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Mr. Balaji M.Chavan
Under the guidance of
Prof. U. A. Shinde. R.G.Biradar. Co-Guide Guide
Department of Mechanical Engineering
S. V. E. R.I.’s COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, PANDHARPUR 2003-2004
S. V. E. R.I.’s
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, PANDHARPUR
This is to certify that the seminar report entitled
“ HEAT PIPE ”
has been carried out
Mr. BALAJI M.CHAVAN
of B.E. ( MECHANICAL ) class in partial fulfillment for award of Bachelor’s Degree in Mechanical Engineering as per curriculum laid down by the SHIVAJI UNIVERSITY, KOLHAPUR during the academic year 2003-2004.
(Prof. U. A. SHINDE) Co-Guide
(Prof. R. G.BIRADAR) Guide
(Prof. S. A.PATIL) H.O.D.
(Prof. B. P. RONGE) Principal
The transfer of the heat energy by conduction using solid material is essentially limited by thermal conductivity of that material. As the thermal conductivity increases cost of the material also increases hence it become costly. Because of the thermal energy is being transported by evaporation–condensation process rather than conduction. The heat pipe can transfer the heat much more effectively than the solid conductor of the same cross-section in practice conduction of heat by heat pipe may be several hundred (500) times that the best available metal conductor such as copper. Heat pipe system provides the maximum effective heat sink surface area with the minimum volume demand. A heat pipe heat sink is a passive cooling device that requires no moving parts, and operates silently and reliably. Additionally, heat pipe technology is emerging as a cost-effective thermal design solution. This paper explains the operation of heat pipes and its various applications.
SR.NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 CONTENTS HISTORY INTRODUCTION WORKING DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS OPERATING LIMITATIONS APPLICATIONS ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES CONCLUSION REFERENCES PAGE NO. 1 2 3 4 10 13 19 20 21 22
The development of the heat pipe originally started with Angier March Perkins who worked initially with the concept of the working fluid only in one phase (he took out a patent in 1839 on the hermetic tube boiler which works on this principle). Jacob Perkins (descendant of Angier March) patented the Perkins Tube in 1936 and they became widespread for use in locomotive boilers and baking ovens. The Perkins Tube was a system in which a long and twisted tube passed over an evaporator and a condenser, which caused the water within the tube to operate in two phases. Although these early designs for heat transfer systems relied on gravity to return the liquid to the evaporator (later called a thermosyphon), the Perkins Tube was the jumping off point for the development of the modern heat pipe. The concept of the modern heat pipe, which relied on a wicking system to transport the liquid against gravity and up to the condenser, was put forward by R.S. Gaugler of the General Motors Corporation. According to his patent in 1944, Gaugler described how his heat pipe would be applied to refrigeration systems. Heat pipe research became popular after that and many industries and labs including Los Alamos, RCA, the Joint Nuclear Research Centre in Italy, began to apply heat pipe technology their fields. By 1969, there was a vast amount of interest on the part of NASA, Hughes, the European Space Agency, and other aircraft companies in regulating the temperature of a spacecraft and how that could be done with the help of heat pipes. There has been extensive research done to date regarding specific heat transfer characteristics, in on to the analysis faddist various material properties and geometries 6 COEP
What is a Heat Pipe? A heat pipe is a simple device that can quickly transfer heat from one Point to another. By means of evaporation & condensation of fluid in a sealed system they are often referred to as the "superconductors" of heat as they possess an extra ordinary heat transfer capacity & rate with almost no heat loss. It consists of a sealed aluminum or copper container whose inner surface have a capillary wicking material. The working fluid is placed inside it &it is highly evacuated. Because of that the working fluid is virtually in a state of liquid-vapour equilibrium. consequently, a slight increase in temperature will cause it to boil &evaporate The central portion of it is heavily insulated on the outside. One end of pipe is known as heating end (evaporator) where heat is absorbed & the other end is known as cooling end (condenser) where heat is given out. A heat pipe is similar to a thermosyphon. It differs from a thermosyphon by Virtue obits ability to transport heat against gravity by an evaporation –condensation cycle with the help of porous capillaries that form the wick. The wick provides the capillary driving force to return the condensate to the evaporator. The quality and type of wick usually determines the performance of the heat pipe, for this is the heart of the product. different types of wicks are used depending on the application for which the heat pipes being used
Inside the container is a liquid under its own pressure, that enters the pores of the capillary material, wetting all internal surfaces. Applying heat at any point along the surface of the heat pipe causes the liquid at that point to boil and enter a vapor state. When that happens, the liquid picks up the latent heat of vaporization. The gas, which then has a higher pressure, moves inside the sealed container to a colder location where it condenses. Thus, the gas gives up the latent heat of vaporization and moves heat from the input to
Fig. Working of the heat Pipe
The three basic components of a heat pipe are: 1. the container 2. the working fluid 3. the wick or capillary structure The choice of each component has marked effect on the working Performance of heat pipe and therefore proper selection of each Component is very important in design of heat pipe. Following explanation is given below
The function of the container is to isolate the working fluid from the outside environment. It has to therefore be leak-proof, maintain the pressure differential across its walls, and enable transfer of heat to take place from and into the working fluid. Selection of the container material depends on many factors. These are as follows:
Compatibility (both with working fluid and external environment) Strength to weight ratio Thermal conductivity Ease of fabrication, including welding, machine ability and ductility Porosity Wettability 9 COEP
Most of the above are self-explanatory. A high strength to weight ratio is more important in spacecraft applications. The material should be nonporous to prevent the diffusion of vapor. A high thermal conductivity ensures minimum temperature drop between the heat source and the wick. Material used for heat pipe is stainless steel; copper; aluminum, ceramic material, glass etc depending on temperature range Usually they are in tubular form but it can be constructed in any shape such as Y, T, U, etc. depending upon requirement Effect of length & diameter on The heat transfer capacity of heat pipe is specified by the “axial power rating”(APR)Which is energy moving axially along the pipe larger the diameter; greater will be the APR for the given length ;a 5 mm dia.&15cm long pipe has an APR of 75 watts which increases to 500 watts if dia. Is increased to20mm. The physical size of heat pipe that have been operated successfully range from 6 mm to 150mm in dia. & up to 5 miter long in length
2. Working fluid
A first consideration in the identification of a suitable working fluid is the Operating vapour temperature range. Within the approximate temperature band, several possible working fluids may exist, and a variety of characteristics must be examined in order to determine the most acceptable of these fluids for the application considered. The prime requirements are: compatibility with wick and wall materials good thermal stability 10 COEP
wettability of wick and wall materials vapour pressure not too high or low over the operating temperature range High latent heat High thermal conductivity Low liquid and vapor viscosities High surface tension Acceptable freezing or pour point The selection of the working fluid must also be based on thermodynamic considerations which are concerned with the various limitations to heat flow occurring within the heat pipe like, viscous, sonic, capillary, Entrainment and nucleate boiling levels. In heat pipe design, a high value of surface tension is desirable in order to enable the heat pipe to operate against gravity and to generate a high capillary driving force. In addition to high surface tension, it is necessary for the working fluid to wet the wick and the container material i.e. contact angle should be zero or very small. The vapor pressure over the operating temperature range must be sufficiently great to avoid high vapor velocities, which tend to setup large temperature gradient and cause flow instabilities. A high latent heat of vaporization is desirable in order to transfer large amounts of heat with minimum fluid flow, and hence to maintain low pressure drops within the heat pipe. The thermal conductivity of the working fluid should preferably be high in order to minimize the radial temperature gradient and to reduce the possibility of nucleate boiling at the wick or wall surface..
Tabulated below are a few mediums with their useful ranges of temperature. MEDIUM MELTING PT. ( C)
BOILING PT. ATM. PRESSURE ( C) AT USEFUL RANGE ( C) -271 to -269 -203 to -160 -60 0 10 10 0 30 50 250 to to to to to to to to 100 120 130 160 130 200 200 650
Helium Nitrogen Ammonia Acetone Methanol FlutecPP2 Ethanol Water Toluene Mercury Sodium Lithium Silver
-271 -210 -78 -95 -98 -50 -112 0 -95 -39 98 179 960
-261 -196 -33 57 64 76 78 100 110 361 892 1340 2000
600 to 1200 600 to 1200 1000 to 1800 1000 to 1800 1800 to 2300
3. Wicks or Capillary Structure
It is a porous structure made of materials like steel, aluminum, nickel or copper in various ranges of pore sizes. They are fabricated using metal foams, and more particularly felts, the latter being more frequently used. By varying the pressure on the felt during assembly, various pore sizes can be produced. By incorporating removable metal mandrels, an arterial structure can also be molded in the felt. Fibrous materials, like ceramics, have also been used widely. They generally have smaller pores. The main disadvantage of ceramic fibers is that, they have little stiffness and usually require a continues support by a metal mesh. Thus while the fiber itself may be chemically compatible with the working fluids, the supporting materials may cause problems. More recently, interest has turned to carbon fibers as a wick material. Carbon fiber filaments have many fine longitudinal grooves on their surface, have high capillary pressures and are chemically stable. A number of heat pipes that have been successfully constructed using carbon fibre wicks seem to show a greater heat transport capability. The prime purpose of the wick is to generate capillary pressure to transport the working fluid from the condenser to the evaporator. It must also be able to distribute the liquid around the evaporator section to any area where heat is likely to be received by the heat pipe. Often these two functions require wicks of different forms. The selection of the wick for a heat pipe depends on many factors, several of which are closely linked to the properties of the working fluid. The maximum capillary head generated by a wick increases with decrease in pore size. The wick permeability increases with increasing 13 COEP
pore size. Another feature of the wick, which must be optimized, is its thickness. The heat transport capability of the heat pipe is raised by increasing the wick thickness. The overall thermal resistance at the evaporator also depends on the conductivity of the working fluid in the wick. Other necessary properties of the wick are compatibility with the working fluid and wettability. The most common types of wicks that are used are as follows: Sintered Powder This process will provide high power handling, low temperature gradients and high capillary forces for anti-gravity applications. The photograph shows a complex sintered wick with several vapor channels and small arteries to increase the liquid flow rate. Very tight bends in the heat pipe can be achieved with this type of structure. Grooved Tube The small capillary driving force generated by the axial grooves is adequate for low power heat pipes when operated horizontally, or with gravity assistance. The tube can be readily bent. When used in conjunction with screen mesh the performance can be considerably enhanced. Screen Mesh This type of wick is used in the majority of the products and provides readily variable characteristics in terms of power transport and orientation sensitivity, according to the number of layers and mesh counts used. 14 COEP
Since the heat pipe benefits from the phase change of the working fluid, the thermodynamics of the process are critical. The operation of the heat pipe is limited by several operating phenomena. Each of these limitations is dependant on the wick structure, working fluid, temperature, orientation, and size of the heat pipe. Below is a brief description of each of the limitations:
The wick structure of the heat pipe generates a capillary pressure, which is dependent on the pore radius of the wick and the surface tension of the working fluid. The capillary pressure generated by the wick must be greater than the sum of the gravitational losses, liquid flow losses through the wick, and vapor flow losses. The liquid and vapor pressure drops are a function of the heat pipe and wick structure geometry (wick thickness, effective length, vapor space diameter, etc) and the fluid properties (latent heat, density, viscosity, etc). A critical heat flux exists that balances the capillary pressure with the pressure drop associated with the fluid and vapor circulation. For horizontal or against gravity (evaporator at a higher elevation than the condenser), the capillary limit is the heat pipe limit. For gravity-aided orientations, the capillary limitation may be neglected, and the flooding limit may be used if the heat pipe can have an excess fluid charge.
As more heat is applied to the heat pipe at the evaporator, bubbles may be formed in the evaporator wick. The formation of vapor bubbles in
the wick is undesirable because they can cause hot spots and obstruct the circulation of the liquid. As the heat flux is increased, more bubbles are formed. At a certain heat flux limit, the bubble formation completely blocks the liquid flow. This limitation is associated to a radial heat flux (heat is applied to the perimeter of the heat pipe). The boiling limitation is typically a high temperature phenomenon. Heat flux limitations for various wick structures should be used for design criteria. Sintered powder metal wick structures have significantly more surface area, and can therefore handle higher heat fluxes. Conservative values are 50 W/cm2 for powder metal wicks, 10 W/cm2 for screen wicks, 5 W/cm2 for bare wall thermosyphons.
In a heat pipe of constant vapor space diameter, the vapor flow accelerates and decelerates because of the vapor addition in the evaporator and the vapor removal in the condenser. The changes in vapor flow also change the pressures along the heat pipe. As more heat is applied to the heat pipe, the vapor velocities generally increase. A choked flow condition will eventually arise, where the flow becomes sonic. At this point, the vapor velocities can not increase and a maximum heat transport limitation is achieved. The heat flux that results in choked flow is considered the sonic limit. The addition of more heat will result in an un proportional increase in the heat pipe temperature delta by an increase in the evaporation temperature. This phenomenon is self-correcting as the heat pipe warms up. An additional benefit of the high vapor velocities is the very quick response to heat input.
Since the vapor and the liquid move in opposite directions in a heat pipe, a shear force exists at the liquid-vapor interface. If the vapor velocity is sufficiently high, a limit can be reached at which the liquid will be torn from the pores of the wick and entrained in the vapor. When enough fluid is entrained in the vapor that the condensate flow is stopped, abrupt dryout of the wick at the evaporator results. The corresponding heat flux that results in this phenomenon is called the Entrainment Limit. The Entrainment Limit is typically not the bounding value.
The flooding limit is only applicable to gravity aided orientations with excess fluid. The wick structure is saturated and the excess fluid results in a “puddle” flow on the surface of the wick structure. The flooding limit, similar to the entrainment, occurs when high vapor velocities preclude the fluid that is flowing on the surface of the wick to return to the evaporator. The vapor shear hold up prevents the condensate from returning to the evaporator and leads to a flooding condition in the condenser section. This causes a partial dry-out of the evaporator, which results in wall temperature excursions or in limiting the operation of the system. By increasing the heat flux above the flooding limit, it is possible to achieve liquid flow reversal leading to: 1) The accumulation of liquid in the condenser. 2) The accumulated liquid falling to the evaporator due to gravity. 3) The reestablishment of a flow reversal situation. 4) The repeat cycle of flooding and normal flow.
Heat pipe has been, and is currently being, studied for a variety of applications, covering almost the entire spectrum of temperatures encountered in heat transfer processes. Heat pipes are used in a wide range of products like air-conditioners, refrigerators, heat exchangers, transistors, capacitors, etc. Heat pipes are also used in laptops to reduce the working temperature for better efficiency. Their application in the field of cryogenics is very significant, especially in the development of space technology. We shall now discuss a brief account of the various applications of heat pipe technology.
1.Heat pipe used for extracting solar energy
Solar radiations are focused on the heat pipe at the evaporator side by a parabolic reflector. Heat pipe leading from the reflector could be coupled to steam raising boilers or end of heat pipe directly used as cooking plate. A recent use of heat pipe in kitchen is a cooking pin. This is a simply a heat pipe which when inserted into joint of meat cooking in an oven, speedup the rate of heat flow. Thus saving the time &fuel &yielding a more uniform roast. A particular type is shown below.
Fig. Cooking pin
2. Heat dissipation device
In the electronic devices, various components (such as I.C.s, capacitors etc.) generates the heat .The performance of these components decreases with increase in temperature. Hence heat dissipation is necessary. For this fan is directly placed over the device & hence occupy most valuable real estate. Here heat pipe play very imp. role in theses cases heat pipe is employed to transfer the heat from small area available on the component to a larger area where the heat is released to atmosphere. This is achieved by keeping the evaporator of the heat pipe .In contact with the electronic device &the condenser gives the heat to the large surface area.
Chip which to be cooled Fig .Heat Deceptions Device
3.Temperature Control device
In some applications, it is required to maintain the temperature of device to specific value, heat pipe can be used for the same application with small modifications A reservoir containing a non-condensable gas is connected to the heat removal end (the condenser) of the heat pipe. This gas forms an interface with the vapor & “chokes off” part of condenser area of heat pipe. As the temperature of the device increases the vapor pressure inside the pipe & the non-condensable gas is forced back into reservoir, thereby opening up additional condenser area to give more heat flow. Thus finally reduces the temperature of the device& vice-versa
Non Condensable Gas
Fig . Temperature Control Device.
4. Dry drilling
For the proper drilling the temperature of the drill must be low; for this we are using coolant which Is very costly & goes waste after use .By using heat pipe we can solve this problem .As here liquid is not used for cooling, it is called dry drilling. Fig shows distribution of heat in drill & use of heat pipe
Distribution of heat in drill
Heat pipe used in drill shank
5. Injection moulding and die casting
Fig. Heat pipe used for Injection Moulding &Die Casting Heat Pipes are widely used for improving cooling efficiency of injection moulds and Die casting dies all over the world. This method of cooling has helped reduce cycle time, reduce rejection and improves quality of product. Sketches given inside the folder describe various applications where one can confidently use Heat Pipes. These are taken from actual examples of moulds, which are in production all over India. In conventional water-cooling, effectiveness of water cooling goes down due to rusting, blocking of cooling channels. In case of Heat Pipes since water is not circulated directly in the core, cooling efficiency remains the same throughout the life of the mould. Good Reasons To Use Heat Pipes: 1. Reduce cycle time 3. Reduce wastage 5. Increase mould life 22 2. Eliminate hot spots 4. Improve product quality 6. Eliminate core clogging COEP
7. Cut mould and Moulding costs 9. Use damaged moulds
8. Upgrade old moulds 10. Eliminate hot spots
6. Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger
Typical finned air-to-air Heat Pipe heat exchangers comprise of number of tubular gravity assist. Air to air Heat Pipe teed finned Heat Pipes arranged in staggered pitch, depending upon the application. One of the advantages of the Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger is its ability to operate without cross contamination between the two gas streams. Use of Gravity Assisted Heat Pipe complies orientation evaporator above condenser.
7. Application for I.C.engine
Heat pipe uses energy of exhaust gas for homogeneous vaporizing the fuel, which is coming after carburettor. Therefore fuel consumption is decreased. 23 COEP
Advantages of the heat pipes
sink It require no power source to accomplish this function It can transfer the heat where a very low temperature difference is It is ideal device for removing the heat from a concentrated heat It is rugged like any piece of pipe or tube and has no any wearing The absence of the gravity does not affect the operation of the heat Rate of heat transfer is very high than the solid material. It has no moving parts hence maintains is not required It can transmit heat over the appreciable distance without loss of
the heat (i. e isothermal). And thus permitting separation of the heat source and
available in between source and sink. source such as thermocore. part hence it has long life. pipe determinately liquid flow does not depend upon gravity
Like any other practical devices, heat pipe has also disadvantages as listed below: Undesired increase in point-to-point temperature differential along Length of heat pipe is limited Design is complicated The cost of a given heat pipe will tend to reach a minimum in the
the heat pipe can lead to damage to evaporator section
temperature range of 70 to 120 degree C. But above &below this range, total cost of heat pipe will be more
Now days we requires the transfer of heat from one place (source) to other place (sink) very fatly, without loss of energy & economically. These requirements are fulfilled by heat pipe. Presently it plays very important role in thermal science .it is widely used all over the world for improving efficiency & rate of heat transfer. It is presently used in space technology, thermal power stations, home applications etc has. It has very bright future.
BOOKS Heat & Mass Transfer………….S.C.Arora & S. Domkundwar Heat Transfer…………………...Pavaskar. WEBSITES www.google.com www.heat pipe .com