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Simon Tait Professor of Civil Engineering P f f Ci il E i i University of Bradford s.tait@bradford.ac.uk

Fluid Mechanics 1 Aim: (1) T understand th b i concepts th t d To d t d the basic t that describe ib the mechanical behavior of fluids. Learning Teaching & Assessment Strategy: ( ) (1) Lectures to introduce and develop fundamental p theories and describe application; (2) Example classes to provide explanation of supplied t t i l questions; li d tutorial ti (3) Laboratory classes to develop basic skills.

Fluid Mechanics 1 Expected workload: Study H St d Hours: Lectures: Example Classes: Formal Exams: Laboratory/Practical: y 22.00 4 00 2.00 4.00 3.00 100 00 .00 Independent Study: I d d t St d Total: 59.00 (5hrs/ 59 00 (5h / week) k) 100.

0 hours Description Exam with 4 compulsory questions.2.Fluid Mechanics 1 Assessment: Module A M d l Assessment: t Examination . 100% module grade Duration .closed book at end of semester. one b E ith l ti based on d laboratory activities .

3. 5. Units d dimensions U it and di i Properties of fluids Hydrostatics – forces on immersed surfaces Buoyancy forces Stability of floating bodies Pressure Measurement Fluids in motion – laminar and turbulent flows Principle 1 . 10. 8.Mass continuity Principle 2 – Energy Conservation – Bernoulli’s equation Bernoulli s Principle 3 – Momentum Conservation Laboratory – Use of energy principles to measure flow rate . 4. 9. 1 2. 6.Fluid Mechanics 1 Syllabus 1. 7.

Location: Chesham B1. Laboratory experiment schedules: Details will be released in week 4. . example classes and laboratory experiments to comply with the School policy on retention retention. Points to be noted: (1) Class registration is required for the lectures.07.ac.uk – email first!. One exam question will be based on the work of the laboratory session. E-mail: s. (2).tait@bradford.Fluid Mechanics 1 Lectures and example classes: Week 1-6: Monday 1600-19:00 – Weeks 7-12 Monday 14001700 – Note no classes in week 8 You will gain most benefit from the Example Classes if you have completed the tutorial sheets beforehand.

properties of fluids (2 hours) Handed out Hydrostatics forces immersed bodies (2 hours) Handed out on Tutorial Sheet 1 2 Lecture Tutorial Sheet 2 3 Lecture Buoyancy forces and stability of immersed bodies (2 hours) Example Class Complete Tutorial Sheets 1 and 2 before Example Class Example Class 1 – Tutorial Sheets 1 and 2 (1 hour) .Week Activity Content of Activity Expected Student Progress 1 Lecture Introduction to module. consideration of units and dimensions.

(2 hours) Principle continuity of mass 6 Lecture Tutorial Sheet 4 Handed out .Week Activity Content of Activity Expected Student Progress 4 Lecture Pressure (1 hour) Measurement Formative Assessment Session Tutorial Sheet 3 5 Lecture Exam style question E t l ti Handed out Pressure Measurement continued. Fluids in motion. L i ti Laminar and d turbulent flows.

kilograms ( g).g.metres (m). e g force – Newtons (1N = kgm/s2) . seconds ( ) ( ). time (T) Fundamental units . g (kg). mass (M).Fluid Mechanics 1 Dimensions and Units 3 fundamental dimensions: Length (L). (s) Always use these units Other units are based on these three fundamental units e.

.Fluid Mechanics 1 Dimensional Homogeneity For dimensional homogeneity both sides of an equation must have the same units. m and s). Careful consideration of units can confirm that an equation is correct. For F example. All terms of an equation must have the same units. d l density ( ) .k / 3 it (ρ) kg/m mass m ρ= = volume V Always use units in every calculation Only use the 3 calculation. fundamental units (kg.

2. Conservation of energy gy 3. Conservation of momentum Generally the difficult part of fluid mechanics is deciding which of the above principles is applicable to a particular engineering g g problem. . Conservation of mass flow (mass continuity).Fluid Mechanics 1 Fluid mechanics is a sub set of Mechanics concerned with the statics and dynamics of liquids and gasses. It is governed by the three principles used in general mechanics 1.

3. the strain is proportional to the applied stress. 2. For a solid the strain is independent of the time of application of th f li ti f the force. With a fluid however it continues to flow as long as the stress is applied. . within the elastic limit. It does not recover its original shape when the stress is removed.Fluid Mechanics 1 Difference between solids and fluids: 1. deformation is reversible. whereas for a fluid the rate of strain is proportional to the stress. Within the elastic limit for a solid. For a solid.

Fluids in motion . but will flow under their own weight and take up the shape of the container. If a fl id is at rest – th th fluid i t t then there are no shearing f h i forces.“hydrostatics” 2. This splits fluid mechanics into two: 1.Fluid Mechanics 1 Fluids can be liquids or gasses Fluids cannot offer a permanent resistance to any force causing a change in shape. Fluids at rest . This change in shape is the result of shearing forces and therefore shearing forces occur in moving fluids.

they are very difficult to compress and form a free surface between the liquid and the p q air (gas) above it. Gases are easily compressible and will easily expand to fill a container without forming a free surface. .Fluid Mechanics 1 Fluids can be liquids or gasses: What is the difference between a liquid and a gas? Liquids have a definite volume.

Hydrostatics Is concerned with water at rest. Its study began towards the end of the 17th Century and during 18th and 19th Centuries mathematicians formulated expressions for a viscous fluid. These theoretical expressions need to be modified using empirically obtained coefficients to obtain acceptable solutions solutions. It will readily give exact solutions. Hydrodynamics Is concerned with the behaviour of water in motion.Fluid Mechanics 1 In I engineering th t i i the term “H d li ” i sometimes l “Hydraulics” is ti loosely used l d to cover the whole field of fluid mechanics it can be spilt into two main topics: 1. 2. .

Mass density (ρ) Defined as the mass per unit volume (kg/m3) mass m ρ= = volume V .Fluid Mechanics 1 – Properties of Fluids Density – 3 forms 1.

Fluid Mechanics 1 – Properties of Fluids Density – 3 forms 2. Specific Weight (w) Defined as the weight per unit volume (N/m3) mg w= V w = ρg .

l l f t t 4°C w for fluid ρ for fluid s= = w for water ρ for water f f .Fluid Mechanics 1 – Properties of Fluids Density – 3 forms 3. Specific gravity (or relative density) (s) Defined as the ratio of the weight of a substance to the weight of an equal volume of water at 4°C.

Mass represents the amount of matter in a body or volume of liquid. This is a constant Weight varies according to the local value of gravity (g). This is potentially variable w = mg g .Fluid Mechanics 1 – Properties of Fluids What i th difference between mass (m) and weight ( ) ? Wh t is the diff b t ( ) d i ht (w) It is important that you have a clear understanding between the difference between mass and weight (force).

w P= A Pressure has units of Newtons per metre squared (N/m2) Sometime these are called Pascals (Pa) 1Pa = 1N/m2 .Fluid Mechanics 1 – Properties of Fluids What i th difference between pressure (P) and weight ( ) ? Wh t is the diff b t d i ht (w) The average pressure (P) is defined as the weight (w) applied over an area (A).

Fluid Mechanics 1 – Properties of Fluids What i Shear stress ( ) ? Wh t is Sh t (τ) Defined as the average force (F) applied by a moving fluid over a surface area (A). F τ= A Shear stress has units of Newtons per metre squared (N/m2) .

Fluid Mechanics 1 – Properties of Fluids What i Vi Wh t is Viscosity ? it A fluid at rest cannot develop resisting shearing forces. Shear is the movement of liquid in parallel adjacent layers. The shear stress (τ) is the tangential force per unit area between y the layers Shear stress has units of Newtons per metre squared (N/m2) . Viscosity is defined as the property of a fluid that resists shear forces and is related to the rate of deformation. In motion shearing forces are set up between adjacent layers of fluid moving at different velocities.

du has units m/s.Fluid Mechanics 1 – Properties of Fluids What i Vi Wh t is Viscosity ? it The shear stress (τ) is related to the velocity gradient between adjacent fluid layers (du/dy). du τ∝ dy du τ =µ dy Where µ is the coefficient of absolute viscosity µ has units of Ns/m2 τ has units of N/m2. dy has units of m m/s .

Fluid Mechanics 1 – Properties of Fluids Two types of viscosity Absolute viscosity (µ) – Ns/m2 Dynamic viscosity (ν) µ ν= ρ Ns m 3 Nsm kgm sm m 2 • = = 2 • = 2 m kg kg s kg s .

Fluid Mechanics 1 – Properties of Fluids Values of viscosity – dependent on temperature Absolute viscosity (µ) – Ns/m2 y Dynamic viscosity (ν) – m2/s Water at 20°C µ ≈ 1 × 10 −3 ν ≈ 1 × 10 − 6 Ns m2 m2 s .

If dp is high enough then the cube changes its volume by dV .Fluid Mechanics 1 – Properties of Fluids Bulk Modulus (K) – Measure of Compressibility All materials whether solids. liquids or gasses are compressible Remember – liquids are difficult to compress but not impossible! Consider a cube of fl id – subject to a change i C id b f fluid bj h in pressure dp on all its surfaces.

Fluid Mechanics 1 – Properties of Fluids Bulk Modulus (K) – Measure of Compressibility Bulk modulus = Change in pressure/volumetric strain V dp K = −V dV dp K= − dV .

For water value of K doubles as pressure increases from 1 to 3500 atmospheres .Fluid Mechanics 1 – Properties of Fluids Bulk Modulus (K) – Measure of Compressibility dp p K= − dV V Assumes that temperature and density ρ are constant constant.

Fluid Mechanics 1 – Properties of Fluids Bulk Modulus (K) – Measure of Compressibility dp p K= − dV Typical values: water 2.62×10 V Units – N/m2 .same as pressure .05×109 N/m2 oil 1 62×109 N/m2 1.

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