)(6) E 25(7)(2) F 34(5) G 31 H 34(7)(3) J 25(1)(5) K 33(9) L 16(3)(2) M 45(8)(9) N 25(4)(6) P 36(7)(8) • Any digit repeated in any of the fourteen lines is shown in brackets. • No digit appears more than twice in any line. • Can you deduce the whereabouts of all 36 digits?

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PUZZLE 03

A B C D E G H J K F B C D E

F G H J K A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 16 squares above contain a different two-digit number. • All of these numbers are in a contiguous numerical sequence. • A is the only line to have the same first digit in all four numbers. • B is the only line to have four consecutive numbers. • C is the only line to have the highest total of 176. • D is the only line to have just two different digits. • E is the only line to have none of the other 9 characteristics. • F is the only line to have the lowest total of 151. • G is the only line to have four odd numbers. • H is the only line to have both the highest and lowest numbers which, incidentally, happen to divide by the same prime number. • J is the only line whose four first digits of each number total the same as the second four digits without using all the same digits as in D. • K is the only line to have four even numbers. • Can you deduce the whereabouts of all 16 two-digit numbers?

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PUZZLE 04

A B C D E F G 19 35 33 41 8 H H 26 56 69 29 44 J J 50 51 52 64 28 K K 19 78 50 58 40 L L 47 26 58 35 43 M M G B C D E F A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 25 squares above contain a hidden number between 1 and 25 inclusive. • No hidden number is repeated. • No consecutive hidden numbers are diagonally adjacent. • No consecutive hidden numbers are in the same row or column. • No consecutive hidden numbers are in the same long diagonal. • All of the 25 squares above also show an open number. • Open numbers may be repeated. • Each open number is the sum of the adjacent hidden orthogonal numbers but not the adjacent hidden diagonal numbers. • Corner squares show the sum of their two adjacent hidden numbers. • Outer squares show the sum of their three adjacent hidden numbers. • Inner squares show the sum of their four adjacent hidden numbers. • Can you deduce the whereabouts of all 25 hidden numbers?

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PUZZLE 05

A B C D E F G H H J J K K L L M M G B C D E F A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 25 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 5 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 5 appear exactly 5 times each. • The 5 digits in each of the 12 lines add up to the following totals: A 16(2)(2) B 16(2) C 20(3) D 13(2)(2) E 14(3) F 12(2)(2) G 17(3)(2) H 19(2) J 13(2) K 11(2) L 17(2) M 15 • The numbers in brackets indicate repeated digits in that line. • (2) means one digit appears twice and none appear three times. • (2)(2) means two digits appear twice and none appear three times. • (3) means one digit appears three times and none appear twice. • (3)(2) means one digit appears twice and one appears three times. • Can you deduce the whereabouts of all 25 digits?

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PUZZLE 06

A B C D E F G J K L M N P H B C D E F G

H J K L M N P A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 36 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 3 inclusive. • Each line of 6 squares contains two 1s, two 2s and two 3s: A* The 3s are between the 2s H No pair encloses another B* The 1s are between the 3s J* The 1s are between the 2s C* The 2s are between the 1s K No pair encloses another D* The 3s are between the 2s L The 3s are between the 1s E The 3s are between the 1s M* The 3s are between the 1s F The 1s are between the 2s N The 1s are between the 3s G The 2s are between the 3s P No pair encloses another • There may be more digits enclosed by a pair than those identified. • Not all enclosed pairs may be stated. • (*) means that at least one pair of digits are adjacent in that line. • All lines with adjacent pairs are identified by (*). • Adjacent pairs need not necessarily be enclosed. • Can you deduce the whereabouts of all 36 digits?

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PUZZLE 07

A B C D E F G J K L M N P H B C D E F G

H J K L M N P A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 36 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 6 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 6 appear exactly 6 times each. • No digit is repeated in the same rank or file. • No digit is repeated in diagonally adjacent squares. • Below are nine sets of three contiguous squares and their totals: BM+BN+BP=15 CJ+CK+CL=12 DL+DM+DN=7 EL+EM+EN=14 FM+FN+FP=6 GJ+GK+GL=12 GK+GL+GM=10 KE+KF+KG=7 PD+PE+PF=13 • Can you deduce the whereabouts of all 36 digits?

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PUZZLE 08

A L M N P R S T U K

B 1 8 3 5 7 2 4 6 B

C D E F G H J 7 8 6 4 3 2 5 3 4 7 8 6 1 1 3 8 7 5 4 2 C D E F G H J

K L M N P R S T U A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 64 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 8 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 8 appear exactly eight times each. • Digits in the 28 outer squares are shown but not those in the 36 inner squares. • No digit is repeated in any row, column or diagonally adjacent squares. • One corner-to-corner diagonal contains two 8s and two 7s. • All of the repeated digits on the two long diagonals have been given. • Can you deduce the whereabouts of all 36 digits?

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PUZZLE 09

A B C D E F G J K L M N P H B C D E F G

H J K L M N P A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 36 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 9 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 9 appear exactly four times each. • No digit is repeated in adjacent squares, including diagonally. • The six digits in each of the fourteen lines add up to the following totals: A 25(2) B 41(9) C 16(1) D 32(5)(6) E 28(4)(7) F 37(9) G 26(3) H 25(1)(9) J 28(6) K 37(8) L 22(1)(3) M 28(2)(4) N 27(7) P 38(5)(8) • Any digit repeated in any of the fourteen lines is shown in brackets. • No digit appears more than twice in any line. • Can you deduce the whereabouts of all 36 digits?

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PUZZLE 10

A B C D E G H J K F B C D E

F G H J K A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 16 squares above contain a different two-digit number. • All of these numbers are in a contiguous numerical sequence. • A is the only line to have a difference of 13 between the sum of its four first digits and the sum of its four second digits. • B is the only line to have four consecutive numbers. • C is the only line to have a total of 293. • D is the only line to have the highest total of 316. • E is the only line to have a second digit repeated and which, incidentally, totals 301. • F is the only line to have three different first digits. • G is the only line to have four even numbers. • H is the only line to have four odd numbers. • J is the only line to have both the highest and lowest numbers which, incidentally, happen to divide by the same prime number. • K is the only line to have the same first digit in all four numbers. • Can you deduce the whereabouts of all 16 two-digit numbers?

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PUZZLE 11

A B C D E F G 13 47 47 26 46 H H 42 47 35 84 28 J J 25 47 75 33 46 K K 35 43 55 55 49 L L 6 47 36 54 14 M M G B C D E F A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 25 squares above contain a hidden number between 1 and 25 inclusive. • No hidden number is repeated. • No consecutive hidden numbers are diagonally adjacent. • No consecutive hidden numbers are in the same row or column. • No consecutive hidden numbers are in the same long diagonal. • All of the 25 squares above also show an open number. • Open numbers may be repeated. • Each open number is the sum of the adjacent hidden orthogonal numbers but not the adjacent hidden diagonal numbers. • Corner squares show the sum of their two adjacent hidden numbers. • Outer squares show the sum of their three adjacent hidden numbers. • Inner squares show the sum of their four adjacent hidden numbers. • Can you deduce the whereabouts of all 25 hidden numbers?

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PUZZLE 12

A B C D E F G H H J J K K L L M M G B C D E F A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 25 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 5 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 5 appear exactly 5 times each. • The 5 digits in each of the 12 lines add up to the following totals: A 15 B 9(2)(2) C 13(2)(2) D 16(2) E 21(3) F 16(2)(2) G 15 H 10(3) J 16(3)(2) K 19(2)(2) L 11(2)(2) M 19(3)(2) • The numbers in brackets indicate repeated digits in that line. • (2) means one digit appears twice and none appear three times. • (2)(2) means two digits appear twice and none appear three times. • (3) means one digit appears three times and none appear twice. • (3)(2) means one digit appears twice and one appears three times. • Can you deduce the whereabouts of all 25 digits?

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PUZZLE 13

A B C D E F G J K L M N P H B C D E F G

H J K L M N P A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 36 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 3 inclusive. • Each line of 6 squares contains two 1s, two 2s and two 3s: A* The 1s are between the 2s H The 3s are between the 1s B* The 1s are between the 3s J* The 3s are between the 2s C* The 2s are between the 1s K The 1s are between the 3s D No pair encloses another L* No pair encloses another E* The 3s are between the 2s M* The 3s are between the 2s F* The 3s are between the 2s N The 2s are between the 1s G The 2s are between the 1s P The 1s are between the 3s • There may be more digits enclosed by a pair than those identified. • Not all enclosed pairs may be stated. • (*) means that at least one pair of digits are adjacent in that line. • All lines with adjacent pairs are identified by (*). • Adjacent pairs need not necessarily be enclosed. • Can you deduce the whereabouts of all 36 digits?

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PUZZLE 14

A B C D E F G J K L M N P H B C D E F G

H J K L M N P A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 36 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 6 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 6 appear exactly 6 times each. • No digit is repeated in the same rank or file. • No digit is repeated in diagonally adjacent squares. • Below are eight sets of three contiguous squares and their totals: BL+BM+BN=7 BM+BN+BP=9 CJ+CK+CL=9 DK+DL+DM=15 GL+GM+GN=15 JD+JE+JF=13 LC+LD+LE=8 ME+MF+MG=10 • Can you deduce the whereabouts of all 36 digits?

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PUZZLE 15

A L M N P R S T U K

B 6 2 3 7 1 5 4 8 B

C D E F G H J 4 3 2 8 7 5 1 8 6 4 5 2 3 1 6 3 5 2 4 7 C D E F G H J

K L M N P R S T U A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 64 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 8 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 8 appear exactly eight times each. • Digits in the 28 outer squares are shown but not those in the 36 inner squares. • No digit is repeated in any row, column or diagonally adjacent squares. • One corner-to-corner diagonal contains two 8s and two 3s. • The other corner-to-corner diagonal contains two 8s. • All of the repeated digits on the two long diagonals have been given. • Can you deduce the whereabouts of all 36 digits?

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PUZZLE 16

A B C D E F G J K L M N P H B C D E F G

H J K L M N P A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 36 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 9 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 9 appear exactly four times each. • No digit is repeated in adjacent squares, including diagonally. • The six digits in each of the fourteen lines add up to the following totals: A 30(8)(1) B 26 C 28(7) D 36(4) E 29(3) F 26(9)(1) G 35(5) H 21(3) J 27(4) K 32(6)(8) L 35(5) M 33(7) N 30(9)(3) P 23(2) • Any digit repeated in any of the fourteen lines is shown in brackets. • No digit appears more than twice in any line. • Can you deduce the whereabouts of all 36 digits?

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PUZZLE 17

A B C D E G H J K F B C D E

F G H J K A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 16 squares above contain a different two-digit number. • All of these numbers are in a contiguous numerical sequence. • A is the only line to have a difference of 12 between the sum of its four first digits and the sum of its four second digits. • B is the only line to have both the highest and lowest numbers and, incidentally, is the only line to have three different first digits. • C is the only line to have four even numbers. • D is the only line to have the same first digit in all four numbers. • E is the only line to have four odd numbers. • F is the only line to have a total of 323. • G is the only line to have four consecutive numbers. • H is the only line to have the lowest total of 319. • J is the only line to have the highest total of 349. • K is the only line to have just two different digits. • Can you deduce the whereabouts of all 16 two-digit numbers?

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PUZZLE 18

A B C D E F G 12 57 24 52 10 H H 36 32 66 48 40 J J 33 50 66 39 44 K K 34 49 47 87 24 L L 21 46 49 27 41 M M G B C D E F A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 25 squares above contain a hidden number between 1 and 25 inclusive. • No hidden number is repeated. • No consecutive hidden numbers are diagonally adjacent. • No consecutive hidden numbers are in the same row or column. • No consecutive hidden numbers are in the same long diagonal. • All of the 25 squares above also show an open number. • Open numbers may be repeated. • Each open number is the sum of the adjacent hidden orthogonal numbers but not the adjacent hidden diagonal numbers. • Corner squares show the sum of their two adjacent hidden numbers. • Outer squares show the sum of their three adjacent hidden numbers. • Inner squares show the sum of their four adjacent hidden numbers. • Can you deduce the whereabouts of all 25 hidden numbers?

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PUZZLE 19

A B C D E F G H H J J K K L L M M G B C D E F A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 25 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 5 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 5 appear exactly 5 times each. • The 5 digits in each of the 12 lines add up to the following totals: A 17(3)(2) B 16(3) C 11(3) D 21(3)(2) E 19(2) F 8(3) G 10(3) H 17(2) J 18(3) K 12(3)(2) L 12(2)(2) M 16(2) • The numbers in brackets indicate repeated digits in that line. • (2) means one digit appears twice and none appear three times. • (2)(2) means two digits appear twice and none appear three times. • (3) means one digit appears three times and none appear twice. • (3)(2) means one digit appears twice and one appears three times. • Can you deduce the whereabouts of all 25 digits?

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PUZZLE 20

A B C D E F G J K L M N P H B C D E F G

H J K L M N P A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 36 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 3 inclusive. • Each line of 6 squares contains two 1s, two 2s and two 3s: A* No pair encloses another H No pair encloses another B* The 2s are between the 1s J* The 2s are between the 3s C* The 3s are between the 1s K* The 3s are between the 1s D The 3s are between the 1s L* The 1s are between the 3s E* The 1s are between the 2s M The 3s are between the 1s F* No pair encloses another N The 1s are between the 2s G No pair encloses another P* The 3s are between the 1s • There may be more digits enclosed by a pair than those identified. • Not all enclosed pairs may be stated. • (*) means that at least one pair of digits are adjacent in that line. • All lines with adjacent pairs are identified by (*). • Adjacent pairs need not necessarily be enclosed. • Can you deduce the whereabouts of all 36 digits?

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PUZZLE 21

A B C D E F G J K L M N P H B C D E F G

H J K L M N P A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 36 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 6 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 6 appear exactly 6 times each. • No digit is repeated in the same rank or file. • No digit is repeated in diagonally adjacent squares. • Below are seven sets of three contiguous squares and their totals: BJ+BK+BL=14 DM+DN+DP=15 GJ+GK+GL=7 JB+JC+JD=11 KC+KD+KE=11 MC+MD+ME=11 NB+NC+ND=11 • Can you deduce the whereabouts of all 36 digits?

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PUZZLE 22

A L M N P R S T U K

B 2 5 3 8 4 1 7 6 B

C D E F G H J 1 8 7 3 6 5 4 1 7 6 5 2 8 5 4 2 1 8 7 3 C D E F G H J

K L M N P R S T U A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 64 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 8 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 8 appear exactly eight times each. • Digits in the 28 outer squares are shown but not those in the 36 inner squares. • No digit is repeated in any row, column or diagonally adjacent squares. • One corner-to-corner diagonal contains two 5s and two 6s. • The other corner-to-corner diagonal contains two 3s. • All of the repeated digits on the two long diagonals have been given. • Can you deduce the whereabouts of all 36 digits?

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PUZZLE 23

A B C D E F G J K L M N P H B C D E F G

H J K L M N P A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 36 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 9 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 9 appear exactly four times each. • No digit is repeated in adjacent squares, including diagonally. • The six digits in each of the fourteen lines add up to the following totals: A 18(2)(3) B 31 C 26(2)(4) D 26(1) E 25(2) F 34(5) G 38(7) H 29(4) J 29(3)(8) K 27(2)(5) L 34(4)(7) M 34(6) N 32(1)(9) P 24 • Any digit repeated in any of the fourteen lines is shown in brackets. • No digit appears more than twice in any line. • Can you deduce the whereabouts of all 36 digits?

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PUZZLE 24

A B C D E G H J K F B C D E

F G H J K A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 16 squares above contain a different two-digit number. • All of these numbers are in a contiguous numerical sequence. • A is the only line to have the same first digit in all four numbers. • B is the only line to have just two different digits. • C is the only line to have four odd numbers. • D is the only line to have four even numbers. • E is the only line to have four consecutive numbers. • F is the only line to have none of the other lines’ characteristics. • G is the only line to have both the highest and lowest numbers. • H is the only line to have the lowest total of 187. • J is the only line to have all four numbers divisible by 3. • K is the only line to have the highest total of 213. • Can you deduce the whereabouts of all 16 two-digit numbers?

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PUZZLE 25

A B C D E F G 15 47 31 34 40 H H 53 24 56 55 28 J J 25 77 33 62 30 K K 44 47 78 47 40 L L 29 33 54 41 23 M M G B C D E F A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 25 squares above contain a hidden number between 1 and 25 inclusive. • No hidden number is repeated. • No consecutive hidden numbers are diagonally adjacent. • No consecutive hidden numbers are in the same row or column. • No consecutive hidden numbers are in the same long diagonal. • All of the 25 squares above also show an open number. • Open numbers may be repeated. • Each open number is the sum of the adjacent hidden orthogonal numbers but not the adjacent hidden diagonal numbers. • Corner squares show the sum of their two adjacent hidden numbers. • Outer squares show the sum of their three adjacent hidden numbers. • Inner squares show the sum of their four adjacent hidden numbers. • Can you deduce the whereabouts of all 25 hidden numbers?

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PUZZLE 26

A B C D E F G H H J J K K L L M M G B C D E F A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 25 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 5 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 5 appear exactly 5 times each. • The 5 digits in each of the 12 lines add up to the following totals: A 15 B 15 C 12(3)(2) D 18(3) E 16(2) F 14(3)(2) G 13(2)(2) H 16(2) J 9(3)(2) K 10(3) L 21(3) M 19(3) • The numbers in brackets indicate repeated digits in that line. • (2) means one digit appears twice and none appear three times. • (2)(2) means two digits appear twice and none appear three times. • (3) means one digit appears three times and none appear twice. • (3)(2) means one digit appears twice and one appears three times. • Can you deduce the whereabouts of all 25 digits?

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PUZZLE 27

A B C D E F G J K L M N P H B C D E F G

H J K L M N P A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 36 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 3 inclusive. • Each line of 6 squares contains two 1s, two 2s and two 3s: A The 2s are between the 1s H* The 1s are between the 3s B* The 3s are between the 1s J No pair encloses another C The 2s are between the 3s K* The 3s are between the 1s D The 1s are between the 2s L* No pair encloses another E* The 2s are between the 1s M The 2s are between the 3s F The 3s are between the 1s N* The 2s are between the 1s G* No pair encloses another P The 1s are between the 2s • There may be more digits enclosed by a pair than those identified. • Not all enclosed pairs may be stated. • (*) means that at least one pair of digits are adjacent in that line. • All lines with adjacent pairs are identified by (*). • Adjacent pairs need not necessarily be enclosed. • Can you deduce the whereabouts of all 36 digits?

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PUZZLE 28

A B C D E F G J K L M N P H B C D E F G

H J K L M N P A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 36 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 6 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 6 appear exactly 6 times each. • No digit is repeated in the same rank or file. • No digit is repeated in diagonally adjacent squares. • Below are five sets of three contiguous squares and their totals: FK+FL+FM=6 JC+JD+JE=13 LD+LE+LF=14 NC+ND+NE=11 PD+PE+PF=7 • Can you deduce the whereabouts of all 36 digits?

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DEVIOUSLY DIFFICULT DEDUCTIONS

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DEDUCTION 01

• Although there is only one solution, the following working out is not the only way to arrive at that solution. • To follow these particular deductions simply write all of the digits from 1 to 8 in every inner square. • Through systematic elimination, delete any digit that appears in an adjacent square to the same digit in the outer squares. • Now delete any digit that appears in the same row or column where the same digit appears at the start or finish of the same row or column. • As there are two 8s, 4s, 7s and/or 6s in A and/or K, only delete any 1s, 2s, 3s or 5s where they also appear at the start or finish of A or K. • So HM=7 so delete all other 7s in H and M. • 8s and 4s are duplicated in either A or K but the only two 8s and the only two 4s in K occupy the same two squares and so cannot both be duplicated in K so K must have the duplicated 6s and 7s instead. • There are only two 7s left in K of which one must be the second 7 so all 7s simultaneously adjacent to both can be deleted. • A has two 8s and two 4s. Both digits appear as two adjacent pairs each but, as the same digits cannot be adjacent, each of those four pairs has one correct digit and one incorrect digit. • This means that any 8s and 4s simultaneously adjacent to the same digit in each pair can be deleted. • D and E each have just two 7s and the only arrangement where no 7s are adjacent means EP=7 and DS=7 so delete the other 7s in E, P, D and S as well as the other digits in EP and DS. • There is only one 7 left so GR=7 so delete all other digits in GR. • D only has one 4 so DN=4 so delete the other 4s in N as well as the other digits in DN. • Because A has two 8s, CM=8 because the only other two 8s are adjacent so delete the other 8s in C and M as well as any other digits in CM. • D only has one 8 so DR=8 so delete the other 8s in R as well as the other digits in DR. • This leaves one other 8 in A so GS=8 so delete the other 8s in G and the other digits in GS. • This leaves one other 4 in A so HT=4 so delete all other 4s in T as well as the other digits in HT. • There is only one 8 left so FN=8 so delete all other digits in FN.

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• There are only two 4s left so GP=4 and ES=4 so delete the other digits in GP and ES. • D has just two 6s at DT and DM. If the 6 is at DT then those at CS and CT must be deleted which would mean that there would be no 6 in C, which would be incorrect. • DM=6 so delete the other 6s adjacent to DM and in D and M as well as all other digits in DM. • N only has one 6 so GN=6 so delete the other digits in GN and, as GN is the second 6 in K, delete the other 6s in K. • There is only one 6 in C and one 6 in E so CS=6 and ET=6 which means the only square for the final 6 in F is FR=6 so delete the other digits in CS, ET and FR as well as any other 6s in F. • The following are the only possible positions for the indicated digits by elimination so delete all other digits in these squares and any of the same digits remaining in the appropriate lines as you mark them off: GM=3 and ER=1 so EM=5, EN=3, FM=1, HN=5, FS=5, FP=2, HS=1, HR=2, HP=3, CP=1, CR=3, CT=5, CN=2, DP=5, DT=1, GT=2 and FT=3. • The whereabouts of the 36 digits have now been deduced.

DEDUCTION 02

• Although there is only one solution, the following working out is not the only way to arrive at that solution. • To follow these particular deductions simply write all of the digits from 1 to 9 in every square and, through systematic elimination, delete any digit that is proven not to be present in each square. • Look at the total in each clue in turn. Deduct any repeating digits from each total and, of the remaining sub-total, work out which digits from 1 to 9 could add up to that sub-total without duplication, making sure not to include any of the repeated digits already removed. • This gives one or more 6-digit permutations for each clue as follows, one of which will be the solution for that clue: • A=1+8+6+6+4+4 or 2+7+6+6+4+4 so delete all 3s, 5s and 9s in A. • B=2+5+6+7+8+9 or 3+4+6+7+8+9 so delete all 1s in B. • C=1+2+3+4+8+9, 1+2+3+5+7+9, 1+2+4+5+6+9 or 1+2+4+5+7+8 (nothing to delete). • D=3+9+1+1+6+6, 4+8+1+1+6+6 or 5+7+1+1+6+6 so delete all 2s in D. • E=1+6+2+2+7+7 or 3+4+2+2+7+7 so delete all 5s, 8s and 9s in E.

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• F=1+6+8+9+5+5, 2+6+7+9+5+5, 3+4+8+9+5+5, 3+6+7+8+5+5 (nothing to delete). • G=1+2+4+7+8+9, 1+2+5+6+8+9, 1+3+4+6+8+9, 1+3+5+6+7+9, 2+3+4+5+8+9 or 2+3+4+6+7+9 (nothing to delete). • H=5+9+3+3+7+7 or 6+8+3+3+7+7 so delete all 1s, 2s and 4s in H. • J=4+9+1+1+5+5 or 6+7+1+1+5+5 so delete all 2s, 3s and 8s in J. • K=1+2+4+8+9+9, 1+2+5+7+9+9, 2+3+4+6+9+9, 1+3+5+6+9+9 or 1+3+4+7+9+9 (nothing to delete). • L=1+5+3+3+2+2 so delete all 4s, 6s, 7s, 8s and 9s in L. • M=4+7+8+8+9+9 or 5+6+8+8+9+9 so delete all 1s, 2s and 3s in M. • N=2+3+4+4+6+6 so delete all 1s, 5s, 7s, 8s and 9s in N. • P=1+5+7+7+8+8 or 2+4+7+7+8+8 so delete all 3s, 6s and 9s in P. • So DL=1 so delete all other 1s in L as well as any 1s adjacent to DL. • A has a 1 so A=1+8+6+6+4+4 so delete all 2s and 7s in A as well as all other 1s in A. • Therefore EL=3 so E=3+4+2+2+7+7 so delete the other 3s plus all 1s and 6s in E as well as any 3s adjacent to EL. • E has two 2s and, of the three 2s left in E, two are adjacent so only one of them is correct so EK=2 so delete the other 2s in K, all other digits in EK and any 2s adjacent to EK as well as any simultaneously adjacent 2s to the other pair in E. • E has a 2 so E is not 1+3+4+7+9+9 or 1+3+5+6+9+9. • Therefore FL=5 so delete all other 5s in L as well as any 5s adjacent to FL. • A has two 6s, one of which must be in either AB or AC so delete any simultaneously adjacent 6s. • A’s second 6 must be in AF therefore AF=6 so delete all other digits in AF as well as any adjacent 6s and any 6s in F • F has a 6 so F is not 3+4+8+9+5+5 so delete all 4s in F. • EM=4 so M=4+7+8+8+9+9 so delete all 5s and 6s in M as well as any other 4s in M or adjacent to EM. • Also delete all other 4’s in E. • Therefore EJ=7 so delete all the 7s in J and adjacent to EJ. • Therefore EN=2 so delete the 2s in N and E. • Therefore EP=7 so delete all the adjacent 7s. • J has a 7 so J= 6+7+1+1+5+5 so delete the other 7s, 4s and 9s in J. • Therefore BJ=6 so delete the other 6s in B as well as any adjacent to BJ or in J. • Therefore GJ=5 so delete the adjacent 5s and G can only be 1+2+5+6+8+9 or 1+3+5+6+7+9 or 2+3+4+5+8+9. • Therefore FJ=1 so delete any adjacent 1s or any 1s in F.

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• F has a 1 so F=1+6+8+9+5+5 so delete the 7s in F. • Therefore GN=4 or 3 so G is not 1+2+5+6+8+9 and GP=4 or 8 so G is not 1+3+5+6+9 so G=2+3+4+5+8+9 so delete 1s, 6s and 7s in G. • CJ or DJ is J’s second 5 so delete any simultaneously adjacent 5s. • L has two 2s so one must be at BL or CL with the third at GL so GL=2 so delete any other digits in GL. • H has two 3s so the second one must be at CN so CN=3 so delete all other digits in CN and any other 3s in N and C. • Therefore BN=4 and GN=4 as well as DN=6 so delete all adjacent 4s and any 4s in B and G. • B has a 4 so B=3+4+6+7+8+9 so delete all 2s and 5s in B. • Therefore BL=3 so delete all other 3s from B. • CL=2 so delete the other 2s from C. • GP=8 so delete the other 8s from G and any adjacent 8s. • Therefore GM=9 so delete the other 9s from G and any adjacent 9s. • Therefore GK=3 so K=2+3+4+6+9+9 so delete 5s, 7s and 8s from K. • Therefore CK=4, BK=9, FK=9 so DK=6 so delete all other digits in DK and the 9s in B • As F has a 5, 1, 9 and 6, F=168955 and FM=8 and FP=5. • As P has a 5, P=157788 so delete the 4s and the other 5s in P. • As D has no 4, D is not 4+8+1+1+6+6 so delete the 8s from D. • DP=1 so delete any other 1s in D and P. • As H has a 5, H=5+9+3+3+7+7 so DM=7 and BP=7 so delete the 7s in B, P and M as well as the other digits in DM and BP. • Therefore BM=8 so CM must be the other 9 in C so CM=9. • CP=8 so C has a 2, 3, 4 and 8 so C=1+2+3+4+8+9 so CJ=1 and CM=9. • Therefore DJ=5 so D=5+7+1+1+6+6. • The whereabouts of the 36 digits have now been deduced.

DEDUCTION 03

• Although there is only one solution, the following working out is not the only way to arrive at that solution. • The first objective is to deduce the contiguous series of 16 two-digit numbers that by definition must be between 11-26 and 84-99 inclusive. • F has the lowest total of 151 but a series of 16 consecutive numbers starting with 37 or higher couldn’t produce such a low number (37+38+39+40=154).

37

• Therefore the series must start at 36 or lower. • C has the highest total of 176 but a series of 16 consecutive numbers ending with 45 or lower couldn’t produce such a high number (42+43+44+45=174). • Therefore the series must start at 36 or lower and finish at 46 or higher. • Therefore the series is 31-46, 32-47, 33-48, 34-49, 35-50 or 36-51. • D has just two different digits and the only arrangement possible within the above options is 33-34-43-44 and the only series that have this arrangement are 32-47 and 33-48. • H stipulates that the highest and lowest numbers divide by the same prime number and of the two options above only 33-48 does so (by 3). • Therefore Series=33-48. • D is the only line to have two different digits, so D=33-34-43-44. • B is the only line to have four consecutive numbers but, because A is the only line to have the same first digits in all four, the only options are: 37-38-39-40, 38-39-40-41 or 39-40-41-42. • So B must contain 39 and 40. • G is the only line to have four odd numbers so BG must be 37, 39 or 41. • K is the only line to have four even numbers so BK must be 38, 40 or 42. • A is the only line to have the same first digit in all four numbers so A must be 3?-3?-3?-3? or 4?-4?-4?-4? but even the highest 3s combination of 36-37-38-39 only equals 150 (which isn’t allowed anyway as it contravenes F and B) so A must have four numbers that each begin with 4. • As BG is 37, 39 or 41 and begins with a 4, BG=41. • As B includes 41, B is 38-39-40-41 or 39-40-41-42. • As D contains the lowest number, 33, as does H, DH=33. • G has only odd numbers and D only has one spare odd number, 43, so DG=43. • A has numbers all beginning with 4 and, where A crosses D at DJ, D only has one spare number beginning with 4 which is 44 so DJ=44. • This leaves the final number in D, 34, at DK so DK=34. • EK, because it is in A, must start with a 4 and, because it is in K, must be an even number but it can’t be 48 as that’s in H (as the highest number) or 44 as that’s at DJ or 40 as that’s in B which only leaves 42 or 46 that can be at EK. • As already deduced, B is 38-39-40-41 or 39-40-41-42.

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• If B is 39-40-41-42 then EK must be 46 as 42 is in B. This would make the total in A so far 131 (41+44+46) which would mean that the fourth square in A at CH (which begins with a 4) must give a total less than 176 (as in C) and so must be 40, 41, 42, 43 or 44. As 40 and 41 are already in B and 43 and 44 are already in D, this only leaves 42 which has already been used in B so B cannot be 39-40-4142. • Therefore B=38-39-40-41. • As K only has even numbers, BK must be 38 or 40. • As C totals exactly 176 and must use two different first digits (so at least one 30-something) but not include any already deduced (33, 34, 38, 39, 40, 41, 43, 44) C must use either 35 (35+46+47+48=176 is the only option) or 36 (36+45+47+48=176 is the only option) or 37 (37+45+46+48=176 is the only option). As H must have 48 and 48 is in all three options above, CH=48 so, to add up to less than 176, EK=42. • The only six numbers now not deduced as being in any particular line are 35, 36, 37, 45, 46 and 47, which are all in either C or E. • As C totals 176 and already has 48 at CH, CG+CJ+CK must total 128. The only options with the remaining unallocated numbers are: 35+46+47, 36+45+47 or 37+45+46. As only one of the numbers in each option is even and CK must be even, CK must be 36 or 46. • As F totals 151 and already has 33 at DH, EG+CJ+BK must total 118. As BK is either 38 or 40, EG+CK must total 80 or 78. The only option with the remaining unallocated numbers is 35+45 and, as this totals 80, BK=38. • Therefore EG and CJ are 35 and 45 but not necessarily in that order. • As C totals 176 and CH=48 and CJ is either 35 or 45 and CK is either 36 or 46, these three squares total 119, 129 or 139. CG must therefore be 57 (119), 47 (129) or 37 (139). As 57 is not in the series, CG must be 47 or 37. • As B is 38-39-40-41 and 41 is at BG and 38 is at BK, BH and BJ are 39 and 40 but not necessarily in that order. • J has the sum of its first digits totalling the same as the sum of its second digits. It has 40 or 39 at BJ, 35 or 45 at CJ and 44 at DJ. The options are (i) 40+45+44, (ii) 40+35+44, (iii) 39+45+44 or (iv) 39+35+44. • The difference between the first and second digit sums of these options at the moment is (i) 3, (ii) 2, (iii) 7 and (iv) 8. • Of the remaining unallocated numbers (35, 36, 37, 45, 46, 47) the only options to make the two sums equal are (i) 36 or 47 (ii) 35 or 46.

39

• As 39 only appears in (iii) and (iv) which have no options left, BJ cannot be 39 so BJ=40 and BH=39. • K is 38+34+42 and either 36 or 46 at CK. If it was 36, the total would be 150 which is incorrect (see F) so CK=46. • The only remaining unallocated numbers are 45 and 35 (which must be at EG and CJ), 37 and 47 (one of which must be at CG) and 36. As EH and EJ have no allocated numbers, one of them must be 36 and the other must be whichever of 37 or 47 isn’t at CG. Therefore the options left are: EG is 35 or 45, CJ is 35 or 45, CG is 37 or 47, EH is 36, 37 or 47 and EJ is 36, 37 or 47 • The current situation for J to make both sets of first and second digits total the same is J=40+(35/45)+44+(36/37/47). The permutations for all numbers are: 40-35-44-36 (totalling 14 and 15), 40-35-44-37 (totalling 14 and 16), 40-35-44-47 (totalling 15 and 16), 40-45-44-37 (totalling 15 and 16), 40-45-44-47 (not allowed, see A) and the only one to balance 40-45-44-36 (totalling 15 and 15). • Therefore J=40-45-44-36 so CJ=45, EG=35 and EJ=36. • For C to add up to 176, CG=37 and so EH=47. • The whereabouts of the 16 two-digit numbers have now been deduced.

DEDUCTION 04

• Although there is only one solution, the following working out is not the only way to arrive at that solution. • To follow these particular deductions, list every number between 1 and 25 then delete each number from the list when its whereabouts has been deduced. • BM totals 47 and the only possible combination on the list are 22/25 (no consecutive numbers are ever adjacent) so BL/CM=22/25. These two numbers can now be crossed off the list. • FM totals 43 and the only two possible combinations left on the list are 24/19 or 23/20. • The only four possible arrangements of these two positions are (i) 22 at BL, 25 at CM, 23 at EM and 20 at FL, (ii) 25 at BL, 22 at CM, 20 at EM and 23 at FL, (iii) 25 at BL, 22 at CM, 24 at EM and 19 at FL, or (iv) 22 at BL, 25 at CM, 19 at EM and 24 at FL. • If (i) were correct, then DL would be 10 (due to 58 at DM) and CK would be 21 (due to 78 at CL) and that would mean 21 would be diagonally adjacent to 22, which is incorrect.

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• If (ii) were correct, DL would be 16 and CK would be 15 and that would mean 15 would be diagonally adjacent to 16, which is incorrect. • If (iii) were correct, DL would be 12 and CK would be 19 and that would mean 19 is repeated, which is incorrect. • Therefore (iv) is correct and BL=22, CM=25, EM=19 and FL=24 so DL=14 and CK=17. • Therefore, by continuing to take any numbers still on the list and placing them to agree with the open number totals, EK=1, DJ=20, BJ=11, FJ=3, CH=8 and EH=5. • The only numbers left on the list whose positions need to be deduced are 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 16, 18, 21 and 23. • BJ totals 36 and the only possible combinations left on the list are 2/6/18, 4/7/15, 4/9/13, 4/10/12, 6/7/13, 7/9/10, 4/6/16 and 2/9/15. • If 2/6/18 were correct, 18 would be adjacent to 17 and/or 2 would be on the same row as 1 or 3, which is incorrect. • If 4/7/15 were correct, 7 would be adjacent to 8 and/or 4 would be on the same row as 3 or 5, which is incorrect. • If 4/9/13 were correct, 9 would be adjacent to 8 and/or 4 would be on the same row as 3 or 5, which is incorrect. • If 4/10/12 were correct, 10 would be adjacent to 11, which is incorrect. • If 6/7/13 were correct, 8 or 6 would be adjacent to 7, which is incorrect. • If 7/9/10 were correct, 7 or 9 would be adjacent to 8, which is incorrect. • If 4/6/16 were correct, 16 would be at BH so as not to be adjacent to 17, 4 would be at BK so as not to be on the same row as 1 or 3, and 6 would be on CJ. • If 2/9/15 were correct, 2 would be at BH so as not to be on the same row as 1 or 3, 9 would be at BK so as not to be adjacent to 8, and 15 would be on CJ. • Therefore the two options are (i) BH is 16, BK is 4 and CJ is 6 or (ii) BH is 2, BK is 9 and CJ is 15. • In option (i) CK totals 51 and, with 4 at BK and 6 at CJ in (i), DK and CL must total 41 and the only possible combination left on the list is 23 and 18 but 18 would have to be adjacent to 17 at CK, which is incorrect. • Therefore option (ii) is correct, BH=2, BK=9 and CJ=15 so DH=18. • As DJ totals 69 and DH=18 and CJ=15, DK and EJ total 36 and the only possible combination left on the list is 23 and 13.

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• As EH totals 41 and DH=18, EJ and FH total 23 but, if EJ were 23 as optioned above, FH would be zero, which is incorrect. • Therefore DK=23 and EJ=13 so FH=10, FK=21, EL=7, CL=4, FM=12, DM=16 and BM=6. • The whereabouts of the 25 hidden numbers have now been deduced.

DEDUCTION 05

• Although there is only one solution, the following working out is not the only way to arrive at that solution. • To follow these particular deductions simply write all of the digits from 1 to 5 in every square and, through systematic elimination, delete any digit proven not to be in each square. • Where options are given, the text suggests that, instead of deleting a digit, it should be circled until that option is proved or disproved. • Each line adds up to its given total and by elimination of all impossible permutations, the following are the only options: A = 11455 or 23344 B = 12355 or 12445 or 13345 or 22345 C = 14555 or 23555 or 34445 D = 12244 or 11344 or 11335 E = 13334 or 22235 F = 11244 or 11334 G = 11555 or 33344 H = 23455 J = 12334 or 12235 or 11245 K = 11234 L = 12455 or 13445 or 23345 M = 12345 • There are no 5s in F so delete them. • There are no 1s in H so delete them. • There are no 5s in K so delete them. • There are no 2s in G so delete them. • G is either 11555 or 33344 but GH has no 5 or 1. • Therefore G=33344 • Delete all 5s and 1s in G. • E is either (i) 22235 or (ii) 13334. • In option (i) E is 22235 so EJ must be 3 so circle 4. • Circle all 1s, 3s and 4s in E as there are none of these left in E. • EK must be 2. • Circle all other 2s in K as there are no more 2s in K.

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• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

EL must be (ia) 2 or (ib) 5. In option (ia) EL is 2 so A must be 23344. Circle the 5 in EL and all other 1s, 2s and 5s in A. C now only has two 5s so C must be 34445. Circle all the 1s and 2s in C as there are none in C. Both MB and MF have just a 4 and a 3 left. Circle all other 3s and 4s in M as there’s only one 4 and one 3 in M. MC must be the 5. Circle any other 5 in M. Also circle any other 5 in C because there is now only one 5 in C. There is now only one 5 in H whereas it must have two. Therefore option (ia) is incorrect. In option (ib) EL is 5. Both EH and EM must be 2 so circle the remaining 5s in E. HE is 2 so circle all the other 2s in H. AL is 5 so A must be 11455 so circle all 2s and 3s in A. AD is 4 so circle all the other 4s in A. AM is 1 and AB is 5 so AC must be 1. As AC is 1, C must be 14555 but there are now only two 5s in C. Therefore option (ia/b) are both incorrect so option (ii) is correct. In option (ii) E=13334. Delete all of the 2s and 5s in E. H only has one 3 and one 4 and both HE and HF must be 3 or 4. Delete all of the other 3s and 4s in H. DH is 2 or 5 so D cannot be 11344. AB is 2 or 5. If AB is 2 then A is 23344 and there are no more 2s in A. If AB is 5 then A is 11445 and there are no 2s in A at all. Therefore delete all of the other 2s in A apart from AB. M has one 2 with two options, either (i) MC is 2 or (ii) MD is 2. In option (i) MC is a 2 so circle the other digits in MC. Circle the 2 in MD. C must be 23555 so circle all of the other 2s, 1s and 4s in C. This means both CK and CL are 3 but there is only one 3 in C. Therefore option (i) is incorrect so option (ii) must be correct. In option (ii) MD=2. Delete all of the other digits in MD and the 2 in MC. D now has a 2 so D=12244. Delete the 5s and 3s in D. DK=4 and DH=2.

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• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Delete the other 2s in D and H. HB=5 and HC=5. A has 5 at AB so A=11455. The second 5 in A must be AC=5 so delete all other digits in AC. AD is 4 so delete all other 4s in A. C has two 5s so it can’t be 34445. C’s third 5 must be at CM so delete all other digits at CM. KD is 4 so delete all other 4s in K. A is 11455 with AB and AC as 5 and AD as 4 so AE=1 and AF=1. Delete the 3s in AE and AF. M has only one 1 so delete the 1 in ME. E has only one 1 so delete the 1 in EK. EK=3. Delete the other 3s in K. J has 5 at JC so J can’t be 12334. L has 1 at LE so L can’t be 23345. As there is only one 1 in L at LE, delete the other 1s in L. LD=4. This gives the two 4s in D so delete the 4 at DJ. DJ=1. F has two 1s and the second 1 must be at (i) FJ or (ii) FK. In option (i) FJ is 1 so circle the other digits in FJ. Circle the 1 in FK, which makes FK a 2. Therefore F must be 11244 so FH and FL must both be 4s. Circle all other digits in FH and FL. L now has two 4s so it must be 13445. LB must be the 5 and LC must be the 3. Circle all other digits in LB and LC. CK must be the 2 in C but there isn’t a second 2 in K. Therefore option (i) is incorrect so option (ii) is correct. In option (ii) FK=1. Delete the 2 in FK and the 1 in FJ. KC is either (i) 1 or (ii) 2. In option (i) KC is 1 so C is 14555. Circle 2 in KC and 3 in KL. G now has two 4s so GF, GE and GB are 3s. Circle the 4s in GF, GE and GB. This makes HE the 4 in H so circle the 3 in HE. There’s only one 4 in E which is at HE so circle the 4 in EM. This makes EM a 3 but there is already the only 3 in M at BM.

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• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Therefore option (i) is incorrect so option (ii) is correct. In option (ii) KC=2. Delete the 1 in KC. Delete the 2 in KB and KB=1. B has a 1 so B is not 22345. C has a 2 so C=23555. CL=3 so delete the 4 in CL. L has a 3 so L=13445. L has a 5 so LB=5 and LF=4. Delete all other digits in LB and LF. B has two 5s so B=12355. There is no 4 in B so BM=3 so delete the 4 in BM. BJ=2 so delete all other digits in BJ. ME=4 so delete all other digits in ME. E has three 3s so EH=3 and EJ=3 so delete the 4s in EH and EJ. H has a 4 so HF=4 so delete all other digits in HF. F now has two 4s so F=11244. F has a 2 so FJ=2 so delete all other digits in FJ. The whereabouts of the 25 numbers have now been deduced.

DEDUCTION 06

• Although there is only one solution, the following working out is not the only way to arrive at that solution. • To follow these particular deductions simply write all of the digits from 1 to 3 in every square and, through systematic elimination, delete any digit that is proven not to be present in each square. • Any pair enclosed by another pair cannot occupy the two extreme squares in that line so delete 3 in BJ and GP in A; 1 in BJ (BJ=2) and BP in B; 2 in CJ and CP in C; 3 in DJ and DP in D; 3 in EJ and EP in E; 1 in FJ and FP in F; 2 in GJ and GP in G (GP=1); 1 in GJ (GJ=3) in J; 3 in LB and LG in L; 3 in MB and MG in M; 1 in NB and NG. • Under the same logic, delete 3 from FN in A; 1 from BK in B; 2 from GN (GN=3) in G. • As there are two 3s in G, delete 3 from GK. • As there are two 3s between the 2s in A, delete 2 from CK and DL. • In H, no pair encloses another so delete 3 in BP (BP=2) and CN. • In P, no pair encloses another so delete 2 in FP (FP=3). • In P, no pair encloses another so delete 1 in CP (CP=3). • In C, 2s are between 1s so delete 2 in CN (CN=1). • In N, 1s are between 3s so BN=3 (delete 3 from DN and EN).

45

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

In B, 1s are between 3s so BK=3, BL=1 and BM=1. In G, the 2s are not adjacent so GK=2, GL=1 and GM=2. As there are two 1s in L, delete 1 in CL, DL (DL=3), EL and FL. In K, no pair encloses another so delete 3 in FK. In N, there are no adjacent pairs so delete 1 in DN (DN=2). In N, there are no adjacent pairs so delete 2 in EN (EN=1 and FN=2). In D, 3s are between 2s so delete 2 in DP (DP=1 and EP=2). In D, 3s are between 2s so delete 2 in DM. In L, there are no adjacent pairs so delete 3 in CL (CL=2) and EL (EL=2) so FL=3. In E, there are only two 3s possible (EK=3 and EM=3) so EJ=1. In J, 1s are between 2s so FJ=2. As there are two 2s in J, delete 2 in DJ (DJ=1) so CJ=3. In C, 2s are between 1s so CK=1 and CM=2. In D 3s are between 2s so DK=2 and DM=3. In F, there are two 2s and two 3s so FK=1 and FM=1. The whereabouts of all 36 digits have now been deduced.

DEDUCTION 07

• Although there is only one solution, the following working out is not the only way to arrive at that solution. • To follow these particular deductions simply write all of the digits from 1 to 6 in every square and, through systematic elimination, delete any digit that is proven not to be present in each square. • Delete numbers that can’t be in a square when they’ve been identified as having to be elsewhere in that line. For example, in (a) BM/BN/BP contains 4/5/6 so 1/2/3 can be deleted from BM/BN/BP but also 1/2/3 can be deleted from BJ/BK/BL. • (a) BM/BN/BP=15 must be 4/5/6 • (b) CJ/CK/CL=12 must be 1/5/6 or 2/4/6 or 3/4/5 • (c) DL/DM/DN=7 must be 1/2/4 • (d) EL/EM/EN=14 must be 3/5/6 • (e) FM/FN/FP=6 must be 1/2/3 • (f) GJ/GK/GL=12 must be 1/5/6 or 2/4/6 or 3/4/5 • (g) GK/GL/GM=10 must be 1/3/6 or 1/4/5 or 2/3/5 • (h) KE/KF/KG=7 must be 1/2/4 • (j) PD/PE/PF=13 must be 2/5/6 or 3/4/6 • FK=4 so delete all other 4s in F, K and diagonally adjacent to FK. • In (j) both options contain 6 which must be in DP so DP=6.

46

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Delete all other 6s in D, P and diagonally adjacent to DP. (j) does not now contain a 5 so it must be 3/4/6 so delete the 2s in (j). FP=3 so delete all other 3s in F, P and diagonally adjacent to FP. EP=4 so delete all other 4s in E, P and diagonally adjacent to EP. BP=5 so delete all other 5s in B, P and diagonally adjacent to BP. EN=5 so delete all other 5s in E and N. GK is either 1 or 2 so the (f) 3/4/5 option should be deleted. Delete all 3s from (f). There is now no 4 in GJ/GK/GL so delete the (f) 2/4/6 option. Delete all 2s from (f). GK=1 so delete all other 1s in G and K. GP=2 so delete all other 2s in G, P and diagonally adjacent to GP. EK=2 so delete all other 2s in E, K and diagonally adjacent to EK. EJ=1 so delete all other 1s in J. FN=1 so delete all other 1s in F and N. FM=2 so delete all other 2s in M. CP=1 so delete all other 1s in C. CK contains the only 6 left in K so CK=6 so delete all 6s from C. BK=3 so delete all other 3s in B, K and diagonally adjacent to BK. BJ=2 so delete all other 2s in B and J. BL=1 so delete all other 1s in L. DK=5 so delete all other 5s in D and diagonally adjacent to DK. DJ=3. CJ=4 so delete all 4s from C. DL=4 so delete all other 4s in D. DM=1. DN=2 so delete all other 2s in N. CN=3 so delete all other 3s in C. CM=5 so delete all other 5s in M. CL=2. EL has the only 3 in L so EL=3 so delete all other 3s in E. EM=6 so delete all other 6s in M and diagonally adjacent to EM. FL=5 so delete all other 5s in F and L. GL=6 so delete all other 6s in G. GN=4 so delete all other 4s in G and N. GM=3, GJ=5, FJ=6, BM=4 and BN=6. The whereabouts of all 36 digits have now been deduced.

47

DEDUCTION 08

• Although there is only one solution, the following working out is not the only way to arrive at that solution. • To follow these particular deductions simply write all of the digits from 1 to 8 in every inner square. • Through systematic elimination, delete any digit that appears in an adjacent square to the same digit in the outer squares. • Now delete any digit that appears in the same row or column where the same digit appears at the start or finish of the same row or column. • As there are two 8s and two 7s in A or K, only delete any 1s, 2s, 3s, 4s, 5s or 6s where they also appear at the start or finish of A or K. • As A only has two 8s and they are adjacent they cannot both be correct so K is the long diagonal with two 8s and two 7s. • Therefore CT=8 so delete all other 8s in C and T. • As K has two 8s and one is at CT, the other must be at FP or GN so delete the 8s that are simultaneously adjacent to both of these 8s. • As H only has one 8, HN=8 so delete all other digits in HN and the adjacent 8s. • Therefore the second 8 in K is FP=8 so delete all other digits in FP and the other 8s in F. • As K has two 7s with one lone 7 at DS and an adjacent pair, which means only one of the pair is possible, so delete any other 7s that are simultaneously adjacent to this pair of 7s. • Therefore DS=7 so delete all other digits in DS as well as any 7s in D or S. • This leaves just one 7 in A so HT=7 so delete all other digits in HT and any other 7s in H. • Therefore HM=1 so delete the other 1s in M, H and K. • GK= (second) 7 so delete all other digits in GK and the other 7s in N. • HR and HS are both 3 or 5 so HP=6 so delete all other digits in HP and the other 6s adjacent to HP and in P. • Therefore GM=6 so delete the adjacent 6s and those in G and M. • Therefore GT=2 so delete the 2s in G and T. • Therefore ET=5 so delete the adjacent 5s and those in E and T. • Therefore DT=6 so delete the 6s in D and T. • Therefore FT=3 so delete the adjacent 3s and those in F. • Therefore FS=1 so delete the adjacent 1s and those in F and S. • Therefore ES=4 so delete the adjacent 4s and those in E and S.

48

• Therefore GS=8 and EP=3 so delete the other 3s in E. • Therefore ER=2 so delete the adjacent 2s and those in E and R. • Therefore EM=7, EN=1 and DN=5 so delete the other 5s adjacent to DN and in D and N. • The following are the only possible positions for the indicated digits by elimination so delete all other digits in these squares and any of the same digits remaining in the appropriate lines as you mark them off: GR=4, so GP=1, FN=2, FM=5, FR=6, CR=3, CS=5, CM=4, CN=6, DM=2, DP=4, CP=2, DR=1, HR=5 and HS=3. • The whereabouts of the 36 digits have now been deduced.

DEDUCTION 09

• Although there is only one solution, the following working out is not the only way to arrive at that solution. • To follow these particular deductions simply write all of the digits from 1 to 9 in every square and, through systematic elimination, delete any digit that is proven not to be present in each square. • Look at the total in each clue in turn. Deduct any repeating digits from each total and, of the remaining sub-total, work out which digits from 1 to 9 could add up to that sub-total without duplication, making sure not to include any of the repeated digits already removed. • This gives one or more 6-digit permutations for each clue as follows, one of which will be the solution for that clue: • A=1+3+8+9+2+2, 1+4+7+9+2+2, 1+5+6+9+2+2, 1+5+7+8+2+2, 3+4+6+8+2+2, 3+4+5+9+2+2 or 3+5+6+7+2+2. • B=2+6+7+8+9+9, 3+5+7+8+9+9 or 4+5+6+8+9+9 so delete 1s from B. • C=2+3+4+5+1+1 so delete 6s, 7s, 8s and 9s from C. • D=1+9+5+5+6+6, 2+8+5+5+6+6 or 3+7+5+5+6+6 so delete 4s from D. • E=1+5+4+4+7+7 so delete 2s, 3s, 6s, 8s and 9s from E. • F=1+3+7+8+9+9, 1+4+6+8+9+9, 1+5+6+7+9+9, 2+3+6+8+9+9, 2+4+5+8+9+9, 2+4+6+7+9+9 or 3+4+5+7+9+9. • G=1+2+8+9+3+3, 1+4+7+8+3+3, 1+4+6+9+3+3, 1+5+6+8+3+3, 2+4+5+9+3+3, 2+4+6+8+3+3 or 2+5+6+7+3+3. • H=2+3+1+1+9+9 so delete 4s, 5s, 6s, 7s and 8s from H. • J=1+2+4+9+6+6, 1+2+5+8+6+6, 1+3+5+7+6+6, 1+3+4+8+6+6, 1+4+3+8+6+6 or 2+3+4+7+6+6.

49

• K=1+4+7+9+8+8, 1+5+6+9+8+8, 2+3+7+9+8+8, 2+4+6+9+8+8, 3+4+5+9+8+8 or 3+5+6+7+8+8. • L=5+9+1+1+3+3 or 6+8+1+1+3+3 so delete 2s, 4s and 7s from L. • M=7+9+2+2+4+4 so delete 1s, 3s, 5, 6s and 8s from M. • N=1+2+4+6+7+7 so delete 3s, 5s, 8s and 9s from N. • P=3+9+5+5+8+8 so delete 1s, 2s, 4s, 6s and 7s from P. • Therefore EL=1 so delete all adjacent 1s and the 1s in E. • Therefore EP=5 so delete all adjacent 5s and the 5s in E. • DM is either a 2 or a 9 so D can’t be 3+7+5+5+6+6 so delete all the 3s and 7s in D. • NC is either a 2 or 1. If NC were a 2, the adjacent 2 at DM would be deleted making DM a 9. If DM was a 9 then D would be 1+9+5+5+6+6 and so the other 9s as well as the 2s, 3s, 7s and 8s in D could be deleted but that would delete every digit in DP so NC is not a 2. • Therefore NC=1 so delete all other digits in NC as well as any 1s in N and any other 1s in H. • DP is either an 8 or 9 but if it were a 9 then the two 8s in P would be adjacent so DP=8 so delete all other digits in DP. • Therefore D=2+8+5+5+6+6 so delete any 8s, 1s and 9s in D. • DM=2 so delete any adjacent 2s and the other 2s in D and H. • DN=6 so delete the other 6s in N. • H has two 9s which can’t be adjacent so one 9 must be at PB whilst the other 9 and 3 are at GJ and FK so PB=9 so delete the other 9s in P and delete any simultaneously adjacent 3s and 9s to GJ and FK. • CM=4 so delete all adjacent 4s and the 4s in C. • D has an 8 so D=2+8+5+5+6+6 and, as two the 5s can’t be adjacent, DJ=5 and DL=5 so DK=6 so delete all other digits in these squares and all adjacent 5s as well as the 6s in K and the 5s in J and L. • A now has a 5 so A can’t be 1+3+8+9+2+2, 1+4+7+9+2+2 or 3+4+6+8+2+2. • L has two 3s, one of which must be one of the pair BL or CL whilst the other must be one of the pair FL or GL so delete all simultaneously adjacent 3s to these two pairs. • FK=9 so delete all adjacent 9s. • GJ=3 so J is not 1+2+4+9+6+6 or 1+2+5+8+6+6. • Therefore Fs second 9 must be at FM so FM=9 so delete all the other digits in FM, any adjacent 9s and the 9s in M. • A has two 2s and two are adjacent at BJ and CK whilst a third is at FN so FN=2 therefore delete all other digits in FN and any adjacent

50

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

2s and the 2s in F and N whilst deleting any simultaneously adjacent 2s to BJ and CK. BN=7 so delete any other 7s in B. BM=2 so delete any other 2s in B. B has a 2, 7 and a 9 so B=2+6+7+8+9+9 so delete any 3s, 4s and 5s in B. The second 2 in A must be at CK therefore CK=2 so delete all other digits in CK and any other 2s in K. The only 5 left in C is at CP therefore CP=5 so delete all other digits in CP and any other 5s in P. A has a 4 or a 7 at EM so A is not 1+5+6+9+2+2. B has a 2, 7 and 9 so B=2+6+7+8+9+9. E has two 7s and two 4s of which one of each must be in the pair EJ or EK whilst one of each must be in the other pair EM or EN so delete any simultaneously adjacent 4s and 7s to these two pairs. Therefore F doesn’t have a 7 so F is 1+4+6+8+9+9, 2+3+6+8+9+9 or 2+4+5+8+9+9. K has two 8s and only two left therefore BK=8 and GK=8 so delete all other digits in BK and GK as well as any adjacent 8s to either and delete the 8s in B and G. GP=3 so delete any adjacent 3s and any others in G. FP=8 so delete any others 8s in F. F has a 2 and FL is either a 6 or a 3 therefore F=2+3+6+8+9+9 so FJ=6 and so FL=3 so delete all other digits in FJ and FL. J has a second 6 at BJ therefore BJ=6 so delete all other digits in BJ and any other 6s in B. L has a second 3 at CL therefore CL=3 so delete all other digits in CL and all other 3s in C. Therefore CJ=1 and BL=9 so J has 1, 3 and 5 so J=1+3+5+7+6+6 therefore EJ=7. K has 2, 6, 9 therefore K=2+4+6+9+8+8 so EK=4. A has 3, 5, 6 therefore A=3+5+6+7+2+2 so EM=7 making EN=4. L has 5, 9 so L=5+9+1+1+3+3 so GL=1. M’s second 4 is at GM so GM=4 therefore GN=7 and EN=4 so G=1+4+7+8+3+3. The whereabouts of the 36 digits have now been deduced.

DEDUCTION 10

• Although there is only one solution, the following working out is not the only way to arrive at that solution.

51

• The first objective is to deduce the contiguous series of 16 two-digit numbers that by definition must be between 11-26 and 84-99 inclusive. • F has three different first digits that, because the 16-number series is contiguous, must be 1/2/3, 2/3/4, 3/4/5, 4/5/6, 5/6/7, 6/7/8 or 7/8/9. • C has a total of 293 and any series that ends in 74 or lower cannot get up to this total (71+72+73+74=290). • Likewise, any series that starts with 72 or higher cannot come down to this total (72+73+74+75=294) • Therefore the only possible series of 16 contiguous numbers that can make 293 is 60/75, 61/76, 62/77, 63/78, 64/79, 65/80, 66/81, 67/82, 68/83, 69/84, 70/85 and 71/86. • The only series that can give F three different first digits are 65/80, 66/81, 67/82, 68/83 and 69/84. • J has the highest and lowest numbers that also happen to divide by the same prime number and the only options out of the above are (i) 65/80, (ii) 66/81 and (iii) 69/84. • Option (i), 65/80, must have four numbers that add up to 316, as in D, but it doesn’t, so it can’t be the series. • Option (ii), 66/81, only has two options that add up to 316, as in D, which don’t contravene the four consecutive numbers in B, (iia) 8180-78-77 and (iib) 81-80-79-76. • In option (iia), J has the highest number so DJ is 81; H has all odd numbers so DH is 77; G has all even numbers so DG is 80 or 78; K has all the same first digit (which must be 7 as there are not enough 6s because the lowest number, 66, is in J) so DK must be 78 which means DG is 80. • The only numbers left with second digits repeated, as in E, are 66/76 and 69/79. • If it is 66/76 (which total 142) then the other two numbers in E must total 159 (to make 301) but there are no two numbers left in the series to make 159. • If it is 69/79 (which total 148) then the other two numbers in E must total 153 (to make 301) which only leaves 79 and 74 which is impossible (79 twice) so there is no option for repeated second digits in E, therefore option (iia) is incorrect. • In option (iib), J has the highest number so DJ is 81; H has all odd numbers so DH is 79; G has all even numbers so DG is 80 or 76; K has all the same first digit (which must be 7 as there are not enough 6s because the lowest number, 66, is in J) so DK must be 76 which means DG is 80.

52

• The only numbers left with second digits repeated, as in E, are 67/77 and 68/78. • If it is 67/77 (which total 144) then the other two numbers in E must total 157 (to make 301) but there are no two numbers left in the series to make 157. • If it is 68/78 (which total 146) then the other two numbers in E must total 155 (to make 301) which only leaves 77 and 78 which is impossible (78 twice) so there is no option for repeated second digits in E, therefore option (iib) is incorrect. • Therefore option (ii) is incorrect. • Therefore option (iii) must be correct so the Series=69/84. • J has 69 and 84 as the highest and lowest numbers. • F is the only line to have three different first digits. • Therefore FJ=69. • J must have three other numbers with the same first digit (so as not to contravene F) and, as 84 is one of them, the other two must also be 80-something. • K has the same first digit for all four numbers and, without four 60somethings or four 80-somethings (three are in J), must have four 70somethings. • B has four consecutive numbers, one of which is a 70-something at BK and one of which is an 80-something at BJ. • The only options are (i) 79-80-81-82, (ii) 78-79-80-81, (iii) 77-7879-80. • Whichever option is correct, BJ cannot be 84 but must be an 80something. • Option (i) means BK is 79 but this contravenes E as 79 and 69 are both in F, so option (i) is incorrect. • Option (ii) means BK is 78 (not 79, see above) therefore BG 80 (even numbers), BJ is 81 (80-something) and BH is 79 (odd numbers). • E is the only line to have a second digit repeated and these can only be 72/82, 73/83 or 74/84. • These three options add up to 154, 156 and 158 respectively. • E is 301 so the two remaining numbers must add up to 147, 145 and 143 respectively. • EJ is an 80-something (because of J), which means 82, 83 or 84 (80 and 81 being in B). • 147, 145 and 143 less 82, 83 and 84 do not give a final number in the series so option (ii) is incorrect. • Therefore option (iii) is correct and B=77-78-79-80.

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• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

BJ is an 80-something so BJ=80. BG is an even number so BG=78. BK isn’t 79 as, with 69 in F, it would contravene E, so BK=77. Therefore BH=79. C totals 293 and has 69 at CJ so the other three numbers must total 224. The other three numbers must all have the same first digit so as not to contravene F and, with only two 80-somethings possible, these must all be 70-somethings. The only possible permutation to total 224 from the remaining 70somethings is 73, 75 and 76 therefore C=69-76-75-73. CG must be even so CG=76. D totals 316 and, of the unallocated numbers left in the series, there is only one permutation to give this total so D= 83-82-81-70. This means DJ is not 84 so EJ=84. D has one 70-something and DK is 70-something so DK=70. DG is an even number and D only has one unallocated even number so DG=82. This only leaves three numbers unallocated to a column and three empty spaces in column E so E=84-74-72-71. EH is odd so EH=71. J is 80, 69 and 84 plus either 83 or 81 but, if it were 83, J would total 316 in contravention of D, so DJ=81. Therefore DH=83. EG cannot be 72 as it is in G with 82, which contravenes E, so EG=74. Therefore EK=72. CH cannot be 73 as it is in H with 83, which contravenes E, so CH=75. Therefore CK=73. The whereabouts of the 16 two-digit numbers have now been deduced.

DEDUCTION 11

• Although there is only one solution, the following working out is not the only way to arrive at that solution. • To follow these particular deductions, list every number between 1 and 25 then delete each number from the list when its whereabouts has been deduced.

54

• FH totals 46 and the only possible combinations on the list are 24/22 or 25/21 (no consecutive numbers are ever adjacent). • EJ totals 84 and, with EH/FJ totalling 46, the only possible combinations on the list for DJ/EK to total the remaining 38 are 25/13, 24/14, 23/15, 22/16, 21/17 or 20/18. • If EH/JF were 25/21 then the only combination above not to contain a contiguous number for DJ/EK is 23/15. • If EH/JF were 24/22 then the only combination above not to contain a contiguous number for DJ/EK is 20/18. • Therefore EJ is either (i) 25/21 and 23/15 or (ii) 24/22 and 20/18. • DK totals 75 and, with DJ/EK either 23/15 or 20/18, the only possible combinations on the list for CK/DL to total the remaining 37 are 25/12, 24/13, 23/14, 22/15, 21/16 and 20/17 but not the contiguous 19/18. • In option (i) there is no arrangement where any of the combinations above do not contain a contiguous number for DJ/EK or a repeated number from EH/JF so option (ii) is correct. • Therefore EH/JF=24/22, DJ/EK=20/18 and CK/DL=25/12 or 23/14. • BM totals 6 so BL/CM are 1/5 or 2/4. • FM totals 14 and the only possible combinations for FL and EM on the list are 1/13, 2/12, 3/11, 4/10, 5/9 and 6/8. • FK totals 46 with 24/22 and 20/18 at FJ and EK leaving 2, 4 or 6 to total the remainder at FL so FL is either 2/4/6 and EM is 12/10/8. • DM totals 36 and is made up of 1/5 or 2/4 at CM, 25/12 or 23/14 at DL and 12/10/8 at EM. • 12 or 14 at DL will not enable the other two possible sets of numbers at CM and EM to total 36 so DL=23/25 whilst CK=12/14. • The only other combinations for 36 using the options at CM, DL and EM are (i) 1/25/10, (ii) 1/23/12 or (iii) 5/23/8 so CM/BL cannot have a 2 or a 4 so CM/BL=1/5. • If BL is 5 (not 1) then 4 and 6 cannot be at FL so FL must be 2 and so EM must be 12, which can only be option (iii) above which makes DL 23 and CM 1. This makes EK 18 to allow EL to total 55 but FK totals 46 and only has 2 at FL, 18 at EK and a maximum of 24 at FJ, so BL cannot be 5. • Therefore BL=1 and CM=5. • Only option (iii) uses a 5 so DL=23 and EM=8 so CK=14, FL=6, EK=18, DJ=20, FJ=22, EH=24, CH=3 and BJ=10. • The only numbers left on the list whose positions need to be deduced are 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 19, 21 and 25.

55

• DM totals 54 and the only combinations from the remaining list for EM/DL/CM are 25/17/12 and 25/16/13. • FL totals 49 and the only combination from the remaining list for FK/EL/MF that has two of the three numbers in the options above is 25/11/13. • Therefore EL and FM are, in no known order, 25 and 13 whilst FK=11 and DM=16. • EL cannot be 25 because EH is 24, so EL=13 and FM=25. • FJ totals 28 so, with FK being 11, FH and EJ total 17 and the only combination of two numbers from the remaining list to total 17 is 2 and 15. • FH cannot be 2 because of 3 in CH so FH=15 and EJ=2. • EH totals 26 so, as FH=15 and EJ=2, DH=9. • EK totals 33 so, as EJ=2, FK=11 and EL=13, DK=7. • DJ totals 35 so, as DH=9, EJ=2 and DK=7, CJ=17. • DL totals 55 so, as DK=7, EL=13 and DM=16, CL=19. • CM totals 47 so, as DM=16 and CL=19, BM=12. • LB totals 35 so, as BM=12 and CL=19, BK=4. • BJ totals 42 so, as BK=4 and CJ=17, BH=21. • The whereabouts of the 25 hidden numbers have now been deduced.

DEDUCTION 12

• Although there is only one solution, the following working out is not the only way to arrive at that solution. • To follow these particular deductions simply write all of the digits from 1 to 5 in every square and, through systematic elimination, delete any digit proven not to be in each square. • Where options are given, the text suggests that, instead of deleting a digit, it should be circled until that option is proved or disproved. • Each line adds up to its given total and by elimination of all impossible permutations, the following are the only options: A = 12345 B = 11223 C = 11335 or 11344 or 12244 D = 12355 or 12445 or 13345 or 22345 E = 24555 F = 11455 or 23344 G = 12345 H = 11134 or 11152 or 12223 J = 22255 or 22444

56

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

K = 14455 L = 11225 or 12233 M = 33355 There are no 4s or 5s in B so delete them. There are no 1s or 3s in E so delete them. There are no 1s or 3s in J so delete them. There are no 2s or 3s in K so delete them. There are no 4s in L so delete them. There are no 1s, 2s or 4s in M so delete them. BJ=2, BK=1, BM=3 and EM=5. No more 3s in B so delete the 3s in BH and BL. No more 1s in K so delete the 1s in KC, KD and KF. No more 3s in G so delete the 3s in GF and GC. A’s only 3 is in AF so AF=3. Delete the 5 in AF. A’s only 1 is in AB so AB=1. Delete the 2 in AB. The only remaining 2 in B is in BL so BL=2 so delete the 1 in BL. F has 3 in FM so F=23344. Delete all the 1s and 5s in F. FK=4 The only other 3 in F is at FL so FL=3. Delete the 2 at FL. There is a 3 in L so L=12233. Delete all the 5s in L. The only other 3 is at LD so LD=3. Delete the other digits in LD. LE=2 so LC=1. Delete the 2 in LC. Delete the 2 in AC. D has a 3 so is not 12445. CM is either (i) 5 or (ii) 3. In option (i) CM is 5 so C is 11335. There are not enough 3s in C for 11335. Therefore option (i) is incorrect so option (ii) is correct. In option (ii) CM=3. Delete 5 in CM. DM=5 so delete 3 in DM. There is a 3 in C so C is not 12244. There are two 1s in C so CH=1.

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• • • • • • • • • • • • •

Delete the other digits in CH. There is not a second 3 in C so C=11344. CJ=4 and CK=4 so delete the 5s in CJ and CK. KD=5 and KE=5 so delete the 4s in KD and KE. D has two 5s so D=12355. Delete the 3s, 4s and 5s in DH and DJ. DJ=2 so DH=1 so delete the 2 in DH. H has three 1s and no 3 so H=11152. HE=5 and HF=2 so delete all other digits in H. FJ=4 so delete the 2 in FJ. J has two 4s so J=22444. JE=4 so delete all other digits in JE. The whereabouts of the 25 numbers have now been deduced.

DEDUCTION 13

• Although there is only one solution, the following working out is not the only way to arrive at that solution. • To follow these particular deductions simply write all of the digits from 1 to 3 in every square and, through systematic elimination, delete any digit that is proven not to be present in each square. • Any pair enclosed by another pair cannot occupy the two extreme squares in that line so delete 1 in BJ and GP in A; 1 in BP in B; 2 in CJ and CP in C; 3 in EJ and EP in E; 3 in FJ and FP in F; 2 in GJ and GP in G (GP=3); 3 in GJ (GJ=1) and BP (BP= 2) in H; 3 in BJ (BJ=2) in J; 1 in BK and GK in K; 3 in BM and GM in M; 2 in BN and GN in N; 1 in CP (CP=3) in P. • In P, there are no adjacent pairs so DP=1, FP=1 and EP=2. • In B, 1s are between 3s so BK=3, BL=1, BM=1 and BN=3. • In M, 3s are between 2s so delete 3 in CM. • In A, 1s are between 2s so delete 1 in FN. • In N, 2s are between 1s so delete 2 in CN. • In F, 3s are between 2s so delete 3 in FN (FN=2). • In H, 3s are between 1s so delete 3 in CN (CN=1). • In N, 2s are between 1s so GN=1. • There are already two 1s in N so delete 1 in DN and EN. • N has no adjacent pairs so DN=2 and EN=3. • There are already two 2s in A so delete 2 in CK, DL and EM. • In C there are only two 2s left so CL=2 and CM=2. • In K there are two 1s between 3s so delete 3s in CK (CK=1) and DK. • In C there is only one 3 left so CJ=3.

58

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

In J there is only one 3 left so DJ=3. In D no pair encloses another so delete 1 in DK (DK=2). In D there are two 2s already so delete 2 in DM. In L no pair encloses another so delete 1 in FL and GL and 2 in GL (GL=3). In L there is an adjacent pair which can only be 3 so FL=3. In G there are only two 2s left so GK=2 and GM=2. In K there are already two 2s so delete 2 in EK and FK. In F the 3s are between the 2s so delete 2 in FM. In F there is only one 2 left so FJ=2. In L there is only one 2 left so EL=2. In L there is only one 1 left so DL=1. In D there is only one 3 left so DM=3. In J there is only one 1 left so EJ=1. In E, 3s are between 2s so EM=3 and EK=1. In K there is only one 3 left so FK=3. In M there is only one 1 left so FM=1. The whereabouts of all 36 digits have now been deduced.

DEDUCTION 14

• Although there is only one solution, the following working out is not the only way to arrive at that solution. • To follow these particular deductions simply write all of the digits from 1 to 6 in every square and, through systematic elimination, delete any digit that is proven not to be present in each square. • Delete numbers that can’t be in a square when they’ve been identified as having to be elsewhere in that line. For example, in (a) BL/BM/BN contains 1/2/4 so 3/5/6 can be deleted from BL/BM/BN but also 1/2/4 can be deleted from BJ/BK/BP. • (a) BL/BM/BN=7 which must be 1/2/4 • (b) BM/BN/BP=9 which must be 1/2/6 or 1/3/5 or 2/3/4 • (c) CJ/CK/CL=9 which must be 1/2/6 or 1/3/5 or 2/3/4 • (d) DK/DL/DM=15 which must be 4/5/6 • (e) GL/GM/GN=15 which must be 4/5/6 • (f) JD/JE/JF=13 which must be 2/5/6 or 3/4/6 • (g) LC/LD/LE=8 which must be 1/2/5 or 1/3/4 • (h) ME/MF/MG=10 which must be 1/3/6 or 1/4/5 or 2/3/5 • In (b) neither BM nor BN contain 3 or 5 so delete (b) 1/3/5 option. • Delete 5 in BP.

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• (a) is 1/2/4, all of which are adjacent to CM so delete 1/2/4 from CM. • (d) is 4/5/6 all of which are adjacent to CL and EL so delete 4/5/6 from CL and EL. • (e) is 4/5/6 all of which are adjacent to FM so delete 4/5/6 from FM. • Whichever option left in (b) is correct, either BM or BN must contain a 2 so delete 2 in BL and CN. • (g) contains 1 so delete 1 from BL and FL. • BL=4 so delete all other 4s in B, L and all diagonally adjacent squares. • As (a) has a 4 then (b) can’t therefore (b) is 1/2/6. • Therefore delete the 3 in BP so BP=6. • Delete all other 6s in B, P and all diagonally adjacent squares to BP. • BM and BN are 1 and 2 (order unknown) so delete the 1 in CN. • DL=5 so delete all other 5s in D, L and all diagonally adjacent squares. • GL=6 so delete all other 6s in G, L and all diagonally adjacent squares. • GM and GN are 4 and 5 (order unknown) so delete all 4s and 5s in FN. • BJ and BK are 3 and 5 (order unknown) so delete all 3s and 5s in CJ and CK. • There is no 5 in (c) so delete (c) 1/3/5 option. • GM is 5 or 4 so delete (h) 1/3/6 option and all 6s in (h). • (h) has a 5 and only has one at GM so GM=5 and delete all other 5s in G. • GN=4 so all other 4s in N and all diagonally adjacent squares. • (g) has a 5 so (g) is 1/2/5 so delete all 3s in (g). • There’s only one 3 in L therefore FL=3 so delete all other 3s in F and all diagonally adjacent squares. • There’s no 3 in (h) so (h) must be 1/4/5. • Delete all 2s in (h) and the 4 in DM. • FM=1 so delete all other 1s in F, M and all diagonally adjacent squares. • EM=4 so delete all other 4s in E. • BM=2 so delete all 2s in B and all diagonally adjacent squares. • BN=1 so delete all 1s in N and all diagonally adjacent squares. • DM=6 so delete all 6s in D, M and all diagonally adjacent squares. • CM=3 so delete all 3s in C and all diagonally adjacent squares. • DN=2 so delete all 2s in D, N and all diagonally adjacent squares. • CN=5 so delete all 5s in C and N. • EN=3 so delete all 3s in E and all diagonally adjacent squares.

60

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

FN=6 so delete all 6s in F. CP=4 so delete all 4s in C. DP=1 so delete all 1s in P. EP=5 so delete all 5s in E and P. FP=2 so delete all 2s in F and P. GP=3 so delete all 3s in G. CL=1 so delete all 1s in C. EL=2 so delete all 2s in E. EJ=6 so delete all 6s in E and J. CJ=2 so delete all 2s in C and J. DJ=3 so delete all 3s in J. BJ=5 so delete all 5s in B. FJ=4 so delete all 4s in F. GJ=1 so delete all 1s in G. BK=3, CK=6, DK=4, EK=1, FK=5, GK=2. The whereabouts of the 36 digits have now been deduced.

DEDUCTION 15

• Although there is only one solution, the following working out is not the only way to arrive at that solution. • To follow these particular deductions simply write all of the digits from 1 to 8 in every inner square. • Through systematic elimination, delete any digit that appears in an adjacent square to the same digit in the outer squares. • Now delete any digit that appears in the same row or column where the same digit appears at the start or finish of the same row or column. • As there are two 8s in A and K as well as two 3s in A or K, only delete any 1s, 2s, 4s, 5s, 6s and 7s where they also appear at the start or finish of A or K. • Therefore HM=3 so delete all other 3s in H and M. • Therefore there are only two 3s left in A and they are adjacent so the two 3s must be in K. • Therefore KF= (second) 3 so delete all other digits in KF and all adjacent 3s and any other 3s in F and P. • Therefore CM=5 so delete all adjacent 5s as well as any in M and C. • The two 8s in A must be one in the pair DN and EP and one in the pair GS and HT so delete all 8s that are simultaneously adjacent to either option in both pairs.

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• The 7 in M must be in DM or EM so delete any 7 that is simultaneously adjacent to both options. • Therefore CN=8 so delete the other 8s in C and N. • Therefore AE= (first) 8 so delete all other digits in AE as well as any adjacent 8s and the other 8s in E and P. • The only 5 in E is at EN so EN=5 so delete all other digits in EN as well as any adjacent 5s and the other 5s in N. • The only second 8 left in K is at DS so DS=8 so delete all other digits in DS as well as the other 8s in D and S. • The only second 8 left in A is at HT so HT=8 so delete all other digits in HT as well as the other 8s in H. • The final 8 is at GR so GR=8 so delete all other digits in GR. • The only 5 in G is at GP and the only 3 in G is at GS so GP=5 and GS=3 so delete all other digits in GR and GS as well as the other 3s in S. • Therefore GN=4 so delete all adjacent 4s as well as any in G and N. • The only 4 in M is at EM so EM=4 so delete all other digits in EM as well as the 4s in E. • The only 6 in P is at CP so CP=6 so delete all other digits in CP and all other 6s in C. • The only 3 in C is at CR so CR=3 so delete all other digits in CR. • Therefore CS=7 so delete the other 7s in S and C. • Therefore CT=2 so delete the other 2s in T. • The only 5 in T is at DT so DT=5 so delete all other digits in DT. • The only 4 in D is at DR so DR=4 so delete all other digits in DR and the other 4s in R. • The only 7 in D is at DM so DM=7 so delete all other digits in DM. • The only 4 in F is at FS so FS=4 so delete all other digits in FS. • Therefore FR=2 so delete the other 2s in F and in A. • The following are the only possible positions for the indicated digits by elimination so delete all other digits in these squares and any of the same digits remaining in the appropriate lines as you mark them off: DN=1, FN=7, HN=2, HP=1, HS=6 (deleting the adjacent 6 in GT), HR=7, ER=6, ES=1, ET=7, DP=2, GT=1, FT=6, FM=1 and GM=6. • The whereabouts of the 36 digits have now been deduced.

DEDUCTION 16

• Although there is only one solution, the following working out is not the only way to arrive at that solution.

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• To follow these particular deductions simply write all of the digits from 1 to 9 in every square and, through systematic elimination, delete any digit that is proven not to be present in each square. • Look at the total in each clue in turn. Deduct any repeating digits from each total and, of the remaining sub-total, work out which digits from 1 to 9 could add up to that sub-total without duplication, making sure not to include any of the repeated digits already removed. • This gives one or more 6-digit permutations for each clue as follows, one of which will be the solution for that clue: • A=3+9+1+1+8+8 or 5+7+1+1+8+8 so delete 2s, 4s and 6s from A. • B=1+2+3+4+7+9, 1+2+3+5+7+8, 1+2+3+5+6+9 or 1+2+4+5+6+8. • C=1+2+3+8+7+7, 1+2+5+6+7+7, 1+3+4+6+7+7 or 2+3+4+5+7+7 so delete all 9s from C. • D=5+6+8+9+4+4 so delete 1s, 2s, 3s and 7s from D. • E=1+5+8+9+3+3, 1+6+7+9+3+3, 2+5+7+9+3+3, 2+4+8+9+3+3, 2+6+7+8+3+3 or 4+5+6+8+3+3. • F=2+4+1+1+9+9 so delete 3s, 5s, 6s, 7s and 8s from F. • G=1+7+8+9+5+5, 2+6+8+9+5+5, 3+6+7+9+5+5 or 4+6+7+8+5+5. • H=1+2+4+8+3+3 or 1+2+5+7+3+3 so delete 6s and 9s from H. • J=1+2+7+9+4+4, 1+3+6+9+4+4, 1+3+7+8+4+4, 1+5+6+7+4+4, 2+3+5+9+4+4 or 2+3+6+8+4+4. • K=1+3+6+6+8+8 so delete 2s, 4s, 5s, 7s and 9s from K. • L=1+7+8+9+5+5, 2+6+8+9+5+5, 3+6+7+9+5+5 or 4+6+7+8+5+5. • M=1+3+6+9+7+7, 1+4+5+9+7+7, 1+4+6+8+7+7, 2+3+5+9+7+7, 2+3+6+8+7+7 or 2+4+5+8+7+7. • N=1+5+3+3+9+9 or 2+4+3+3+9+9 so delete 6s, 7s and 8s from N. • P=1+3+6+9+2+2, 1+3+7+8+2+2, 1+4+5+9+2+2, 1+4+6+8+2+2, 1+5+6+7+2+2 or 3+4+5+7+2+2. • Therefore FK=1 so delete all adjacent 1s and the 1s in K and H. • F has two 1s. The second 1 must be one of the three adjacent squares FM, FN or FP so delete any simultaneously adjacent 1s to these three squares. • D has two 4s. At least one of the two 4s must be in one of the three adjacent squares DM, DN or DP so delete any simultaneously adjacent 4s to these three squares. • DK is 6 or 8. If DK is 8 then all other digits in DK would be deleted as well as any adjacent 8s and 8s in D. CK would be 3 so any adjacent 3s and the 3s in C and K would be deleted. So EK would be 6 and any adjacent 6s and the 6s in E would be deleted. The 3 at CK would make A 3+9+1+1+8+8 so the 5s and 7s in A would be

63

• • • •

• • •

• • • • • • • •

deleted. DL would be 9 and, by a process of deleting the adjacent and impossible, FN 1, GP 8, EM 8 and BJ 1. FL would be 2 or 4, which would make L 2+6+8+9+5+5 or 4+6+7+8+5+5 so the 1s and 3s in L would be deleted. L would also have a 9 which would make L 2+6+8+9+5+5 so the 4s and 7s in L would be deleted so FL would be a 2 and the adjacent EL would be a 5. The 5 at EL would make H 1+2+5+7+3+3 but the 4 left in DM is incorrect so DK is not 8. Therefore DK=6 so delete all other digits in DK as well as any adjacent 6s and the 6s in D. M has a 4, 5 or 8 at MD so M is not 1+3+6+9+7+7. P has two 2s and only two possible adjacent pairs of 2s so delete any 2s in N that are simultaneously adjacent to either pair. CN is 5 or 3. If CN is 5 then the other digits in CN would be deleted as would any adjacent 5s. As H would have a 5, H would be 1+2+5+7+3+3 so the other 5s and the 4s and 8s in H would be deleted but this would leave nothing in DM so CN is not 5. Therefore CN=3 so delete all other digits in CN as well as any adjacent 3s and the 3s in C. CK=8 so delete any adjacent 8s and the 8s in C and, because C has an 8, C=1+2+3+8+7+7 so delete 4s, 5s and 6s in C. DL is 9 or 5. If DL is 9 then all of the other digits in DL would be deleted as would the adjacent 9s and the other 9s in A, D and L. FN would be 1 so any adjacent 1s and the 1s in N would be deleted. L would have a 9 at DL and a 4 or 2 at FL so L would be 2+6+8+9+5+5. So FL would be 2 so all other digits in FL would be deleted as well as the 2s in F and L. The second 1 in A would be at BJ so all other digits in BJ would be deleted as well as the 1s in B and J. As A would have a 9 at DL, A would be 3+9+1+1+8+8 so the 4s, 5s and 7s in A would be deleted. F and N both have two 9s each. Even if N had one 9 at NB and F had one 9 at FJ, either F or N could not have a second 9 as it would be adjacent to the other line’s second 9 so DL is not 9. Therefore DL=5 so delete all other digits in DL as well as any adjacent 5s and the 5s in D and A. Therefore A=5+7+1+1+8+8 so delete the 3s and 9s in A. FN=1 so delete any adjacent 1s and the 1s in N. A’s second 1 must be at BJ therefore BJ=1 so delete all other digits in BJ and the 1s in B. Therefore N has a 1 so N=1+5+3+3+9+9 so delete 2s and 4s in N. DN=9 so delete any adjacent 9s and the 9s in D. DJ=4 so delete any adjacent 4s. As H has 4 or 8 at DM, H=1+2+4+8+3+3 so delete 5s or 7s in H.

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• As P has 7 or 8 at GP, P is not 1+3+6+9+2+2 or 1+4+5+9+2+2 so delete the 9s in P. • As G has no 1, G is not 1+7+8+9+5+5. • As M has 4 or 8 at DM, M is not 2+3+5+9+7+7. • As J has 1 at BJ, J is not 2+3+5+9+4+4 or 2+3+6+8+4+4. • As J has 2 or 7 at CJ, is not 1+3+6+9+4+4. • F has two 9s so one is at FJ therefore FJ=9 so delete all other digits in FJ and any adjacent 9s. • F’s second 9 is at FL or FM so delete any simultaneously adjacent 9s. • J has a 9 therefore J=1+2+7+9+4+4 so delete 3s, 5s and 8s in J. • J’s second 4 can only be at GJ therefore GJ=4 so delete all other digits in GJ and any other 4s in H. • DM=8 so delete any adjacent 8s and the 8s in H, M and D. • DP=4 so delete the other 4s in P. • BP=2 and FP=2 so delete the other 2s in P, B and F. • EM=7 so delete the other 7s in E. • EJ=2 so delete the 2s in J and E. • CJ=7. • As P has 4, P is not 1+3+7+8+2+2 or 1+5+6+7+2+2. • As E has 2 and 7, E is not 1+5+8+9+3+3 or 4+5+6+8+3+3. • As B has no 8s, B is either1+2+3+4+7+9 or 1+2+3+5+6+9. • GP must be A’s second 8 therefore GP=8 so delete all other digits in GP and any other 8s in G. • P has an 8 therefore P=1+4+6+8+2+2 so delete any 3s, 5s, 7s and 8s in P. • EP=6 so, having 2 and 6, E=2+6+7+8+3+3 so delete any 5s in E. • EN=3 so delete any other 3s in N. • EL=3 so delete any other 3s in E and L. • EK=8. • As L has 3, L=3+6+7+9+5+5 so delete 1s, 2s and 4s in L. • CL=7 so delete any other 7s in L and C. • FL=9 so delete any adjacent 9s and the other 9s in L. • FM=4. • M has 8, 7, 4 so M is 1+4+6+8+7+7 or 2+4+5+8+7+7 so delete the other 4s and 3s and 9s in M. • G has 4 and 8 therefore G=4+6+7+8+5+5 so delete 9s and 2s in G. • GN=5. • BN must be N’s second 9 therefore BN=9 so delete all other digits in BN. • CP=1 so delete any other 1s in C.

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• CM=2. • M has a 2 therefore M=2+4+5+8+7+7 so delete any 6s in M. • B doesn’t have 4 but does have 9 so B=1+2+3+5+6+9 so delete any 7 in B. • BM=5 so delete any other 5 in B. • BL=6 so delete any other 6 in B. • BK=3 so delete any other 3 in K. • GK=6 so delete any other 6 in G. • GL=5 so delete any other 5 in G. • GM=7. • The whereabouts of the 36 digits have now been deduced.

DEDUCTION 17

• Although there is only one solution, the following working out is not the only way to arrive at that solution. • The first objective is to deduce the contiguous series of 16 two-digit numbers that by definition must be between 11-26 and 84-99 inclusive. • B has three different first digits that, because the 16-number series is contiguous, must be 1/2/3, 2/3/4, 3/4/5, 4/5/6, 5/6/7, 6/7/8 or 7/8/9. • 19-34, 29-44, 39-54, 49-64, 59-74 and 69-84 cannot make the highest total specified in J, which is 349. • So the three different first digits must be 7/8/9. • K stipulates that the series must include four two-digit numbers that use only two different digits. • These can only be 77/78/87/88 or 88/89/98/99. • If it were 88/89/98/99 then the series would have to be 84-99 inclusive but this doesn’t have three different first digits as identified in B. • Therefore K=77-78-87-88. • B has the three different first digits 7/8/9 and K=77-78-87-88 and the only contiguous series that meet these criteria are (i) 75-90 (ii) 76-91 or (iii) 77-92. • G has four consecutive numbers but must have different first digits because D is the only line to have the same first digit in all four numbers. • Therefore G is 77-78-79-80, 78-79-80-81, 79-80-81-82, 87-88-89-90, 88-89-90-91 or 89-90-91-92. • As K=77-78-87-88 any of the above in G that contain any of these four numbers can be eliminated.

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• Therefore G is 79-80-81-82 or 89-90-91-92. • However, 89-90-91-92 totals 362 in contravention of J’s highest total of 349 therefore G=79-80-81-82. • H has the lowest total of 319 whilst D has the same first digit in all four numbers. If the first number was 7 then D could be either 75+76+77+78 or 76+77+78+79 but, as both of these total less than the lowest total as in H, D’s numbers must all start with 8. • Therefore DG is 80, 81 or 82 whilst DK is 87 or 88. • Of the 16 squares in the four rows across, G has 79-80-81-82 and K has 77-78-87-88, leaving H and J. • H and J must contain (75), (76), 83, 84, 85, 86, 89, 90 (91), (92) with those in brackets not yet proven to be in the series. • Of these, there are definitely five 80-somethings although four numbers with the same first digit are not allowed in the same line because of D. • Therefore, out of H and J, one must have three 80-somethings and the other must have two 80-somethings. • Whichever one of H or J has two non-80 numbers, these numbers cannot be a 70-something and a 90-something number because of B. • Therefore, the two non-80 numbers in H or J must be two 70somethings or two 90-somethings. • Because all 16 numbers must be contiguous, the only options for these three non-80 numbers are (i) 90-91-92. (ii) 76-90-91 or (iii) 7576-90. • In option (i), 77 must be the lowest number and 92 the highest, both of which appear in B. • As BK would have to be 77 (because 77 is in B and K), and 92 isn’t in G, 92 would have to be BH or BJ. • If BH was 92 then, because H has the lowest total of 319, CH, DH and EH must total 227. • As the three lowest numbers left of the original eight available, 83, 84 and 85, add up to 252, BH is not 92. • If BJ was 92 then, because J has the highest total of 349, CJ, DJ and EJ would total 257. • The only two sequences to total 257 from the original eight available with BJ as 92 are (ia) 92-90-84-83 and (ib) 92-89-85-83. • In option (ia), J has the two non-80 numbers plus two 80-somethings. • This means that H has one non-80 number plus three 80-somethings. • Therefore H must have 91 as the non-80 number. • H totals 319 and, by deducting the 91, the three remaining 80somethings must total 228.

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• As the three lowest numbers left of the original eight available, 83, 84 and 85, add up to 252, H cannot include 91. • Therefore option (ia) is incorrect. • In option (ib) J has the one non-80 number plus three 80-somethings. • This means that H has two non-80 numbers plus two 80-somethings. • Because J has 92, and there aren’t two 70-somethings available, H must have two 90-somethings: 90 and 91. • H totals 319 and, by deducting 90 and 91, the two remaining 80somethings must total 138, which is impossible. • Therefore option (ib) is incorrect. • Therefore option (i) is incorrect. • In option (ii), 76 must be the lowest number and 91 the highest, both of which appear in B. • As neither 76 nor 91 is in G or K, BH/BJ would have to be 76/91. • If BH was 91 then, because J has the lowest total of 319, CJ, DJ and EJ would total 228. • As the three lowest numbers left of the original eight available, 83, 84 and 85, add up to 252, BH is not 91. • If BH was 76 then, because J has the lowest total of 319, CJ, DJ and EJ would total 243. • As the three lowest numbers left of the original eight available, 83, 84 and 85, add up to 252, BH is not 76 either. • Therefore both options (i) and (ii) are incorrect so option (iii) must be correct. • As option (iii) includes 75 and 90, Series=75-90. • B is now known to contain 75 and 90 at BH and BJ. • J has a total of 349 and, if 75 is at BJ, the three remaining numbers in J would need to total 274 which is impossible so BJ=90 and therefore HJ=75 and H has 76 as well. • Therefore H has 75, 76 and two 80-somethings whilst J has 90 and three 80-somethings with these five 80-somethings being 83, 84, 85, 86 and 89. • H totals 319 with 76 and 75 so the two 80-somethings must total 168. • The only two 80-somethings in H that add up to 168 are 83 and 85. • This means that H has 83 and 85 so J must have 84, 86 and 89. • To summarise so far by looking at the four columns: • C has only even numbers so CG is either 80 or 82 (because G is 7980-81-82); CH is 76, 83 or 85 (because H totals 319 with 75, 76, 83 and 85); CJ is either 84 or 86 and CK is either 78 or 88 (because K is 77-78-87-88).

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• D has all 80-somethings so DG is 80, 81, 82 (because G is 79-80-8182); DH is 83 or 85 (because H totals 319); DJ is 84, 86 or 89 (because H has 83 and 85 from the five 80-somethings) and DK is 87 or 88 (because K is 77, 78, 87, 88). • E has all odd numbers so EG is 79 or 81 (because G is 79-80-81-82); EH is 83, 85 or 89 (because H is 75 and 76 plus 83, 84, 85, 86 and/or 89); EJ=89 (because J is 90 plus 83, 84, 85, 86 and/or 89 with 83 and 85 in H) and EK is 77 or 87 (because K is 77, 78, 87, 88). • B has three different first digits so BG is 75 and 90 plus 79, 80, 81 or 82 (because G is 79-80-81-82), BH is 75, BJ is 90 and BK is 77, 78, 87, 88 because K is 77, 78, 87, 88). • By looking at the possibilities in the summary above, the only position 76 could be is CH so CH=76. • F totals 323 and, by elimination, the only four numbers that add up to this total are the lowest number of each option so FG=79, FH=83, FJ=84 and FK=77. • As DH is 83, EH=85. • As CJ is 84, DJ=86. • As BK is 77, EK=87. • As EK is 87, DK=88. • As DK is 88, CK=78. • As EG is 79, AG is 80, 81 or 82. • A has a difference of 12 between the sum of its first digits and the sum of its second digits. • With AG being 80, 81 or 82, AH being 76, AJ being 86 and AK being 87, the only number in AG that creates a difference of 12 is 80 so AG=80. • DG is the only position left for 81 so DG=81. • CG is the only position left for 82 so CG=82. • The whereabouts of the 16 two-digit numbers have now been deduced.

DEDUCTION 18

• Although there is only one solution, the following working out is not the only way to arrive at that solution. • To follow these particular deductions, list every number between 1 and 25 then delete each number from the list when its whereabouts has been deduced. • FH totals 10 and the only possible combinations on the list are 1/9, 2/8, 3/7 or 4/6 (no consecutive numbers are ever adjacent).

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• Therefore, EH is (i) 1, (ii) 2, (iii) 3, (iv) 4, (v) 6, (vi) 7, (vii) 8 or (viii) 9. • BH totals 12 and the only possible combinations on the list are 1/11, 2/10, 3/9, 4/8 or 5/7. • (i) If EH was 1 then FJ would be 9 and CH/BJ could not be 1/11, 11/1 or 2/10 (because 1 is in EH) or 9/3, 3/9 or 4/8 (because 9 is in FJ) so CH/BJ would be 10/2, 8/4, 7/5 or 5/7 • DH totals 24 so, if CH was 10, 8, 7 or 5 then DJ would be 13, 15, 16 or 18. • CJ totals 32 so CK would be 7 if CH/BJ/DJ was 10/2/13, 5 if CH/BJ/DJ was 8/4/15, 4 if CH/BJ/DJ was 7/5/16 or 2 if CH/BJ/DJ was 5/7/18. • BK totals 33 so, as BJ and CK total 9 in all the above permutations, BL would be 24 but as BL is one of two numbers making up BM, which is only 21, EH cannot be 1. • (ii) If EH was 2 then FJ would be 8 and CH/BJ could not be 1/11, 2/10, 10/2 or 3/9 (because 2 is in EH) or 8/4, 4/8 or 5/7 (because 8 is in EJ) so CH/BJ would be 7/5, 9/3 or 11/1. • DH totals 24 so, if CH was 7, 9 or 11 then DJ would be 15, 13, or 11 but, as two 11s are impossible, this eliminates both 11s in CH and DJ as well as the 1 in BJ. • CJ totals 32 so CK would be 7 if CH/BJ/DJ was 9/3/13 or 5 if CH/BJ/DJ was 7/5/15 but, as two 5s are impossible, this eliminates the 7/5/15 in CH/BJ/DJ. • BK totals 33 so, as BJ and CK total 10, BL would be 23 but as BL is one of two numbers making up BM, which is only 21, EH cannot be 2. • (iii) If EH was 3 then FJ would be 7 and CH/BJ could not be 2/10, 3/9, 9/3 or 4/8 (because 3 is in EH) or 7/5 or 5/7 (because 7 is in EJ) so CH/BJ would be 11/1, 1/11, 10/2 or 8/4. • DH totals 24 so, if CH was 1, 8, 10 or 11 then DJ would be 20, 13, 11 or 10 but, as 10 and 11 can’t be diagonally adjacent, this eliminates the 10 and 11 in CH and DJ as well as the 2 and 1 in BJ. • CJ totals 32 so CK would be 0 if CH/BJ/DJ was 1/11/20 (which is impossible) so CK would be 7 and CH/BJ/DJ would be 8/4/13. • BK totals 33 so, as BJ and CK total 11, BL would be 22 but as BL is one of two numbers making up BM, which is only 21, EH cannot be 3. • (iv) If EH was 4 then FJ would be 6 and CH/BJ could not be 5/7, 3/9, 8/4 or 4/8 (because 4 is in EH) or 7/5 (because 6 is in FJ) so CH/BJ would be 11/1, 1/11, 10/2, 2/10 or 9/3.

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• DH totals 24 so, if CH was 1, 2, 9, 10 or 11 then DJ would be 19, 18, 11, 10 or 9. • CJ totals 32 so, by adding up the three sets of numbers in each possible CH/BJ/DJ combination and deducting the total from 32, it will be seen that every remainder for CK is duplicated in CH so EH cannot be 4. • (v) If EH was 6 then FJ would be 4 and CH/BJ could not be 7/5 or 5/7 (because 6 is in EH) or 9/3, 8/4 or 4/8 (because 4 is in FJ) so CH/BJ would be 11/1, 11/1, 10/2, 2/10 or 3/9. • DH totals 24 so, if CH was 1, 2, 3, 10 or 11 then DJ would be 17, 16, 15, 8 or 7. • DJ cannot be 7 (due to being adjacent to the 6 in EH) so neither can CH be 11 nor BJ be 1. • CJ totals 32 so CK would be 12 if CH/BJ/DJ was 10/2/8, 5 if CH/BJ/DJ was 3/9/15, 4 if CH/BJ/DJ was 2/10/16 or 5 if CH/BJ/DJ was 1/11/17. • BK totals 33 and, as all the possible BJ and CK totals add up to 14, BL would be 19 and CM would be 2. • If CM was 2 then CH couldn’t be 3, 2 or 1 so CH would be 10 which would mean BJ is 2, which is impossible, so EH is not 6. • (vi) If EH was 7 then FJ would be 3 and CH/BJ could not be 8/4, 5/7 or 7/5 (because 7 is in EH) or 10/2, 3/9 or 9/3 (because 3 is in FJ) so CH/BJ would be 1/11, 2/10, 4/8 or 11/1. • DH totals 24 so, if CH was 1, 2, 4 or 11 then DJ would be 16, 15, 13 or 6 although DJ cannot be 6 due to being adjacent to 7 in EH so neither can CH be 11 nor BJ be 1. • CJ totals 32 so CK would be 4 if CH/BJ/DJ was 1/11/16, 5 if CH/BJ/DJ was 2/10/15 or 7 if CH/BJ/DJ was 4/8/13 although CK cannot be 7 due to being adjacent to 8 in BJ. • BK totals 33 and, as the two possible BJ and CK totals add up to 15, BL would be 18 and CM would be 3. • If CM was 3 then CH couldn’t be 2 so CH would be 1 which would mean CK is 4, which is impossible, so EH is not 7. • (vii) If EH was 8 then FJ would be 2 and CH/BJ could not be 8/4, 4/8 or 7/5 (because 8 is in EH) or 10/2, 10/2, 11/1 or 9/3 (because 2 is in FJ) so CH/BJ would be 1/11, 3/9 or 5/7. • DH totals 24 so, if CH was 1, 3 or 5 then DJ would be 15, 13 or 11. • CJ totals 32 so CK would be 5 if CH/BJ/DJ was 1/11/15, 7 if CH/BJ/DJ was 3/9/13 or 9 if CH/BJ/DJ was 5/7/11. • BK totals 33 and, as the three possible BJ and CK totals add up to 16, BL would be 17 and CM would be 4.

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• If CM was 4 then CH couldn’t be 3 or 5 so CH would be 1 which would mean CK is 5, which is impossible, so EH is not 8. • This only leaves the final option (viii) so EH = 9 and FJ=1. • CH/BJ could not be 10/2, 9/3, 3/9 or 8/4 (because 9 is in EH) or 10/2, 10/2, 11/1 or 1/11 (because 1 is in FJ) so CH/BJ would be 2/10, 4/8, 5/7 or 7/5. • DH totals 24 so, if CH was 2, 4, 5 or 7 then DJ would be 13, 11, 10 or 8 although DJ could not be 10 as it is adjacent to 9 in EH nor could it be 8 as it is adjacent to 7 in CH. • CH cannot be 5 or 7 and BJ cannot be 7 or 5. • CJ totals 32 so CK would be 7 if CH/BJ/DJ was 2/10/13 or 9 if CH/BJ/DJ was 4/8/11 but either 7 and 9 would be adjacent to 8 in BJ so 8 is impossible, making BJ=10, CK= 7, CH=2 and DJ=13. • BK totals 33 so BL=16. • BM totals 21 so CM=5. • CL totals 49 so DL=21. • DK=66 so EK=25. • FK=44 so FL=18. • FM=41 so EM=23. • This leaves the whereabouts of 3, 4, 6, 8, 11, 12, 14, 15, 17, 19, 20, 22 and 24 to be deduced. • CH totals 57 and the only three combinations from the remaining numbers that gives this total are 24/22/11, 24/19/14 and 22/20/15. • BJ totals 36 and the only two combinations that include two of the numbers above are 3/22/11 and 3/19/14, which means 22/20/15, is incorrect. • As the CH total includes 24 but not the BJ total and the BJ total includes 3 but not the CH total, DH=24 and BK=3. • As the BL total of 34 includes 3, the only three combinations from the remaining numbers that gives this total are 3/11/20, 3/12/19 and 3/14/17. • To summarise, BH and CJ are, in no known order, 22 and 11 or 19 and 14 whilst CL and BM are, in no known order, 11 and 20, 12 and 19 or 14 and 17. • CM totals 46 and CL/BM total 31 so DM=15, which means CL/BM cannot be 14 and 17. • FL totals 24 and the only three combinations from the remaining numbers that gives this total are 3/6/15, 4/6/14 and 4/8/12. • EM totals 27 and the only three combinations from the remaining numbers that gives this total are 4/6/17, 4/8/15 and 4/11/12.

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• FL and EM share two numbers and the only three combinations above that share two numbers are 4/6 + 17 at DM/14 at FK, 4/8 + 15 at DM/12 at FK and 4/12 + 11 at DM/8 at FK. • The only combination that includes 15 at DM is 4/8 + 12 at FK so FK=12 and EL and FM are, in no known order, 4 and 8. • Because 12 is in FK, CL/BM cannot be 12/19 so CL/BM, in no known order, are 20/11. • Because 11 is in CL/BM, BH/CJ cannot be 22/11 so BH/CJ are, in no known order, 19/14. • This leaves 6, 17 and 22, in no known order, in FH, EJ and DK. • BJ is 10 so BM cannot be 11 so BM=20 and CL=11. • BM is 20 so BH cannot be 19 so BH=14 and CJ=19. • CK totals 50 so DK=17. • DL totals 47 so EL=4 and FM=8. • DJ totals 66 so EJ=6 and FH=22. • The whereabouts of the 25 hidden numbers have now been deduced.

DEDUCTION 19

• Although there is only one solution, the following working out is not the only way to arrive at that solution. • To follow these particular deductions simply write all of the digits from 1 to 5 in every square and, through systematic elimination, delete any digit proven not to be in each square. • Where options are given, the text suggests that, instead of deleting a digit, it should be circled until that option is proved or disproved. • Each line adds up to its given total and by elimination of all impossible permutations, the following are the only options: A = 11555 or 33344 B = 13444 or 23335 C = 12224 or 11135 D = 33555 E = 23455 F = 11123 G = 11134 or 11125 or 12223 H = 12455 or 13445 or 23345 J = 12555 or 14445 or 33345 K = 11155 or 22233 L = 11334 or 11244 M = 12355 or 12445 or 13345 or 22345 • There are no 2s in A so delete them.

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• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

There are no 1s, 2s or 4s in D so delete them. There are no 1s in E so delete them. There are no 4s or 5s in F so delete them. There are no 4s in K so delete them. There are no 5s in L so delete them. LD=3 L has a 3 so L=11334. Delete the 2s in L. AE is 3 or 4 so A=33344. Delete all 1s, 2s and 5s in A. AD=3 and AF=3. D has two 3s at DK and DL so DH=5, DJ=5 and DM=5. Delete all other 3s in D. G has a 3 so G is not 11125 so delete all 5s in G. FM is 3 so delete all other 3s in F. FL=1 FJ only has a 1 or 2 so J can’t be 33345. J can’t be 12555 because there aren’t enough 5s. J=14445 so JB=4, JC=4, JE=4 and JF=1. Delete all other digits in J. There is a 4 in G so G=11134. GF=1, GC=1 and GB=1 so delete all other digits in G. B has a 1 so B=13444. Delete all 1s, 2s and 5s in B. BK=3 so BH=4 and BL=4. Delete all other digits in B. LE=3 so delete 4 in LE. K has two 3s so K=22233. KC=2, KE=2 and KF=2. Delete all other digits in K. C has a 1,2 and 4 so C=12224. CH=2 and CM=2 so delete all other digits. E is 23455 so EH=5 and EM=5 so delete all other digits in E. The whereabouts of the 25 numbers have now been deduced.

DEDUCTION 20

• Although there is only one solution, the following working out is not the only way to arrive at that solution.

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• To follow these particular deductions simply write all of the digits from 1 to 3 in every square and, through systematic elimination, delete any digit that is proven not to be present in each square. • Any pair enclosed by another pair cannot occupy the two extreme squares in that line so delete 2 in BJ and BP in B; 3 in CJ and CP in C; 3 in DJ and DP in D; 1 in EJ and EP in E; 2 in GJ in J; 3 in BK and GK in K; 1 in BL and GL in L; 3 in BM and GM in M; 1 in BN and GN in N; 3 in BP (BP=1) and GP in P. • In H, no pair is adjacent so delete 1 in CN. • In H, no pair encloses another so delete I in GJ (GJ=3) and FK. • In B, the 2s are between the 1s so delete the 1 in BM (BM=2). • In M, 3s are between 1s so delete 3 in CM. • In P there are only two 3s so PE=3, FP=3 so GP=1, CP=2 and DP=2. • In B there is at least one adjacent pair but the only possible adjacent pair would be a 2 next to BM so delete 2 in BK (BK=1). • There are already two 1s in B so delete 1 in BJ (BJ=3). • In D, 3s are between 1s so delete 3 in DN. • In N, 1s are between 2s but there is no adjacent pair so delete 1 in EN. • There are only two 1s in N so DN=1 and FN=1. • In N, 1s are between 2s so delete 2 in EN (EN=3). • In N, 1s are between 2s so GN=2. • In C, 3s are between 1s so CJ=1, CK=3, CL=3, CM=1 and CN=2. • In J there are two 3s so delete 3 in EJ (EJ=2) and FJ. • In L, 1s are between 3s so delete 3 in BL (BL=2). • In B there is only one 3 so BN=3. • In A there are only two 2s so DL=2 and EM=2. • In M there are only two 3s so DM=3, FM=3 and GM=1. • In G there are two 1s so delete 1 in GK (GK=2) so GL=3. • In L there are only two 1s so EL=1 and FL=1. • In D, 3s are between 1s so DJ=1 and DK=3. • In E there is only one 1 so EK=1. • In K there is only one 2 so FK=2. • J only has one 2 so FJ=2. • The whereabouts of all 36 digits have now been deduced.

DEDUCTION 21

• Although there is only one solution, the following working out is not the only way to arrive at that solution.

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• To follow these particular deductions simply write all of the digits from 1 to 6 in every square and, through systematic elimination, delete any digit that is proven not to be present in each square. • Delete numbers that can’t be in a square when they’ve been identified as having to be elsewhere in that line. For example, in (a) BJ/BK/BL contains 3/5/6 so 1/2/4 can be deleted from BJ/BK/BL but also 3/5/6 can be deleted from BM/BN/BP. • (a) BJ/BK/BL=14 which must be 3/5/6. • (b) DM/DN/DP=15 which must be 4/5/6. • (c) GJ/GK/GL=7 which must be 1/2/4. • (d) JB/JC/JD=11 which must be 1/4/6 or 2/3/6 or 2/4/5. • (e) KC/KD/KE=11 which must be 1/4/6 or 2/3/6 or 2/4/5. • (f) MC/MD/ME=11 which must be 1/4/6 or 2/3/6 or 2/4/5. • (g) NB/NC/ND=11 which must be 1/4/6 or 2/3/6 or 2/4/5. • BJ/BK/BL are 3/5/6 (order unknown) so delete these from CK. • DM/DN/DP are 4/5/6 (order unknown) so delete these from CN and DN. • GJ/GK/GL are 1/2/4 (order unknown) so delete these from FK. • BM/BN/BP are 1/2/4 (order unknown) so delete these from CN. • DJ/DK/DL are 1/2/3 (order unknown) so delete these from CK and EK. • GM/GN/GP are 3/5/6 (order unknown) so delete these from FN. • CN=3 so delete all other 3s in C and N. • CK=4 so delete all other 4s in C and K. • (g) has a 3 so the correct option must be 2/3/6 so delete 1, 4 and 5 from BN and DN. • BN=2 so delete all other 2s in B, N and all diagonally adjacent squares. • DN=6 so delete all other 6s in D, N and all diagonally adjacent squares. • EN=1 so delete all other 1s in E, N and all diagonally adjacent squares. • FN=4 so delete all other 4s in F and all diagonally adjacent squares. • GN=5 so delete all other 5s in G and all diagonally adjacent squares. • CM and CP contain only 1 and 5 so delete all other 1s and 5s from C. • CJ and CL contain only 2 and 6 so delete 6 from BK and 2 from DK. • Of the three options for (e) only 1/4/6 is now possible so delete 3 from DK and 5 from EK. • DK=1 so delete all other 1s in D and K. • EK=6 so delete all other 6s in E, K and all diagonally adjacent squares.

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• GK=2 so delete all other 2s in G and all diagonally adjacent squares. • (d) no longer has a 4 so it must be 2/3/6 so delete 5 in BJ. • (f) no longer has a 6 so it must be 2/4/5 so delete 1 in CM and 3 in EM. • CM=5 so delete all other 5s in C and M. • DM=4 so delete all other 4s in D, M and all diagonally adjacent squares. • BM=1 so delete all other 1s in B. • EM=2 so delete all other 2s in C, M and all diagonally adjacent squares. • DL=3 so delete all other 3s in D and L. • DJ=2 so delete all other 2s in J. • DP=5 so delete all other 5s in P. • CJ=6 so delete all other 6s in C and J. • EL=5 so delete all other 5s in E, L and all diagonally adjacent squares. • FL=1 so delete all other 1s in F and L. • EP=3 so delete all other 3s in P. • GP=6 so delete all other 6s in G and P. • FK=3 so delete all other 3s in F. • FJ=5 so delete all other 5s in J. • GL=4 so delete all other 4s in G. • BJ=3 so delete all other 3s in B and J. • BK=5 so delete all other 3s in B. • BL=6, BP=4, CL=2, CP=1, EJ=4, FM=6, FP=2, GJ=1, and GM=3. • The whereabouts of all 36 digits have now been deduced.

DEDUCTION 22

• Although there is only one solution, the following working out is not the only way to arrive at that solution. • To follow these particular deductions simply write all of the digits from 1 to 8 in every inner square. • Through systematic elimination, delete any digit that appears in an adjacent square to the same digit in the outer squares. • Now delete any digit that appears in the same row or column where the same digit appears at the start or finish of the same row or column. • As there are two 3s, 5s and 6s in A or K, only delete any 1s, 2s, 4s, 7s and 8s where they also appear at the start or finish of A or K.

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• The only 8 in C is CS so CS=8 so delete all other digits in CS and delete all 8s in S. • Either K or A has two 5s and two 6s. If K has the two 5s and two 6s then one 5 would be at one of the adjacent pair GN or FP whilst the other would have to be in DS which means that the 5s in adjacent squares ES and ET would be deleted. The second 6 in K must be at ER, which means that the 6s at ES, ET and EM would be deleted. This means EM would be a 4 but this would leave both ES and ET as 3s, which is incorrect. • Therefore K has the two 3s and A has the two 5s and two 6s. • One of A’s 5s must be at one of the adjacent pair DN or EP so delete all 5s adjacent to both simultaneously. • The second 5 in A must be at GS therefore GS=5 so delete all other digits in GS and any adjacent 5s along with any 5s in G or S. • The only 5 in T is at ET therefore ET=5 so delete all other digits in ET as well as the 5s in E. • This leaves the second 5 in A at DN so DN=5 so delete all other digits in DN as well as any 5s in N. • The only 5 in F is at FP therefore FP=5 so delete all other digits in FP. • Now it is known that A doesn’t have two 3s, delete all other 3s in A and, similarly, because it is now known that K doesn’t have two 5s or 6s, delete all other 6s in K. • EM is 6 or 4. If EM were 6 then the adjacent 6s and those in M and E could be deleted. As A has two 6s and only two 6s left, HT and FR would be 6s and any adjacent 6s and the 6s in H, T, F and R could be deleted. This would leave the fourth 6 at CN and would make FT a 4. By deleting all adjacent 4s and the other 4s in F, FS would be a 7. This would delete the 7 in DS but that would make both DS and ES a 3, which is incorrect, therefore EM is not a 6. • Therefore EM=4 so delete all other digits in EM and any adjacent 4s as well as any 4s in E or M. • F has two 4s left at FS or FT and G has two 4s left at GP or GT. If GT were a 4, this would delete the only two possible 4s in F so GT is not a 4 so delete the 4 in GT. • Therefore GP=4 so delete all other digits in GP and the adjacent 4s as well as any 4s in G. • EP=1 so delete all adjacent 1s as well as any 1s in E and P. • P has two 7s left at CP and DP so delete any simultaneously adjacent 7s to these two squares. • R has two 7s left at FR and GR so delete any simultaneously adjacent 7s to these two squares.

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• KS has the only 7 left in K therefore KS=7 so delete all other digits in KS and any 7s in D. • CP has the only 7 in P therefore CP=7 so delete all other digits in CP and any 7s in C. • GM has the only 7 in M therefore GM=7 so delete all other digits in GM and any 7s in G. • FR has the only remaining 7 therefore FR=7 so delete all other digits in FR. • Therefore CM=6 so delete the 6s in C and M. • CN has the only 4 left in C therefore CN=4 so delete all other digits in CN. • A has two 6s so the second must be at HT therefore HT=6 so delete all other digits in HT and the 6s in H and T. • Therefore FT=4 and HS=4 has the only 4 in H therefore delete all other digits in HS and any other 4s in S. • CS has the only 8 in C therefore CS=8 so delete all other digits in CS and any other 8s in S. • Therefore FS=6 so delete any other 6s in F and S. • Therefore ES=3 so delete any adjacent 3s or any other 3s in E. • Therefore ER=8 so delete any other 8s in E and R. • DT=1. • HR has the only 1 in H therefore HR=1 so delete all other digits in HR and any other 1s in R. • DR has the only 6 in R therefore DR=6 so delete all other digits in DR. • Therefore the only two 3s left in K, which has two 3s, is CT and HM therefore CT=3 and HM=3 so delete all other digits in CT and HM and the 3s in C, T, H and M. • The following are the only possible positions for the indicated digits by elimination so delete all other digits in these squares and any of the same digits remaining in the appropriate lines as you mark them off: DM=2, FM=8, FN=2, GN=1, EN=6, HN=8, HP=2, DP=3, CR=2, GR=3 and GT=2. • The whereabouts of the 36 digits have now been deduced.

DEDUCTION 23

• Although there is only one solution, the following working out is not the only way to arrive at that solution.

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• To follow these particular deductions simply write all of the digits from 1 to 9 in every square and, through systematic elimination, delete any digit that is proven not to be present in each square. • Look at the total in each clue in turn. Deduct any repeating digits from each total and, of the remaining sub-total, work out which digits from 1 to 9 could add up to that sub-total without duplication, making sure not to include any of the repeated digits already removed. • This gives one or more 6-digit permutations for each clue as follows, one of which will be the solution for that clue: • A=1+7+2+2+3+3 so delete 4s, 5s, 6s, 8s and 9s from A. • B=1+2+4+7+8+9, 1+2+5+6+8+9, 1+3+4+6+8+9, 1+3+5+6+7+9, 2+3+4+5+8+9 or 2+3+4+6+7+9. • C=5+9+2+2+4+4 or 6+8+2+2+4+4 so delete 1s, 3s and 7s from C. • D=2+5+8+9+1+1, 2+6+7+9+1+1, 3+4+8+9+1+1, 3+5+7+9+1+1, 3+6+7+8+1+1, 4+5+7+8+1+1, 4+5+6+9+1+1 or 4+5+7+8+1+1. • E=1+3+8+9+2+2, 1+4+7+9+2+2, 1+5+6+9+2+2, 1+5+7+8+2+2, 3+4+6+8+2+2, 3+4+5+9+2+2 or 3+5+6+7+2+2. • F=1+6+8+9+5+5, 2+6+7+9+5+5, 3+4+8+9+5+5 or 3+6+7+8+5+5. • G=1+6+8+9+7+7, 2+5+8+9+7+7, 3+4+8+9+7+7 or 4+5+6+9+7+7. • H=1+3+8+9+4+4, 1+5+6+9+4+4, 1+5+7+8+4+4, 2+3+7+9+4+4, 2+5+6+8+4+4 or 3+5+6+7+4+4. • J=1+6+3+3+8+8 or 2+5+3+3+8+8 so delete 4s, 7s and 9s from J. • K=4+9+2+2+5+5 or 6+7+2+2+5+5 so delete 1s, 3s and 8s from K. • L=3+9+4+4+7+7 so delete 1s, 2s, 5s, 6s and 8s from L. • M=1+4+8+9+6+6, 1+5+7+9+6+6, 2+3+8+9+6+6, 2+4+7+9+6+6, 2+5+7+8+6+6 or 3+4+7+8+6+6. • N=4+8+1+1+9+9 or 5+7+1+1+9+9 so delete 2s, 3s and 6s from N. • P=1+2+3+5+6+7, 1+2+3+4+5+9 or 1+2+3+4+6+8. • CK=2 so delete all adjacent 2s. • CL is 4 or 9. If CL were 9 then C would be 5+9+2+2+4+4 and the 6s, 8s and other 9s in C would be deleted which would make CJ a 5 so the other 5s in C would be deleted. This would make CN a 4, which would mean the second 4 would have to occupy an adjacent square to CN, which is incorrect so CL is not 9. • Therefore CL=4 so delete all other digits in CL and any adjacent 4s. • K has a second 2 that must be at EK, FK or GK so simultaneously adjacent 2s can be deleted. • C has a second 4 that can only be at CN or CP so delete the simultaneously adjacent 4s.

80

• H has two 4s one of which must be in either FK or EL, so delete any simultaneously adjacent 4s, and the other must be in CN. • CN=4 so delete all other digits in CN and any 4s in C or N. • L has a second 4 that must be at EL or GL so delete simultaneously adjacent 4s. • The second 4 in H must be at EL so EL=4 so delete all other digits in EL as well as any 4s in E and L. • E has 4 so E is 1+4+7+9+2+2, 3+4+6+8+2+2 or 3+4+5+9+2+2. • G has two 7s but only five squares where they could be, GK, GL, GM, GN and GP. No matter what their positions, FL and FN will be adjacent to at least one 7 so delete the 7s in these two squares. • FN=1 so delete all adjacent 1s and the 1s in F and A. • BJ=3 so delete any 3s in B. • B has 3 so B is not 1+2+4+7+8+9 or 1+2+5+6+8+9. • F has 1 so F=1+6+8+9+5+5 so delete the 2s, 3s, 4s and 7s in F. • FL=9 so delete all adjacent 9s and the 9s in F and L. • BL=7 so delete the 7s in B • B has 7 so B is 1+3+5+6+7+9 or 2+3+4+6+7+9 so delete any 8s in B. • D has 3 or 7 at DL so D is not 2+5+8+9+1+1 or 4+5+6+9+1+1. • H has 5 or 6 at HK so H is not 1+3+8+9+4+4 or 2+3+7+9+4+4. • EM is 3, 7 or 2. If EM is 7 then the adjacent DL must be 3 which means that GA must be 2 as it’s in A and GL must be 7. The only option for G’s second 7 is GN. Having a 2 means G must be 2+5+8+9+7+7 but there is no 9 available therefore EM is not 7 so delete 7 from EM. • Therefore EM is 7 or 2. If EM is 3 then, as before, the adjacent DL must be 7, GA must be 2 as it’s in A and G must be 2+5+8+9+7+7. However, GL can’t be 7 and there is no 3 in G’s option therefore EM is not 3 so delete 3 from EM. • EM=2 so delete all other digits in EM as well the 2s in A and M. • DL is either 3 or 7. If DL is 7 then GL and GP are both 3, which is incorrect as G does not have two 3s. • Therefore DL=3 so delete all other digits in DL and the 3s in D, L and A. • Therefore GL=7 and GP=7 so delete all other 7s in G and P. • M has 2 so M is not 1+4+8+9+6+6, 1+5+7+9+6+6 or 3+4+7+8+6+6 so delete the 1s in M. • P has 7 therefore P=1+2+3+5+6+7 so delete the 8s and 9s in P. • D has 3 so D is 3+4+8+9+1+1, 3+5+7+9+1+1 or 3+6+7+8+1+1. • N has 4 so N=4+8+1+1+9+9 so delete any 5s or 7s in N.

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• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

All G options have 9 so GN=9 so delete all other digits in GN. P has a 3 and the only position it could be is at EP. EP=3 so delete all other digits in EP and the 3s in E. E has 3, 2, 4 so E is either 3+4+6+8+2+2 or 3+4+5+9+2+2. D has two 1s, one of which must be at one of the adjacent pair DN or DP and the other must be at DJ. Therefore DJ=1 so delete all other digits in DJ as well as any 1s in J. J has a 1 so J=1+6+3+3+8+8 so delete 2s and 5s in J. As J has two 3s, the second must be at GJ. Therefore GJ=3 so delete all other digits in GJ and the 3s in G. As G has a 3, G=3+4+8+9+7+7 so delete the 2s, 5s and 6s in G. GK=4 so delete all other 4s in G. GM=8 so delete any other 8s in M. K has a 4 so K=4+9+2+2+5+5 so delete the 6s and 7s from K. FK=5 so delete adjacent 5s. EK=2. H has a 3 so H=3+5+6+7+4+4 so delete all 1s, 2s, 8s and 9s in H. The only 7 in H is at DM so DM=7 so delete all other digits in DM. HB must be the 6 still to be identified in H therefore HB=6 so delete all other digits in HB and any other 6s in B and P. The only 1 left in B is at BN therefore BN=1 so delete all other digits in BN and any other 1s in N. B=1+3+5+6+7+9. CJ is 6 or 8 therefore C=6+8+2+2+4+4 so delete all 5s and 9s in C. CM=6 so delete any other 6s in C. CJ=8 so delete any other 8s in C or J. CP=2. M’s second 6 must be at FM therefore FM=6 so delete all other digits in FM and any other 6s in F. M has a 2, 7, 8 therefore M=2+5+7+8+6+6 so BM=5 so delete all other digits in BM and any other 5s in B. BK=9 so delete any other 9s in K. DK=9 therefore K=4+9+2+2+5+5. FJ=8 so delete any other 8s in F. FP=5 so delete any other 5s in P. D’s second 1 must be in DP therefore DP=1 so delete all other digits in DP. EJ=6 so delete all other digits in EJ. E has 3, 4, 8 so E=3+4+6+8+2+2. Therefore EN must be the missing 8 so DN=8.

82

• D has 3, 5, 7 so D=3+5+7+9+1+1. • Therefore DN must be the missing 9 so DN=9. • The whereabouts of the 36 digits have now been deduced.

DEDUCTION 24

• Although there is only one solution, the following working out is not the only way to arrive at that solution. • The first objective is to deduce the contiguous series of 16 two-digit numbers that by definition must be between 11-26 and 84-99 inclusive. • H has the lowest known total of 187 but a series of 16 consecutive numbers starting with 46 or higher couldn’t produce such a low number (46+47+48+49=190). • Therefore the series must start at 45 or lower. • K has the highest known total of 213 but a series of 16 consecutive numbers ending with 54 or lower couldn’t produce such a high number (51+52+53+54=210). • Therefore the series must start at 45 or lower and finish at 55 or higher. • Therefore the series is 40-55, 41-56, 42-57, 43-58, 44-59 or 45-60. • B has just two different digits and the only arrangement possible within the above series is B=44-45-54-55 so series 45-60 is not correct. • Therefore the series must be 40-55, 41-56, 42-57, 43-58 or 44-59. • K has a total of 213. The only permutation possible in series 40-55 is 51+53+54+55 but this contravenes A so series 40-55 is incorrect. • Therefore the series must be 41-56, 42-57, 43-58 or 44-59. • H has the lowest total of 187. If the series was 44-59 then 44 must be in G and at least one number in H must a 50s number because of A. The lowest possible series is 45+46+47+50, which is 188 so 44-59 is incorrect. • K has the highest total of 213. If the series was 41-56 then 56 must be in G and at least one number in K must be a 40s number because of A. The highest possible series is 55+54+53+49, which is 211 so 41-56 is incorrect. • Therefore the series must be (i) 42-57 or (ii) 43-58. • In option (i), all the numbers in J are divisible by 3. 42 and 57 would be in G leaving only 45, 48, 51 and 54 for J but B has both 45 and 54 therefore option (i) is incorrect. • Therefore Series= 43-58.

83

• E has four consecutive numbers and the only permutations that do not contravene A are (i) 47-48-49-50, (ii) 48-49-50-51 and (iii) 4950-51-52. • This means that 49 and 50 are in E whichever option is correct. • G has the highest and lowest numbers. But neither appear in B or E so CG and DG must be 43 and 58. As C is only odd numbers, C=43 and D=58. • The only options left for the remaining three odd numbers in C are 47, 51, 53 and 57. • Either 47 or 51 is in E so 53 and 57 are in C. • All the numbers in J are divisible by 3 and, in C, only 51 and 57 are divisible by 3 and could be in CJ. • The only options left for the remaining three even numbers in D are 46, 48, 52 and 56.. • Either 48 or 52 are in E so 46 and 56 are in D. • All the numbers in J are divisible by 3 and, in D, only 48 is divisible by 3 therefore DJ=48. • All the numbers in J are divisible by 3 and, in E, only 51 is divisible by 3 therefore EJ=51. • This means that not only are numbers in D now known to be 58, 48, 56 and 46, but also E=49-50-51-52, C=53-57-43-47 and, of course, B is already identified as 44-45-54-55. • A has the same first digit in all four numbers so, as AD is 48, those first digits are all 4. • Therefore AE=49, AC=47 and AB is either 44 or 45. • Therefore CK=53. • K totals 213 and already has 53 and 49 in place. This leaves 111 for BK and BD. BD is either 46 or 56, so BK must be 55 or 65. As 65 is not an option, BK=55, DK=56 so DH=46. • H totals 187 and already has 47 and 46 in place. This leaves 94 for EH and BH. EH is either 50 or 52, so BH must be 44 or 42. As 42 is not an option, BH=44, EH=50 so EG=52, BG=45 and BJ=54. • The whereabouts of the 16 two-digit numbers have now been deduced.

DEDUCTION 25

• Although there is only one solution, the following working out is not the only way to arrive at that solution.

84

• To follow these particular deductions, list every number between 1 and 25 then delete each number from the list when its whereabouts has been deduced. • HB totals 15 and the only possible combinations on the list for CH/JB are 1/14, 2/13, 3/12, 4/11, 5/10 and 6/9 (no consecutive numbers, such as 7/8, are ever adjacent). • CJ totals 24 with CH/JB (two of the four squares whose numbers make up the total) totalling 15 so DJ/CK total 9. • The only four-number combinations containing two pairs of digits, one that adds up to 15 (for CH/BJ) and one that adds up to 9 (DJ/CK), are 14/1/6/3, 12/3/8/1, 11/4/8/1, 11/4/7/2 and 10/5/8/1. • Of these, there are no combinations for HB that use 2/13 or 6/9 so the only possible combinations for CH/JB are 1/14, 3/12, 4/11 and 5/10. • The five possibilities left for CH/JB/DJ/CK, in no known order, are (i) CH/JB 10/5 + DJ/CK 8/1, (ii) CH/JB 12/3 + DJ/CK 8/1, (iii) CH/JB 11/4 + DJ/CK 8/1, (iv) CH/JB 11/4 + DJ/CK 7/2 and (v) CH/JB 14/1 + DJ/CK 6/3. • Therefore there are five options (i to v) and each option has four permutations (a to d). • (i) CH/JB 10/5 + DJ/CK 8/1. (ia) CH 5, JB 10, DJ 1, CK 8: DH totals 31 so, with CH 5 and DJ 1, EH must be 25. HF totals 40 so, with EH 25, FJ must be 15. EJ totals 55 so, with DJ 1, EH 25 and FJ 15, EK must be 14. FK totals 30 so, with FJ 15 and EK 14, FL must be 1. This is impossible as DJ is also 1 so (ia) is incorrect. • (i) CH/JB 10/5 + DJ/CK 8/1. (ib) CH 10, JB 5, DJ 1, CK 8: DH totals 31 so, with CH 10 and DJ 1, EH must be 20. HF totals 40 so, with EH must be 20. This is impossible as EH is also 20 so (ib) is incorrect. • (i) CH/JB 10/5 + DJ/CK 8/1. (ic) CH 10, JB 5, DJ 8, CK 1: DH totals 31 so, with CH 10 and DJ 8, EH must be 13. HF totals 40 so, with EH 13, FJ must be 27 which is impossible so (ia) is incorrect. • (i) CH/JB 10/5 + DJ/CK 8/1. (id) CH 5, JB 10, DJ 8, CK 1: DH totals 31 so, with CH 5 and DJ 8, EH must be 18. HF totals 40 so, with EH 18, FJ must be 22. EJ totals 55 so, with DJ 8, EH 18 and FJ 22, EK must be 7. FK totals 30 so, with FJ 22 and EK 7, FL must be 1. This is impossible as DJ is 1 so (id) is incorrect. • Therefore, all permutations of option (i) are incorrect. • (ii) CH/JB 12/3 + DJ/CK 8/1. (iia) CH 12, JB 3, DJ 8, CK 1: DH totals 31 so, with CH 12 and DJ 8, EH must be 11 which is impossible because of 12 at CH so (iia) is incorrect. • (ii) CH/JB 12/3 + DJ/CK 8/1. (iib) CH 12, JB 3, DJ 1, CK 8: DH totals 31 so, with CH 12 and DJ 1, EH must be 18. FH totals 40 so,

85

•

• • • •

• •

• • •

• •

with EH 18, FJ must be 22. EJ totals 55 so, with DJ 1, EH 18 and FJ 22, EK must be 14 which is impossible because FK totals 30 and FJ and EK already total 36 so (iib) is incorrect. (ii) CH/JB 12/3 + DJ/CK 8/1. (iic) CH 3, JB 12, DJ 8, CK 1: DH totals 31 so, with CH 3 and DJ 8, EH must be 20 which is impossible because FH totals 40 and FJ would also have to be 20 so (iic) is incorrect. (ii) CH/JB 12/3 + DJ/CK 8/1. (iid) CH 3, JB 12, DJ 1, CK 8: DH totals 31 but, with CH 3 and DJ 1, EH would have to be 27 which is impossible so (iid) is incorrect. Therefore, all permutations of option (ii) are incorrect. (iii) CH/JB 11/4 + DJ/CK 8/1. (iiia) CH 11, JB 4, DJ 8, CK 1: DH totals 31 so, with CH 11 and DJ 8, EH must be 12 which, with CH 11, is impossible so (iiia) is incorrect. (iii) CH/JB 11/4 + DJ/CK 8/1. (iiib) CH 4, JB 11, DJ 8, CK 1: DH totals 31 so, with CH 4 and DJ 8, EH must be 19. FH totals 40 so, with EH 19, FJ must be 21. EJ totals 55 so, with DJ 8, EH 19 and FJ 21, EK must be 7 which, with the adjacent DJ being 8, is impossible so (iiib) is incorrect. (iii) CH/JB 11/4 + DJ/CK 8/1. (iiic) CH 4, JB11, DJ 1, CK 8: DH totals 31 so, with CH 4 and DJ 1, EH must be 26 which is impossible so (iiic) is incorrect. (iii) CH/JB 11/4 + DJ/CK 8/1. (iiid) CH 11, JB 4, DJ 1, CK 8: DH totals 31 so, with CH 11 and DJ 1, EH must be 19. FH totals 40 so, with EH 19, FJ must be 21. EJ totals 55 so, with DJ 1, EH 19 and FJ 21, EK must be 14. FK totals 30 but, with FJ 21 and EK 14, this is impossible so (iiid) is incorrect. Therefore, all permutations of option (iii) are incorrect. (iv) CH/JB 11/4 + DJ/CK 7/2. (iva) CH 11, JB 4, DJ 7, CK 2: DH totals 31 so, with CH 11 and DJ 7, EH must be 13. FH totals 40 but, with EH 13, FJ must be 27 which is impossible so (iva) is incorrect. (iv) CH/JB 11/4 + DJ/CK 7/2. (ivb) CH 4, JB 11, DJ 7, CK 2: DH totals 31 so, with CH 4 and DJ 7, EH must be 20 which is impossible because FH totals 40 and FJ would also have to be 20 so (ivb) is incorrect. (iv) CH/JB 11/4 + DJ/CK 7/2. (ivc) CH 4, JB 11, DJ 2, CK 7: BK totals 25 so, with BJ 11 and CK 7, BL must be also 7 which is impossible so (ivc) is incorrect. (iv) CH/JB 11/4 + DJ/CK 7/2. (ivd) CH 11, JB 4, DJ 2, CK 7: DH totals 31 so, with CH 11 and DJ 2, EH must be 18. FH totals 40 so, with EH 18, FJ must be 22. EJ totals 55 so, with DJ 2, EH 18 and FJ

86

• • • • •

• • • • •

• •

21, EK must be 13. FK totals 30 but, with FJ 22 and EK 13, this is impossible so (ivd) is incorrect. Therefore, all permutations of option (iv) are incorrect. (v) CH/JB 14/1 + DJ/CK 6/3. (va) CH 14, JB 1, DJ 6, CK 3: DH totals 31 so, with CH 14 and DJ 6, EH must be 11. FH totals 40 so, with EH 11, FJ must be 29 which is impossible so (va) is incorrect. (v) CH/JB 14/1 + DJ/CK 6/3. (vb) CH 14, JB 1, DJ 3, CK 6: DH totals 31 so, with CH 14 and DJ 3, EH must also be 14 which is impossible so (vb) is incorrect. (v) CH/JB 14/1 + DJ/CK 6/3. (vc) CH 1, JB 14, DJ 3, CK 6: DH totals 31 so, with CH 1 and DJ 3, EH must be 27 which is impossible so (vc) is incorrect. (v) CH/JB 14/1 + DJ/CK 6/3. (vd) CH 1, JB 14, DJ 6, CK 3: DH totals 31 so, with CH 1 and DJ 6, EH must be 24. FH totals 40 so, with EH 24, FJ must be 16. EJ totals 55 so, with DJ 6, EH 24 and FJ 16, EK must be 9. FK totals 30 so, with FJ 16 and EK 9, FL must be 5. FM totals 23 so, with FL 5, EM must be 18. EL totals 47 so, with EK 9, FL 5 and EM 18, DL must be 15. DM totals 54 so, with EM 18 and DL 15, CM must be 21. BM totals 29 so, with CM 21, BL must be 8. Therefore option (va) is correct and CH=1, JB=14, DJ=6, CK=3, EH=24, FJ=16, EK=9, FL=5, EM=18, DL=15, CM=21 and BL=8. This leaves the whereabouts of 2, 4, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13, 17, 19, 20, 22, 23 and 25 to be deduced. EJ totals 28 and, of the remaining numbers in the list, only (i) 22/4/2, (ii) 19/7/2, (iii) 17/7/4 and (iv) 13/11/4 can make the correct total without consecutive numbers. (i) 22/4/2 requires 2 to be in EJ as the 1 in HC and the 3 in KC prevent it from being elsewhere but 4 cannot be in FH or FK because of 5 in FL so (i) is incorrect. (ii) 19/7/2 requires 2 to be in EJ as the 1 in HC and the 3 in KC prevent it from being elsewhere. EK totals 62 so, with the 2 in EJ, if the 7 was in FK, DK/EL would total 53 which is impossible so the 19 would have to be in FK. FL totals 40 so, with 19 at FK, LE/FM would total 21 and the only pairs of numbers in the list to total 21 are 10/11 (impossible because they are consecutive) and 17/4 (impossible because 17 would have to be adjacent to 18 in EM, so (ii) is incorrect. (iii) 17/7/4 is impossible because 17 would have to be adjacent to the 16 in FJ so (iii) is incorrect. Therefore (iv) must be correct and 13/11/4 requires 4 to be in EJ because of the 5 in FL so EJ=4.

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• FL totals 40 so, if FK was 13, then EL/FM would total 27 but, as EM totals 41, DM would have to be 14 which is impossible so FK=11 and FH=13. • EH totals 34 so, with FH 13 and EJ 4, DH=17. • CH totals 47 so, with dh 17, BH/CJ must total 30 but of the only two pairs left in the list that total 30, 23/7 is impossible because neither can go in BH so BH/CJ is 20/10. • 20 cannot go in CJ because of 21 at CM so CJ=10 and BH=20. • FL totals 40 and, with FK 5, EL/FM must total 29 and the only two numbers left in the list to total 29 are 22/7. • 22 cannot go in FM because of 21 at CM so FM=7 and EL=22. • EM totals 41 so, with FM 7 and EL 22, DM=12. • BJ totals 53 so, with BH 20 and CJ 10, BK=23. • DJ totals 56 so, with CJ 10, DH 17 and EJ 4, DK=25. • CK totals 77 so, with BK 23, CJ 10 and DK 25, CL=19. • BL totals 44 so, with BK 23 and CL 19, BM=2. • The whereabouts of the 25 hidden numbers have now been deduced.

DEDUCTION 26

• Although there is only one solution, the following working out is not the only way to arrive at that solution. • To follow these particular deductions simply write all of the digits from 1 to 5 in every square and, through systematic elimination, delete any digit proven not to be in each square. • Where options are given, the text suggests that, instead of deleting a digit, it should be circled until that option is proved or disproved. • Each line adds up to its given total and by elimination of all impossible permutations, the following are the only options: A = 12345 B = 12345 C = 11155 or 22233 D = 12555 or 14445 or 33345 E = 12355 or 12445 or 13345 or 22345 F = 11444 or 22244 G = 11335 or 11344 or 12244 H = 12355 or 12445 or 13345 or 22345 J = 11133 K = 11134 or 11125 or 12223 L = 24555 M = 13555 or 24445

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There are no 4s in C so delete them. There are no 3s or 5s in F so delete them. There are no 2s, 4s or 5s in J so delete them. There are no 1s or 3s in L so delete them. FJ=1 Therefore F=11444 so delete the 2s in F. FL=4 L only has one 4 so delete all other 4s in L. GL is either 2 or 5 so G cannot be 11344. FM is either (i) 1 or (ii) 4. In option (i) FM is 1 so M is 13555 so circle all 2s and 4s in M. Circle all the other 1s in M and A and the 4 in FM. F has both 1s so circle all other 1s in F. FH and FK are both 4. CJ is 3 so circle the other 3s in A. C has a 3 so must be 22233 so circle all 1s and 5s in C. CM is 3 so CH, CK and CL are all 2. As CM is 3, circle all other 3s in M Therefore MB, MD and ME are all 5. L is 24555 with the 2 and 4 identified so LB, LD and LE are all 5. This gives B two 5s at LB and MB which is impossible. Option (i) is incorrect so option (ii) must be correct. In option (ii) FM=4. Delete the 1 in FM so M=24445. Delete all 1s and 3s in M. Delete the other 4s in A. CL is either (i) 2 or (ii) 5. In option (i) CL is 5 so C is 11155 so circle all 2s and 3s in C. CM is 5 so circle the other 5s in M. C has two 5s so circle the other 5s in C so CH, CJ and CK are all 1. As H has a 1, H is not 22345 so circle all other 1s in H. FH is 4 so FK is 1 but G has a 4 and 5 which is impossible. Option (i) is incorrect so option (ii) is correct. In option (ii) CL=2 therefore C=22233. Delete all 5s and 1s in C. CM=2 so delete all other 2s in M CJ=3 so delete all other 3s in A. B has one 4, either at (i) BK or (ii) BM. In option (i) BK is 4 so BM is 5. G now has a 2 and a 5 which is impossible.

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Option (i) is incorrect so option (ii) is correct. In option (ii) BM=4 and G=12244. Delete the 3s and 5s in G. EJ=1 so E is not 22345. As LC is 2, LB=5, LD=5 and LE=5. Delete all other 5s in B and 2s in L. GM=4 and the only other 4 in G is FH so GH=4 and so GK=2. D now has a 2 and a 5 so D=12555. Delete all 3s and 4s in D. Therefore DJ=1 so DH=5 and DM=5. Therefore ME=4. Therefore E has a 4 so E isn’t 12355 so delete all other 5s in E. AB=1 so delete all other 1s in B. BJ=3 therefore BK=2. K now has two 2s so K=12223. Delete all the 4s in K and KF=1. There are already five 1s identified so delete the 1s in EH and EK. There are still three 3s to identify and one 2 in CH, EH, CK and EK. E isn’t 12445 as there isn’t a second 4. Therefore E=13345 so EH=3 and EK=3. Therefore KC=2. Therefore H=13345 and HC=3. The whereabouts of the 25 numbers have now been deduced.

DEDUCTION 27

• Although there is only one solution, the following working out is not the only way to arrive at that solution. • To follow these particular deductions simply write all of the digits from 1 to 3 in every square and, through systematic elimination, delete any digit that is proven not to be present in each square. • Any pair enclosed by another pair cannot occupy the two extreme squares in that line so delete 2 in BJ and GP in A; 3 in BJ (BJ=1) and BP in B; 2 in CJ and CP in C; 1 in DJ and DP in D; 2 in EJ and EP in E; 3 in FJ and FP in F; 1 in GJ and BP (BP=2) in H; 3 in BK and GK in K; 2 in BM and GM in M; 2 in BN and GN in N; 1 in GP (GP=3) in P. • In P, 1s are between 2s so delete 2 in DP (DP=3). • In P only one 2 left so FP=2. • In P only two 1s left so CP=1 and EP=1.

90

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

In B, 3s are between 1s so BN=1, BM=3, BL=3 and BK=2. In J there are no adjacent pairs so delete 1 in CJ (CJ=3). In J there are no adjacent pairs so delete 3 in DJ (DJ=2). In G no pair encloses another so delete 3 in GJ (GJ=2). In J there is only one 3 so EJ=3. In J there is only one 1 so FJ=1. In A, 2s are between 1s so delete 2 in FN. In A there are no adjacent pairs so delete 1 in CK and 3 in FN (FN=1). In N there are two 1s so delete 1 in CN, DN, EN and GN (GN=3). In G there are two 3s so delete 3 in GL and GM (GM=1). In F there are two 1s so delete 1 in FK, FL and FM. In M the 2s are between the 3s so delete 2 in FM (FM=3). In M there are two 3s so delete 3 in CM, DM and EM. In A there are two 1s so delete 1 in DL and EM (EM=2). In H there are two 2s so delete 2 in FK (FK=3), EL, DM (DM=1) and CP (CP=3) so EL=1. In M there is only one 2 so CM=2. In F there is only one 2 so FL=2. In N there are no 2s so DN=2 and EN=2. In C there is only one 1 so CL=1. In C there is only one 2 so CK=2. In E there is only one 3 so EK=3. In K there are no 1s so DK=1 and GK=1. In L there are two 1s so delete 1 in GL (GL=2). In L there is only one 3 so DL=3. The whereabouts of all 36 digits have now been deduced.

DEDUCTION 28

• Although there is only one solution, the following working out is not the only way to arrive at that solution. • To follow these particular deductions simply write all of the digits from 1 to 6 in every square and, through systematic elimination, delete any digit that is proven not to be present in each square. • Delete numbers that can’t be in a square when they’ve been identified as having to be elsewhere in that line. For example, in (a) FK/FL/FM contains 1/2/3 so 4/5/6 can be deleted from FK/FL/FM but also 1/2/3 can be deleted from FJ/FN/FP. • (a) FK/FL/FM=6 which must be 1/2/3. • (b) JC/JD/JE=13 which must be 2/5/6 or 3/4/6.

91

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

(c) LD/LE/LF=14 which must be 3/5/6. (d) NC/ND/NE=11 which must be 1/4/6 or 2/3/6 or 2/4/5. (e) PD/PE/PF=7 which must be 1/2/4. FL=3 so delete all other 3s in F, L and all diagonally adjacent squares. FP=4 so delete all other 4s in F, P and all diagonally adjacent squares. DP/EP are 1/2 (unknown order) so delete 1/2 in DN/EN. FK/FM are 1/2 (unknown order) so delete 1/2 in GL. GL=4 so delete all other 4s in G and L. BL/CL are 1/2 (unknown order) so delete 1/2 in BK/CK/BM/CM. DL/EL are 5/6 (unknown order) so delete 5/6 in DK/EK/DM/EM. DL/EL are 5/6 (unknown order) so (b) 2/5/6 option cannot occupy CJ/DJ/EJ without duplicating at least one number so CJ/DJ/EJ must be 3/4/6. Delete the 2s and 5s in CJ/DJ/EJ, the 3s, 4s and 6s in BJ/FJ/GJ. CJ/DJ/EJ contains 3/4 so delete the 3/4 in DK. FJ=5 so delete all other 5s in F, J and all diagonally adjacent squares. DK/FK are 1/2 (unknown order) so delete 1/2 in EK and GK. EK=4 so delete all other 4s in E, K and all diagonally adjacent squares. DK/DP are 1/2 (unknown order) so delete 1/2 in DM. EM/FM are 1/2 (unknown order) so delete 1/2 in GM. GK=6 so delete all other 6s in G and K. GM=5 so delete all other 5s in G and M. GP=3 so delete all other 3s in G and P. FN=6 so delete all other 6s in N. BP/CP are 5/6 (unknown order) so delete 5 in BN and CN. (d) now doesn’t have a 6 so (d) is 2/4/5 so delete all is and 3s in NC/ND/NE. NE=5 so delete all other 5s in N and E. ND=4 so delete all other 4s in N and D. NC=2 so delete all other 2s in N and C. NG=1 so delete all other 1s in N and G. NB=3 so delete all other 3s in B. GJ=2 so delete all other 2s in J and all diagonally adjacent squares. FK=1 so delete all other 1s in F. FM=2 so delete all other 2s in M. EM=1 so delete all other 1s in E. EP=2 so delete all other 2s in P.

92

• • • • • • • • • • •

EL=6 so delete all other 6s in E and L. BJ=1 so delete all other 1s in B. BK=5 so delete all other 5s in B and K. BP=6 so delete all other 6s in B and P. BM=4 so delete all other 4s in M. DM=3 so delete all other 3s in D and M. CK=3 so delete all other 3s in C. DJ=6 so delete all other 6s in J. DP=1 so delete all other 1s in D. CP=5, BL=2, CL=1, CJ=4, EJ=3, DL=5 and DK=2. The whereabouts of all 36 digits have now been deduced.

93

94

SUPREMELY SATISFYING SOLUTIONS

95

SOLUTION 01

A L M N P R S T U K

B 1 4 7 6 5 2 8 3 B

C 7 8 2 1 3 6 5 4 C

D 3 6 4 5 8 7 1 2 D

E 2 5 3 7 1 4 6 8 E

F 4 1 8 2 6 5 3 7 F

G 5 3 6 4 7 8 2 1 G

H 8 7 5 3 2 1 4 6 H

J 6 2 1 8 4 3 7 5 J

K L M N P R S T U A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 64 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 8 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 8 appear exactly eight times each. • Digits in the 28 outer squares are shown but not those in the 36 inner squares. • No digit is repeated in any row, column or diagonally adjacent squares. • One corner-to-corner diagonal contains two 8s and two 4s. • The other corner-to-corner diagonal contains two 7s and two 6s. • All of the repeated digits on the two long diagonals have been given.

96

SOLUTION 02

A J K L M N P H

B 6 9 3 8 4 7 B

C 1 4 2 9 3 8 C

D 5 6 1 7 6 1 D

E 7 2 3 4 2 7 E

F 1 9 5 8 6 5 F

G 5 3 2 9 4 8 G

H J K L M N P A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 36 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 9 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 9 appear exactly four times each. • No digit is repeated in adjacent squares, including diagonally. • The six digits in each of the fourteen lines add up to the following totals: A 29(6)(4) B 37 C 27 D 26(1)(6) E 25(7)(2) F 34(5) G 31 H 34(7)(3) J 25(1)(5) K 33(9) L 16(3)(2) M 45(8)(9) N 25(4)(6) P 36(7)(8) • Any digit repeated in any of the fourteen lines is shown in brackets. • No digit appears more than twice in any line.

97

SOLUTION 03

A G H J K F

B 41 39 40 38 B

C 37 48 45 46 C

D 43 33 44 34 D

E 35 47 36 42 E

F G H J K A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 16 squares above contain a different two-digit number. • All of these numbers are in a contiguous numerical sequence. • A is the only line to have the same first digit in all four numbers. • B is the only line to have four consecutive numbers. • C is the only line to have the highest total of 176. • D is the only line to have just two different digits. • E is the only line to have none of the other 9 characteristics. • F is the only line to have the lowest total of 151. • G is the only line to have four odd numbers. • H is the only line to have both the highest and lowest numbers which, incidentally, happen to divide by the same prime number. • J is the only line whose four first digits of each number total the same as the second four digits without using all the same digits as in D. • K is the only line to have four even numbers.

98

SOLUTION 04

A B C D E F G 19 35 33 41 8 H 2 8 18 5 10 H 26 56 69 29 44 J 11 15 20 13 3 J 50 51 52 64 28 K 9 17 23 1 21 K 19 78 50 58 40 L 22 4 14 7 24 L 47 26 58 35 43 M 6 25 16 19 12 M G B C D E F A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 25 squares above contain a hidden number between 1 and 25 inclusive. • No hidden number is repeated. • No consecutive hidden numbers are diagonally adjacent. • No consecutive hidden numbers are in the same row or column. • No consecutive hidden numbers are in the same long diagonal. • All of the 25 squares above also show an open number. • Open numbers may be repeated. • Each open number is the sum of the adjacent hidden orthogonal numbers but not the adjacent hidden diagonal numbers. • Corner squares show the sum of their two adjacent hidden numbers. • Outer squares show the sum of their three adjacent hidden numbers. • Inner squares show the sum of their four adjacent hidden numbers.

99

SOLUTION 05

A H J K L M G

B 5 2 1 5 3 B

C 5 5 2 3 5 C

D 2 1 4 4 2 D

E 3 3 3 1 4 E

F 4 2 1 4 1 F

G H J K L M A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 25 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 5 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 5 appear exactly 5 times each. • The 5 digits in each of the 12 lines add up to the following totals: A 16(2)(2) B 16(2) C 20(3) D 13(2)(2) E 14(3) F 12(2)(2) G 17(3)(2) H 19(2) J 13(2) K 11(2) L 17(2) M 15 • The numbers in brackets indicate repeated digits in that line. • (2) means one digit appears twice and none appear three times. • (2)(2) means two digits appear twice and none appear three times. • (3) means one digit appears three times and none appear twice. • (3)(2) means one digit appears twice and one appears three times.

100

SOLUTION 06

A J K L M N P H

B 2 3 1 1 3 2 B

C 3 1 2 2 1 3 C

D 1 2 3 3 2 1 D

E 1 3 2 3 1 2 E

F 2 1 3 1 2 3 F

G 3 2 1 2 3 1 G

H J K L M N P A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 36 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 3 inclusive. • Each line of 6 squares contains two 1s, two 2s and two 3s: A* The 3s are between the 2s H No pair encloses another B* The 1s are between the 3s J* The 1s are between the 2s C* The 2s are between the 1s K No pair encloses another D* The 3s are between the 2s L The 3s are between the 1s E The 3s are between the 1s M* The 3s are between the 1s F The 1s are between the 2s N The 1s are between the 3s G The 2s are between the 3s P No pair encloses another • There may be more digits enclosed by a pair than those identified. • Not all enclosed pairs may be stated. • (*) means that at least one pair of digits are adjacent in that line. • All lines with adjacent pairs are identified by (*). • Adjacent pairs need not necessarily be enclosed.

101

SOLUTION 07

A J K L M N P H

B 2 3 1 4 6 5 B

C 4 6 2 5 3 1 C

D 3 5 4 1 2 6 D

E 1 2 3 6 5 4 E

F 6 4 5 2 1 3 F

G 5 1 6 3 4 2 G

H J K L M N P A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 36 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 6 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 6 appear exactly 6 times each. • No digit is repeated in the same rank or file. • No digit is repeated in diagonally adjacent squares. • Below are nine sets of three contiguous squares and their totals: BM+BN+BP=15 CJ+CK+CL=12 DL+DM+DN=7 EL+EM+EN=14 FM+FN+FP=6 GJ+GK+GL=12 GK+GL+GM=10 KE+KF+KG=7 PD+PE+PF=13

102

SOLUTION 08

A L M N P R S T U K

B 1 8 3 5 7 2 4 6 B

C 7 4 6 2 3 5 8 1 C

D 8 2 5 4 1 7 6 3 D

E 6 7 1 3 2 4 5 8 E

F 4 5 2 8 6 1 3 7 F

G 3 6 7 1 4 8 2 5 G

H 2 1 8 6 5 3 7 4 H

J 5 3 4 7 8 6 1 2 J

K L M N P R S T U A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 64 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 8 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 8 appear exactly eight times each. • Digits in the 28 outer squares are shown but not those in the 36 inner squares. • No digit is repeated in any row, column or diagonally adjacent squares. • One corner-to-corner diagonal contains two 8s and two 7s. • All of the repeated digits on the two long diagonals have been given.

103

SOLUTION 09

A J K L M N P H

B 6 8 9 2 7 9 B

C 1 2 3 4 1 5 C

D 5 6 5 2 6 8 D

E 7 4 1 7 4 5 E

F 6 9 3 9 2 8 F

G 3 8 1 4 7 3 G

H J K L M N P A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 36 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 9 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 9 appear exactly four times each. • No digit is repeated in adjacent squares, including diagonally. • The six digits in each of the fourteen lines add up to the following totals: A 25(2) B 41(9) C 16(1) D 32(5)(6) E 28(4)(7) F 37(9) G 26(3) H 25(1)(9) J 28(6) K 37(8) L 22(1)(3) M 28(2)(4) N 27(7) P 38(5)(8) • Any digit repeated in any of the fourteen lines is shown in brackets. • No digit appears more than twice in any line.

104

SOLUTION 10

A G H J K F

B 78 79 80 77 B

C 76 75 69 73 C

D 82 83 81 70 D

E 74 71 84 72 E

F G H J K A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 16 squares above contain a different two-digit number. • All of these numbers are in a contiguous numerical sequence. • A is the only line to have a difference of 13 between the sum of its four first digits and the sum of its four second digits. • B is the only line to have four consecutive numbers. • C is the only line to have a total of 293. • D is the only line to have the highest total of 316. • E is the only line to have a second digit repeated and, incidentally, totals 301. • F is the only line to have three different first digits. • G is the only line to have four even numbers. • H is the only line to have four odd numbers. • J is the only line to have both the highest and lowest numbers which, incidentally, happen to divide by the same prime number. • K is the only line to have the same first digit in all four numbers.

105

SOLUTION 11

A B C D E F G 13 47 47 26 46 H 21 3 9 24 15 H 42 47 35 84 28 J 10 17 20 2 22 J 25 47 75 33 46 K 4 14 7 18 11 K 35 43 55 55 49 L 1 19 23 13 6 L 6 47 36 54 14 M 12 5 16 8 25 M G B C D E F A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 25 squares above contain a hidden number between 1 and 25 inclusive. • No hidden number is repeated. • No consecutive hidden numbers are diagonally adjacent. • No consecutive hidden numbers are in the same row or column. • No consecutive hidden numbers are in the same long diagonal. • All of the 25 squares above also show an open number. • Open numbers may be repeated. • Each open number is the sum of the adjacent hidden orthogonal numbers but not the adjacent hidden diagonal numbers. • Corner squares show the sum of their two adjacent hidden numbers. • Outer squares show the sum of their three adjacent hidden numbers. • Inner squares show the sum of their four adjacent hidden numbers.

106

SOLUTION 12

A H J K L M G

B 1 2 1 2 3 B

C 1 4 4 1 3 C

D 1 2 5 3 5 D

E 5 4 5 2 5 E

F 2 4 4 3 3 F

G H J K L M A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 25 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 5 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 5 appear exactly 5 times each. • The 5 digits in each of the 12 lines add up to the following totals: A 15 B 9(2)(2) C 13(2)(2) D 16(2) E 21(3) F 16(2)(2) G 15 H 10(3) J 16(3)(2) K 19(2)(2) L 11(2)(2) M 19(3)(2) • The numbers in brackets indicate repeated digits in that line. • (2) means one digit appears twice and none appear three times. • (2)(2) means two digits appear twice and none appear three times. • (3) means one digit appears three times and none appear twice. • (3)(2) means one digit appears twice and one appears three times.

107

SOLUTION 13

A J K L M N P H

B 2 3 1 1 3 2 B

C 3 1 2 2 1 3 C

D 3 2 1 3 2 1 D

E 1 1 2 3 3 2 E

F 2 3 3 1 2 1 F

G 1 2 3 2 1 3 G

H J K L M N P A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 36 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 3 inclusive. • Each line of 6 squares contains two 1s, two 2s and two 3s: A* The 1s are between the 2s H The 3s are between the 1s B* The 1s are between the 3s J* The 3s are between the 2s C* The 2s are between the 1s K The 1s are between the 3s D No pair encloses another L* No pair encloses another E* The 3s are between the 2s M* The 3s are between the 2s F* The 3s are between the 2s N The 2s are between the 1s G The 2s are between the 1s P The 1s are between the 3s • There may be more digits enclosed by a pair than those identified. • Not all enclosed pairs may be stated. • (*) means that at least one pair of digits are adjacent in that line. • All lines with adjacent pairs are identified by (*). • Adjacent pairs need not necessarily be enclosed.

108

SOLUTION 14

A J K L M N P H

B 5 3 4 2 1 6 B

C 2 6 1 3 5 4 C

D 3 4 5 6 2 1 D

E 6 1 2 4 3 5 E

F 4 5 3 1 6 2 F

G 1 2 6 5 4 3 G

H J K L M N P A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 36 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 6 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 6 appear exactly 6 times each. • No digit is repeated in the same rank or file. • No digit is repeated in diagonally adjacent squares. • Below are eight sets of three contiguous squares and their totals: BL+BM+BN=7 BM+BN+BP=9 CJ+CK+CL=9 DK+DL+DM=15 GL+GM+GN=15 JD+JE+JF=13 LC+LD+LE=8 ME+MF+MG=10

109

SOLUTION 15

A L M N P R S T U K

B 6 2 3 7 1 5 4 8 B

C 4 5 8 6 3 7 2 1 C

D 3 7 1 2 4 8 5 6 D

E 2 4 5 8 6 1 7 3 E

F 8 1 7 3 2 4 6 5 F

G 7 6 4 5 8 3 1 2 G

H 5 3 2 1 7 6 8 4 H

J 1 8 6 4 5 2 3 7 J

K L M N P R S T U A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 64 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 8 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 8 appear exactly eight times each. • Digits in the 28 outer squares are shown but not those in the 36 inner squares. • No digit is repeated in any row, column or diagonally adjacent squares. • One corner-to-corner diagonal contains two 8s and two 3s. • The other corner-to-corner diagonal contains two 8s. • All of the repeated digits on the two long diagonals have been given.

110

SOLUTION 16

A J K L M N P H

B 1 3 6 5 9 2 B

C 7 8 7 2 3 1 C

D 4 6 5 8 9 4 D

E 2 8 3 7 3 6 E

F 9 1 9 4 1 2 F

G 4 6 5 7 5 8 G

H J K L M N P A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 36 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 9 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 9 appear exactly four times each. • No digit is repeated in adjacent squares, including diagonally. • The six digits in each of the fourteen lines add up to the following totals: A 30(8)(1) B 26 C 28(7) D 36(4) E 29(3) F 26(9)(1) G 35(5) H 21(3) J 27(4) K 32(6)(8) L 35(5) M 33(7) N 30(9)(3) P 23(2) • Any digit repeated in any of the fourteen lines is shown in brackets. • No digit appears more than twice in any line.

111

SOLUTION 17

A G H J K F

B 80 75 90 77 B

C 82 76 84 78 C

D 81 83 86 88 D

E 79 85 89 87 E

F G H J K A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 16 squares above contain a different two-digit number. • All of these numbers are in a contiguous numerical sequence. • A is the only line to have a difference of 12 between the sum of its four first digits and the sum of its four second digits. • B is the only line to have both the highest and lowest numbers and, incidentally, is the only line to have three different first digits. • C is the only line to have four even numbers. • D is the only line to have the same first digit in all four numbers. • E is the only line to have four odd numbers. • F is the only line to have a total of 323. • G is the only line to have four consecutive numbers. • H is the only line to have the lowest total of 319. • J is the only line to have the highest total of 349. • K is the only line to have just two different digits.

112

SOLUTION 18

A B C D E F G 12 57 24 52 10 H 14 2 24 9 22 H 36 32 66 48 40 J 10 19 13 6 1 J 33 50 66 39 44 K 3 7 17 25 12 K 34 49 47 87 24 L 16 11 21 4 18 L 21 46 49 27 41 M 20 5 15 23 8 M G B C D E F A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 25 squares above contain a hidden number between 1 and 25 inclusive. • No hidden number is repeated. • No consecutive hidden numbers are diagonally adjacent. • No consecutive hidden numbers are in the same row or column. • No consecutive hidden numbers are in the same long diagonal. • All of the 25 squares above also show an open number. • Open numbers may be repeated. • Each open number is the sum of the adjacent hidden orthogonal numbers but not the adjacent hidden diagonal numbers. • Corner squares show the sum of their two adjacent hidden numbers. • Outer squares show the sum of their three adjacent hidden numbers. • Inner squares show the sum of their four adjacent hidden numbers.

113

SOLUTION 19

A H J K L M G

B 4 4 3 4 1 B

C 2 4 2 1 2 C

D 5 5 3 3 5 D

E 5 4 2 3 5 E

F 1 1 2 1 3 F

G H J K L M A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 25 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 5 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 5 appear exactly 5 times each. • The 5 digits in each of the 12 lines add up to the following totals: A 17(3)(2) B 16(3) C 11(3) D 21(3)(2) E 19(2) F 8(3) G 10(3) H 17(2) J 18(3) K 12(3)(2) L 12(2)(2) M 16(2) • The numbers in brackets indicate repeated digits in that line. • (2) means one digit appears twice and none appear three times. • (2)(2) means two digits appear twice and none appear three times. • (3) means one digit appears three times and none appear twice. • (3)(2) means one digit appears twice and one appears three times.

114

SOLUTION 20

A J K L M N P H

B 3 1 2 2 3 1 B

C 1 3 3 1 2 2 C

D 1 3 2 3 1 2 D

E 2 1 1 2 3 3 E

F 2 2 1 3 1 3 F

G 3 2 3 1 2 1 G

H J K L M N P A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 36 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 3 inclusive. • Each line of 6 squares contains two 1s, two 2s and two 3s: A* No pair encloses another H No pair encloses another B* The 2s are between the 1s J* The 2s are between the 3s C* The 3s are between the 1s K* The 3s are between the 1s D The 3s are between the 1s L* The 1s are between the 3s E* The 1s are between the 2s M The 3s are between the 1s F* No pair encloses another N The 1s are between the 2s G No pair encloses another P* The 3s are between the 1s • There may be more digits enclosed by a pair than those identified. • Not all enclosed pairs may be stated. • (*) means that at least one pair of digits are adjacent in that line. • All lines with adjacent pairs are identified by (*). • Adjacent pairs need not necessarily be enclosed.

115

SOLUTION 21

A J K L M N P H

B 3 5 6 1 2 4 B

C 6 4 2 5 3 1 C

D 2 1 3 4 6 5 D

E 4 6 5 2 1 3 E

F 5 3 1 6 4 2 F

G 1 2 4 3 5 6 G

H J K L M N P A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 36 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 6 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 6 appear exactly 6 times each. • No digit is repeated in the same rank or file. • No digit is repeated in diagonally adjacent squares. • Below are seven sets of three contiguous squares and their totals: BJ+BK+BL=14 DM+DN+DP=15 GJ+GK+GL=7 JB+JC+JD=11 KC+KD+KE=11 MC+MD+ME=11 NB+NC+ND=11

116

SOLUTION 22

A L M N P R S T U K

B 2 5 3 8 4 1 7 6 B

C 1 6 4 7 2 8 3 5 C

D 8 2 5 3 6 7 1 4 D

E 7 4 6 1 8 3 5 2 E

F 3 8 2 5 7 6 4 1 F

G 6 7 1 4 3 5 2 8 G

H 5 3 8 2 1 4 6 7 H

J 4 1 7 6 5 2 8 3 J

K L M N P R S T U A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 64 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 8 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 8 appear exactly eight times each. • Digits in the 28 outer squares are shown but not those in the 36 inner squares. • No digit is repeated in any row, column or diagonally adjacent squares. • One corner-to-corner diagonal contains two 5s and two 6s. • The other corner-to-corner diagonal contains two 3s. • All of the repeated digits on the two long diagonals have been given.

117

SOLUTION 23

A J K L M N P H

B 3 9 7 5 1 6 B

C 8 2 4 6 4 2 C

D 1 5 3 7 9 1 D

E 6 2 4 2 8 3 E

F 8 5 9 6 1 5 F

G 3 4 7 8 9 7 G

H J K L M N P A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 36 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 9 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 9 appear exactly four times each. • No digit is repeated in adjacent squares, including diagonally. • The six digits in each of the fourteen lines add up to the following totals: A 18(2)(3) B 31 C 26(2)(4) D 26(1) E 25(2) F 34(5) G 38(7) H 29(4) J 29(3)(8) K 27(2)(5) L 34(4)(7) M 34(6) N 32(1)(9) P 24 • Any digit repeated in any of the fourteen lines is shown in brackets. • No digit appears more than twice in any line.

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SOLUTION 24

A G H J K F

B 45 44 54 55 B

C 43 47 57 53 C

D 58 46 48 56 D

E 52 50 51 49 E

F G H J K A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 16 squares above contain a different two-digit number. • All of these numbers are in a contiguous numerical sequence. • A is the only line to have the same first digit in all four numbers. • B is the only line to have just two different digits. • C is the only line to have four odd numbers. • D is the only line to have four even numbers. • E is the only line to have four consecutive numbers. • F is the only line to have none of the other lines’ characteristics. • G is the only line to have both the highest and lowest numbers. • H is the only line to have the lowest total of 187. • J is the only line to have all four numbers divisible by 3. • K is the only line to have the highest total of 213.

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SOLUTION 25

A B C D E F G 15 47 31 34 40 H 20 1 17 24 13 H 53 24 56 55 28 J 14 10 6 4 16 J 25 77 33 62 30 K 23 3 25 9 11 K 44 47 78 47 40 L 8 19 15 22 5 L 29 33 54 41 23 M 2 21 12 18 7 M G B C D E F A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 25 squares above contain a hidden number between 1 and 25 inclusive. • No hidden number is repeated. • No consecutive hidden numbers are diagonally adjacent. • No consecutive hidden numbers are in the same row or column. • No consecutive hidden numbers are in the same long diagonal. • All of the 25 squares above also show an open number. • Open numbers may be repeated. • Each open number is the sum of the adjacent hidden orthogonal numbers but not the adjacent hidden diagonal numbers. • Corner squares show the sum of their two adjacent hidden numbers. • Outer squares show the sum of their three adjacent hidden numbers. • Inner squares show the sum of their four adjacent hidden numbers.

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SOLUTION 26

A H J K L M G

B 1 3 2 5 4 B

C 3 3 2 2 2 C

D 5 1 2 5 5 D

E 3 1 3 5 4 E

F 4 1 1 4 4 F

G H J K L M A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 25 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 5 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 5 appear exactly 5 times each. • The 5 digits in each of the 12 lines add up to the following totals: A 15 B 15 C 12(3)(2) D 18(3) E 16(2) F 14(3)(2) G 13(2)(2) H 16(2) J 9(3)(2) K 10(3) L 21(3) M 19(3) • The numbers in brackets indicate repeated digits in that line. • (2) means one digit appears twice and none appear three times. • (2)(2) means two digits appear twice and none appear three times. • (3) means one digit appears three times and none appear twice. • (3)(2) means one digit appears twice and one appears three times.

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SOLUTION 27

A J K L M N P H

B 1 2 3 3 1 2 B

C 3 2 1 2 3 1 C

D 2 1 3 1 2 3 D

E 3 3 1 2 2 1 E

F 1 3 2 3 1 2 F

G 2 1 2 1 3 3 G

H J K L M N P A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 36 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 3 inclusive. • Each line of 6 squares contains two 1s, two 2s and two 3s: A The 2s are between the 1s H* The 1s are between the 3s B* The 3s are between the 1s J No pair encloses another C The 2s are between the 3s K* The 3s are between the 1s D The 1s are between the 2s L* No pair encloses another E* The 2s are between the 1s M The 2s are between the 3s F The 3s are between the 1s N* The 2s are between the 1s G* No pair encloses another P The 1s are between the 2s • There may be more digits enclosed by a pair than those identified. • Not all enclosed pairs may be stated. • (*) means that at least one pair of digits are adjacent in that line. • All lines with adjacent pairs are identified by (*). • Adjacent pairs need not necessarily be enclosed.

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SOLUTION 28

A J K L M N P H

B 1 5 2 4 3 6 B

C 4 3 1 6 2 5 C

D 6 2 5 3 4 1 D

E 3 4 6 1 5 2 E

F 5 1 3 2 6 4 F

G 2 6 4 5 1 3 G

H J K L M N P A

• The grey squares above are for reference only and are not part of the puzzle. • All of the 36 squares above contain a single digit between 1 and 6 inclusive. • All of the digits between 1 and 6 appear exactly 6 times each. • No digit is repeated in the same rank or file. • No digit is repeated in diagonally adjacent squares. • Below are five sets of three contiguous squares and their totals: FK+FL+FM=6 JC+JD+JE=13 LD+LE+LF=14 NC+ND+NE=11 PD+PE+PF=7

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