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NATIC NAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION WASHINGTON, D C 20546
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WO 2-4155 WO 3-6925

FOR RELEASE:

RELEASE

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64-193 NASA'S SYNCOM C SATELLITE IS SET

Thursday, IMMEDIATE August 13, 1964

FOR LAUNCHING
An attempt to achieve the world's first truly stationary orbit will be made by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration when it launches Syncom C, the third synchronousorbit communications satellite, from Cape Kennedy aboard a Thrust Augmented Delta (TAD) launch vehicle no earlier than Aug. 18. If successful, Syncom will appear to remain over one spot
O < Earth rather than move back and forth over the Equator.

This will be the first launch for the TAD.

It was chosen for

the Syncom mission because of its extra power necessary to boost the satellite into a 22,300-mile equatorial orbit over the Pacific. Syncom is scheduled to make two looping, eccentric orbits before it is kicked into stationary orbit on its third apogee over Sumatra by its apogee-kick motor. Syncom C will then be moved to

its desired position at the International Date Line by control jets on the satellite. In this position the spacecraft will be able to communicate with surface stations located at Clark Air Force Base in t~n. Piilippines, Guam, and at Camp Roberts, Calif. -more-

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-uorted Syncom program by the U.S. Army in the

SatelliLte Communications Agency, Fort Monmouth, N.J., which provides the surface stations in the United States and overseas. Work is underway to make it possible to transmit the 1964 Olympic~s from Japan via Syncom to television viewers in the United States. Japan is installing the transmitting equipnment and an

antenna at ihe U.I Navy's Point Mugu, Calif., facility is being modified to receive the transmissions from Japan in October. Synctnu C also will be able to transmit two-way telephone conversations as well as teletype and facsimile pictures. The fist three months after launch, during the technical phase of the operation, NASA will control the spacecraft supported by the Department of Defense. Syncom C will be launched toward the east by the TAD whose three solid fuel motors strapped to the first stage will give the booster additional thrust at lift-off. After second stage burn the vehicle is aligned by gas jets on the second stage to properly orient the two stages and the spacecraft for third powered flight. During second stage coast

C

flight the vehicle will be in a trajectory inclined about 28 degrees with the Equator. -more-

When the third stage is fired it places the spacecraft in

a transfer orbit which has a minimum altitude of 700 miles, a
maximum altitude of 22,900 miles and is about 16 degrees off alignment with the Equator. After third stage burn, the spacecraft will coast for about 5J hours to its first apogee over the Indian Ocean. About 11 hours after first apogee the spacecraft, now separated from the third stage, will be over tha West Coast of South America at its second apogee. Here the satellite will be re-aligned with

an attitude change of a out 10 degrees, making it more parallel with the Equator on the next apogee when the kick motor fires.
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However,

unch performance too far from the expected orbit at this point could result in a decision to fire the kick rocket on the fourth apogee rather than the third. In another 11 hours, the satellite will be fired on command from Earth. Data received from the spacecraft will be complete enough to allow the project director at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., to notify a ground station at Salisbury, Australia, to fire the final stage. It desirable, the firing order may be sent

to the USNS Kingsport, a floating communications station anchored at Guam.

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With this couranand the satellite will be kicked out of Lhe looping elliptical orbit and put into a circular, synchronous orbit. It will then be in alignment with the Equator provided all

previous maneuvers were successful. After a few hours, data from Syncom will provide enough information to determine whether the spacecraft is drifting east or west and at what rate. If it is moving east at the proper speed no Otherwise a hydrogen peroxide gas Jet

corrections will be made.

will be fired from a ground station to provide the desired drift rate about seven degrees a day. After about ten days another gas Jet will be fired to stop the drift and hold the satellite on-station. At this point the satellite will seem to remain in one spot over the Earth. In reality, Syncom will be keeping pace with the

rotation of the Earth much like a horse or car moving on an outside track of a race course. In this case, in order to keep up with the

speed of the globe rotating 1,040 miles an hour underneath, the satellite will be traveling at about 6,800 miles an hour at its 22,300 mile altitude in order to match the Earth's equatorial speed. Syncom was designed and built by the Hughes Aircraft Co. launch vehicle was built by Douglas Aircraft Co. -moreThe

Earlier Syncoms, I and II, were launched Feb. 14, and July 26, 1963, respectively. Syncom I achieved synchronous orbit

but all communications with it ceased about 20 seconds after the apogee-kick motor was fired. Syncom II achieved a synchronous It is now being moved

orbit and has worked flawlessly ever since.

over the Pacific from its original on-station position at 55 degrees west over Brazil. Both these satellites move above and below the Equator in a figure eight pattern rather than remaining over one point on the Equator.

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(Technical Information Follows)

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SYNCOM C TECHNICAL INFORMATION Contents Tit.e Choice of Equatorial Orbit Page

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Syncom C Improvenents . . . . . . . . . . . Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electronics ...... Propulsion and Control The Launch Vehicle First Stage .. .. ......

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13 14

. . . . . . . .1. . 11

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Second Stage . . . . . . . . . . ... Third Stage The Flight Syncom Team ..

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Department of Defense Participation . . . . 18 SATCOM, Syncom and NASA . . . . . . . . . . Illustrations
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Cloice of Equatorial Orbit The choice of a synchronous equatorial orbit for Syncom C came about for the following reasons: 1. Such an orbit is ideal for a comminications satellite

system as well as being the logical next step from Syncom II. 2. After the successful operation of Syncom II, the TAD,

not available for the original Syncom project plans, made available the extra booster power and thrust of the new X-258 upper

stage to attempt a stationary orbit at relatively little additional
cost.

3.

The inclusion of a second hydrogen peroxide gas system

n the spacecraft will allow more gas for maneuvering the satellite in space and enhance the chances of success. However, this is a

much more difficult mission than Syncom II with a corresponding reduction in the probability of complete success. The technological abilities gained in achieving a stationary orbit will prove invaluable for many future missions. More

immediately, the added Wtowledge will be put to use in planning the Advanced Technological Satellites (ATS) program. Syncom C Improvements Syncom C resembles its predecessors, Synconi I and II, in
appearance.

Without antennas or apogee motor it is a cylinder 28 inches in diameter and 15i inches high. The apogee-kick motor protrudes

-more-

-8from one end, communications antennas from the other. at separation of the third stage is 145 pounds. Its weight

About half its

weight is expended with the firing of the kick rocket. It varies from its predecessors in that it has n-on-p solar cells, which provide power from the Sun for the spacecraft's batteries, rather than p-on-n. tion. These are more resistant to radia-

Syncom C has two hydrogen peroxide Jet control systems,

rather than the hydrogen peroxide and nitrogen systems on the earlier Syncoms. It has no timer for preset firing of the apogee

motor as previous Syncoms and can be fired by ground command only. Syncom II has two transmitter-receiver units of dual 500 kc and

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5 me bandwidths respectively, while Syncom C has one 5 me unit and one of 13 mc for television transmission. Power Power is supplied by 3840 n-on-p solar cells mounted on the outer periphery of the cylinder. The wiring harness of Syncom C

was changed to suit the spacecraft's modifications. Syncom is built in two units. An outer structure supports

the solar panels and contains the hydrogen peroxide tanks and axial and radial Jets of the control system, and -most of the electronics. An inner structure supports the apogee motor and the remaining electronics. -more-

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-9Antennas include a slotted array antenna for communications transmission, a slotted dipole for communications receiving and four whip antennas in a turnstile arrangement for telemetry and command. Syncom has a passive temperature control system. That is,

adequate temperature control is achieved by the design and materials used on the external surface and by properly insulating subsystem equipment. Electronics Most electronic subsystems on Syncom are duplicative. Included

Qlre transponders with two traveling-wave tube transmitters and two receivers, either receiver of which may be used with either transmitter. One receiver has a 13 me IF bandwidth to enhance TV transThe other has a bandwidth of 5 me. Syncom's

mission through Syncom.

receiver noise figure is 10 db; the receiving antenna gain is 2 db through a skirted dipole antenna; the transmitting antenna gain is 6 db. The antenna receives signals from ground stations on two frequencies near 7360 me, and supplies them to one of the two receivers. At any one time, only one of the receivers operates; the Two way communications can pass

one chosen is selected by command. through either receiver.
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The receiver then drives one of the two transmitters, the traveling wave tube of which delivers two watts to the antenna at a frequency of about 1815 me. The transmitter also provides a

100 milliwatt tracking beacon signal at 1820 me. The total transponder power consumption is 15 watts. A

transponder weighs eight pounds, including the traveling wave tube and high voltage power supply. Besides acting as a beacon and a communications transponder, Syncom's communications system also will transpond signals to measure range and range rate of the satellite to determine its orbit. The turnstile antenna will be used for both command and telemetry. Telemetry data to be transmitted include temperatures;

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power supply voltage and current, signal strength at the communications receiver and transmitter; solar sensors' output; and pressure of hydrogen peroxide gas system. Nineteen signals will be telemetered from the encoders. Analog

inputs will be sequently multiplexed, four channels per second, onto a frequency-modulated sub-carrier oscillator with a 14.5 kc center

I requency.

Sun sensor and accelerometer outputs directly modulate

the telemetry transmitter. -more-

;ot
4its

14'2) .'c con.m.anu, r' celvers are identical. amplifier and AM detector.

Each has

own raixer, IF

The hybrid network

allows command receivers and telemetry systems to share the turnstile antenna which is a minimum of -4.5 db gain. Commands to be

transmitted to Syncom from ground stations include telemetry and communications system switching, gas jet firing, and apogee motor firing. The command decoders consist of the circuitry required to process the ground commands. Electronics are turned on or off with 12

command signals; another 13 commands are used for control.

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An audio tone is supplied to one of three channels in each

decoder, the enable channel.

When this channel detects the tone,

a switch connects the other two channels, the logic and execute channels. The logic channel sets up the command on receiving the The command is set up and

proper number of pulses from the ground.

verified by telemetry before the command is executed. Power supply is intended to supply about 25 watts at 28 volts. Propulsion and Control The satellite's propulsion system consists of a solid-propellant rocket motor. It imparts a velocity increase of 4,696 feet per

second to inject the vehicle into a synchronous orbit at a speed of
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,bout 7,000 mph. -more-

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Attitude and velocity control while in orbit is achieved through two hydrogen peroxide systems. Four pressurized spherical

tanks (two for each system) mounted opposite each other and connected by manifolds contain the propellant for each system. Each of the control systems has two Jets. One Jet fires

parallel to the spin axis of the spacacraft and the other perpendicular to the spin axis. The systems each contain five pounds of 90 per cent hydrogen peroxide pressurized ':o -OO pounds per square inch by nitrogen. Each hydrogen peroxide system has a correction capability of about 300 feet per second. The spacecraft is reoriented after required orbital altitude is attained so that its spin axis is perpendicular to its orbital plane. Ar. attitude control jet, located on one end of the vehicle,

upon command from the grournd, is pulsed to carry out this function. The timing of the pulses is based on information about the spacecraft's attitude and spin angle furnished by the solar angle sensors. Any change of attitude of the satellite on its axis as a res'rit Of reorientation is removed by a mercury nutation damper.

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-13Final precise adjustments in the spacecraft's synchronism are achieved by pulsing a velocity contro'l Jet located on th3 side of the spacecraft. The Launch Vehicle The TAD consists of a Delta vehicle with the first stage modified by three Thiokol solid rocket motors of 53,850 pounds thrust each, which increases the liftoff thrust from a nominal

172,000 pounds to a nominal 333,550 pounds.
The TAD will fly the higher-thrust X-258 third stage motor to place the satellite in a near-equatorial, synchronous orbit. U0 Thiokol TX-33-52 motors are 31 inches in diameter and 237.44 inches in length. Each has a total weight of 9,170 pounds, of

which 7,238 pounds is propellant. The TX-33-52 rockets are equipped with a destruct charge, a wiring harness, and an ordnance components kit, wiring tunnel and nose cone assembly. A flight source, rather than a ground source,

is used to command the solid motors in operation. Explosive bolts are used to separate the spent casings from the Thor; they thrust the spent rockets out and away from the Thor.

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-14The TAD rocket has the following general characteristics: Height: Maximum diameter: Liftoff weight: First stage: Fuel: Thrust: Burning time: Delta space weight: Second stage: Fuel: Thrust: Burning time: Delta space weight: Third stage: Fuel: Thrust: Burning time: Weight: Length: 90 feet Eight feet About 71 tons

()

Modified Air Force Thor, produced by Douglas Aircraft Co. Liquid (kerosene with liquid oxygen as oxidizer) 300,000 pournds About two minutes and 25 seconds About 64 tons (with solid rockets)

Aero4et General Corp., JA 10-118 Propulsion System Liquid About 7,500 pounds About two minutes 21 tons more

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Allegany Ballistics Laboratory X-258 motor Solid About 5,700 pounds (vs 3,000 pounds for X-248) 22.6 seconds (vs 40 seconds for X-248) About 576 pounds ('.s 516 pounds for X-248) 59 inches (vs 57.5 inches for

X-248)
18 inches (same as X-248) 0

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[
13-second liftoff period. solid casings are jettisoned.

-1J
Th)Ž ?lirht

The Thor vehicle fires belore liftoff, and the three solid rockets, ignited by a flight source, almost immediately on liftoff. The solid motors burn for approximately 27 seconds, followed by a At liftoff plus 70 seconds, the empty

Four seconds after liftoff, the Bell Telephone Laboratories guidance system begins a four-step program wherein the vehicle is rolled to a flight azimuth of 95 degrees from true north. includes a combined yaw, pitch and roll maneuver. This

The program lasts

-26 seconds.

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The BTL guidance system commands main engine cutoff 148.7 seconds after liftoff, and the second stage fires four seconds later. First stage separation occurs 4.3 seconds after main engine cutoff (MECO). After second stage ignition, a pitch program is

initiated at MEC0 plus six seconds, which. -ns at second stage cutoff (SECO) minus 16 seconds. After SECO, the second stage and spacecraft coast for more than 20 minutes (1255.2 seconds) to second stage apogee nearly over the equator. During this time the vehicle is pitched and yawed so that

the spacecraft will have the desired transfer orbit perigee at third
O tage burnout.

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-16Just before second stare apogee, the spin rockets which spin-up the third stage are fired. Two seconds later, the second

stage gas retro system is activated and the second stage is separated. Third stage is ignited four seconds after second stage

separation and burns for 22.6 seconds. If all goes well Syncom will be injected into the transfer orbit about 695 miles above the Gulf of Guinea off the west coast of Africa. The third stage is Jettisoned 70 seconds after its ignition and Syncom and its fourth stage coast on the transfer ellipse for approximately 5.6 hours to its first apogee over the In'ian Ocean. Syncom Team Syncom is a program of the Office of Space Science and Applications directed by Associate Administrator for Space Science and Applications, Dr. Homer E. Newell. Director of the Communications Syncom Project

and Navigation Programs Division is Leonard Jaffe. Officer is Harry N. Stafford.

OSSA's Launch Vehicle and Propulsion Programs Division is directed by Vincent L. Johnson and the Delta Program Manager is T. B. Norris. Syncom project management and Delta project management and ::n hing is under the direction of the Goddard Space Flight Center, <:-lt, NMd., Dr. Harry J. Goett, Director.
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ORobc,,t J. Fordyce,

1-7Dircey is GE.I'C Project IManai or for Syncom; Don V.

'2ynoromProject Coordinator, and Forrest H. Wainscott is William R. Schindler is Delta Program Manager.

Spacecraft Manager.

Robert II.Gray heads the Goddard Field Projects Branch at Cape Kennedy. Syncom was designed and built by the Hughes Aircraft Co., Culver City, Calif. Hughes also operates telemetry and command

ground stations, under the direction of GSFC, at Salisbury, Australia, on board the USNS Kingsport and at Lakehurst, N.J. The Delta was built by the Douglas Aircraft Co., Santa Monica, Calif. Douglas is also responsible for pre-launch and launch

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erations.

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Department of Defense Participation Communications with Syncom C during th4 launch phase will be provided by Department of Defense surface terminals under the technical and operational direction of the U.S. Army Satellite Communications (SATCOM) Agency, which has its headquarters at Fort Monmouth, N.J. From its Test Operations Center there it will

conduct and evaluate the communications experimental test program for NASA. The SATCOM Agency is commanded by Brig. Gen. J. Wilson Johnston. By agreement between NASA and the Department of Defense, the SATCOM Agency supports NASA in the Syncom Program. Ground terminals in the SATCOM research and developmental test network which will work with Syncom C are operated by U.S. Army Strategic Communications Command (STRATCOM) personnel commanded by Maj. Gen. Richard J. Meyer. SATCOM, Syncom, and NASA The launch of Syncom C will highlight more than two years of teamwork between NASA and the Army SATCOM Agency, during which time the latter has provided NASA with the communication and test facilities for Syncom I and for the highly-successful Syncom II.

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Agency is Project Manager for the Army's portion of the Defense Communications

surface communications environment --

Satellite Program.

Because of the experience it had gained in

previous satellite communications projects, and because it had surface terminal facilities already developed and in being, the SATCOM Agency was assigned by Department of Defense in 1962 to support NASA in the Syncom project. Since the launch of Syncom II on July 26, 1963, over 2,800 hours of communication have been logged with the satellite,' including voice, teletype and facsimile photo transmission.

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At the SATCOM Agency's Test Operations Center at Fort Monmouth,

initial testing of Syncom C immediately after launch will consist of engineering-scientific tests to determine the parameters of the satellite. First acquisition of Syncom C for communications purposes

is expected to be a link established between Clark Air Base and the USNS Kingsport at Guam. Following the engineering check, operational-engineering tests will begin, including single channel teletype, multi-channel voice, multi-channel teletype, facsimile, phase delay and other variations to determine the system's capacity, fidelity, and level of quality. Testing emphasis will be on multi-channel voice capability.

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CO-AXIAL SLOTTED ARRAY ANTENNA

TRAVELING-WAVE TUBE

ANTENIA ELECTRONICS
LATERAL HYDROGEN PEROXIDE JET QUADRANT NO.3 ELECTRONICS SOLAR CELLS

-.--. E

QUADRANT NO.I ELECTRONICS

AXIAL HYDROGEN PEROXIDE JET

ORIENTATION JET

SOLAR SENSOR

APOGEE MOTOR SOLAR SENSOR NITROGEN VENT VALVE PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE OUADRANT NO.2 ELECTRONICS

APOGEE MOTOR NOZZLE

SYNCOM C SPACECRAFT FIGURE C

SYNCOM C ORBITING SEQUENCE
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