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Doklady Biological Sciences, Vol. 378, 2001, pp. 248–250. Translated from Doklady Akademii Nauk, Vol. 378, No.

2, 2001, pp. 283–285.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2001 by Ostroumov.


Effect of Amphiphilic Chemicals on Filter-Feeding Marine
S. A. Ostroumov
Presented by Academician M.E. Vinogradov October 9, 2000

Received October 17, 2000

It has been previously shown that some amphiphilic We analyzed the effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate
chemicals (surfactants) and surfactant-containing (SDS), tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide
chemical mixtures affect filtering activity of mussels (TDTMA), several synthetic detergents (SDs), and liq-
[1, 2]. Taking into account the ecological importance of uid detergents (LDs). In this paper, the following deno-
this effect [3–6], it was of interest to broaden the view tations are used: SD1(L), Lanza-automat (Benckiser);
of this problem and to determine whether organisms SD2(I), IXI Bio-Plus (Cussons); LD1 (E), dish washing
important for aquiculture may be affected by these liquid E (Cussons International, Ltd.); and LD2 (F),
compounds. Bivalves are the most important cultured dish washing liquid Fairy (Procter & Gamble, Ltd.).
marine species. It was shown that the average annual We discovered that a typical cationic surfactant con-
production of marine bivalves grown in aquaculture taining a tertiary ammonium group, TDTMA, inhibited
significantly exceed that of marine fish (9.7-fold) and the filtering activity of C. gigas (Table 1). The yeast-
Crustaceans (4-fold) grown in mariculture [7]. Owing suspension concentration differed from the control
to the importance of mariculture, it is necessary to more than twofold and more than sevenfold 5 and
determine the factors that may disturb physiological 20 min after the addition of TDTMA, respectively.
activity of objects grown in mariculture (including
bivalves) and deteriorate their living and culturing con- SDS is an important anionic surfactant contained in
ditions. numerous industrial mixtures that contaminate water
bodies. We discovered that SDS also inhibits the filter-
The goal of this study was to determine whether sur- ing activity of C. gigas: after 12–29 min of incubation
factants and surfactant-containing chemical mixtures with SDS, the concentration of the yeast suspension
inhibit the filtering activity of bivalves grown in mari- differed from the control more than twofold (Table 2).
culture, particularly oysters Crassostrea gigas Thun- Similar results were obtained for surfactant-contain-
berg (=Ostrea laperousi auct.). ing mixtures (Table 3). To enable the comparison and to
The experiments were performed according to the provide a comprehensive idea of the problem, Table 3
previously described procedure [2] with some modifi- summarizes the data obtained not only on oysters, but
cations. The filtration rate was determined by the also on other bivalves important for mariculture,
decrease in optical density of the incubation medium at namely, mussels Mytilus edulis and Mytilus gallopro-
550 nm as a result of removal (due to filtration) of Sac- vincialis.
charomyces cerevisiae cells that were preliminarily All experiments showed that the decrease in water
added to the marine water. The concentration of S. cer- turbidity due to filtration by the bivalves is associated
evisiae cells (SAF-Moment, S.I. Lesaffre, 59703 with the formation of pseudofecal pellets, which pre-
Marcq-France) was 100 mg/l (dry weight). The temper- cipitate onto the bottom. When filtration rate reduced as
ature is indicated in the tables. The optical density was a result of the effect of a surfactant or surfactant-con-
measured using a SF-26 LOMO spectrophotometer, the taining mixture, the pellet amount decreased.
optical way length was 10 mm. The average weight of Two points concerning the results of this study
the oysters and the volume of the incubation medium should be noted. First, the inhibitory effects demon-
are indicated in the notes to the tables. The oysters were strated in this study were observed at surfactant con-
grown at the mariculture farm of the Institute of South centrations of 0.5 mg/l or higher, which are actually
Sea Biology (National Academy of Sciences of detected in aquatic ecosystems [8].
Ukraine) and the State Oceanarium of Ukraine.
Second, the rate of water filtration by invertebrates
is relatively high ([9–12] and Table 4), which has a con-
stant conditioning effect on aqueous environment. The
Moscow State University, Vorob’evy gory, Moscow, decrease in this effect and filtering activity has a signif-
119899 Russia icant impact on the state of ecosystems. The biomass of

00248$25.00 © 2001 MAIK “Nauka /Interperiodica”

Table 1. Inhibition of the C. gigas filtering activity and uptake of unicellular organisms from water by TDTMA (0.5 mg/l)
Optical density at 550 nm
Incubation variant C (S. cerevisiae
Measurement variant A (without variant B (with B/A, %
time, min alone, without bivalves
and TDTMA)
1 5 0.080 0.194 0.307 242.5
2 11 0.043 0.148 0.305 344.2
3 20 0.018 0.137 0.303 761.1
Note: Each experimental vessel contained 10 one-year-old bivalves. Total wet weight of the bivalves with shells was 47.3 g and 55.2 g in
vessels A and B, respectively. Incubation temperature was 27 °C. The volume of the incubation medium was 500 ml.

Table 2. Inhibition of the C. gigas filtering activity and uptake of unicellular organisms from water by SDS (0.5 mg/l)
Optical density at 550 nm
Incubation variant C (S. cerevisiae
Measurement variant A B/A, %
time, min variant B (with SDS) alone, without bivalves
(without SDS)
and TDTMA)
1 4 0.117 0.181 0.176 154.70
2 12 0.074 0.156 0.179 210.81
3 20 0.048 0.111 0.174 231.25
4 29 0.035 0.074 0.164 211.43
Note: Each experimental vessel contained 16 one-year-old bivalves. Total wet weight of the bivalves with shells was 23.5 g and 23.6 g in
vessels A and B, respectively. Incubation temperature was 23°C. The volume of the incubation medium was 250 ml.

Table 3. Some chemicals that have an adverse effect on the filtering activity of the bivalves
Measurement Chemical (described in the text) Organism Note
1 SDS C. gigas New data
2 TDTMA C. gigas "
3 SD1 (L) M. galloprovincialis, C. gigas "
4 LD1 (E) M. galloprovincialis, C. gigas "
5 LD2 (F) M. galloprovincialis, C. gigas "
6 SD2 (I) M. galloprovincialis "
7 SDS M. edulis [1]
8 SDS M. galloprovincialis [6]
10 Triton X-100 M. edulis [2]

Table 4. Filtration of water by mollusks (examples)
Organism and
Values Notes, references
measurement unit
Mytilus galloprovincialis, % of suspension 20 Measurement and estimates refer to the shelf ecosystem of
removal from a 3-m benthic water layer for 6 h the northern Black Sea with regard for the real size structure
of mussel population [10]
Unioniidae, Volume filtered, 0.14 The Hudson River estuary [11]
m3 m–2 day–1
Dreisseniidae, m3 m–2 day–1 0.1–5 Rivers and lakes of North America [12], the major range
of data
Dreisseniidae, % of the filtered volume of water 70–125 Rivers and lakes of North America [12], during summer
column per day vegetation period


mussels in natural marine habitats can exceed 1 kg/m2 REFERENCES
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