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Purchasing/Activating CompuFoil3D

Purchasing and Activating CompuFoil3D


Like modern Microsoft software products, CompuFoil3D must be activated for use.
Your activation key is based upon a hardware key. This key is displayed in the
activation window. If you are running the demo version, you may order the software
using the credit card Order program. Access the order program from the initial
demo mode window, or from CompuFoil3d's [Help|CompuFoil on the Web|Send
Secure Credit Card Order] menu item to purchase CompuFoil3D and receive a key by
email. If you have been issued a temporary license key, CompuFoil3D will display the
days left on your license, and supply a button to create an email requesting the
permanent key.

Once you have received your activation key, it can be used in three different ways.
If it is a single key, simply highlight the key text in the email message and select
Edit|Copy from the menu of you email program. That will copy the key into the
Windows clipboard. Now run CompuFoil and select the [Unlock Software] button.
CompuFoil3D will announce that the software has been enabled. The other option is
to simply run the license.cfl file attached to the email. This should start
CompuFoil3D and register the key for you, (note, you should not have CompuFoil3D
running at the time when you run the license.cfl file). If you have received an
activation key file for several computers, simply copy the license.cfl file into the
directory where CompuFoil3D is installed and run CompuFoil3D.

Licensing Agreement
Terms and Conditions of Use
SoarSoft Software

Electronic End-User Software License Agreement


THIS AGREEMENT IS A LEGAL DOCUMENT. READ IT CAREFULLY BEFORE
COMPLETING THE INSTALLATION PROCESS AND USING THE SOFTWARE. IT
PROVIDES A LICENSE TO USE THE SOFTWARE AND CONTAINS WARRANTY
INFORMATION AND LIABILITY DISCLAIMERS. BY INSTALLING AND USING
THE SOFTWARE, YOU ARE CONFIRMING ACCEPTANCE OF THE SOFTWARE
AND AGREEING TO BECOME BOUND BY THE TERMS OF THIS AGREEMENT. IF
YOU DO NOT WISH TO DO SO, DO NOT COMPLETE THE INSTALLATION
PROCESS. PROMPTLY RETURN THE ENTIRE PACKAGE TO THE PLACE WHERE
YOU OBTAINED IT, FOR A FULL REFUND.

1. Definitions

(a) "End-User Product" means an output file or printed templates generated by you
using CompuFoil. Output files include airfoil files and .DXF template files.

(b) "SoarSoft" means SoarSoft Software, Inc. and its licensors, if any.

(c) "Software" means the programs supplied by SoarSoft herewith, and any and all
updates thereto.

(d) "End-User" means you the purchaser, or the final recipient of this Software

2. License

This Agreement allows you to:

(a) Use the Software on a single computer and make one copy of the Software in
machine-readable form solely for backup purposes. You must reproduce on any such
copy all copyright notices and any other proprietary legends on the original copy of
the Software.

(b) Install the Software on a storage device, such as a network server, and run the
Software on an internal network, provided the number of concurrent users does not
exceed the number of copies of the Software purchased. A copy of the Software
must be purchased for each such user.

(c) If you have purchased a multi-pack license for the Software product, such as a
Ten-Pack license, or a license to make multiple installations of the Software, you
may concurrently use the number of copies of the Software authorized by that
purchase.

(d) SoarSoft makes no restrictions on the distribution of the End-User Product. If


used for the purpose of a commercial enterprise, such as a model kit, SoarSoft asks,
but does not require a small notice that CompuFoil was used in the development of
said kit or product. Such notice serves to tell the end user's customers that said
kits or products were produced with computer accuracy.

3. License Restrictions

Other than as set forth in Section 2, you may not make or distribute copies of the
Software, or electronically transfer the Software from one computer to another or
over a network. You may not decompile, reverse engineer, disassemble, or otherwise
reduce the Software to a human-perceivable form. You may not rent, lease or
sublicense the Software. You may not modify the Software or create derivative
works based upon the Software. You may not export the Software into any country
prohibited by the United States Export Administration Act and the regulations
thereunder. You may install CompuFoil on up to three separate computers for
individual use as long as only one copy of CompuFoil is in use at any one time.

5. Upgrades

If this copy of the Software is an upgrade from an earlier version of the Software,
it is provided to you on a license exchange basis. You agree by your installation and
use of this copy of the Software to voluntarily terminate your earlier end-user
license and that you will not continue to use the earlier version of the Software nor
transfer it to another.

6. Ownership

The foregoing license gives you limited rights to use the Software. Although you own
the media on which the Software is recorded, you do not become the owner of, and
SoarSoft retains title to, the Software. All rights not specifically granted in this
Agreement, including Federal and International Copyrights, are reserved by
SoarSoft.

7. Limited Warranties

(a) SoarSoft warrants that, for a period of ninety (90) days from the date of
delivery (as evidenced by a copy of your receipt): (i) when used with a recommended
hardware configuration, the Software will perform in substantial conformance with
the documentation supplied with the Software; and (ii) that the media on which the
Software is furnished will be free from defects in materials and workmanship under
normal use. EXCEPT AS SET FORTH IN THE FOREGOING LIMITED WARRANTY,
SOARSOFT DISCLAIMS ALL OTHER WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS, EITHER
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING THE WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND
NONINFRINGEMENT. IF APPLICABLE LAW IMPLIES ANY WARRANTIES WITH
RESPECT TO THE SOFTWARE, ALL SUCH WARRANTIES ARE LIMITED IN
DURATION TO NINETY (90) DAYS FROM THE DATE OF DELIVERY.

No oral or written information or advice given by SoarSoft its dealers, distributors,


agents or employees shall create a warranty or in any way increase the scope of this
warranty.

(b) (USA only) SOME STATES DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OF IMPLIED
WARRANTIES, SO THE ABOVE EXCLUSION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU. THIS
WARRANTY GIVES YOU SPECIFIC LEGAL RIGHTS AND YOU MAY ALSO HAVE
OTHER LEGAL RIGHTS THAT VARY FROM STATE TO STATE.

8. Exclusive Remedy

Your exclusive remedy under Section 7 is to return the Software to the place you
acquired it, with a copy of your receipt and a description of the problem. SoarSoft
will use reasonable commercial efforts to supply you with a replacement copy of the
Software that substantially conforms to the documentation, provide a replacement
for defective media, or refund to you your purchase price for the Software, at its
option. SoarSoft shall have no responsibility if the Software has been altered in any
way, if the media has been damaged by accident, abuse or misapplication, or if the
failure arises out of use of the Software with other than a recommended hardware
configuration.

9. Limitations of Damages

(a) SOARSOFT SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL,


INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING DAMAGES FOR
LOSS OF BUSINESS, LOSS OF PROFITS, OR THE LIKE), WHETHER BASED ON
BREACH OF CONTRACT, TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE), PRODUCT
LIABILITY OR OTHERWISE, EVEN IF SOARSOFT OR ITS REPRESENTATIVES
HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES AND EVEN IF
A REMEDY SET FORTH HEREIN IS FOUND TO HAVE FAILED OF ITS
ESSENTIAL PURPOSE. IT IS THE USER'S RESPONSIBILITY TO ASCERTAIN
THE FITTNESS OF THE END PRODUCT FOR USE. SOARSOFT SHALL NOT BE
LIABLE FOR DAMAGES DUE TO MISUSE, POOR JUDGEMENT, OR TECHNICAL
ERROR.

10. Basis of Bargain


The limited warranty, exclusive remedies and limited liability set forth above are
fundamental elements of the basis of the agreement between SoarSoft and you.
SoarSoft would not be able to provide the Software on an economic basis without
such limitations.

11. (USA only) Government End Users RESTRICTED RIGHTS LEGEND

This software is "Restricted Computer Software." Use, duplication, or disclosure by


the U.S. Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in this Agreement and as
provided in DFARS 227.7202-1(a) and 227.7202-3(a) (1995), DFARS 252.227-7013
(OCT 1988), FAR 12.212(a)(1995), FAR 52.227-19, or FAR 52.227-14, as applicable.
Manufacturer: SoarSoft Software, 7682 Winfield Dr., Brighton, Mi 48116.

12. (Outside of the USA only) Consumer End Users

The limitations or exclusions of warranties and liability contained in this agreement


do not affect or prejudice the statutory rights of a consumer; i.e., a person
acquiring goods otherwise than in the course of a business.

13. General

This Agreement shall be governed by the internal laws of the State of Michigan,
USA. This Agreement contains the complete agreement between the parties with
respect to the subject matter hereof, and supersedes all prior or contemporaneous
agreements or understandings, whether oral or written. All questions concerning this
Agreement shall be directed to: SoarSoft Software, 7682 Winfield Dr. N.E.,
Brighton, Mi 48116.

CompuFoil is a registered trademark of SoarSoft Software, registered in the USA.

About CompuFoil
CompuFoil is a registered trademark of SoarSoft Software.

Warning: This computer program is protected by copyright law and international


treaties. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this program, or any portion
of it, may result in severe civil and criminal penalties, and will be prosecuted to the
maximum extent possible under the law.

Please read and understand the licensing agreement.


New Version Upgrade and Update Policy
I have been spending several hours per day since 1991 developing CompuFoil and I
don't have any plans to end this obsession either! I give free incremental updates
to CompuFoil. You can download the latest update installation program from the
CompuFoil web page: www.compufoil.com/download_updates.shtml

I also plan on major new releases, such as this one, hopefully once every couple of
years or so. Upgrades to major new releases will cost a nominal fee. The amount will
depend on which new features are introduced, among other things. I will announce
new releases via email, adds, magazine announcements, and Internet user group
mailings. Of course, I never mind a phone call either!
Getting Started
Key Concepts
CompuFoil3D is an extremely sophisticated program in what it does, not in how to
use it. Never the less, with all the functionality CompuFoil3D has, to the new user,
it can look pretty overwhelming. This section is designed to get you off on the right
foot in understanding how the software is designed, how it operates, and how you
can best use it. This section may seem a bit random, but this is because it is a
compilation of items that I have found were common confusion areas.

One way that CompuFoil is different from other airfoil template programs is that it
is dynamic in nature. In other words, the different parameters you select for
template items are treated as rules that are processed every time a new rule or
change is made. For example, lesser program will allow you to put a spar at 30% of
chord on a 10" airfoil and it generates a notch 3" from the leading edge. If you then
change the airfoil length to 20", the spar position is not updated. CompuFoil will
reprocess all the rules and correctly place the spar at the correct 6" position. This
is THE power of CompuFoil!

CompuFoil is however not a general drawing program such as a CAD program. You
cannot therefore select a line and tell CompuFoil to clip it at a certain position. It
doesn’t have that flexibility because of the auto-generate nature of the software,
but then again, the wonderful thing is you don’t need to do this because CompuFoil
figures out the drawing for you. That being said, you can move and resize hole items
in a CAD sort of way, and if you need to perform further drawing work, the
template can be exported as a .dxf file for your CAD program to load.

The CompuFoil program screen is divided into five areas. At the top of course are
the menu items, beneath that are the toolbars, beneath that, the main drawing
window, beneath that, the Parameter Window, and at the bottom, the Status Bar.

The Toolbars may be dragged around by the vertical handle on the left side of the
menus. They may also be docked to the left, right or bottom of the screen. If you
Right mouse click on the button, you will get a menu that allows you to turn individual
toolbars on and off, as well as reset them to the default configuration.

CompuFoil’s Main Window where the drawing is displayed can be switched to seven
different views. These views are selectable in several different ways: the View
menu item, the View toolbar,

the tabs along the bottom of the top drawing window,

and the function keys, -

Not all views are enabled depending on what you currently have loaded. For

instance, you cannot select the Planform view unless you have lofted a full
template set. You may drag the separator bar, directly above the hanging tabs,
(labeled Template-F2, LEGuide-F3, etc.), up and down to increase your display area.

The Parameter Window displays current template information. If an individual


airfoil is being worked on, you may also switch the display to show the computed
Coefficient of Pressure about the airfoil using the tabs at the top right of the
Parameter Window.

The Status Bar will display different information depending on the current state of
the program.

CompuFoil has three main areas of use; you are either making individual ribs or foam
templates, modifying and designing airfoils, or generating full sets of lofted ribs.
Before anything is loaded, many menu item functions and buttons are grayed out.
After all, you can’t modify what is not there.

For individual rib use, simply select the Open Airfoil Template File menu and open a
coordinate file. Read Save as Dialog Box for an explanation of the different file
types used by CompuFoil. If you loaded a coordinate file, the CompuFoil generates
an individual template for you, using the dimensions set in the Template Defaults.
At this point, you can select the different functions to alter the template.
Features that are part of the rib itself are generally under the Airfoil menu item,
such as chord length, sheeting thickness, etc. Items that pertain to the foam
template are under the Template menu item, such as template height. You will
notice that once you have loaded an airfoil, several menu and button items that were
previously grayed out are now available. If you wish to make any airfoil shape
modifications, you will find these under the Modify menu. Direct airfoil shape
editing is also possible using the Full Screen Editor.

Once you have generated your individual template, saving it will produce .tpl file.
This file contains all the information pertaining to the template you just produced,
including the coordinates used.

The other main area of use is for airfoil modification purposes. You can only modify
airfoil shapes for individual ribs. If you have generated a full lofted rib set, the
modification items will all be grayed out. Once you have your airfoil modified, you
may then save it as a .tpl file template, or if you plan on using it in other templates
or rib sets, save it as a .usr file, containing only the coordinates of the airfoil shape.
As explained in the Save as Dialog Box section, the .usr extension stands for User
Modified, and helps you keep track of your individual modified coordinate files.

The multiple template generation function is performed with the items under the
Generate menu. Here you may automatically generate items for up to five wing
panels. Only in the case of Generate Lofted Individual Template will you get
multiple templates, and will then not be able to use the modification items, as these
perform modifications on an individual rib basis.

The way you should approach lofting a set of ribs, (lofting is the transitioning of one
shape to another), is to generate the ribs first, then add things such as your spar
slot, holes, etc. Some people make the mistake of thinking they should load an
airfoil first, set your spars, and then use that file for your lofting. If you want to
use a custom or modified airfoil, you should modify your airfoil first, save it as a
coordinate file and then select it in the lofting window. If you want to use an airfoil
from the NACA generator, generate the NACA airfoil, and then save it as a
coordinate file for later use.

Ok, so now you have an idea of how CompuFoil is laid out and what it does. How do
you proceed from here? Well, if you are anxious to generate templates, dive right
in and explore the menu items. The Template/Undo button will reverse any mistakes
you make. Also save your template often. After your first load your rib, or
generate your ribs the first time, perform a File/Save As function to produce the
file.

If you would rather conduct a more systematic course of study of CompuFoil, I


would load either a .tpl template file, or a lofted rib set file, such as the
ThreePanelWing.lft, included with the software, and then start exploring the menu
items, selecting each one in turn and playing with them to see how it effects the
wing.

CompuFoil also has many not so obvious features. Read through the Tip-of-the-Day
items to get helpful hints.
Miscellaneous Hints and Tricks
This section is simply a collection of information and ideas. Many of these are
included in the Tip-Of-The-Day window.
q Use your right mouse button!! Most all labels for the different options in
CompuFoil have pop-up help text available. For instance, in the Spar Setup
window, if you right mouse click on the label "Static From Trailing Edge" for the
Location option, you will get a pop up that says "What’s This?", select the pop-up
and the definition will be displayed :"Distance is a set value from the trailing
edge".
q If you have a middle mouse button, you can lock in "panning mode" if your
template(s) take up more than what is seen. With it, you can easily scroll the
window just by moving you rmouse.
q If you wish to add ailerons to your wing, us a spar-line for this. Setup a full
depth spar, set the spar thickness to zero, and if you are using cap strips on
both sides of the cut: the spar width to twice the cap thickness, and then turn
on the vertical centerline option. You may also select to rotate the spar using
the Angle Spar Additional (Deg.) option.
q You can reset the ruler zero points to your desired location if you hold your

key down while performing a left mouse button double-click in the


template window area.
q Double clicking your left mouse button in a lightening hole area will toggle its
visibility. You will still have a faint outline of the invisible hole, but it won’t be
printed.
q You don’t need to enter in decimal numbers. After all, who remembers what
27/32 of an inch is in decimal? If you need to enter in a value of say 12-27/32",
simply enter it as 12.27/32 and CompuFoil will translate the fraction to decimal
for you!
q You can increase the size of your airfoil viewing area by dragging the bar
separating the upper and lower view down with your mouse. Position your mouse
over the bar until the cursor changes, press and hold your left mouse button,
now drag the window down, out of the way, like a window shade.
q CompuFoil3D has a new feature in the print preview window where you can select
how many pages down and across to display. If you are previewing a large
drawing like a wing planform, you will be able to adjust this feature to see your
complete wing in tiled grid fashion.
q In order to use an airfoil in the three Lofting functions found under the
Generate menu, they must be loadable from disk, i.e., if you want to use a NACA
airfoil just generated with the N.A.C.A. Generator, you must save it as a
coordinate file first.
q If you wish to change the foam template look of an individual template to a rib
only look, select the Template|Use Rib Parameters function. This will quickly set
the foam template height and ramps to zero, and most importantly, set the wire
kerf compensation to zero as well.
q Pressing the space bar while your cursor is in main window displaying your
templates, will put you into measurement mode. You will see in the status bar at
the lower left corner of the window, that the current mouse position has been
set to 0,0. As you move your move, the x distance, y-distance, as well as the
overall distance are displayed. Press the space bar to return the measurements
to normal mode.
q You can double click on a circle created with either the Leading Edge Roundstock
function, or the Construction Hole function to select, move and reshape the hole.
If, while the hole is selected, you perform a RIGTH mouse double click, you will
get a direct entry window where you may define the position and dimensions of
the hole. There is also a check box to set the remaining holes to the same
relative location as well.
q If you have an active internet connection available, when CompuFoil3D starts, it
will attempt to download the version file from the CompuFoil website. This
version file is compared against your running copy, and if an update exists, will
display the list of changes. If you elect to update, the software will take care
of downloading and installing the updates for you.
Tutorials
Tutorial-Creating Ribs
This tutorial will walk you through generating a full set of ribs for a two-panel wing.
Note that when using CompuFoil in metric mode, all dimensions are entered in
millimeters.

Our wing layout looks like this:

-Inboard Panel-

· Wing panel length = 28"

· Rib spacing = 3"

· First equally spaced rib is 2" from root.

· Two ribs are used for servo bay formers and are 15" and 15-7/8" from the root.

· Root airfoil = SD7032 @ 9" chord

· Tip airfoil = SD7032 @ 6" chord

-Outboard Panel-
· Wing panel length = 8"

· Rib spacing = 3"

· Tip airfoil = 4" chord

· Root airfoil = SD7032 @ 9" chord

· Tip airfoil = SD7037 @ 6" chord

· Tip panel has 2 degrees washout

-General information-

· 1/16" balsa sheeting used.

· 1/4" leading edge.

· Main spar slot is located 3" from the leading edge of the root airfoil. It is made of
3/8" wide by 1/8" spruce.

. A second 1/4x1/8" spar is located parallel to the main spar, 6" from the leading
edge of the root airfoil, and goes to rib# 7.

· Lightening holes on inner panel only, with .125" radius and .25" material.

· Trailing edge stock is 1-1/2" wide

· We want building tabs to aide in construction.

· The wing is swept so that the trailing edge is straight across and perpendicular to
the fuselage.

-Procedure:

First let's produce the equally spaced ribs. When you are using building jig holes,
this is usually best, as you need to check and see just how high to set the holes so
that they stay within the template from root to tip.

Select [Generate/Lofted Full Set of Ribs]. The lofting dialog box will be displayed.
Leave the Straight Tapered wing option selected. Enter 28 as the Panel Length, 3
for the Rib Spacing and 2 for the First Rib Begins At value. Leave both washout
entries blank, or enter 0 since our inner panel has no washout.

Enter SD7032.COR as the Inboard Airfoil and SD7032.COR for the Outboard

airfoil. You can also click the button and a file list box will be displayed where
you may select an airfoil. Next enter the Inboard and Outboard chord lengths of 9
and 6.
Note: If you leave the airfoil name blank for the rib that is between panels, (in the
case of the inner panel, the Outboard airfoil), then the airfoil shape will be
calculated. CompuFoil will enter {interp} for the airfoil name, indicating the airfoil
shape will be interpolated from the shapes of the airfoils that were defined to
either side of it.

We can have CompuFoil calculate our sweep for us to get a straight trailing edge by
clicking the [Compute Sweep for Straight T.E.] button.

Now let's define out two ribs for our servo bay. Click on the [Define Extra Rib
Positions…] button. You will see the extra ribs entry window. Enter in 15 for the
distance, click on [Add], enter 15.3/4 and again click on [Add] then click on [OK].

Now lets define our tip panel. Click on the [Add Panel] button. Change the
Outboard chord to 4", and change the panel length to 8", and set the First Rib
Begins at to 0. Change the Tip airfoil type to SD7037.COR. Note that the Root
Airfoil type is set to the tip airfoil of the inner panel since these are really the
same position. Click the [Compute Sweep for Straight T.E.] button again. At this
point click on [OK]. The lofted sections will appear on screen. Select the
[View|Planform View] menu item to see the wing layout. We can graphically change
the sweep of the wing at this point if you wish. To do this, position the mouse on
the last rib. When you see it change to a double line, double click on the last rib of
the tip panel. (It is sometimes easier to set your scaling to 100%, (under the View
Menu item) or you can change the viewed size of the display by selecting a different
zoom using Alt-1 through Alt-5, or by selecting if from the Drop List box at the
right on the Tool Bar). Once the rib is highlighted, hold your left mouse button
down and move your mouse up or down. Notice that the sweep is displayed in the
lower left in the status bar. When you have the rib in the right position, double
click on it again. If you wish, you can also double click on the inner rib separating
the two panels, and move it in a similar manner, and double click again to place it.
You can choose the [View|Airfoil Template] option to see the airfoils again.

Note: When you want to change the sweep of an inner panel, you must select the tip
rib of that panel, not the root rib of the panel next to it in order to grab it and drag
it.

Now lets define our spar slots. Select [Airfoil|Spar Slot Setup]. First we have to
let CompuFoil know from where we want to reference the spar slot. The alignment
spar position is the line that runs perpendicular to the root rib, so we will select
Snap to Alignment Spar. When we generated the ribs, we didn't define the
absolute location of the spar, rather only the wing sweep. Since only the sweep was
defined, the alignment spar line starts at the leading edge of the root airfoil and is
perpendicular to the fuselage. Our spar is 3" away from this line. As this is a full
depth spar, not a notch, un-check the []Track Surface option. Also enter the 3/8
width and 1/8 thickness for both the root and tip dimensions. If you wish, you can
now select the [Apply] button to see your spar. Click on the [Add] button to define
spar#2. Notice that when you add a spar, the new spar takes on the same
dimensions as the previous spar. Because of this, it's quicker to define similar spars
together. For the second spar, change the Location Value to 6", and set the "and
ends at Rib#" from -1 (which tells CompuFoil to run the rib to very end), to 7.
You've now defined your spars. Click on [OK}

For the 1-1/2" trailing edge stock, select the [Airfoil/Trailing Edge Stock Size]
function. Here we can define the trailing edge stock by the thickness or width.
Select the ()Width option, enter 1.5 and click on [OK}.

Now let’s define our lightening holes. Select the Airfoil|Lightening Hole Setup
menu item. Enter in our Corner Radius of .125 and our Web Width of .25". We will
leave the starting and ending rib they way they are. The –1 for the ending rib
designates that the holes will get the last rib in the panel, no matter how many
there are. An alternate method of producing oval lightening holes exists as well.
Since CompuFoil allows you to move and reshape both jig holes and leading edge
round stock, you can use either of these for lightening holes. Let's use the round
stock function for this purpose. Select [Airfoil|Leading Edge Round Stock]
function and enter .5. You will now have 1/2" diameter circles on the leading edges
of all the ribs. Now let's move and resize them. Double click on the first circle.
Drag the circle where you want it. Next point your cursor to one corner of the
bounding square, until your cursor changes to a double arrow at an angle. Hold down
the left mouse button and drag the shape into an ellipse. If you want to retain a
circular shape, hole your shift button down at the same time and the circle will then
shrink or grow. When you have the shape and position where you want it, double
click on the hole again to set it. The rest of the holes are done in a similar fashion.

The 1/4" leading edge is selected using the [Airfoil|Leading Edge Width] function.
The 1/16" sheeting is set using the [Airfoil|Sheeting Thickness] function.

The trailing edge building tabs greatly help in building our wing. Select the
[Template|Setup Building Tab Parameters] function. Here you have great
flexibility in defining your building tabs. Enter in 1/2 inch for the Tab Width.
Select ()Align T.E Tab with T.E. Stock for the tab location. This will set the tab
right at the edge of the rib in front of the trailing edge stock. Check both the L.E.
Tab and T.E. Tab option in the Visibility section and click on [OK].

That completes our wing!

To save this creation in a file, select [File/Save as... ]. When the dialog box
appears, give it a name and select [OK]. The .LFT file type that saves the lofted
section. Let's now see what a printout will look like. Select the [File/Print Preview]
function and you will see the airfoils, leading edge shaping guides, or planform,
(depending on which view you are looking at), printed on the pages. Click the [Close]
button to get out of preview mode.
Tutorial-Generating Foam Templates
This tutorial will walk you through generating a foam template. Note that when
using CompuFoil in metric mode, all dimensions are entered in millimeters.

Our foam template will use these dimensions:

· Airfoil E214

· Chord length 10"

· Sheeting 0" ( we will assume a glass wing)

· No leading edge stock

· Our bow cuts a .035" kerf.

· Our ramps are .5" and the trailing edge ramp angle follows the top surface.

· Our main spar is at 33% and is constructed of 1/8"x3/8" spruce top and bottom.

· We use a 3/8" wing rod and 5/32" alignment pin. The wing rod tube is of course
within our main spar, and the alignment pin is 4.5" from the wing rod.

· Our foam is 2" thick.

CompuFoil starts your foam template with the defaults you have assigned.
Generating a foam template involves nothing more than loading an airfoil and
changing whichever defaults values needed. Select the [File/Open Airfoil] menu.
Select the E214.COR airfoil. Now change the length of the airfoil, (the chord
length), by selecting [Airfoil/Chord Length] function and enter 10. Select
[Airfoil/Sheeting Thickness] and enter 0. Select [Airfoil/Leading Edge Stock
Width] and enter 0. Next, let's change the trailing edge ramp angle. Select
[Template/T.E. Ramp Angle], and then Follow Top Surface. Next adjust our wire
kerf. Select [Template/Wire Kerf] and enter .035. Define our spar by selecting
[Airfoil/Spar Slot Setup]. We must first tell CompuFoil how we want our spar
location referenced. Choose the ()From Leading Edge option, and enter 33% for
the Location Value. Don't forget the percent sign or CompuFoil will think you want
the spar 33" from the leading edge and you won't see it on a 10" airfoil! Set the
Spar Depth to 1/8" and Spar Width to 3/8". At this point click on the [Apply]
button. Oops! We have surface notches. Uncheck the []Track Surface option.
When we make our spar, we don't want any of the spar to be sticking out of the
surface of the foam, so select the ()Imbed Spar Depth option. Click on the [OK]
button. Now let's define the position for our joiner rod and alignment pin. Select
[Airfoil/Building Jig Holes]. Select Ref. From Leading Edge for the Location
option and enter 33%. This will place our hole in the center of the spar. For the
Hole Elevation, make sure that ()Track Mean Camber Line is selected. This will
insure that the holes are centered within the thickness of the airfoil. Put in joiner
tube diameter of 3/8" for our L.E. Hole Diameter, (the hole closest to the Leading
Edge), and 3/32" for our T.E. Hole Diameter. Set the Hole Spread to 4.5".
Select [Initialize]. Now let's set our template height so that the airfoil is centered
in our foam. Give CompuFoil the foam thickness by entering in 2" in the
[Template/Foam Thickness] window. You will see a blue outline of the foam. Adjust
the height with the [Template/Template Height] function. You can click on the up
or down arrows to nudge the height to where you want it, or have CompuFoil
automatically calculate the centering height by selecting the [AutoCenter] button.

These templates are designed to work well with many methods of foam cutting,
including the Feather/Cut foam-cutting machine, (also available through SoarSoft
Software). One note on the leading edge ramps: you will note that the leading edge
ramps meet the leading edge horizontally. There is some advantage to cutting the
leading ramps as an angle such that they meet the airfoil surface in a smooth
transition. However, when using the Feather/Cut, having the corners formed by the
ramps and the airfoil surface is a great help in setting the draw wire lengths such
that the bow meets the wing panel's leading edge straight on.

The foam templates produced by are setup such that the bottom surface is cut
first. Always cut from leading edge to trailing to get the best possible trailing edge
feather. The top blank will then drop down; filling in the wire's cut path (kerf).
CompuFoil will automatically compensate for the kerf on the lower surface at the
leading edge. The kerf width can be set as a default dimension within CompuFoil.
(When you select the [Template/Use Rib Parameters] or the [Generate/Full Set of
Ribs] functions to produce ribs for built ups, the kerf dimension is automatically set
to zero).

Consider, however, a foam wing without a hardwood leading edge, where the cut
starts out vertically down and then transitions to a horizontal cut, a vertical gap
(again, the kerf) is not going to be filled by the top blank dropping down vertically.
Only the horizontal component is closed up. Therefore, CompuFoil will automatically
extend the leading edge section of the bottom template by the kerf width,
proportional to the slope of the line. This compensation technique is unique to
CompuFoil. You can easily see this by printing a template where the Leading Edge
parameter is set to zero. Notice how the top surface at the leading edge line does
not meet the bottom surface at the leading edge. Ah, the wonders of computers....
Menu Items
File Menu
Menu Item File/Clear and Start New
Selecting this menu item will clear all airfoil data from memory and retrieve setup
CompuFoil according to your default settings. Use this function when you wish to
start fresh.
Menu Item File/Open Airfoil/Template File
Use this command to open an airfoil file. Note that you can also start CompuFoil and
automatically load a desired airfoil by dragging an airfoil file icon using File Manager,
and dropping it onto the CompuFoil icon.

The File Open menu item will present you with a standard File Open Dialog Box.

Shortcuts

Toolbar:

Keys:
Open Dialog Box

The following options allow you to specify which file to open:

File Name

Type or select the filename you want to open. This box lists files with the extension
you select in the List Files of Type box.

List Files of Type

Select the type of file you want to open. CompuFoil uses five recognized file
extensions. The .COR, .INV and .USR files are simple X-Y text file listings of the
coordinates. The extensions are different only to allow the user to categorize his
airfoils. The .TPL and .LFT files carry all of the template information such as chord
length, sheeting thickness, etc..
.COR - Raw coordinate file. The .COR extension should be reserved for published
coordinates.

.TPL - Template file. This file format contains all template information. Use this
format to save your template image. If you have created a template using the
[Generate/Individual Template] and wish to save the information which you used to
generate this template, like the root and tip airfoil type, chord length, etc., save it
as a .LFT file as described below, (except if you altered the chord length
afterwards).

.LFT - Lofted section. This file format contains all template information as well as
wing section information such as root/tip airfoil types, chord lengths, etc. Use this
format to save your template or ribs generated by the Generate Full Set of Ribs,
Generate End Rib with Sub Rib, or Generate Individual Template, (except if you
altered the template chord length afterwards, as would be the case with a double
tapered-two panel wing).

.USR - Raw user coordinate file. The .USR extension should be used for your
modified airfoil coordinates. This allows you to quickly see only those airfoils you
have created.

.BLK - Bulkhead coordinate file. The .BLK extension files are bulkhead shapes
shape files that can be used to define the shape of your fuselage section when
lofting a full set of ribs. Note that CompuFoil was not designed to handle bulkheads
per-se, but can produce them within the context of what can be done with airfoil
shapes. The bulkhead files are arranged such the bulkhead is laying on its side with
that the top facing to the left, and the bottom facing the right. They will be lofted
in the same manner.

.INV - Raw coordinate file. The .INV extension should be reserved for saved
inverted airfoils. When you load an airfoil with an .INV extension, CompuFoil will
automatically tilt the template the correct direction if you give the template
washout.

.PLF - Planform coordinate file. The .PLF extension files are the planform shape
files that can be used to define the shape of your wing when lofting a full set of
ribs.

.DAT – Selig Files. These files are those collected by Dr. Michael Selig. Because
the .dat files have different formats, most, but not all .dat files will load.

Preview Pane

The airfoil shape is displayed in the preview window. .LFT files will not be displayed
however.

NotePad Pane
If you saved a notation with your file, that notation will be displayed in the NotePad
pane. You may enter notations using the NotePad function.

Look in:

Select which folder to look into for your airfoil files.

Save as StepFour File


This function is used for those that own the StepFour CNC foam-cutting machine.
A version 1.60 .SFP file will be created of the airfoil outline.

Menu Item File/Save Template


Use this command to save the active document to its current name and directory.
When you save a document for the first time, CompuFoil displays the Save As dialog
box so you can name your document. If you want to change the name and directory
of an existing document before you save it, choose the Save As command. Note
that this function is disabled if a demo mode/non-purchased function us used. Use
File/Clear and Start New to remove demo mode.

When you save a file, CompuFoil can also save the printer setup information with the
.TPL or .LFT file. This way, if you setup your printer in a particular way for this
template, these setting will be retained when you reload the template. In order to
do this you need to select the [X]Allow embedding of printer setup information in
template files option in the [Defaults/Template Setup] window.

Shortcuts

Toolbar:

Keys:

Menu Item File/Save As


Use this command to save and name the active template or airfoil file. CompuFoil
displays the Save As dialog box so you can name your file. Note that this function is
disabled if a demo mode/non-purchased function is used. Use File/Clear and Start
New to remove demo mode.

To save a file with its existing name and directory, use the Save command.

Save as Dialog Box


The following options allow you to specify the name and location of the file you're
about to save:
File Name

Type a new filename to save a document with a different name. A filename can
contain up to eight characters and an extension of up to three characters.
CompuFoil adds the extension you specify in the Save File As Type box. There are
several extension possibilities. The .COR, .USR and .INV extension files save only
the raw, unscaled coordinates in text format. The difference in extension is there
only in order to allow you to keep your airfoils organized. The .TPL and .LFT files
save all template information. The file extensions are described below.

List Files of Type

Select the type of file you want to open:

.COR - Raw coordinate file. For sake of organization, the .COR extension should be
reserved for published coordinates.

.PLF - Planform coordinate file. The .PLF extension files are the planform shape
files that can be used to define the shape of your wing when lofting a full set of
ribs.

.USR - Raw user coordinate file. The .USR extension should be used for your
modified airfoil coordinates.

.INV - Raw inverted user coordinate file. CompuFoil allows you to invert the airfoil.
Once inverted, you can save the airfoil with the .INV extension.

.BLK - Bulkhead coordinate file. The .BLK extension files are bulkhead shapes
shape files that can be used to define the shape of your fuselage section when
lofting a full set of ribs. Note that CompuFoil was not designed to handle bulkheads
per-se, but can produce them within the context of what can be done with airfoil
shapes. The bulkhead files are arranged such the bulkhead is laying on its side with
that the top facing to the left, and the bottom facing the right. They will be lofted
in the same manner.

.TPL - Template file. This file format contains all template information. Use this
format to save your non-lofted template image.

.LFT - Lofted section. This file format contains all template information as well as
wing section information such as root/tip airfoil types, chord lengths, etc. Use this
format to save your template or ribs generated by the Generate Full Set of Ribs,
Generate End Rib with Sub Rib, or Generate Individual Template.

Drives

Select the drive in which you want to store the document.

Directories

Select the directory in which you want to store the document.


Menu Item File/Save Surface Coordinates
This function allows the user to save the airfoil coordinates in a variety of formats.
The X-coordinates of the current airfoil's top surface used will be used if you
elect to generate a three-column format. Advanced users may require that the
saved coordinates occur at a specific X-position. If you wish to have the
coordinates generated in this manner, you must create a file called xcoords.dat and
save it in the same directory as the CompuFoil program. This file must be a simple
text file. Use a text editor such as Windows NotePad to create this file.
Furthermore, the listing of x coordinates must lie between zero and one. The listing
can be a string of number separated by commas:

0,.004,.0056,.0123,.0234 .....

or, a column of numbers with each x-coordinate on a separate line:

0.0

.004

.0056

.0123

.0234

.....

Note! If a sheeted surface is currently displayed, the inner surface coordinates are
saved, otherwise the outside surface coordinates are saved. In other words,
CompuFoil will save the true template surface for you. Note that in the case of a
sheeted surface, the coordinates for the top and bottom surfaces may overlap at
the leading and trailing edges, depending on the geometry of the airfoil and sheeting
thickness.

When selected, CompuFoil will first display the format selection window.
You can select either a three-column format or two-column format. You can also
elect to not include the X-Coordinates by deselecting the [ ] Include X Values
option. If you select the [ ]Normalize option, then the resulting coordinates will be
saved without scaling to the current airfoil length. CompuFoil will remember your
selection the next time you use this function.

After selecting the file format, you will be requested to enter a file name. No
default file name extension is generated. Therefore, the file will be saved with the
exact name and extension (if any), you give it.

Menu Item File/Save Scaled Core Coordinates


This option allows the user to save the coordinates of an individual airfoil’s core. In
other words, the coordinates of the wing, stripped of the current sheeting
thickness.

Menu Item File/Add-Modify Notation


CompuFoil’s NotePad is a general-purpose text editor that serves as a memory
jogger for the user. Text entered here will be saved with the airfoil coordinates or
template. The text in the attached note will be displayed in the lower view screen
while Browsing through airfoils, or in the File/Open dialog . You may enter anything
you deem necessary or useful. Windows standard keyboard shortcuts are supported
such as Ctrl-C for copy and Ctrl-V for paste. In the case of the .COR, .USR, and
.INV file formats, which are simple text files, the note is simply appended at the
end of the file with a blank line separating the last coordinate and the start of the
note.

Menu Item File/Create New Planform Coordinate File


CompuFoil’s Create New Planform Coordinate File utility is a general-purpose text
editor used to define a custom planform shape. The shape of the custom planform
can be anything that does not curve back on itself, but should not have a flat wing
tip. If you really need a flat wing tip, then the y coordinates of the tip should be
ever so slightly less that zero. As an example, the coordinates of the tip might be:

.0002 .1

.0001 .05

.0000 0

.0001 -.05

.0002 -.1

Notice that the x coordinates are very close to zero, but they ramp into the 0,0
coordinate at the leading edge.

The planform file is entered the same way a coordinate file is. With regards to the
number ordering, the numbers start at the root leading edge of the planform, wrap
around the wing tip, and back underneath to the root trailing edge. The x and y
coordinate of the wing tip should both be zero. In other words, if you plotted your
numbers on a graph, the wing tip would be at the origin, (coordinate 0,0).

The wing length should be normalized. What this means is if your wing coordinates
are setup for a 56" wing, then you must first divide all of your X and Y numbers by
56. This is done because when you give CompuFoil your wingspan, CompuFoil will
simply multiply all numbers by 56, and then thicken/thin the wing based upon the
root chord length you specified.

Menu Item File/Create New Coordinate File


CompuFoil's Create New Coordinate File utility is a general-purpose text editor.
CompuFoil uses a specific coordinate system. CompuFoil assumes certain conditions
exist to complete its computations. Only one set of normalized X, Y coordinates may
appear per line. Imagine the airfoil positioned on an X/Y coordinate graph. The
leading edge is at the origin, and the tail is at position 1,0. The coordinate list
describes the points starting at the trailing edge, runs along the top surface, across
the leading edge and then along the bottom. The list must starting with a one zero
and end in one zero, with the leading edge at 0,0. Separate the numbers by a space
or tab, such as this: .23456 .9876. Below is a partial printout of the SD7037.COR
file as an example. The file must be simple numbers, although if you wish to add a
comment that will appear in the Notepad, at the last coordinate pair (one-zero), add
a blank line and then your comment text.

If you get a message such as a divide by zero error while running the program, the
coordinate file should be suspect. If an error occurs while reading the file, in most
cases CompuFoil will report at which coordinate pair the error occurred. Most
coordinate files have between 60 and 70 pairs of coordinates. CompuFoil will accept
up to 250 pairs of coordinates. Here's a truncated example of a typical coordinate
file. Note that the comments are NOT part of the file. They are added for
clarification and instruction.

Partial Coordinate file listing of SD7037.COR

10 (start at trailing edge)

.99672 .00042 (run along top surface towards leading edge)

.98707 .00180

....... ......... (numbers skipped)

0 0 (this is the leading edge position)

.00038 -.0023 (run along bottom surface back towards tail)

.00532 -.00701

.......... ........ (numbers skipped)

.9967 .0003

1 0 (back at trailing edge)

(one blank line added between end of coordinate and optional


notepad text)

{TEXT AT THIS POSITION WHICH WILL APPEAR IN THE PREVIEW SCREEN,


NOTATION WINDOW, and BROWSE MODE}.
Menu Item File/Load Coordinate File into Editor
This function is useful for editing an airfoil coordinate file that is not compatible

with CompuFoil.

Selecting this function will bring up an Open File dialog box. After selecting the
file, the coordinates will be loaded into a text editor.

It is important to note that the function buttons, (such as Sort Ascend), work only
on highlighted numbers.

You will find four function buttons in the text editor to help you convert the file:
Sort Ascending, Sort Descending, Divide by 100, and =Two Column. The last of
these will take a fully selected three column coordinate list and turn it into standard
two-column format.

Again, these buttons operate on the highlighted text. To highlight the text, simply
hold your left mouse button down and drag it across the numbers. Once highlighted,
simply select the function you wish to perform. When you are finished, select the
Save button. Give the file a name with a .COR or .USR extension.

Menu Item File/Print


Use this command to print a document. This command presents a Print dialog box,
where you may specify the range of pages to be printed, the number of copies, the
destination printer, and other printer setup options. Note that this function is
disabled if a demo mode/non-purchased function us used. Use File/New to remove
demo mode.

Shortcuts

Toolbar:

Keys:

Print dialog box

The following options allow you to specify how the document should be printed:

Printer

This is the active printer and printer connection. Choose the Setup option to change
the printer and printer connection.

Setup

Displays a Print Setup dialog box, so you can select a printer and printer connection.

Collate Copies

Prints copies in page number order, instead of separated multiple copies of each
page.
Print Quality

Select the quality of the printing. Generally, lower quality printing takes less time
to produce.

The remaining items can also be accessed through the File/Image Setup dialog box.

Multi-Tiled Images

Normally, when printing foam templates, a single template along with its mirror
image is printed. If you wish to print several templates, you can use the Copies
feature, but this wastes paper. Selecting this feature will make visible an entry box
for the number of templates you want. The resulting print will contain this many
images tiled down your page. CompuFoil remembers this setting after you use it
once. If you want to see it in your Print Previews , but don't yet want to print,
simply set the number of images, select cancel, and then do a print preview. This
item will only be displayed when printing foam templates.

No Mirror Image

When producing foam templates, CompuFoil will normally also print a mirror image as
well. Selecting this option will suppress the mirror image.

Print to File

When this item is checked, you will be asked for a filename to send the printer
output to. Instead of the print data going to your printer, the data is collected and
saved to the specified file. What can you do with this file? If you happen to have
a better printer at work than at home, if you install and select the proper printer
driver, you can save the print output to a floppy, then at work, from a DOS prompt,
type in:

COPY FILENAME LPT1: /B

This assumes that the printer is on your lpt1: port. If it is a network printer, LPT2:
is commonly used, (Windows95,98Me only).

Extra>> (button)
Selecting this button will display a print options windows where you can over-ride
the current print defaults.

Print Progress Dialog


The Printing dialog box is shown during the time that CompuFoil is sending output to
the printer. The page number indicates the progress of the printing.

To abort printing, choose Cancel.


Menu Item File/Print Preview
Use this command to display a printed representation of the current template(s).
When you choose this command, the main window will be replaced with a print
preview window. Multiple pages will be displayed in their printed format. See the
print preview window for more details.

Shortcuts

Toolbar:

Print Preview Window

The print preview gives a printed representation of your printed templates. Note
that even if you are using a continuous sheet paper, the preview will display
individual sheets.

The print preview toolbar offers you the following options:

Print

Bring up the print dialog box, to start a print job.

Previous Page/Next Page

Preview the next or previous printed pages. This will only be active if there are
more pages to be printed than are current shown

Preview Pages

Specifies the number of rows and columns of pages to display. Modifying this option
is particularly helpful if you are previewing a wing layout in planform view as you can
adjust this option to give a full-length view within the individual sheets.

Preview Zoom

This option allows you to zoom into a specific page. You may also use your Right and
Left mouse buttons to zoom in and out.

Landscape Print
Specifies to print in landscape mode.

Close

Return from print preview to the editing window.

Scaled

This button is only available when viewing the wing planform. This will scale the wing
such that it fits on one page.

Best Layout

This button is only available when viewing the wing planform. Selecting this button
will set the row-column setting for the number of preview pages such that the whole
wing is shown across.

Menu Item File/Print Setup


Use this command to select a printer and a printer connection. This command
presents a Print Setup dialog box where you may specify the printer and its
connection.

The following options allow you to select the destination printer and its connection.

Printer

Select the printer you want to use. Choose the Default Printer; or choose the
Specific Printer option and select one of the current installed printers shown in the
box. You install printers and configure ports using the Windows Control Panel.

Orientation

Choose Portrait or Landscape.

Paper Size

Select the size of paper that the document is to be printed on.

Paper Source

Some printers offer multiple trays for different paper sources. Specify the tray
here.

Options

Displays a dialog box where you can make additional choices about printing, specific
to the type of printer you have selected.

Network...
Choose this button to connect to a network location, assigning it a new drive letter.

Toolbar:

Menu Item File/Image Setup

Menu Item File/Menu Item File/Menu Item File/The image setup dialog allow you to
set the printed image parameters. This item will be disabled when you have a
Leading Edge Shaping Guide selected. All of these items are also available from the
Print Dialog Box.

No Mirror Image

CompuFoil will automatically print the mirror image of the foam template. If you do
not wish this to happen, check this item.

Multi-Tiled Image

If you wish to print more than one foam template, instead of selection several
copies from the Copies field in the Print Dialog Box, you can save paper by having
CompuFoil tile the images on a single sheet. Select this item and then enter the
number of templates you wish to have in the Number field. Note that this item will
be not be visible when lofting ribs.

Menu Item/Print Scaled Planform


This menu item is only available if you have produced a set of ribs, or multiple foam
panel template sets, and you must be in planform view, (viewing the planform). When
selected, CompuFoil3D will print a single page with a scaled down image of the wing
panel.

Menu Item File/Print Preview Scaled Planform


This menu item is only available if you have produced a set of ribs, or multiple foam
panel template sets, and you must be in planform view, (viewing the planform). When
selected, CompuFoil3D will print preview a single page with a scaled down image of
the wing panel. You may click on the printer icon in the top left of the window to
send the image to your printer.

Menu Item File/Exit


Select this function to exit CompuFoil. CompuFoil will warn you if your current
project is unsaved and give the chance to save it first.

Creation Wizards
Planform Creation Wizard
The Planform Creation Wizard can take the current airfoil and allow you to generate
a planform of it by manipulation of the three sliders. You may also load either an
airfoil file or a planform .plf file for editing.

Flip Flips the image along the horizontal axis.

Root Aspect Ratio Opens up the trailing edge.

Flare Coefficient Alters the influence that opening the trailing edge has on the rest
of the airfoil. A higher coefficient will cause most of the shape modification to be
towards the trailing edge.

Sweep Angle Angles the root relative to the tip.

Clicking the [Save] button allows you to save the shape as a planform .plf file that
can then be used for lofting a set of ribs.
Bulkhead Creation Wizard
The Bulkhead Creation wizard was designed to allow the user to generate bulkhead
shapes with conic section curved sides. There are eight controls that affect the
shape of the bulkhead

Top and Bottom Aspect Ratio – This affects how "fat" the bulkhead is on both the
top and bottom surfaces

Top and Bottom Curvature – This affects the "roundness" of the curved edges.

Top and Bottom End Positions- This affects the ending point of the rounded edge.

Left Slider The slider control on the left side changes the starting point of the top
curvature. The section between the top and bottom sliders is a flat surface. You
can think of this as a mold line. The software does not allow you to save a bulkhead
where this top mold line extends under the bottom mold line. There is a small arrow
on both top and bottom mold lines to help identify which is which.

Right Slider The slider control on the right side changes the starting point of the
bottom curvature. The section between the top and bottom sliders is a flat surface.
You can think of this as a mold line.

Save Blk File This button will save your bulkhead as a .blk file. This file may then
be loaded by CompuFoil.

Load Blk File This button will a bulkhead file. Note that bulkhead files created by
CompuFoil3D versions before 4.3.8.0 do not have the imbedded information to load
properly into the bulkhead wizard.

Load Graphic File in Background Select this button to load a .jpg, .bmp, or .dxf file
into the background. You may double click on the image to move and resize it.
Airfoil Menu
Menu Item Airfoil/Chord Length
Use this command to define a new chord length. The chord length is the length
from the leading edge of the airfoil to the trailing edge. Valid values up to 125" or
3175 millimeters are allowed. (Yes, you can put CompuFoil into metric mode)

Shortcuts

Toolbar:

Keys:

Menu Item Airfoil/Sheeting Setup


Use this command to define a sheeting thickness. Up to ¼" or 10mm thick sheeting
may be defined. (Yes, you can put CompuFoil into metric mode)

If during the lofting phase, the template ends up with a size such that the airfoil
thickness is smaller than twice the sheeting thickness, the sheeting will be set to
zero for subsequent ribs. In other words, if the airfoil is so thin that no core is
left after taking off the sheeting, the skin is set to zero.
Sheeting Layout

At the bottom of the window, if you have generated a set of ribs, will appear the
sheeting layout option. The layout you enter is basically which rib you want the
sheeting to start at and end at separated by a dash (-). You may enter several such
definitions if you separate them with a comma. Below, the sheeting will go from rib
one to fifteen, and then again from seventeen to nineteen.

Shortcuts

Toolbar:

Keys:

Menu Item Airfoil/Rib Stock Thickness


The Rib Stock Thickness number affects the width between the lines drawn to
represent the ribs in the Planform View.. CompuFoil defaults to a 1/16' or 2mm
depending on whether you are working in SI or Metric units. Note that when you
enter define extra rib positions when lofting a full set of ribs, you can also define
individual ribs thickness.

Menu Item Airfoil/Leading Edge Stock Width


Use this command to define the leading edge stock width. Leading edges up to 10%
of chord length may be defined. If you generate a wing panel using the lofting
function, CompuFoil will automatically calculate the correct amount of the leading
edge to remove based upon this stock width and the angle that the leading edge
stock meets the rib. The lofting module also gives the option to tilt the leading
edge line to match the current airfoil’s washout.

Shortcuts

Toolbar:
Keys:

Menu Item Airfoil/Leading Edge V-Notch


Use this command to define the leading edge v-notch square stock size. If an airfoil
is loaded, when you enter a v-notch stock size, CompuFoil will place the notch such
that one edge is at the leading edge of the airfoil, (or in the case of a template with
sheeting, at the template leading edge surface). The notch will be automatically be
angled for you. You may modify the location and angle of the v-notch square by first
selecting the square by double clicking within it; the square will turn a different
color when selected. You may move the notch my holding your left mouse button
down, and rotate it while holding your right mouse button down. You may also use the
up and down arrow keys to move the notch and the left and right caret keys, < and >,
to rotate the notch.

If you double click with the right mouse button, a window will be presented where
you may manually enter in the position of the left corner as well as the notch angle
in degrees. This method may also be used to hide individual notches on multiple
wings by checking the [X] Hide this Cutout option.

Shortcuts

Toolbar:

Keys:

Menu Item Airfoil/Leading Edge Round Stock


Use this command to define the leading edge round stock diameter. You may modify
the location of the round stock by first selecting the circle by double clicking within
it. The circle will turn blue when selected. Now click in it once , and keeping the
left mouse button down, you can drag the circle where you like. The hole will be
placed when you release the mouse button. Alternatively, you can also simply use
your cursor keys to move the hole. After selecting it and moving it with the cursor
keys, place it by hitting your enter key. You can resize the hole by dragging one of
the handles. If you want to keep the hole round, press the shift button while re-
sizing the hole. If you double right click on the activated hole a manual entry box
will open where you can enter in the hole size and location.

Shortcuts
Toolbar:

Keys:

Menu Item Airfoil/Trailing Edge Stock Size


CompuFoil's Trailing Edge Stock function is more powerful than you would expect.
You can define the width of the trailing edge stock and CompuFoil will insert a
trailing edge reference line the defined distance from the true trailing edge. If
you generate a wing panel using the lofting function, CompuFoil will automatically
calculate the correct amount of the trailing edge to remove based upon this stock
width and the angle that the trailing edge stock meets the rib. You may define
separate trailing edge stocks for each wing panel generated with the lofting module.

Alternately, you can also define the thickness of the trailing edge stock. CompuFoil
will in this case compute how far in from the trailing edge the trailing edge
reference line must be in order to give you the desired thickness. If you select the
[X]Referenced from Sheeted Surface option, then the sheeted airfoil thickness
will be used in the calculation. If, on the other hand you leave this option
unselected, then CompuFoil will use the template surface for its calculation. To
quickly set all of your panels’ trailing edge stock the same, define your stock size
for Panel 1, and then select the Copy Panel1 Settings to All button.

The Notch Depth option is only used if your trailing edge stock isn’t cut flat across
the face, rather has a groove cut along its length. Furthermore, it only becomes
useful if you chose to define the trailing edge stock position by the thickness.
Entering .125 will adjust the trailing edge line 1/8" towards the trailing edge.

Shortcuts
Toolbar:

Menu Item Airfoil/Trailing Edge Strips Setup


The trailing edge strips are often used in place of trailing edge stock. A top and
bottom notch is created where a strip of balsa in glued. You may define separate
strips for each wing panel.

The StripStock Window allows you to enter both the thickness and width of the
stock for the trailing edge strips. You can also choose to enable/disable the top or
bottom strip.

You have three choices in how to locate the trailing edge strips:

AutoCompute to Trailing Edge

The strip stock is setup such that the top and bottom pieces touch at their edge.
The trailing edge is sanded flat and a thin piece of wood is glued to this edge and
tapered.

Snap to Trailing Edge Stock

If you have trailing edge stock defined, you can choose to have the slots created
flush with the edge of the airfoil where it is cut off to accept the trailing edge
stock.

This Distance from T.E.

Selecting this item will set the rearward edge of the strips at the distance from
the trailing edge you define. You may use a percent of chord instead of an absolute
distance by putting a '%' sign at the end of the number.

Set All Button

Selecting this button will set every panel to the currently selected panel’s settings.

Clear All Button

Selecting this button will reset every panel’s settings to default


Menu Item Airfoil/LE-TE Reinforcing Strips
Reinforcing Strips are used to reinforce the leading and/or trailing edge of the
airfoil. They are commonly thin strips of plywood glued in edge-wise. It can provide

a very strong backbone to the leading edge.

You may define separate strips for both the leading edge and trailing edges, as well
as separate definitions for each wing panel.

Width and Thickness

These of course define the strip’s width and thickness.

Distance from Edge

The horizontal location of the strip is defined by this parameter.

Where the strip is located vertically can be define in one of two ways:

Set Elevation

If this is selected, the strip will remain horizontal, and the distance you define from
the chord line.

Follow Camber Line

If this is selected, the strip will follow the camber line.

Lightening Hole Ignores this Strip


If you have lightening holes setup, they will normally avoid the end of the strip
pointing towards the interior of the airfoil. If this is selected, then it is not
avoided.

Set All Button

Selecting this button will set every panel to the currently selected panel’s settings.

Clear All Button

Selecting this button will reset every panel’s settings to default

Menu Item Airfoil/D-Tube Position


This function allows you to create a D-Tube configuration on your airfoil, also called
a D-Box. There are two options for locating your D-Tube position:

1. You may enter the distance from the leading edge to the end of the D-Tube in
absolute values, or by a percentage of chord by supplying a percent (%) sign
following the number.

2. If you have spars defined for you template, you can also have the D-Tube track
the position of a spar. The D-Tube will be extended to the trailing edge side of the
spar.

Hint: You may also define a spar slot to be aligned with the end of the D-Tube in
Spar Slot Setup.
If you have multiple ribs from a lofting function, you can define at which rib the D-
Tube starts and stops. Setting the value of to Rib# to –1 will result in the D-Tube
extending the last rib.

The Rib Cap is a strip of balsa, (typically 1/8" wide), glued to the top and bottom
edges of the ribs for reinforcement.

Shortcuts

Toolbar:

Menu Item Airfoil/Washout Angle


Use this command to define the template washout. The current template will be
affected depending on whether you are producing a foam template or an individual
rib (use the [Template/Use Rib Parameters] function to remove the foam template
lines and get a rib only template). In the case of a foam template, the base will be
slanted at the desired washout. When creating a full set of ribs, use the Washout
entry field within the [Generate/Full Set of Ribs] dialog box. That way, the
washout will manifest itself by adjusting the trailing edge building jig hole, for each
rib, root to tip. For sets of ribs, the washout will also adjust the trailing edge
building tabs. This washout function is for use in a single rib or foam template only.

Menu Item Airfoil/Spar Slot Setup


This function will display the Spar Slot Setup Window. You can produce up to
twenty spar locations. You may also use spar slots to reference your aileron and flap
locations. If you are working on a multi panel wing, remember that the spar setup
can be set to operate on each individual panel, or on the wing as a whole. This is
controlled by the options: Taper this spar through all panels and Custom panel
location refers to full wing length. With these items not checked, the tip
dimensions are not the dimensions of the tip of the wing, rather the end rib of all
the wing panels in your wing. How this affects you is best explained by an example.
Say you set your spar up as a 1/4" square at the root and 1/8" square at the tip and
you have a three-panel wing. The result is a spar which narrows to 1/8" at the end
of the inner panel, then starts out again at 1/4" at the big end of the second panel,
narrowing to 1/8" at the end of the second panel, etc.. If you have Taper this spar
through all panels selected, then the spar will be 1/4" square at the root of the
inner panel, and 1/8"square at the tip of the outer panel. The same holds true when
you have Custom Panel Location selected and you entered in value for the Root
Spar Location and Tip Spar Location. The "Snap to Alignment Spar" option
always works on a full wing basis. The alignment spar runs from the root of the
inner panel to the tip of the end panel and is defined on the lofting window. This
allows you to easily create a spar through all the panels in one shot.

The item called This spar's depth is referenced from the camber line will cause
the spar to be referenced from the mean camber line, instead of the surface. This
option is only available for full depth spars. In other words, the spar will be internal
to the rib. You can use this to produce a rectangular cutout for joiner blades as an
example.

If the option Adjust Spar Width According to Rib Intersection Angle is selected,
then CompuFoil will adjust the width of the spar notch in the rib. If your spar is .1"
wide, and slices through the rib at a 45-degree angle, then CompuFoil will make the
notch .14142" wide as that is the actual width of the path cut by the spar at that
angle. CompuFoil can adjust the slot width for the following spar placement types,
(explained below):

1. Static From Trailing Edge

2. From Leading Edge

3. Snap to Alignment Spar

4. Snap to D-Tube Edge

5. Custom Panel Location

Settings up spars involve three basic steps: select how the location is to be
reference, set up the spar dimensions, and select the spar type. The Spar Location
option will adjust the spar position the distance entered into this field from the
referenced location. If you had selected the location option From Leading Edge,
and you had entered in .24, then the spar will appear .24" from the leading edge.
One thing to keep in mind, the location distances, when referenced from the leading
or trailing edge, refers to the leading and trailing edge of the sheeted template, not
the core. If you have 1/16" sheeting, then having the spar set to 1/32" from the
leading edge of the sheeted template, would put it in a position outside of the core.
In this case, you will receive a warning message that the spar has been placed at the
leading edge instead. If it is placed outside of the core at the trailing edge, then it
will be placed at the core trailing edge for you.

If a turbulator spar is designated by selecting the Track Surface option in this


dialog box, you can have up to 40 spars as notches both at the top and bottom
surface are automatically created. Furthermore, if the Track Surface option is
selected, you can also elect to have the current spar circular shaped rather than
rectangular by selecting the Tubular option.

Note: For your first spar, you must select a spar location in order for the spar to
be visible. The spar location will automatically be initialized with further addition of
new spars.

Note: The Template Parameters Window will list Spar #1 information.

Hint: If you are trying to create a wing with a specific sweep, define the Alignment
Spars or the panel Sweep in the Generate Ribs dialog box, and select [Snap to
Alignment Spar] as noted below to place your main spar.

To define the spar location, you have to tell CompuFoil from what point you are
referencing your dimension and the distance.

Location

[X] Static From Trailing Edge - In this mode, the spar produced at a set distance
from the trailing edge. The Location Value sets this distance. The spar will stay at
this defined distance, even if a different chord length is entered later for an
individual template, as well as for a full set of ribs. A main spar of this type will
produce a straight trailing edge wing planform. Remember you can enter fractional
values also by using a "/", i.e. 8.1/16 for 8.0625.

Note: The distance is measured from the trailing edge of the rib - along the
length of the rib, not perpendicular to the local trailing edge.

[X] From Leading Edge - When this item is selected you may place the spar at a set
location from the leading edge, independent of chord length, much like Static
Trailing Edge above. Alternately, you may also set the spar at a percentage of chord
by entering the number and immediately following it with a percent sign, such as
25.1/4%. In this case the location will change with chord length.

Note: The distance is measured from the leading edge of the rib - along the
length of the rib, not perpendicular to the local leading edge.

[X] Snap to Reference Line - This item places the spar slot centered on the
Reference Line.

[X] Snap to Highest Point - This item places the spar slot at the high point of the
airfoil.

[X] Snap to Lowest Point - This item places the spar slot at the lowest point of the
airfoil.

[X] Snap to Alignment Spar - This item places the spar slot at the alignment spar
position as defined when you generated your wing using one of the lofting function.
If you had defined the wing panel layout, (sweep), via the Ref. by Sweep option,
then the alignment spar will default to starting at the leading edge of the inner
panel's root rib, and you will normally want to enter an offset in the Location Value
field. If you had defined the wing panel layout via the Ref. by Align. option, then
the alignment spar is located where you defined it. The slot will be offset from the
alignment spar position by the amount designated in the Location Value. If you had
generated an elliptical planform wing type, the alignment spar position is referenced
from the elliptical placement line, (this is the line automatically drawn on every rib
when creating an elliptical or modified elliptical which when lined up, establishes the
proper elliptical planform).

[X] Snap to D-Tube Edge - If you have defined a D-Tube location using the
[Airfoil/D-Tube Position] function, this selection will place the spar such that it's
edge is line up with the D-Tube location.

[X] Custom Panel Locations - This function allows you to place the string of spars
notches along an independent position, not tied to the panel geometry, (such as a
percent of chord). When this option is selected, you can enter the spar distance
from the leading edge at the root and tip of the panel in the Root Spar Loc. And Tip
Spar Loc. text entry fields. If you had generated an elliptical planform wing type,
the alignment spar position is referenced from the elliptical placement line, (this is
the line automatically drawn on every rib when creating an elliptical or modified
elliptical which when lined up, establishes the proper elliptical planform).

[X] Radial Location in Degrees - This function was added help place spars in large
rounded section, such as bulkheads. Here you enter the angle in degrees. The angle
is taken from the center of the Chord Line, (at the 50% of chord mark). 180
degrees is the leading edge, 90 degrees is straight up at the 50% mark, and 0
degrees is the trailing edge.

[X] Equally Spaced - This function was added help place spars in large rounded
section, such as bulkheads. When this option is selected, you can enter the number
of spars into the Location Value entry field. The spars will then be equally spaced
around the perimeter of the bulkhead.

Again, the spar location, or offset from the reference option above, is defined in
the Location Value entry field. This value valid only when you have chosen a location
reference point: Static From Trailing Edge, From Leading Edge, Snap to
Alignment Spar, Radial Position and Equally Spaced options.

Spar Type and Settings:

The spar itself can be setup up as one of two different types.

[X]Track Surface - The spar will be set up as a turbulator surface notch . Leaving
the Track Surface option unchecked will produce a full depth spar.

[X]Show Top and [X]Show Bottom - You can turn individual top or bottom spars off
by selecting one or both of.
[X]Tubular - If you are using round stock for spars, you can also select the option.
With this selected, a circle will be printed instead of a rectangle.

[X] No Full Depth Spar Sides. This option is available only for full depth spars.
Normally the full depth spars have sides printed on them. Checking this will leave
only the top and bottom spars visible.

[X]Remove Internal Spar ‘X’ – Normally, spars will include crossed lines in their
interior. Selecting this option will remove those lines.

[X]Include Vertical Spar Centerline –This will produce a vertical line centered on
the spar. If the spar is used for something such as an aileron cutout, you can
specify the spar to be as wide as the two cap strips and the centerline would then
define the cut line.

[X]Spar Assumes Angle of Washout - This option is available only for full depth
spars. If you have a full depth spar, and want the spar to assume the current
washout angle, then select the option. This item will be disabled if you have
selected the [X] Track Surface option.

[X]Rotate Spar Caps (Deg.)– This option is available only for full depth spars.
Enter in the number of degrees you wish to rotate the top and bottom spar caps.

[X]Angle Spar Additional (Deg.) -Enter in the number of degrees you wish to
rotate the full spar. If you had selected the Assume Washout Angle option as well,
the spar will be rotated this additional amount.

Spar Depth Criteria:

The spar depth criteria is used for a full depth spar, (when the []Track Surface
option is unchecked). Since the surface of the airfoil will rarely be horizontal, and
will meet the spar top and bottom at an angle, CompuFoil also gives you the choice of
how you wish to have the spar member placed relative to the surface of the
template in the Spar Depth Criteria section. If you have sheeting, and you would
rather have the top of the spar meet the surface of your sheeting, instead of your
rib, then you would check the [X] Ref.(erence) From Airfoil Surface option, (this
option is disabled if you don't have sheeting).

If you wish for the spar to have a minimal depth, you can select the [X]Distended
Spar Depth, if you wish the center of the spar to intersect the airfoil surface,
select the [X]Depth From Centerline , or if you with the spar to be total imbedded
in the airfoil surface, select the [X]Imbedded Spar Depth. These items will be
disabled if you have the [X] Track Surface option selected.

Spar Geometry:

The spar geometry can be setup as a constant width and depth spar, or as a spar
that tapers from root to tip. The spar cross section is defined by the width and
depth at both the root and tip of the panel. If a straight spar is desired, enter the
same size for both dimensions at both the root and tip. Having different root and
tip sizes will result in a tapered spar. Tapered spars are typically used to save
weight. A good rule of thumb concerning wing stresses is that at ½ the distance to
the tip, the loads have dropped to about ¼ that at the root.

You can force the spar to be raised above the calculated positions given by the Spar
Depth Criteria section. If you enter in .1, then the spar will be raised .1" above the
calculated positions. You can enter different root and tip protrusions and CompuFoil
will calculate the appropriate spar depth throughout all your ribs.

You can control where your spar will start and end with the Spars Will Go From
Rib# to Rib# control. As long as the To Rib# is greater than the number of ribs,
or is equal to negative one, your spars will extend to the tip rib. The negative one
value is the default and is special in that as long as -1 is there, you will be assured
that the spar will extend to the last rib, even if you later change the rib spacing
which results in more ribs. In contrast, if twelve ribs are generated, and you
entered 12 as the last spar, you would certainly have this spar on every rib, but if
you now happen make an adjustment by re-lofting your sets of ribs, which results in
fourteen ribs, the spar will only travel to rib twelve. Had this number stayed at -1,
the spars would automatically have gone to the last rib #14.

The Protrude Root and Protrude Tip items allow you to change the way the spars
meet the surface. Normally, they are flush with the surface of the rib, but this
allows you to extend the spar outside of the surface. The [X] Ref.(erence) From
Airfoil Surface option, (only available when you have sheeting), overrides this and
will automatically protrude the spar to the surface of the airfoil.

Once you have your first spar defined, you may add additional spar slots by clicking
on the [Add Spar] command button. This will activate another spar number in the
Spar # box. You may view the settings of individual spars by selecting the
appropriate spar number in this box. Your new spar will automatically take on the
values of the previous spar. This is very handy when producing groups of turbulator
notches. All you will need to change is the Location Value and your new notch is
completely setup.

[X]Taper this Spar through all Panels – When you elect to have different root and
tip spar dimension, your spar will be tapered. If you leave this unchecked, then
those dimensions are applied on a wing panel-by-panel basis. If it is checked, then
your root and tip dimensions are referred to the full wing root and tip and the spar
is tapered from one end of the wing to the other, not on each panel.

[X]Custom Panel Location refers to full Wing length - When you elect to have
different root and tip spar location for a spar defined for a Custom Panel Location
option, these dimensions are applied on a wing panel-by-panel basis. If it is checked,
then your root and tip location dimensions refer to the full wing root and tip and the
spar is angled from one end of the wing to the other, not on each panel.
[X] This spar's depth is referenced from the camber line – The Spar Depth
dimension is normally taken from the template surface. If this is checked, then the
depth will be calculated based on the centerline of the rib.

[X] Adjust spar width according to rib intersection angle – If you define your
spar to be .5" wide and the spar intersects your rib at an angle, the actual notch in
the rib that is required is greater than .5". Checking off this option will cause
CompuFoil to calculate the angled slot dimension for you.

[X] No Lightening Hole Web Between Spar – When Lightening Holes are defined
they will avoid all spar positions. If this is checked off, the hole will pass
underneath the spar.

To remove the current spar, press the Reset Spar button.

You can see the results of your spar definitions at any time by selecting the [Apply]
button. Your template or sets of ribs will be updated to reflect your new spar
definition.

Shortcuts

Toolbar:

Keys:
Menu Item Airfoil/Structured Rib Holes

This is a multi purpose function that allows you to place holes on your template for
use with a building jig, or as reference holes for joiner tubes/alignment pins, or even
lightening holes.

Note that you can enter many of the dimensions in terms of percent of chord. By
entering dimensions in percent of chord, you can have the holes get smaller as well
as the distance between them as they progress through your sets of ribs. Enter
values you want interpreted as a percent by including a "%" sign following the
number.

You may define up to five sets of holes. Each set can have two holes in it defined as
the L.E. Hole (nearest the leading edge), and T.E. Hole, (the hole nearest the trailing
edge). Each set of holes is called a Group within CompuFoil. You can apply each
group by selecting the Apply Group button. To delete a group, select the Delete
button. You may also remove all holes with the Remove All Holes button. There are
several areas to be filled within this dialog box. You must supply information how
you wish your hole position to be referenced, as well as the distance from this
reference if applicable, the elevation of the hole, the diameters of the holes, the
distance between the holes, an if needed the offset from the reference position.

Selecting the Initialize button will close the window and your holes will be initialized
to the locations you have configured. Once the Jig Hole window is closed, you can
individually modify the size, shape and location of the jig holes. Double click on a
hole and you can then drag the hole to a different location by moving the mouse
while keeping your left mouse button down. You can resize the jig hole by dragging
one of the handles. If you want to keep the hole round, press the shift button while
resizing the hole. If you right click on the activated hole a manual entry box will
open where you can enter in the hole size and location.

It is important to understand the concept of how these holes works within


CompuFoil. When you define your hole placement, CompuFoil calculates the size and
position of your holes and set’s their initial size and positions accordingly. As
mentioned, you can then manually override the position and size of the holes. If you
then go back into this Structured Rib Hole feature, and modify/Apply the new
settings, CompuFoil will recalculate the initial placement of your holes, and you will
lose the size and position of the holes you manually altered.

Leading Edge Hole Location

(define the leading edge hole's horizontal location reference.)

( ) Reference from L.E. - The leading edge hole will be at the distance from the
leading edge you have entered here. Putting in a value will set the hole to this
distance no matter the chord length. If however, your value has a percent sign
following it, the absolute distance will vary according to the length of the airfoil

( ) Reference from T.E. - This selection works the same as Reference from L.E.
described above, except the hole nearest the trailing edge is the one located.

( ) Snap to Reference Line - The leading edge hole will be placed centered on the
reference line. If you have lofted using an elliptical planform, the wording will
instead read: Snap to Ellipse Reference Line. The Ellipse Reference Line is the line
is used to align the ribs relative to one another to achieve the elliptical shape. By
entering a value in the Hole Location Offset parameter, described below, you can
track the reference line, but be have your holes a distance away as well.

( ) Snap to Alignment Spar - Enable this to automatically place the L.E. hole at the
current Alignment Spar location. If no Alignment Spars have been defined when
lofting your ribs, Snap to Alignment Spar will not be enabled. The alignment spar is
an independent line that you can define that goes from root to tip. This is often
used to define the wing sweep by setting your jig holes as well as your main spar
along this line's path. By entering a value in the Hole Location Offset parameter,
described below, you can track the alignment spar, but be have your holes a distance
away as well.

Hole Elevation area

(sets the vertical location of the holes)

[X] Joiner Tube Configuration - When this is checked, CompuFoil remembers the
height of the root rib hole. All subsequent ribs will have their jig holes placed at
the same elevation that the root rib has. This will force them to maintain the same
relative angle and keep them inline. They will progress at the same relative angle in
height if you have a dihedral dimension entered. Always check this option off if you
are using the holes for joiner tubes.

[X] Lightening Hole Configuration - This function will cause both holes to lie along
the Mean Camber Line. If you are using the holes for building jig use, be sure to
select the [X] Joiner Tube Configuration above! The reason for this is that the
angle relative to each other will change as the holes track along the curved camber
line.

[X] Set Hole Elevation - The value entered here will set the leading edge hole
elevation. If the From Surface check box is checked, the hole will be this distance
from the surface of the wing. This is used primarily when the holes are set up as a
spar joiner tube hole and alignment pin, and the builder wishes the surface of the
wing panel to be horizontal. If From Surface is left unchecked, the leading edge
hole will be this distance above the Chord Line. The second hole will be set to this
height as well, unless washout angles have been defined. This allows you to build in
washout right on the building jig. You may enter the number as a decimal or as a
fraction, as a set distance or as a percentage of chord.

Dimensions section:

L.E. Hole Diameter - This is the diameter of the hole nearest the leading edge.
You may enter the number in decimal or fraction form, or as a percent of chord.

T.E. Hole Diameter - This is the diameter of the hole nearest the trailing edge.
You may enter the number in decimal or fraction form, or as a percent of chord.

Inboard Hole Spread - This describes the distance between the two holes at the
root end of the wing panel. You may enter the number as a decimal or as a fraction
for a set distance or as a percentage of chord.

Outboard Hole Spread - This describes the distance between the two holes at the
tip end of the wing panel. You may enter the number as a decimal or as a fraction
for a set distance or as a percentage of chord.

Hole Location Offset - This item is useful to set your holes a set distance away
from the location defined in the Hole Location area described above. Use this to
move your hole out from underneath, yet track, the Alignment Spar for example.

Inner Panel Upsweep Angle - This angle will be used to vertically offset the hole
locations based upon the dihedral angle and the distance from the root rib. If you
are using the holes for a joiner tube, you should select the [X] Joiner Tube
Configuration option to insure that the holes remain in alignment. Note that this
number is not linked and will not reflect the value for the Dihedral angle you set for
the ribs in the Generate Lofted set of Ribs function.
Options area

(sets the vertical location of the holes)

[X] Remove Hole Center - If this option is selected, the ‘+’ symbol in the center of
the hole will not be included..

[X] Include Rectangle Around Holes - If this option is selected, you will also have
a square, (rectangle if the hole has been manually stretched), drawn around your
holes.

[X] Washout Rotates around Leading Edge Hole - Normally, if the rib has washout,
both holes are rotated that number of degrees about the airfoil’s leading edge. If this is
checked, then the trailing edge hole is rotated about the leading edge hole.

[X] Upsweep Angle Continues Through all Panels- The Upsweep Angle, which is the
angle the wing panel is raised up, will cause the holes to get lower and lower. If this is
checked, then the holes will continue on this way throughout the wing. Unchecked, the holes
will start fresh at the selected Hole Elevation and get lower. Note that if you have dihedral
specified in the lofting module, the holes are not adjusted to compensate for the dihedral. In
other words, the holes will not be lined up for a multi panel wing with dihedral. As the
purpose of the upsweep angle is for inner panel joiner tube placement. This is not a normal
limitation.

[X] Hole Spreads Refer to Full Wing Length - When checked, the taper caused by
different Root and Tip hole spreads will continue thought the whole wing. Unchecked, the
taper will start fresh at each wing panel.

[X] Include in 3D Rendering - When checked, the holes in the current group will be
rendered visually as a tube in the 3D module.

Shortcuts

Toolbar:

Keys:
Menu Item Airfoil/Lightening Hole Setup

The Lightening Hole Setup function will create a skeletonized rib for you.

Corner Radius

The radius of the corners where the lightening hole lines intersect.

Web Width

This is the width of the material left in the rib. If the area between the spars, or
the thickness of the rib is too small, a hole will not be generated. In the case of a
D-Tube construction rib, the web is measured from sheeted leading edge, even on
the trailing edge side where there is no sheeting. CompuFoil will automatically avoid
all Spars, as well as Leading and Trailing Edge Reinforcing Strips, unless you had
selected the option, to have the lightening hole ignore them in their respective
setup windows. Where a spar exists, half the Web Width will be added to either
side of the spar. Leading edge stock, and trailing edge stock is also automatically
avoided. If you have a case where you wish to force a web in the rib, you can assign
a full depth spar at that position, setting the spar depth to zero, and selecting the
option []No Full Depth Sides. This will in effect create an invisible spar, but still
force a web to be formed.

The lightening holes are generated on a separate layer when a .dxf file is generated.

Start on Panel's Rib # and End on Panel's Rib#

These parameters refer to the rib number on the Panel, not the wing rib number
printed on the rib. It is designed this way because even if the wing is regenerated
with more ribs in the first panel, the starting and ending rib number will not be
effected in the second panel.
Common Ribs Where Panel Joins with Next Panel

When you generate a set of ribs for a wing with multiple panels, there are duplicate
ribs where the panels come together, unless you had selected the []Single end rib
on multi panel wings, option in the lofting window. This selection is not available
for the last panel in the wing, as there is no duplicate common with the tip rib.

The three options in this section allow you to define how to handle these two ribs:

()Both Ribs Take on This Panel's End Rib Dimensions – When this option is
selected, both common end ribs of the currently selected panel take on the current
panel’s lightening hole dimensions. This will cause the common ribs to be the same,
and with the current panel’s lightening hole settings.

()Common Ribs Retain Separate Dimensions – When this option is selected, the last
rib in this panel, and the first rib of the next panel takes on their own respective lightening
hole dimensions defined in their panels.. In other words, if you have different
lightening hole settings for panel 1 and panel 2, then the two common ribs would have
different lightening hole cutout dimensions.

()Both Ribs Take on Next Panel's Beginning Rib Dimensions – When this option is
selected, then the last rib of the current panel will take on the lightening hole
dimensions of the next panel. This will cause the common ribs to be the same, and
with the next panel’s lightening hole settings.

Once the holes have been generated, you can turn individual holes on and off by
double clicking on them. A dark line will reference the invisible hole. The dark line
will not be printed. If you go back and alter the lightening hole setting, which
results in more holes being generated per rib, you will find that you will need to
revisit this functionality and set the visibility of the holes you which altered.

Shortcuts

Toolbar:

Menu Item Airfoil/View Coordinates


This function opens a window allowing you to view the coordinate list. The X
coordinate number is on the left side followed by the Y coordinate. The coordinate
system used by CompuFoil is oriented with the leading edge at the origin. The
coordinates themselves are normalized to one. This, in effect, is an airfoil with a
chord of one. As such, the coordinates start at the tail and have coordinates of 0,1.
The numbers then describe the top surface moving towards the leading edge. The
leading edge is at coordinate position 0,0. The numbers then describe the bottom
of the airfoil moving towards the tail again and end up once more at coordinates 1,0.
Selecting the [Print] button will send the coordinates, along with any attached note
to the printer.
Shortcuts

Keys:

Menu Item Airfoil/Invert Airfoil


This function will invert the current airfoil. This function is not available if you have
multiple airfoils on screen from producing a full set of ribs for instance. If you have
defined washout, the template will automatically be tilted the proper direction. If
you wish to save the inverted airfoil, you must save it as with the .INV extension,
(you don't, CompuFoil will not automatically tilt the airfoil template the proper
direction with washout. Defining 5 degrees washout will actually result in 5 degrees
washin.). Any leading edge V-Notches, Round Stock, or Jig Holes will move with the
airfoil.

Shortcuts

Toolbar:

Keys:

Template Menu
Menu Item Modify/Undo Last Change
This function exists under both the Template and Modify menu items.

Selecting this function will undo the last change, backing up into the change history.
If you make airfoil modifications using the Full Screen Editor, you can undo your
changes after you have left the editor. To undo changes while in the Full Screen
Editor, use the undo bottom in the Editor’s floating toolbar.

Shortcuts

Toolbar:

Keys:
Menu Item Modify/Redo Last Change
This function exists under both the Template and Modify menu items.

If you undid a modification using the Undo Last Change function, you can redo it
using this function.

Shortcuts

Toolbar:

Keys:

Menu Item Template/Name Template


CompuFoil will automatically create and include with the template information with
the airfoil type, chord length, sheeting thickness, etc.. This typically will look like
this:

E205.COR/8"c/.0625"s/.03"k/10.48%thk/3.02%cmb

This function allows you to assign a custom name to your template as well. You may
enter up to twenty characters, such as 'Quickie Prototype'. In this case the text
printed on your template will be:

Quickie Prototype-E205.COR/8"c/.0625"s/.03"k/10.48%thk/3.02%cmb

If you only want the template name and airfoil type printed, select the Suppress
Extra Title Information function.

Menu Item Template/Configure Template Text


This function will open the airfoil text configuration window. CompuFoil
automatically generates descriptive text and prints it on the templates. With this
window you can turn on/off individual items to be included in this text.
Menu Item Template/Suppress Extra Title Information
When this item is selected, only the airfoil name will be displayed and printed on the
template. In other words, instead of printing:

E205.COR/8"c/.0625"s/.03"k/10.48%thk/3.02%cmb

only the E205.COR will appear on the template. If you have a custom template name
specified as well, then the name will appear along with the airfoil type.

In the case of full sets of ribs, this will cause only the rib number to be printed, (i.e.
RIB#3).

You can also use the Configure Template Text function for more in depth text
control.

Menu Item Template/Station Lines


Template stations are equally spaced vertical lines that act as references while
cutting your core. The lines are spaced from the leading edge to trailing edge, or if
you have sheeting defined, from leading edge of the core to the trailing edge of the
core, (not the full airfoil length!) This is of particular usefulness when hand
cutting a tapered panel. Nine stations will give a line every 10% of chord. To
remove all station lines, you need to set station lines to zero.

Shortcuts: None

Toolbar:

Menu Item Template/Vertical Reference Line


This option serves two purposes. From within the Template Defaults menu item, you
can choose to either automatically generate a vertical reference line at the point of
maximum airfoil thickness or one at your preferred percentage of chord. By
accessing this option, clearing out any value in the entry field, and simply pressing
the Enter key, the value displayed as Max. Thick/Ref. Line value shown in the
Template Parameters Window will toggle between the actual maximum thickness, and
the value you had saved as a default. You will notice either the text (AUTO) or
(USER) in the parameters window to let you know the mode you are in. Entering a
value, such as 40, will tell CompuFoil to override the default value and generate a
reference line at 40% chord length value. The Max. Thick position is calculated
perpendicular to the Chord Line. The placing of spar slots can uses this reference
line.

Shortcuts

Toolbar:

Menu Item Template/Horizontal Reference Line


Rather than glue or pin the template directly to the foam block, some users have
built a horizontal clamp to hold their templates. This function will produce a
horizontal reference line the distance you enter from the bottom of the template
base. This line can then be used to align the template with the top edge of the
clamping mechanism. If you enter a positive dimension, then the line will appear as
two short solid lines at both the leading and trailing edge of the template. If a
negative number is entered, the reference line appears as a dotted line below the
bottom of the template base line.

Menu Item Template/Template Height


The template height is the distance between the bottom of the template and the
Chord Line of the airfoil. Use the Foam Thickness function, to get a visual check
on the correct template height. This value is set to zero when in rib construction
mode. If you have a foam thickness defined before you use this function, you will
also see a button labeled AutoCenter. Clicking on this button will adjust the
template height such that the top and bottom surfaces are centered within the
foam.

Shortcuts

Toolbar:

Keys:
Menu Item Template/Setup Building Tab Parameters
This function is only available when you are working with ribs, not with foam
templates. To quickly turn your foam template into an individual rib, select the Use
Rib Parameters command. Trailing and Leading Edge Tabs are short legs of material
that extend off the leading and trailing edges of the template, and allow the rib to
sit on the building surface in a stable position. The tab's height extends down to
the lowest point of the airfoil. If the current rib has washout, then the tab will be
angled.

While working on the tab setup, you may press the [Apply] button to see the results.
In order to see the tabs, you must have the [X]Show Tabs option selected. The
following items are available for the user:

Tab Width

Here you enter the width of the tabs. You can enter a fixed value here, or enter a
percent of chord. Enter a percent figure by having a % sign at the end of the
number. In this way, as the length of the airfoil gets shorter, so will the tab.

Tab Location

( )Align with Template Ends - If this item is selected, then the rib will always be
lined up with the trailing edge. You can select either the sheeted true trailing edge,
or the template trailing edge with the [X]Reference From True Sheeted Trailing
Edge described below.

( )This Distance From Trailing Edge - If this item is selected, then you may
specify the distance from the trailing edge that the tab will constructed. You can
enter a fixed value here, or enter a percent of chord. Enter a percent figure by
having a % sign at the end of the number. In this way, as the airfoil gets shorter,
the distance from the trailing edge will be shorter. You can select either the
sheeted true trailing edge, or the template trailing edge with the [X]Reference
From True Sheeted Trailing Edge described below.

( )Align with Trailing Edge Stock - If you have trailing edge stock defined, you can
force the tab to meet the edge of trailing edge stock.

[X]Reference From True Sheeted Trailing Edge - If this option is selected, then
the two location options will be referenced from the true-sheeted trailing edge.
Unchecked, the unsheeted rib's trailing edge will be the reference point.

Tab Height

Tab Height at L.E. of Airfoil - The best way to describe this is to first imagine a
template with no washout and a .5" tab height at the leading edge. When CompuFoil
computes the tab dimensions, it works off of an imaginary line dropping vertically
down from the nose of the airfoil, the length of which is defined by this Tab Height
at L.E. of Airfoil parameter. Obviously, for an airfoil with zero washout, the tab
at the front of the airfoil (L.E. Tab), and the tab at the rear of the airfoil (T.E.
Tab), will also be .5" long from the airfoil chord line. Things change however when
you have washout. With washout, the airfoil is pivoted about the nose of the airfoil.
Imagine the airfoil is now tilted 5 degrees nose down. The imaginary line is still .5"
and dropping down vertically from the nose. When a line is drawn horizontally from
the end of this line, that horizontal line becomes the base of the L.E. Tab and the
T.E. Tab. It is easy to see that the lengths of these two tabs are longer than they
were with zero washout.

Shortcuts

Toolbar:

Menu Item Template/Ramp Length


The ramps are the template extensions at the leading and trailing edge of the
airfoil. Sometimes it is desired to cut the leading edge ramps at an angle to meet
the airfoil surface to give the cutting wires a smooth transition as it meet the foam.
This of course is just a matter of not cutting the ramps along the horizontally
printed lines.

The ramps act as a land for the wire to start on before it reaches the foam. The
extension at the trailing edge of the airfoil may be of particular importance to
hobbyists who prefer to build glass wings. This land acts as a trailing edge support
while vacuum bagging, keeping the trailing edge at a constant sweep. The trailing
edge ramp angle can be altered as well.. For wood sheeting, taper the sheeting at
the trailing edge to the angle that the top and bottom sheets come together at for
the most accurate results.

Shortcuts
Toolbar:

Menu Item Template/Edge Ramp Setup

Here you may enter in the Leading and Trailing Edge Ramp lengths. You may select
the angle of the trailing edge ramp as well:

Follow Camber - Follows the camber line.

Follow Bottom Surface – The ramp follows the angle of the bottom edge.

Follow Top Surface – The ramp follows the angle of the top surface.

Follow Both Surfaces –This will produce two ramps, one following each surface
angle

When you start the program, the trailing edge ramp is set to the type selected in
Template Defaults.

If you are glass-bagging wings with Mylar, you may want the ramp to follow the
upper surface slope. The reason you may want to elect to do this because when the
ramp follows the mean camber line, the Mylar is being bent up slightly at the
transition from the top surface to the ramp, since the stiffer Mylar can't make an
abrupt bend, the Mylar may cause a slight reflex type depression along your trailing
edge on the top surface. With the Mylar following the top surface slope onto the
ramp, you will not experience this condition. However, since the same condition
exists on the bottom surface of the trailing edge, having the ramp follow the top
surface will cause the bottom Mylar to make a larger bend. This may cause more of
a slight under camber depression along the trailing edge of the wing. This is usually
more desirable than having a reflex type depression on the top trailing edge's
surface. The extent to which either condition happens, or whether it happens at all,
is dependent upon the stiffness of the Mylar and the geometry of the trailing edge.
Likewise, the Follow Bottom Surface function is normally used for reflexed trailing
edge wings commonly found on flying wing type aircraft.

Include T.E. Wire Stop – If this option is checked, then you may alter the height
and width of the stop. The wire stop is a small protrusion at the end of the trailing
edge ramp, produced to keep the cutting bow wire from falling off the end of the
template.

Menu Item Template/Wire Kerf


This is a very important parameter and is unique to CompuFoil. Keeping in mind
that you are cutting along the INSIDE of the airfoil shape, when making your first
hot wire cut along the bottom template, a thickness of foam is lost due to the foam
melting. The width of this cut is called the kerf. The kerf does not appreciably
affect the airfoil thickness because once the cut is complete, the top section of the
foam will drop back into the bottom bed and close up this gap. The kerf does affect
the accuracy of the leading edge, however. The more vertical the cut becomes, the
less the gap is filled in by the top portion dropping down, and hence the greater the
amount of undercut at the leading edge you will experience. By telling CompuFoil the
kerf width, your bottom template will be generated with a mathematically corrected
bottom template line. This correction compensates for the progressive undercut
along the leading edge. This function is set to zero when in rib construction mode,
(this is very important!).

Determining Kerf Setting: To accurately measure the thickness of the foam block,
follow the following steps: Get some blocks of foam big enough to bury a foot of
wire in the foam and give you at least three inches of travel. Use a couple of scrap
pieces of template material fastened horizontally on either side of the foam as
cutting guides. Make some practice cuts in order to get the wire temperature right.
When you have it right, measure the width of the block of foam and make a
horizontal cut, cutting as you would any wing. Wipe off the whiskers of molten
foam left by the cutting, and put the two halves back together again. Re-measure
the thickness of the block. The difference in thickness is the kerf of the cut.

Let's now discuss a condition you may experience and may want to correct for if it's
excessive.

As the wire rides along the template surface, some heat is given up to the template
material itself. This translates into a colder wire temperature near the templates.
The effect this has to one degree or another is the kerf near the template is
smaller than that inboard of the sides. To put it another way, looking at your cut
surface from the top, it's fairly flat throughout the center of the core but slopes
up, at the edges. This over-melt normally does not amount to much but should be
considered. Once this slight thickness increase as tip and root of the core is sanded
out, your wing will be thinner and smaller of chord than you intended.

Determining the overmelt is done as a second step to finding the kerf described
above. Rub the whisker left by the hot wire off the two halves of foam and bring,
(gently squeeze), them together again. Measure the new thickness at both the
center and template edges of the block. The kerf width that was entered into your
Template Defaults is the difference between the original thickness and the
thickness at the edge. The difference between the edge and center thickness is
the over melt, which, if excessive, will need to be compensated for also. Write down
the overmelt for later reference.

Let's create a case study and enter some numbers into CompuFoil. First, open the
Defaults/Template menu item and enter your kerf width. Most of the following
parameters will probably already be there as defaults, but for sake of discussion, we
will assume they need to be entered. We want a template using an SD7037 airfoil
and 10" chord. Sixteenth inch balsa will be the sheeting of choice and we'll need to
have a ¼" hardwood leading edge. Select the SD7037 from File Open window. Enter
10" chord into the Airfoil/Chord menu. Tell CompuFoil the leading edge and .04"
sheeting thickness also, (Airfoil/Leading edge and Airfoil/Sheeting). Most of the
time you want reference stations so you can tell if you are cutting evenly from side
to side. One station every 10% of chord works well. CompuFoil defaults to this. You
will notice that the maximum thickness is displayed and it's percentage of chord
position. Now you have to decide if the over-melt is enough to worry about. When
making a glass wing, on my cutter, I use a zero sheeting thickness and use the over-
melt to compensate for the small glass thickness. For sake of argument, let's say
you came up with .010" over-melt and you desire to compensate for this. Make note
of what the maximum thickness is, (your program should show .92"). What we need
to do is determine a chord length which will give you a maximum thickness .010"
more than this, or .93". Enter a slightly larger chord, say 10.2". It may take two or
three iterations to narrow it down, but CompuFoil makes it easy. It turns out our
chord should be 10.11" to compensate for the over-melt. Another way of doing this
is to take the .93" thickness you desire, and divide it by the percent thickness,
(9.2%). The actual computation would be - .93/.092=10.101". The rim of oversized
foam at each end of the panel can then easily be sanded off to the level contour of
the rest of the wing. Failure to establish the amount of over-melt and compensating
for it may result in a smaller wing than you intended.

Be aware that these are only guidelines to help zero you in on your correct setup.
Like anything else, it will take some hands-on experience to establish your best
working parameters.

Menu Item Template/Foam Thickness


Entering a foam thickness will cause CompuFoil to superimpose a foam outline over
your foam template. This function is not available when producing full sets of ribs
or end rib/sub ribs. The printout will not contain the foam image. It is only set for
display. This is most useful to adjust the template height, and ensure that the top
surface of you airfoil will not extend above the thickness of your foam, (talk about
an awe sh*t!). You can automatically adjust the height of the template within the
Template Height function if you have foam thickness entered such that the top and
bottom airfoil surfaces are centered within the foam.

Shortcuts

Toolbar:

Menu Item Template/Use Rib Parameters


Selecting this function will quickly zero your template height, and kerf
compensation. Subsequent printing will result in individual rib templates used for
built up wings. Washout will not have any effect on the rib template angle, but will
tilt building jig holes and trailing edge building tab angles if you have them specified.
Use the Reset to Defaults to reset these variables back to the default values. This
function is automatically called when Generate Full Set of Ribs is selected.

Menu Item Template/Reset to Defaults


When this item is selected, CompuFoil will reload the user's selection of default
items from the CFWIN.INI file found in the Windows sub directory. Use this
command if you had used the Use Rib Parameter function, or the Generate functions
(which automatically call the Use Rib Parameters function).

You can set CompuFoil's default by selecting the [Defaults/Template Defaults]


menu item.

View Menu
MENU-View

The View menu offers the following commands:

Function T Use
o
ol
B
ar

Toolbars CompuFoil has 12


selectable toolbars
which may be
switched on or off
at will. These
toolbars may also
be pulled from
their upper
position, and
dragged to other
positions.

Status Bar Shows or hides the


status bar. The
status bar exists at
the bottom of the
CompuFoil window.
It displays your
current cursor
position as well as
hints.

Edge Rulers Shows or hides the


side rulers.

Airfoil Selects the


Template-F2 template or full set
of ribs as the
current display.

L.E. Shaping Selects the leading


Guide-F3 edge shaping guide
of the current
airfoil as the
current display.
This is not available
when having
generated multiple
ribs using the rib
lofting routines.

View the planform


Planform if you create a full
View-F4 set of ribs.
Full Screen CompuFoil's Airfoil
Editor-F5 Modification CAD
utility.

Overlay The view screen


Airfoils-F6 changes to show all
current airfoils in
your selected
default coordinate
directory. Any
attached descriptor
text produced with
CompuFoil's
NotePad will be
shown in the lower
view.

Browse
Airfoils-F7

3D Wing View The view will


change to the 3D
representation of
the wing. This
option is only
available if you have
lofted a set of ribs
using the lofting
function.

Hide No text will be


Template displayed or printed
Text when this is active.

Hide Mean This function will


Camber Line hide the mean
camber line.

Hide Chord This function will


hide the chord line.
Hide This function will
Sheeting hide the dotted
Lines surface sheeting
line.

Hide All Dot This function will


Line Types hide all dotted line
types, except for
station lines. To
turn off stations
lines, you must set
stations to zero.

Hide All Dot This function will


Line Types hide all dotted line
types, except for
station lines. To
turn off stations
lines, you must set
stations to zero.

Hide All Dot This function will


Line Types hide all dotted line
types, except for
station lines. To
turn off stations
lines, you must set
stations to zero.

Sets the size of the


Zoom current view. You
View have the choice of
scaled to fit, 25%,
50%, 75%, 100%,
150%, 200%.

Menu Item View/Edge Rulers


CompuFoil's side rulers allow you to do on the spot measurements. Both a horizontal
and vertical lines track your mouse movements. The origin is situated at the leading
edge for individual templates, at the leading edge root for planforms. You can set
the origin to anywhere on the screen by holding down you key and double
clicking your left mouse button at the desired screen position. You can reset the
origin to the default position by performing the same function within a ten-pixel
square in the upper left corner of the screen.

There is another measurement method within CompuFoil as well. If you press the
[Space Bar], the current cursor position will temporarily become the 0,0 point.
Moving you mouse will display on the status line at the bottom of the screen both
the X-Y distance from the zero point as well as the straight-line distance. Pressing
the [Space Bar] again will release this special mode.

Menu Item View/Airfoil Template


The Airfoil Template is the default view of CompuFoil. This applies to both foam
templates as well as sets of ribs. You can toggle between different views using the
functions in the view menu items. The template is produced with both the top and
bottom template. Following the lower solid line when you cut your template gives you
the bottom template, and following the top solid line will result in the top template.
Generally I like to print four sets of each template. This gives you two tops and two
bottoms. After cutting the template out of the template material, I glue the
second template to the back of the template material so that whether I'm cutting
the left or right wing panel, I will always be able to see the station lines.

Toolbar:

Keys:

Menu Item View/Leading Edge Shaping Guide


The Leading Edge Shaping Guide is very useful for shaping that elusive perfect
leading edge. You can create shaping guides for anywhere in your panel by using the
Generate Lofted Individual Template. The distance from the root is the placement
of the shaping guide. Once you have lofted the template at this position, select the
shaping guide view and print it out. You can also automatically generate a full set of
them by first creating a set of ribs, then selecting the shaping guide view.
Primarily, the way it is used is after gluing the hard wood stock to the leading edge
of your sheeted foam wing, slowly and carefully carve the leading, slipping the guide
over the nose frequently to check the high spots.

Shortcuts
Toolbar:

Keys:

Menu Item View/Planform View


This option is only available when you have created a full set of ribs.. You can toggle
between viewing the top down view of the planform and viewing the head-on view of
the wing. Just to the right of the Planform button on the toolbar, is a drop down
arrow. Selecting this will allow you to turn on/off several entities, such as spar
slots. The entities will highlight, even when turned off, as you pass your mouse over
top of the entry in the drop down list.

The Planform View will show you the wing panel with ribs, the leading edge, trailing
edge, spars, and small tick marks near at the trailing edge of the wing on each rib,
showing the trailing edge of the template. You can dynamically change the sweep of
the wing panel(s) by double clicking on the last rib of the panel. This will cause the
rib to be highlighted. By holding your left mouse button down, and moving the mouse
up and down, the highlighted rib will follow. An alternate method of shifting the rib
is by using the up and down cursor keys. You can increase the speed distance that

the rib shifts with each cursor key press by having pressed, and greater

distance yet, with pressed down while the cursor key is selected. Double

clicking on the rib again will set the rib and recalculated the ribs. The
key may also be used.

The distance of the rib to the leading edge of the beginning rib will be displayed in
the status bar, (the bar at the bottom of the window). The sweep of the wing panel
is initially set up by either the Alignment Spar or Sweep entry when you generate
the ribs.

Toolbar:

Keys:

Menu Item View/Full Screen Editor


Full Screen Editor -The Full Screen Editor, (FSE). is a CAD utility whereby you can
easily perform detailed modifications to an airfoil. This utility is only available when
working with a single template. In other words, it is not available after having
generated a full set of ribs.

The screen will change to display the airfoil with each node displayed as a small
circle. The default node color can be changed. Your cursor shape will change as well
depending on the function you are performing. The available functions are detailed
below. If you wish to cancel the pending function, just click you right mouse button,

or press the key.

Note: Until you either complete the pending function, or cancel it, you cannot access
the menu items.

Shortcuts

Toolbar:

Keys:

The toolbox has these functions.

Pull Node

The cursor shape will change to . Position the cursor over the node and press
the Left Mouse Button to select it. The node will now be locked onto the cross hair.
A final click of the Left Mouse Button will place the node. Pressing the Right Mouse
Button, or the <Esc> key will cancel the operation. You can undo the new placement
by selecting the Undo function described below. Note that you cannot move the
trailing edge or leading edge node positions.
Shortcut

Mouse: Click the Pull Node icon in the toolbox.

Keys:

Curve Fit New Node

he cursor shape will change to . Position the cursor over the line segment and
press the Left Mouse Button to fit a new node in a curve fit position. Pressing the
Right Mouse Button, or the <Esc> key will cancel the operation. You can undo the
new node by selecting the Undo function described below.

Shortcut

Mouse: Click the Curve Fit New Node icon in the toolbox.

Keys:

Split Line Segment

The cursor shape will change to . Position the cursor over the line segment
and press the Left Mouse Button to fit a new node directly between the two
existing nodes that make up the line segment. Pressing the Right Mouse Button, or
the <Esc> key will cancel the operation. You can undo the new node by selecting the
Undo function described below.

Shortcut

Mouse: Click the Spit Line Segment icon in the toolbox.

Keys:

Delete Node
he cursor shape will change to . Position the cursor over the node and press
the Left Mouse Button to delete. Pressing the Right Mouse Button, or the <Esc> key
will cancel the operation. You can undo the deletion by selecting the Undo function
described below. Note that you cannot delete the leading edge or trailing edge
node.

Shortcut

Mouse: Click the Spit Line Segment icon in the toolbox.

Keys:

Zoom View Up +

he view will zoom in on the airfoil.

Shortcut

Mouse: Click the Zoom View Up icon in the toolbox.

Keys:

Normal View Size

The view revert to the scaled to fit normal view of the airfoil.

Shortcut

Mouse: Click the Normal View Size icon in the toolbox.

Keys:

Zoom View Down –

The view will zoom out on the airfoil.

Shortcut

Mouse: Click the Zoom View Down icon in the toolbox.


Keys:

Identify Node

The cursor shape will change to . Position the mouse over a node and press the
Left Mouse Button. The Status Bar will show the nodes position and number.

Shortcut

Mouse: Click the Identify Node icon in the toolbox.

Keys:

Undo Last FSE Function

Undo the last FSE function. Up to the last 25 modifications can be undone. Note
that this undo function is independent of the [Modify/Undo] function.

Shortcut

Mouse: Click the Undo Last FSE Function icon in the toolbox.

Keys:

Set Bookmark

This function will put the current view position and zoom factor in memory for later
recall by the Goto Bookmark function below.

Shortcut

Mouse: Click the Set Bookmark icon in the toolbox.

Keys:

Goto Bookmark

This function will put the current view position and zoom factor back to what it was
when you selected Set Bookmark, described above.

Shortcut
Mouse: Click the Goto Bookmark icon in the tool box.

Keys:

Adjust V-Notch Position

This function is only relevant if you have set up a V-Notch stock size. Once
selected, you will see the sheeting line as well as the square stock at the leading
edge. Subsequent Cursor key movement will shift the placement of the square, and
right caret (>) or left caret (<) keystrokes will rotate the square. Select this
function again when finished positioning the V-Notch.

Shortcut

Mouse: Click the Adjust V-Notch Position icon in the toolbox.

Keys:

Hide Nodes

This function will prevent CompuFoil from displaying the nodes that make up the
airfoil coordinates

Shortcut

Mouse: Click the Hide Nodes icon in the toolbox.

Keys:

Snap Leading Edge to Center

This function will shift the image such that the leading edge is centered on the
screen. Use this command before zooming if you plan on working on the leading edge
shape.

Shortcut

Mouse: Click the Snap to Leading Edge icon in the toolbox.

Keys:
Snap Trailing Edge to Center

This function will shift the image such that the trailing edge is centered on the
screen. Use this command before zooming if you plan on working on the trailing edge
shape.

Shortcut

Mouse: Click the Snap to Trailing Edge icon in the toolbox.

Keys:

Center Image to Cursor

This function wait for you to click on the image. That position will be set to the
center of the screen. Use this command before zooming if you plan on working on a
particular area of the airfoil

Shortcut

Mouse: Click the Center Image to Cursor icon in the toolbox.

Keys:

The two slider bars on the bottom control the grid intensity. The top slider will
control the main grid intensity. The bottom slider will control the main grid lines
that are every fifth line.

Menu Item View/Overlay Airfoils


CompuFoil will allow you to overlay up to two airfoils on top of the current airfoil in
memory, at different relative chord lengths, lined up at either the leading, or
trailing edge. By default, the airfoils are lined up at the leading edge, unless the
option to line up at the trailing edge is checked off. Enter the airfoils you wish to
overlay as well as their chord lengths. Why would you use different chord lengths?
A person might for instance to want to modify the current airfoil which has a 9"
chord, and compare it to a different airfoil at a 10" chord length.

After entering your options, selecting the OK button will display your airfoils
overlaid in a color-coded manner based on you selected defaults, along with the
airfoil name displayed in the bottom parameter window. You can print the overlay
out if you wish as well.
Toolbar:

Keys:

Menu Item View/Browse Airfoils


The directory you have set as the default coordinate sub directory is read and all
.COR, .USR, .INV, and .TPL airfoils present are available for browsing. Press the up
and down cursor keys to page through the airfoils. Typing a letter will jump the

first airfoil file starting with that letter. Press to make your selection,

or to leave Browse mode and return. You can also leave the Browse Mode
selecting this function again, which in turn shuts it off. Browse is not available when
you are in the Full Screen Editor View, or Overlay View. You can also scroll though
your list of airfoils using the mouse. The left button will scroll down the list, the
right button scrolls up the list and the middle button selects the airfoil.

Shortcuts

Toolbar:

Keys:

Menu Item View/3D Wing View


You may select this option if you have generated a set of ribs using the lofting
module. A three dimensional representation of your wing will be generated of the
ribs, spars, leading edge stock, trailing edge stock, leading edge round stock,
leading/trailing edge reinforcing strips, and trailing edge strips. The top and
bottom surface may also be displayed.

Image Control

Your mouse controls the image. Holding your left mouse button down will allow you
to move the image left/right, up and down. You may rotate the image my holding
your right mouse button down. The size of the image may be changed by either
holding both the left and right mouse buttons down while moving your mouse up and
down, or if you have a middle button, by holding that down, or if you have a mouse
wheel, you may use your wheel to zoom in and out.
You may selectively tun on and off the display of these items, as well as choose to
display them as a solid surfaced object or only in wire frame. You may quickly
change the view to one of three preconfigured states; Solid Wing Only, Solid
Skeleton, All Wire frame. The Solid Wing option will turn off all objects except
the top and bottom surfaces, which will appear as a solid sheet. This will give you an
indication of what the solid wing will look like. Solid skeleton will turn on all objects,
except the surfaces, and put them in solid mode. All Wireframe will turn on all
objects in wireframe only mode.

The Render Options allow you to select viewing either/or the left and right wing
panel.

The Smooth option will perform antialiasing of the lines in wireframe mode. This
helps remove the jagged appearance of angled lines. Depending on your graphics
card, the Smoothing option may not appear to make any difference. Some graphics
cards automatically perform line smoothing.

The Perspective option will make objects further away from you appear smaller,
giving you a more realistic representation of your wing.

The Colors option will open a standard color selection window to choose the colors of
your rendered wing objects.

The Center button will pull the wing back to the default size and position within the
window. Use this button if you lose track of the wing.

The Print 3D Image button will print the rendered image of the wing. All colors will
be retained, except the background color. The background will always be white.

The Capture to Clipboard button will put the image into the Windows clipboard.
This will allow you to perform an Edit|Paste function in programs such as Microsoft
Word and past the picture of your wing into a document.

The Save as Bitmap File button will save the 3D rendering to a standard Windows
bitmap file.
Menu Item View/View Parameter Window
The lower window in CompuFoil can display the current template setting and is called
the Template Parameters Window. It can be switched between this display and the
Coefficient of Pressure plot window.

Menu Item View/Cp Plot


The lower window in CompuFoil can display the Coefficient of Pressure graph of the
current airfoil. This graph give displays the airfoil, as well as an upper and lower
graph line. The upper graph line corresponds to the uppers surface of the wing and
the lower graph line the lower surface. Note that negative pressure is up and
positive pressure is down. The Cp Plot lines give you an idea of the pressures along
the surface of the wing. This line should be smooth. If there are wiggles in the
line, it may indicate that the surface of the airfoil needs some smoothing out. In
other words, the surface of the airfoil is not a smooth transition. This can be fixed
using the Full Screen Editor .

On the right side of the window, is a control to alter the Cp plot. . At


the top, the angle of attack of the airfoil may be altered. Below that are four
buttons, 1X, 2X, 3X, 4X Full Screen Editor, which alter the magnification of the
graph. Vast numbers of calculations are processed to produce the graph. If you
airfoil has many data points, or you have a slower computer, the recalculation time
may be inhibiting. Unchecking the Auto option will suspend the automatic calculation
of the pressure coefficients as you make adjustments to the angle of attack or the
airfoil itself. In that case you must select the [!] button to cause recalculation.

The Cp plot window can be switched between this display and the Parameter window.

Menu Item View/Stack Ribs


If you have generated a full set or ribs and are currently viewing the ribs, selecting
this option will cause the ribs to be stacked one on top of another with their chord
lines lined up. You can control whether the leading edges of the airfoils are lined up
or if they line up according the sweep of the wing by the View Ribs in Planform
Layout function. You can also select this menu item from a pop-up menu created by
right clicking on the airfoil window.

Menu Item View/View Ribs in Planform Layout

If you have generated a full set or ribs and are currently viewing the ribs, selecting
this option will cause the ribs to be shifted such that the leading edges are
staggered according to their positions due to the wing sweep. You can also stack the
ribs on top of one another with the Stack Ribs command. You can also select this
menu item from a pop-up menu created by right clicking on the airfoil window. Your
ribs will always be printed with the leading edge lined up along the left side of the
paper however.

Menu Item View/Zoom View


The Zoom View function will allow you to modify the size of the template image(s).
The program defaults to scaling the view to fit in the horizontal direction. You may
also choose 10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, 150%, 200% and 300% zoom factors. The
zoom factor can also be changed by either selecting the zoom factor with the drop
down zoom list, or with the ALT-1 through ALT-9 key combinations. Zooming in does
not effect the printed image size. For long airfoils, zooming too large will clip the
image of the trailing edge.

Modify Menu
Menu Item Modify/Change Camber
If you are working on an airfoil created by the N.A.C.A. Generator, please read the
special considerations on modifying these airfoils created with the N.A.C.A.
generator.

To select this item, an airfoil must be loaded. Entering a zero will produce a
symmetric airfoil. Note that if you produce a symmetrical airfoil, you cannot modify
the camber afterwards. This is true of other airfoils as well. A symmetrical airfoil
cannot have its camber altered since it has no camber. Whenever accessing this
function, the lower surfaces' X-coordinates are remapped to match those of the top
surface, and new Y-coordinates calculated. This is necessary in order to prevent
distortion when modifying the camber several times in succession. You can undo
camber changes with the Undo Last Modification function.

Shortcuts
Toolbar:

Keys:

Menu Item Modify/Change Thickness


If you are working on an airfoil created by the N.A.C.A. Generator, please read the
special considerations on modifying these airfoils created with the N.A.C.A.
generator.

To select this item, an airfoil must first be loaded. You may enter any positive
number. The thickness and max-thick position are also displayed in the Template
Parameters Window. You can undo thickness changes with the Undo Last
Modification function.. The thickness is the ratio of maximum thickness divided by
the chord length expressed in terms of percent.

Shortcuts

Toolbar:

Keys:

Menu Item Modify/Move Max. Thick Location


This function will proportionately shift the X values in order to move the location of
the maximum thick point of the airfoil. Note that if more than one max-thick
location exists, the one closest the leading edge will be reported and used. You
can undo maximum thickness location changes with the Undo Last Modification
function.

Shortcuts

Keys:
Menu Item Modify/Move Max. Camber Position
This function will shift the maximum camber position, or the highest point of the
mean camber line to where you tell it. You can undo this with the Undo Last
Modification function.

Menu Item Modify/Combine Airfoils


To select this item, an airfoil must first be loaded. This feature allows you to take
the current airfoil, slice it along the Chord Line, and then replace either the top or
bottom half with the corresponding half of another airfoil. You will first be
prompted to choose whether you wish the top or bottom to be replaced, and then
prompted for the airfoil to use for the combining. You can undo airfoil combination
changes with the Undo Last Modification function.

Menu Item Modify/Replace Thickness Profile


To select this item, an airfoil must first be loaded. This function will allow you to
replace the thickness profile from the current airfoil with that of a selected airfoil.
This new profile then takes on the camber profile of the current airfoil. You can
only load thickness profiles from .COR, .USR, or .INV extension files. If you wish to
use an airfoil contained in a .TPL or a .LFT file, load the airfoil you want the
thickness profile of, and save it as a .USR file first. Then the airfoil will be
available for this function. You can undo thickness profile imports with the Undo
Last Modification function.

Shortcuts

Keys:

Menu Item Modify/Mirror Surface


To select this item, an airfoil must first be loaded. This function will allow you to
mirror either the upper or lower surface, creating a symmetrical airfoil. Choose
which surface you wish to mirror and select the Okay button. You can undo mirror
surface changes with the Undo Last Modification function.

Menu Item Modify/Edit Coordinates


The coordinate editor allows you to modify individual coordinate numbers, delete a
node, or insert a new node.

Please read the special stipulations on modifying airfoils created with the N.A.C.A.
generator.
Note that you should not remove or change the trailing edge or leading edge
coordinates as they must remain 1 0. The user must be very careful when direct
editing coordinate values. You should now allow your edited X-coordinate value to
extend beyond the values of the nodes on each side, and you MUST NOT allow the
X-values of two adjacent nodes have the same value. The program may eventually
produce an error as it calculates slope values and runs into the infinite slope of this
line segment. In order to modify a value and see the results, perform the following
operations in this order:

1. Have the coordinate position highlighted in the coordinate list box.

2. Change the X or Y values in the modification fields below the list box.

3. Select Update Values to reflect your changes in the coordinate list.

4. If you wish to see the results of you edit within the airfoil template image,
select Apply. Note that if you select Cancel, no changes will be made unless you
have applied them.

The following functions are available.

Finished - Press this button to close the Edit Coordinates window. Your
changes will be committed and your airfoil updated.

Cancel - Press this button to close the Edit Coordinates window without
having you changes affecting the airfoil. Note that if you had press the Apply
button, all changes made prior to pressing Commit will still be used.

Help - Press this button to invoke CompuFoil's help manual.

Print - Press this button to send the listed coordinates to your default
Windows printer device.

Insert Node - This button will produce a new node that lies between the
currently highlighted node and the node directly above it, and whose coordinates are
the average of these two nodes. The new node will be the one highlighted after
pressing the Insert Node button. You may then edit this new node using the
technique described above.

Delete Node - This button will delete the currently highlighted node. Note
that you cannot delete the leading edge or trailing edge nodes.

Apply - This button will commit the listed coordinates to memory and update
the airfoil image to reflect your changes. You can undo the last committed edit with
the Undo Last Modification function.

Update Values - You can modify the currently highlighted coordinate by


editing the coordinates that appear in the separate X /Y coordinate boxes below
the list. When you are finished modifying the coordinate, press the button to
update the list. Your changes will not be reflected in the image until you press the
Apply button

Shortcuts

Keys:

Sawtooth Planform Rib Calculator

In planforms with a sawtooth planform shape:

It is common that the trailing edges of the airfoils match up until the high and low
points are reached, then the longer rib extends beyond the nose of the smaller rib.
This calculator will produce an elongated rib for you. The Sawtooth Planform Rib
Calculator will locate the high and low positions of the airfoil, and any coordinates
forward of these will be spaces out to allow for the extra length. The percent
thickness of the elongated rib will also be reduced in order to match the contour of
the shorter rib.

To use this utility, load the airfoil that will be next to the elongated rib into
CompuFoil3D. Select this utility from the Modify menu, and enter in the length of
the shorter rib. Enter also the length of the elongated rib. Selecting the OK
button will modify the current rib accordingly. You should now save this rib as a .usr
or .cor file so that it can be selected in the lofting module.
Here is a picture of the resulting rib, overlaid with the original and lined up at the
trailing edge.

Menu Item Modify/Force Curve Fit of New Nodes


CompuFoil can automatically curve fit a new set of nodes to an existing airfoil. The
new coordinates will be spaced in a full cosine distribution. Sometimes the curve
fitting works better if you manually round the leading edge of an airfoil by adding
more nodes and positioning them using the Full Screen Editor before curve fitting.

Menu Item Modify/Revert to Original


This function will reload the last file opened with the File/Open Airfoil File
command. You will be asked if you wish to save the modified airfoil first.

Menu Modification Wizards


Menu Item Modify/Trailing Edge Reflex Wizard
The reflex of an airfoil is a measure of how much upsweep exists at the trailing

edge.

This function works similarly to the Trailing Edge Flare Wizard. There is one
important difference however. This function adds or removes reflex to the existing
reflex. In other words, it is cumulative. Every time you access this function, the
starting reflex adjustment is set at zero. The percent reflex adjustment number
increases or decreases the reflex amount. The Reflex Coefficient adjusts how far
back into the tail the reflex is added.

Menu Item Modify/(Multiple Rib)Trailing Edge Flare Wizard


Both the Multiple Rib Trailing Edge Flare Wizard and Trailing Edge Flare Wizard will
take you to this window.

If you wish to have a thick trailing edge, this function will do it! When you use this
function, it will prompt you for the thickness you want at the trailing edge.
CompuFoil will flare the top and bottom surfaces the correct amount to give you the
desired thickness at the trailing edge. If you are working with an individual rib,
then this will be at the current chord length. What this means is if you next
double the chord length, the thickness of your trailing edge will also double. In
other words, the trailing edge will only be this thickness at the current chord
length.

The manners in which the surfaces are adjusted are controlled by the Change Flair
Coefficient function. If you wish to have a thick trailing edge, but don't want the
airfoil surfaces modified in order to do it, use the Clipped Trailing Edge Chord
Length Calculator.

The Flair Coefficient controls how the surfaces are adjusted in order to thicken
the trailing edge with the Flair Trailing Edge function. This number can be adjusted
from zero to ten. The degree a point on the surface is adjusted is proportional to X
to the power of c, (X^c), where X is the distance from the leading edge and c is
the coefficient. In real terms, what this means is for a coefficient of Zero, the
whole top and bottom surface will be split shifted an equal amount, (half the flare
amount). For a coefficient of 1, the surfaces will react like the airfoil was split
along the chord line, and then opened like a scissors or clam. For numbers greater
than one, the surfaces start to curl out towards the trailing edge in a bugle fashion.
How severe the bugle effect is determined by how large a number is used for the
coefficient. At a coefficient of 10, almost all of the surface separation occurs near
the trailing edge.
Generate Menu
Menu Item Generate/Lofted Full Set of Ribs
This function will produce a full set of ribs for built up use. You will be presented
with the lofting window to fill in. The Template Height, Template Ramp Length, and
most importantly, the Kerf compensation, will automatically be set to zero to
produce ribs. The individual ribs are automatically sized and shaped according to its
position, (lofted).

In the case where you still want to define only the inner panel root airfoil and the
last panel tip airfoil, and wish for all of the rest of the ribs to be lofted between
them, simply leave the airfoil type blank. CompuFoil will insert the name {lofted} in
its place. For example for a two panel wing, for the inner panel (panel #1), you would
designate the Inboard Airfoil (this would be the root of the inner panel), and leave
the Outboard Airfoil, (this would be the tip airfoil of the inner panel), blank. For
the outer panel, (panel #2), the Inboard Airfoil would be left blank, and the
Outboard Airfoil would be selected. The missing airfoil will be calculated. In other
words, the ribs will be lofted through two panels from one airfoil to another. The
washout works in the exact same manner.

Hint: Note that the airfoils, defined as the root and tip airfoils, must be loadable
from disk. Therefor, if you wish to use an airfoil recently modified, or one
generated by the N.A.C.A. Generator, it must first be saved to disk, and then that
name be used for the root and/or tip. If this isn't done, you will receive an error
message that the airfoil cannot be found.

This window has several data entry boxes:

Planform Style:
Hint: Click on the tabs in this picture for a screen shot of each item.

You may select different types panel shapes by selecting the different tabs:
Straight Taper, Planform from File, Elliptical, or Modified Elliptical. The titles
and availability of several of the text entry boxes are defined by which type is
chosen.

Lofting Types Description


Straight Taper

The straight tapered planform has straight leading and trailing edges with root
dimension the width of the Root Chord Length and tip dimension that of the Tip
Chord Length.

Planform from File

This option allows you to define the planform shape with a file. Several sample
planform files are available (.plf files). These files may be edited in the full screen
editor. This option allows the user great flexibility in that you can generate a
complete set of lofted ribs to any planform shape. When you select the [OK] button
to begin lofting, you will be prompted if you would like the thickness distribution of
the wing to assume an elliptical shape. In other words, if you planform is hourglass
shaped, then the wing, viewed from the leading edge would be hourglass shaped as
well because the smaller airfoils in the middle would be thinner in dimension. If you
choose to assume an elliptical thickness transition, then the thickness of each rib
would be adjusted to give a smooth thickness taper. Note that this will modify the
airfoil however! The percent thickness of the smaller airfoils that would normally
have had a thin dimension will be greatly increased to assume the proper absolute
thickness.
Elliptical Planform

The elliptical planform has the shape of a true ellipse. The Root Chord Length
determines the width of the ellipse, (also known as the minor diameter). The panel
length determines what the half-length of the ellipse is, (also known as the major
diameter). The tip airfoil acts as a shape modifier. The thickness distribution along
the length of the panel is forced to an elliptical thickness distribution as well.

Modified Elliptical Planform

When you select the Modified Elliptical Planform, you must enter two values for
chord lengths, both Leading Edge chord length and Trailing Edge Chord length.
These two lengths correspond to each of the two minor diameters of the two
ellipses that the planform is made of. The leading edge half of the wing is of a
shape from one half of one ellipse, and the trailing edge has the shape of one half of
the other ellipse. As an example, if 10" is entered for the L.E. chord length, and 6"
in entered as the T.E. chord length, you are saying that an ellipse with a minor
diameter of 10" has been split in half and makes up the leading edge half, and an
ellipse of 6" minor diameter has been split in half and makes up the trailing edge
half of the wing. The resulting chord length of the planform is one half of each of
the two minor diameters, or 10" x .5 + 6" x .5 which gives 8".

Wing Panel Parameters option box:


Panel length

This is the length of the finished wing panel. Note that in the case of a multi-
tapered wing, each section must be treated and generated individually as a wing
panel.

Rib Spacing/Number

Choose how you wish to define the rib spacing. The Rib Spacing is the centerline
distance between the ribs. The number option will divide the wing panel into that
number of ribs. The root and tip rib are included in the number, so four ribs would
have the root, tip and two inter-panel ribs. To define non-standard ribs, use the
[Define Extra Rib Positions>>] button defined below.

[Define Extra Rib Positions>>] Button

Selecting this button will display a window where you may enter non-standard rib
positions. Enter the distance from the root to the rib position and select the [Add]
button to add it to the list on the left. You may also elect to override the rib
thickness by entering in a different width. Selecting a number in the list and
clicking on the [Delete] button will remove that number from the list. Selecting the
[Clear All] command will clear all extra rib position definitions. In the event that
you have spars defined which start and end at a particular rib, you may want to have
the [X]AutoSync Spar Positions checked off. This feature works this way. Say you
have a spar that is defined to start at rib 10 and end at rib 13, where rib 10 is 30"
from the root of the wing. If you now add a extra rib at 28" from the root end,
then this will obviously cause the spar to be shifted down the wing. By having this
option checked, when you click on the [Add] or [Delete] button, CompuFoil will
automatically adjust the start and end rib number so that they stay in the original
positions.

First Rib Begins At

Often times, your panel length will not be evenly divisible by the rib spacing. You
can specify where you would like the first rib to start by this entry such that the
ribs meet the tip of the panel without any odd spaces. For example, your panel may
be 22" long, with a 3" rib spacing. This leaves an extra 1". If you set First Rib
Begins At to 1", the last rib will end up at the tip.

Dihedral Angle

The panel dihedral angle will tilt the panel upwards for positive values. This will only
affect the 3D rendering of the wing. The ribs always stay perpendicular to the
centerline of the panel.

Panel Sweep Section

(Defined by L.E. Offset/Defined by Main Spar Distances) These two choices affect
what is visible. Note that with the Planform From File, Elliptical, and Modified
Elliptical planform styles, this item does not exist since the planform style itself
determine the planform geometry.

Defined by L.E. Offsets

This allows you to define the planform by either the offset of the root and tip
leading edges, or by the angle that the leading edge makes to the line perpendicular
to the fuselage line. The leading edge offsets are known as the Sweep of the wing.
CompuFoil documentation uses these two terms interchangeably. You can have
CompuFoil compute the proper angle or sweep to achieve a planform where the
trailing edge is perpendicular to the fuselage centerline by clicking on the [Compute
Sweep for Straight T.E.] button.

Defined by Main Spar Distances

Allows you to define the distances from the panels’ root and tip leading edges to the
main spar which dictates the alignment of the ribs, and therefore the planform
shape, (referred to by CompuFoil as the Alignment Spar ). The alignment spar
location is also utilized by spar slots and/or building jig holes. In the case of the
elliptical sections, the alignment spar placement is referenced from the elliptical
alignment line, (this line is drawn for the purpose of placing the ribs to achieve the
proper elliptical planform). Remember that the leading edge of the airfoil is at the
origin, so a negative number will set the spar to the left of the elliptical alignment
line. You will need to define the geometry of the spar in the Spar Setup function
under the Airfoil menu. Defined
Planform File Name

This option is only visible with Planform from File, Elliptical, and Modified
Elliptical lofting types.

This option allows you to select a user defined planform shape to loft against. The
.plf file is very similar to an airfoil coordinate file. The coordinates describe a wing
shape with the leading edge up and the tip of the wing to the left. As is the case
with coordinate files, the x coordinates run from zero to one.

Force Thickness Distribution Group

This option is only visible with Planform from File, Elliptical, and Modified
Elliptical lofting types.

There are three options available:

1. Elliptical Thickness Distribution – This type will take the actual thickness of
the root, and then taper the wing thickness such that when you look at it
from the front, it will have a smooth elliptically shaped thickness profile.
In the case of elliptical and modified elliptical wings, each rib will have the
same percent thickness. The thickness of the chosen tip rib will have no
effect on the thicknesses of the ribs.

2. Chord Length Progression – This type will take the percent thickness of the
tip airfoil into account.
The rib’s percent thickness will be determined by how long it is as
compared to the root airfoil’s thickness. The closer the chord length of
the rib is to the chord length of the root, the close it will be to the root
airfoil’s percent thickness.
For example, say the root is 10" chord, and 10% thick, and the tip is 30%
thick, and the rib in question is 8" chord. The proportion is 8/10 or .8. So
the root thickness will have 80% influence and the tip thickness only 20%
influence. There is a 30% difference in thickness from root to tip. The rib
will have 10% + ( .2 * 20%) = 14% thickness applied to it.

3. Linear Progression – This type will take the percent thickness of the tip
airfoil into account.
The rib’s percent thickness will be determined by its position in the wing
only. If the rib is at the halfway point in the wing, the it’s percent
thickness will be halfway between that of the root and tip airfoils.

Lofting Method:

This section allows you to select one of three lofting methods:

[X] Straight Lofting - This is the most common method of lofting, and yields the
most consistent results. However, depending on how different the high and low
point positions between the root and tip rib are, it may not be the most accurate.
This method maps new Y-coordinates for the tip rib based on the root rib X-
coordinates. In other words, both root and tip rib will contain the same raw X-
coordinate values. When lofting, these points between the root and tip are then
connected by mesh lines. The intersection between the mesh lines and the rib
position then becomes that rib's coordinates. However, consider if your root rib
has its high point at 25% and the tip rib has its high spot at 50%. When lofting, you
would expect that once all of the cut ribs are laid out, there would be a consistent
"bulge" from the root high spot to the tip high spot. But using this method, this will
not be the case. If you have very dissimilar airfoils in this respect, you should use
the Match Lobes method below.

[X] Match Lobes - In this method, the high spot of the root and tip rib stay in the
same position and are matched up. The remaining tip x-coordinates are spaced
proportionately around this high point, based on the root airfoils x-coordinate
distribution. The same is done for the bottom surfaces. In this manner, the "bulge"
or lobes, as described in the Straight Lofting method above, will be properly lined
up. Once again, there is a short fall to this method. Consider a tip airfoil such as an
Eppler 214, which has as it's low spot a position of about 18%, and it's node at this
point is has seven points between it and the leading edge. Now say as a root airfoil,
you have an airfoil with bottom surface totally under cambered. The low point of
the airfoil may well be at about 1%, and it may perhaps be the very first node after
the leading edge. When this airfoil pair is lofted, the low node of the root airfoil is
matched up with the low node of the E214. When CompuFoil goes to distribute the
remaining X-coordinates on the tip, there are no nodes between the low point and
the leading edge. The E214 tip airfoil will therefore have no coordinates from the
18% point to the leading edge. You would have a straight between these two points!
You could get around this problem by curve fitting seven new nodes between this
root airfoil low point and the leading edge, so that there are nodes available to
distribute along the bottom of the root airfoil. Under normal circumstances, this is
something you would realistically never run across.

[X] Match Coordinates - This function is somewhat like the Match Lobes option
above, except that all nodes are matched up one-to-one; not just the high and low
positions. As mentioned above, when CompuFoil executes a lofting, the X-
Coordinates of the root rib are mapped the to the tip rib, and the new tip rib Y-
Coordinates computed. The root and tip nodes now are at the same percent location.
These nodes are now connected with imaginary mesh lines, node to node. When a rib
is lofted at a certain position, it's like slicing the mesh lines at that position. The
intersection of the mesh lines with the plane at this position become the
coordinates of the airfoil here. Now where this technique could fall short is you
have a feature at a certain percent location on the root that you want matched up
with a feature at a different percent location at the tip. If you set up your
coordinates such that the node numbers at these features are the same, and use
coordinate alignment, no mapping of tip coordinates will occur. Instead the mesh
lines will run to and from corresponding node numbers. In order for this to work
however, you must have an equal number of nodes at the root and tip airfoil.
Furthermore, the number of nodes on the tops of the root and tip as well as the
nodes on the bottoms of the root and tip airfoil must be equal. If they are not equal
in both manners, CompuFoil will inform you of this and default to the Straight
Lofting method. The Match Coordinates option works well for lofting a bulkhead
section.
Imagine instead of an airfoil shape you have the shape of a bulkhead. Your "Wing"
is instead your fuselage. By using lofting, you can generate the bulkheads from the
thickest part of the fuselage back to the tail in a straight taper. Two sample
bulkheads are supplied called BULKHD1.USR and BULKHD2.USR. Again, in order to
use this feature, you must have the same number of coordinates on each side of the
bulkhead in the "root" bulkhead as in the "tip" bulkhead. Enabling coordinate
alignment will match each corresponding coordinate point between the two
bulkheads. The lofting routine will then proceed like a cross-section of these
imaginary lines connecting these points.

Airfoil Parameters

Root/Tip Airfoil - These are the airfoils you wish to appear at the root/tip of the
individual wing panel. Click on the [...] button and you can choose your airfoil from
the file list box. You can also select the F12 key to bring up the file list box to
choose your airfoil. If you are generating a wing with multiple panels, and you wish
to only define the airfoil at the root of the inner panel and the tip airfoil on the last
panel, and have CompuFoil generate the appropriate shapes, leave the tip airfoil
selection blank. When you click on the [Add Panel] button, CompuFoil will fill in the
inner panel's tip airfoil name with {in. On the second panel, select the tip airfoil
name only and CompuFoil will again fill in the outer panel's root airfoil name with
{interp}.

Chord Parameters - These are the chord lengths you wish to have at the root/tip
end of the panel. The root end of the panel is the Inboard chord, as this is
typically the larger chord, and the tip chord is the Outboard chord.

In the case of the Elliptical planform style, there will be no tip chord entry. For the
Modified Elliptical type the chord lengths define the minor axis chord lengths of
the two ellipses that make up the modified elliptical planform. As you add panels to
your wing, the root chord length will automatically be the same as the tip chord for
the panel just inboard of the current panel. Changing the root chord will therefore
also change the tip chord for the panel just inboard of the current panel.

Panel Number

Here you can select the [Add Panel] button to initialize another panel. Note that
you have to have the inboard panel defined first, then work you way out to the tip of
the wing. As you add panels, the root and tip chord for the current panel will be the
same as the tip chord of the last panel. The same holds true for the Alignment Spar
value. Simply change these to what you wish. You can change the root alignment
spar value for panel #2 without affecting the value of tip alignment spar of panel
#1. However, any main spars defined to snap to the alignment spar locations will not
be continuous.

The [Insert {Panel] button will insert a panel in front of the currently selected
panel.

To delete the last panel in the wing, simply select the [Delete Panel] button.

Washout

You may define a separate washout and airfoil at each end of every panel. The
Inboard Washout describes the washout of the panel nearest the fuselage, and
Outboard Washout the end nearest the wing tip.

If you want to only define the root wing washout and tip wing washout, and have
CompuFoil calculate the washout of everything in between, then simply remove the
‘0’ from the washout number and leave the space blank. CompuFoil will insert the
word {interp] in its place, designating it as an interpolated value.

Geometric Transition Checkbox– CompuFoil3D supports two different ways to


progress the washout from the root to the tip. The default is angular transition.
If you imagine a single panel wing, in this method, half way out to the tip of the wing,
the washout will be half of the tip washout, (outboard washout) . In other words,
the degree of washout is proportional to the distance to the end of the panel. For
example, if you have a 20" panel with 4 degrees washout, at 10" the rib would have 2
degrees, at 15", 3 degrees, etc. Although the angular transition is linear, because
the chord length might changes as you go from root to tip, the trailing edge will
take on a curved attitude. This is easily seen using the 3D Rendering module.

The geometric transition makes the amount the trailing edge rises due to the
washout proportional to the distance in the wing. For instance, for the same wing, if
the tip chord is 6" and has 4 degrees of washout, the trailing edge elevated .28".
Geometric transitioning would set the angle of the rib at 10" such that the trailing
edge is elevated .14". The resulting wing would have an undefined angular transition
to the ribs, but a linear change in trailing edge elevation. When you view the tailing
edge edge-on, it will look to be rising in a straight line. In the case of elliptical,
modified elliptical, and planform from file, since these type wings have no definite
chord length at the tip, (after all, they have rounded tips so the chord is zero), the
tailing edge elevation of last rib in the wing is calculated based upon it’s location
within the wing panel. All ribs will have their washout calculated based upon its
location to the last rib.

Below are two screen shots from the CompuFoil3D rendering module. Picture 1
shows the trailing edge view of a highly washed out wing using the default angular
transition. Picture 2 shows the same wing with geometric transition.
Picure 1. Angular Transition

Picture 2. Geometric Transition

Inboard/Outboard – The Inboard Washout is the washout nearest the fuselage, and
outboard nearest the wing tip. The washout will affect the angle of jig holes and the
angle of trailing edge building tabs. This allows you to build in the washout right on
the building jig! Note however that your cutting of the holes must be VERY
accurate. You may get better results by simply twisting the jig rods. You can also
force full depth spars to assume the washout angle in the spar slot setup function.
If you leave the Inboard value blank, (blank, not zero), then when the second panel
is created, and the second panel’s Outboard washout, (which is the same as the first
panel's inboard washout), is also left blank, the washout values for each rib will be
transitioned between the two panels. You can also force the angle of the leading
edge to assume the computed washout angle of the rib by checking the [X] Match
L.E. to Washout Angle option.

When you have finished entering information, select the [OK] button. You may save
all of your lofting parameters for this wing by saving it as a .LFT (Loft) file.
CompuFoil also calculates the projected area as well as the surface area of the wing
panel.

Note: A file must be accessible from disk in order to use it in the interpolate
function. If you had previously modified an airfoil, you must save it to disk first,
and then use the Lofting functions. This also holds true for airfoils generated by
the NACA generator. Any airfoils used for lofting produced by the NACA generator
must be saved to disk first as either a .cor file or a .usr file.

Shortcuts

Toolbar:

Menu Item Generate/Lofted Root & Tip Template with Sub-Rib


This function will produce foam template root rib, tip rib, and the sub ribs for foam
construction use. The sub rib is automatically sized and shaped according to its
position, (lofted). This item can be accessed without having an airfoil loaded into
memory. If you have defined the foam density and sheeting basis weight using the
Weight Estimation function under the Utilities menu, the estimated panel weight
will also be displayed in the Template Parameters Window.

Hint: Note that the airfoils defined as the root and tip airfoils are loaded from disk.
Therefor, if you wish to use an airfoil recently modified, it must be saved to disk,
and that name then used for the root and/or tip.

This window has several data entry boxes:

Planform Style:

This lofting mode is intended for foam rib construction and for obvious reasons only
supports straight taper planforms.

Wing Panel Parameters option box:

Panel length - This is the length of the finished wing panel. Note that in the case of
a multi-tapered wing, each section must be treated and generated individually as a
wing panel.

Sub Rib Location - This is the centerline distance from the root to the sub rib.

Dihedral Angle

The panel dihedral angle will tilt the panel upwards for positive values. This will only
affect the 3D rendering of the wing. The ribs always stay perpendicular to the
centerline of the panel.

Panel Sweep Section


(Defined by L.E. Offset/Defined by Main Spar Distances) These two choices affect
what is visible. Note that with the Planform From File, Elliptical, and Modified
Elliptical planform styles, this item does not exist since the planform style itself
determine the planform geometry.

Defined by L.E. Offsets allows you to define the planform by either the offset of
the root and tip leading edges, or by the angle that the leading edge makes to the
line perpendicular to the fuselage line. The leading edge offsets are known as the
Sweep of the wing. CompuFoil documentation uses these two terms interchangeably.
You can have CompuFoil compute the proper angle or sweep to achieve a planform
where the trailing edge is perpendicular to the fuselage centerline by clicking on the
[Compute Sweep for Straight T.E.] button.

Defined by Main Spar Distances allows you to define the distances from the
panels’ root and tip leading edges to the main spar which dictates the alignment of
the ribs, and therefore the planform shape, (referred to by CompuFoil as the
Alignment Spar ). The alignment spar location is also utilized by spar slots and/or
building jig holes. In the case of the elliptical sections, the alignment spar placement
is referenced from the elliptical alignment line, (this line is drawn for the purpose of
placing the ribs to achieve the proper elliptical planform). Remember that the
leading edge of the airfoil is at the origin, so a negative number will set the spar to
the left of the elliptical alignment line. You will need to define the geometry of the
spar in the Spar Setup function under the Airfoil menu. Defined

Lofting Method:

This section allows you to select one of three methods:

[X] Straight Lofting - This is the most common method of lofting, and yields the
most consistent results. However, depending on how different the high and low
point positions between the root and tip rib are, it is not the most accurate. This
method maps new Y-coordinates for the tip rib based on the root rib X-coordinates.
In other words, both root and tip rib will contain the same raw X-coordinate values.
When lofting, these points between the root and tip are then connected by mesh
lines. The intersection between the mesh lines and the rib position then becomes
that rib's coordinates. However, consider if your root rib has its high point at 25%
and the tip rib has its high spot at 50%. When lofting, you would expect that once
all of the cut ribs are laid out, there would be a consistent "bulge" from the root
high spot to the tip high spot. But using this method, this will not be the case. If
you have very dissimilar airfoils in this respect, you should use the Match Lobes
method below.

[X] Match Lobes - In this method, the high spot of the root and tip rib stay in the
same position and are matched up. The remaining tip x-coordinates are spaced
proportionately around this high point, based on the root airfoils x-coordinate
distribution. The same is done for the bottom surfaces. In this manner, the "bulge"
or lobes, as described in the Straight Lofting method above, will be properly lined
up. Once again, there is a short fall to this method. Consider a tip airfoil such as an
Eppler 214, which has as it's low spot a position of about 18%, and it's node at this
point is has seven points between it and the leading edge. Now say as a root airfoil,
you have an airfoil with bottom surface totally under cambered. The low point of
the airfoil may well be at about 1%, and it may perhaps be the very first node after
the leading edge. When this airfoil pair is lofted, the low node of the root airfoil is
matched up with the low node of the E214. When CompuFoil goes to distribute the
remaining X-coordinates on the tip, there are no nodes between the low point and
the leading edge. The E214 tip airfoil will therefore have no coordinates from the
18% point to the leading edge. You would have a straight between these two points!
You could get around this problem by curve fitting seven new nodes between this
root airfoil low point and the leading edge, so that there are nodes available to
distribute along the bottom of the root airfoil. Under normal circumstances, this is
something you would realistically never run across.

[X] Match Coordinates - This function is somewhat like the Match Lobes option
above, except that all nodes are matched up one-to-one; not just the high and low
positions. As mentioned above, when CompuFoil executes a lofting, the X-
Coordinates of the root rib are mapped to the tip rib, and the new tip rib Y-
Coordinates computed. The root and tip nodes now are at the same percent location.
These nodes are now connected with imaginary mesh lines, node to node. When a rib
is lofted at a certain position, it's like slicing the mesh lines at that position. The
intersection of the mesh lines with the plane at this position become the
coordinates of the airfoil here. Now where this technique could fall short is you
have a feature at a certain percent location on the root that you want matched up
with a feature at a different percent location at the tip. If you set up your
coordinates such that the node numbers at these features are the same, and use
coordinate alignment, no mapping of tip coordinates will occur. Instead the mesh
lines will run to and from corresponding node numbers. In order for this to work
however, you must have an equal number of nodes at the root and tip airfoil.
Furthermore, the number of nodes on the tops of the root and tip as well as the
nodes on the bottoms of the root and tip airfoil must be equal. If they are not equal
in both manners, CompuFoil will inform you of this and default to the Straight
Lofting method. The Match Coordinates option works well for lofting a bulkhead
section.

Imagine instead of an airfoil shape you have the shape of a bulkhead. Your "Wing" is
instead your fuselage. By using lofting, you can generate the bulkheads from the
thickest part of the fuselage back to the tail in a straight taper. Two sample
bulkheads are supplied called BULKHD1.USR and BULKHD2.USR. Again, in order to
use this feature, you must have the same number of coordinates on each side of the
bulkhead in the "root" bulkhead as in the "tip" bulkhead. Enabling coordinate
alignment will match each corresponding coordinate point between the two
bulkheads. The lofting routine will then proceed like a cross-section of these
imaginary lines connecting these points.

Parameter Airfoil Parameters


Root/Tip Airfoil - These are the airfoils you wish to appear at the root/tip of the
individual wing panel. Click on the [...] button and you can choose your airfoil from
the file list box. You can also select the F12 key to bring up the file list box to
choose your airfoil. If you are generating a wing with multiple panels, and you wish
to only define the airfoil at the root of the inner panel and the tip airfoil on the last
panel, and have CompuFoil generate the appropriate shapes, leave the tip airfoil
selection blank. When you click on the [Add Panel] button, CompuFoil will fill in the
inner panel's tip airfoil name with {interp}. On the second panel, select the tip
airfoil name only and CompuFoil will again fill in the outer panel's root airfoil name
with {interp}.

Washout

Geometric Transition Checkbox– CompuFoil3D supports two different ways to


progress the washout from the root to the tip. The default is angular transition.
In this method, half way out to the tip of the wing, the washout will be half of the
tip washout. In other words, the degree of washout is proportional to the distance
to the end of the panel. For example, if you have a 20" panel with 4 degrees
washout, at 10" the rib would have 2 degrees, at 15", 3 degrees, etc. Although the
angular transition is linear, because the chord length might changes as you go from
root to tip, the trailing edge may take on a curved attitude.

The geometric transition makes the amount the trailing edge rises due to the
washout proportional to the distance in the wing. For instance, for the same wing, if
the tip chord is 6" and has 4 degrees of washout, the trailing edge elevated .28".
Geometric transitioning would set the angle of the rib at 10" such that the trailing
edge is elevated .14". The resulting wing would have an undefined angular transition
to the ribs, but a linear change in trailing edge elevation. When you view the tailing
edge edge-on, it will look to be rising in a straight line. In the case of elliptical,
modified elliptical, and planform from file, since these type wings have no definite
chord length at the tip, (after all, they have rounded tips so the chord is zero), the
tailing edge elevation of last rib in the wing is calculated based upon it’s location
within the wing panel. All ribs will have their washout calculated based upon its
location to the last rib.

Below are two screen shots from the CompuFoil3D rendering module. Picture 1
shows the trailing edge view of a highly washed out wing using the default angular
transition. Picture 2 shows the same wing with geometric transition.
Picure 1. Angular Transition

Picture 2. Geometric Transition

Inboard/Outboard - The washout will affect the angle of jig holes and the angle of
the template base. You can also force full depth spars to assume the washout angle
in the spar slot setup function. If you leave the Outboard value blank, (blank, not
zero), then when the second panel is created, and the second panel Inboard washout,
(which is the same as the first panel's Outboard washout), is also left blank, the
washout values for each rib will be transitioned between the two panels. You can
also force the angle of the leading edge to assume the computed washout angle of
the rib by checking the [X] Match L.E. to Washout Angle option.

When you have finished entering information, select the [OK] button. You may save
all of your lofting parameters for this wing by saving it as a .LFT (Loft) file.

CompuFoil also calculates the projected area as well as the surface area of the wing
panel.
Note: A file must be accessible from disk in order to use it in the interpolate
function. If you had previously modified an airfoil, you must save it to disk first,
and then use the Lofting functions. This also holds true for airfoils generated by
the NACA generator. Any airfoils used for lofting produced by the NACA generator
must be saved to disk first as either a .cor file or a .usr file.

Shortcuts

Toolbar:

Menu Item Generate/Lofted Individual Template


This function will produce a single template, either for foam construction use, or as
a single rib if you had previously selected the Use Rib Parameters function under
the Template menu. The individual template will automatically sized and shaped
according to its position, (lofted). This item can be accessed without having an
airfoil loaded into memory.

Hint: Note that the airfoils defined as the root and tip airfoils are loaded from disk.
Therefor, if you wish to use an airfoil recently modified, it must be saved to disk,
and that name then used for the root and/or tip.

This window has several data entry boxes:

Planform Style:

You may select different types panel shapes by selecting the different tabs:
Straight Taper, Planform from File, Elliptical, or Modified Elliptical. The titles
and availability of several of the text entry boxes are defined by which type is
chosen. Click on the tabs above for a screen shot of each item.

Lofting Types Description


Straight Taper

The straight tapered planform has straight leading and trailing edges with root
dimension the width of the Root Chord Length and tip dimension that of the Tip
Chord Length.

Planform from File

This is a new item in CompuFoil2000. You can now define the planform shape with a
file! Several sample planform files are available (.plf files). These files may be
edited in the full screen editor. This option allows the user great flexibility in that
you can now generate a complete set of lofted ribs to any planform shape. When
you select the [OK] button to begin lofting, you will be prompted if you would like
the thickness distribution of the wing to assume an elliptical shape. In other words,
if you planform is hourglass shaped, then the wing, viewed from the leading edge
would be hourglass shaped as well because the smaller airfoils in the middle would be
thinner in dimension. If you choose to assume an elliptical thickness transition, then
the thickness of each rib would be adjusted to give a smooth thickness taper. Note
that this will modify the airfoil however! The percent thickness of the smaller
airfoils that would normally have had a thin dimension will be greatly increased to
assume the proper absolute thickness.

Elliptical Planform

The elliptical planform has the shape of a true ellipse. The Root Chord Length
determines the width of the ellipse, (also known as the minor diameter). The panel
length determines what the half-length of the ellipse is, (also known as the major
diameter). The tip airfoil acts as a shape modifier. The thickness distribution along
the length of the panel is forced to an elliptical thickness distribution as well.

Modified Elliptical Planform

When you select the Modified Elliptical Planform, you must enter two values for
chord lengths, both Leading Edge chord length and Trailing Edge Chord length.
These two lengths correspond to each of the two minor diameters of the two
ellipses that the planform is made of. The leading edge half of the wing is of a
shape from one half of one ellipse, and the trailing edge has the shape of one half of
the other ellipse. As an example, if 10" is entered for the L.E. chord length, and 6"
in entered as the T.E. chord length, you are saying that an ellipse with a minor
diameter of 10" has been split in half and makes up the leading edge half, and an
ellipse of 6" minor diameter has been split in half and makes up the trailing edge
half of the wing. The resulting chord length of the planform is one half of each of
the two minor diameters, or 10" x .5 + 6" x .5 which gives 8".

Wing Panel Parameters option box:

Panel length - This is the length of the finished wing panel. Note that in the case of
a multi-tapered wing, each section must be treated and generated individually as a
wing panel.

Panel Break - This is the distance from the root rib to point in the wing panel where
you wish to have your template produced.

Planform File Name

This option is only visible with Planform from File, Elliptical, and Modified
Elliptical lofting types.

This option allows you to select a user defined planform shape to loft against. The
.plf file is very similar to a airfoil coordinate file. The coordinates describe a wing
shape with the leading edge up and the tip of the wing to the left. As is the case
with coordinate files, the x coordinates run from zero to one.
Force Thickness Distribution Group

This option is only visible with Planform from File, Elliptical, and Modified
Elliptical lofting types.

There are three options available:

1. Elliptical Thickness Distribution – This type will take the actual thickness of
the root, and then taper the wing thickness such that when you look at it
from the front, it will have a smooth elliptically shaped thickness profile.
In the case of elliptical and modified elliptical wings, each rib will have the
same percent thickness. The thickness of the chosen tip rib will have no
effect on the thicknesses of the ribs.

2. Chord Length Progression – This type will take the percent thickness of the
tip airfoil into account.
The rib’s percent thickness will be determined by how long it is as
compared to the root airfoil’s thickness. The closer the chord length of
the rib is to the chord length of the root, the close it will be to the root
airfoil’s percent thickness.
For example, say the root is 10" chord, and 10% thick, and the tip is 30%
thick, and the rib in question is 8" chord. The proportion is 8/10 or .8. So
the root thickness will have 80% influence and the tip thickness only 20%
influence. There is a 30% difference in thickness from root to tip. The rib
will have 10% + (.2 * 20%) = 14% thickness applied to it.

3. Linear Progression – This type will take the percent thickness of the tip
airfoil into account.
The rib’s percent thickness will be determined by its position in the wing
only. If the rib is at the halfway point in the wing, the it’s percent
thickness will be halfway between that of the root and tip airfoils.

Panel Sweep Section -

(Defined by L.E. Offset/Defined by Main Spar Distances) These two choices


affect what is currently visible in the window. Note that with the Planform From
File, Elliptical, and Modified Elliptical planform styles, this selection item does not
exist since the planform style itself determine the planform geometry.

Defined by L.E. Offsets allows you to define the planform by either the offset of
the root and tip leading edges, or by the angle that the leading edge makes to the
line perpendicular to the fuselage line. The leading edge offsets are known as the
Sweep of the wing. CompuFoil documentation uses these two terms interchangeably.
You can have CompuFoil compute the proper angle or sweep to achieve a planform
where the trailing edge is perpendicular to the fuselage centerline by clicking on the
[Compute Sweep for Straight T.E.] button.
Defined by Main Spar Distances allows you to define the distances from the
panels’ root and tip leading edges to the main spar which dictates the alignment of
the ribs, and therefore the planform shape, (referred to by CompuFoil as the
Alignment Spar ). The alignment spar location is also utilized by spar slots and/or
building jig holes. In the case of the elliptical sections, the alignment spar placement
is referenced from the elliptical alignment line, (this line is drawn for the purpose of
placing the ribs to achieve the proper elliptical planform). Remember that the
leading edge of the airfoil is at the origin, so a negative number will set the spar to
the left of the elliptical alignment line. You will need to define the geometry of the
spar in the Spar Setup function under the Airfoil Menu.

Lofting Method:

This section allows you to select one of three lofting methods:

[X] Straight Lofting - This is the most common method of lofting, and yields the
most consistent results. However, depending on how different the high and low
point positions between the root and tip rib are, it may not be the most accurate.
This method maps new Y-coordinates for the tip rib based on the root rib X-
coordinates. In other words, both root and tip rib will contain the same raw X-
coordinate values. When lofting, these points between the root and tip are then
connected by mesh lines. The intersection between the mesh lines and the rib
position then becomes that rib's coordinates. However, consider if your root rib
has its high point at 25% and the tip rib has its high spot at 50%. When lofting, you
would expect that once all of the cut ribs are laid out, there would be a consistent
"bulge" from the root high spot to the tip high spot. But using this method, this will
not be the case. If you have very dissimilar airfoils in this respect, you should use
the Match Lobes method below.

[X] Match Lobes - In this method, the high spot of the root and tip rib stay in the
same position and are matched up. The remaining tip x-coordinates are spaced
proportionately around this high point, based on the root airfoils x-coordinate
distribution. The same is done for the bottom surfaces. In this manner, the "bulge"
or lobes, as described in the Straight Lofting method above, will be properly lined
up. Once again, there is a short fall to this method. Consider a tip airfoil such as an
Eppler 214, which has as it's low spot a position of about 18%, and it's node at this
point is has seven points between it and the leading edge. Now say as a root airfoil,
you have an airfoil with bottom surface totally under cambered. The low point of
the airfoil may well be at about 1%, and it may perhaps be the very first node after
the leading edge. When this airfoil pair is lofted, the low node of the root airfoil is
matched up with the low node of the E214. When CompuFoil goes to distribute the
remaining X-coordinates on the tip, there are no nodes between the low point and
the leading edge. The E214 tip airfoil will therefore have no coordinates from the
18% point to the leading edge. You would have a straight between these two points!
You could get around this problem by curve fitting seven new nodes between this
root airfoil low point and the leading edge, so that there are nodes available to
distribute along the bottom of the root airfoil. Under normal circumstances, this is
something you would realistically never run across.

[X] Match Coordinates - This function is somewhat like the Match Lobes option
above, except that all nodes are matched up one-to-one; not just the high and low
positions. As mentioned above, when CompuFoil executes a lofting, the X-
Coordinates of the root rib are mapped to the tip rib, and the new tip rib Y-
Coordinates computed. The root and tip nodes now are at the same percent location.
These nodes are now connected with imaginary mesh lines, node to node. When a rib
is lofted at a certain position, it's like slicing the mesh lines at that position. The
intersection of the mesh lines with the plane at this position become the
coordinates of the airfoil here. Now where this technique could fall short is you
have a feature at a certain percent location on the root that you want matched up
with a feature at a different percent location at the tip. If you set up your
coordinates such that the node numbers at these features are the same, and use
coordinate alignment, no mapping of tip coordinates will occur. Instead the mesh
lines will run to and from corresponding node numbers. In order for this to work
however, you must have an equal number of nodes at the root and tip airfoil.
Furthermore, the number of nodes on the tops of the root and tip as well as the
nodes on the bottoms of the root and tip airfoil must be equal. If they are not equal
in both manners, CompuFoil will inform you of this and default to the Straight
Lofting method. The Match Coordinates option works well for lofting a bulkhead
section.
Imagine instead of an airfoil shape you have the shape of a bulkhead. Your "Wing" is
instead your fuselage. By using lofting, you can generate the bulkheads from the
thickest part of the fuselage back to the tail in a straight taper. Two sample
bulkheads are supplied called BULKHD1.USR and BULKHD2.USR. Again, in order to
use this feature, you must have the same number of coordinates on each side of the
bulkhead in the "root" bulkhead as in the "tip" bulkhead. Enabling coordinate
alignment will match each corresponding coordinate point between the two
bulkheads. The lofting routine will then proceed like a cross-section of these
imaginary lines connecting these points.

Parameter Airfoil Parameters

Root/Tip Airfoil - These are the airfoils you wish to appear at the root/tip of the
individual wing panel. Click on the [...] button and you can choose your airfoil from
the file list box. You can also select the F12 key to bring up the file list box to
choose your airfoil. If you are generating a wing with multiple panels, and you wish
to only define the airfoil at the root of the inner panel and the tip airfoil on the last
panel, and have CompuFoil generate the appropriate shapes, leave the tip airfoil
selection blank. When you click on the [Add Panel] button, CompuFoil will fill in the
inner panel's tip airfoil name with {interp}. On the second panel, select the tip
airfoil name only and CompuFoil will again fill in the outer panel's root airfoil name
with {interp}.
Chord Parameters - These are the chord lengths you wish to have at the root/tip
end of the panel. The root end of the panel is the Inboard chord, as this is
typically the larger chord, and the tip chord is the Outboard chord. Note that
unlike previous versions of CompuFoil, you can have a larger Outboard chord than
Inboard chord.

In the case of the Elliptical planform style, there will be no tip chord entry. For the
Modified Elliptical type the chord lengths define the minor axis chord lengths of
the two ellipses that make up the modified elliptical planform. As you add panels to
your wing, the root chord length will automatically be the same as the tip chord for
the panel just inboard of the current panel. Changing the root chord will therefore
also change the tip chord for the panel just inboard of the current panel.

Panel Number

Here you can select the [Add Panel] button to initialize another panel. Note that
you have to have the inboard panel defined first, then work you way out to the tip of
the wing. As you add panels, the root and tip chord for the current panel will be the
same as the tip chord of the last panel. The same holds true for the Alignment Spar
value. Simply change these to what you wish. You can change the root alignment
spar value for panel #2 without affecting the value of tip alignment spar of panel
#1. However, any main spars defined to snap to the alignment spar locations will not
be continuous.

To delete the last panel in the wing, simply select the [Delete Panel] button.

Washout

Geometric Transition Checkbox– CompuFoil3D supports two different ways to


progress the washout from the root to the tip. The default is angular transition.
In this method, half way out to the tip of the wing, the washout will be half of the
tip washout. In other words, the degree of washout is proportional to the distance
to the end of the panel. For example, if you have a 20" panel with 4 degrees
washout, at 10" the rib would have 2 degrees, at 15", 3 degrees, etc. Although the
angular transition is linear, because the chord length might changes as you go from
root to tip, the trailing edge may take on a curved attitude.

The geometric transition makes the amount the trailing edge rises due to the
washout proportional to the distance in the wing. For instance, for the same wing, if
the tip chord is 6" and has 4 degrees of washout, the trailing edge elevated .28".
Geometric transitioning would set the angle of the rib at 10" such that the trailing
edge is elevated .14". The resulting wing would have an undefined angular transition
to the ribs, but a linear change in trailing edge elevation. When you view the tailing
edge edge-on, it will look to be rising in a straight line. In the case of elliptical,
modified elliptical, and planform from file, since these type wings have no definite
chord length at the tip, (after all, they have rounded tips so the chord is zero), the
tailing edge elevation of last rib in the wing is calculated based upon it’s location
within the wing panel. All ribs will have their washout calculated based upon its
location to the last rib.

Below are two screen shots from the CompuFoil3D rendering module. Picture 1
shows the trailing edge view of a highly washed out wing using the default angular
transition. Picture 2 shows the same wing with geometric transition.

Picure 1. Angular Transition

Picture 2. Geometric Transition

Inboard/Outboard - The washout will affect the angle of jig holes and the angle of
trailing edge building tabs. This allows you to build in the washout right on the
building jig! Note however that your cutting of the holes must be VERY accurate.
You may get better results by simply twisting the jig rods. You can also force full
depth spars to assume the washout angle in the spar slot setup function. If you
leave the Outboard value blank, (blank, not zero), then when the second panel is
created, and the second panel Inboard washout, (which is the same as the first
panel's Outboard washout), is also left blank, the washout values for each rib will be
transitioned between the two panels. You can also force the angle of the leading
edge to assume the computed washout angle of the rib by checking the [X] Match
L.E. to Washout Angle option.

When you have finished entering information, select the [OK] button. You may save
all of your lofting parameters for this wing by saving it as a .LFT (Loft) file, or only
the resulting template by saving it as a .tpl file.

CompuFoil also calculates the projected area as well as the surface area of the wing
panel.

Note: A file must be accessible from disk in order to use it in the interpolate
function. If you had previously modified an airfoil, you must save it to disk first,
and then use the Lofting functions. This also holds true for airfoils generated by
the NACA generator. Any airfoils used for lofting produced by the NACA generator
must be saved to disk first as either a .cor file or a .usr file.

Shortcuts

Toolbar:

Menu Item Generate/Lofted Multiple Panel Foam Template Set


With this function, you can automatically create foam templates for multiple foam
panel sets. This function replaces the original CompuFoil's function of Lofted Two
Panel Template Set. This function has been enhanced to allow you to produce more
than just two panels. Normally you could simply load and airfoil, adjust the chord
length and print for the individual templates that you need for each panel. This
function does two things that you cannot do by the conventional method. First off,
you can elect to automatically adjust the template height so that the top surface of
the airfoil at each template position is the same height as that of the root airfoil.
The other special item it performs you can define only the first panel's root airfoil
and the last panel's tip airfoil, (they can be different), and CompuFoil will calculate
the airfoil shape and size at the required template positions.

Hint: Note that the airfoils defined as the root and tip airfoils are loaded from disk.
Therefore, if you wish to use an airfoil recently modified, it must be saved to disk,
and that name then used for the root and/or tip.

This window has several data entry boxes:

Wing Panel Parameters option box:


Panel length - This is the length of the finished wing panel. Note that in the case of
a multi-tapered wing, each section must be treated and generated individually as a
wing panel.

[X]Automatically adjust the template heights to create a straight top wing


surface - This function forces the height of the template such that the top of the
airfoil is at the same elevation as that of the root airfoil high point.

Dihedral Angle

The panel dihedral angle will tilt the panel upwards for positive values. This will only
affect the 3D rendering of the wing. The ribs always stay perpendicular to the
centerline of the panel.

Panel Sweep Section

(Defined by L.E. Offset/Defined by Main Spar Distances) These two choices affect
what is visible. Note that with the Planform From File, Elliptical, and Modified
Elliptical planform styles, this item does not exist since the planform style itself
determine the planform geometry.

Defined by L.E. Offsets allows you to define the planform by either the offset of
the root and tip leading edges, or by the angle that the leading edge makes to the
line perpendicular to the fuselage line. The leading edge offsets are known as the
Sweep of the wing. CompuFoil documentation uses these two terms interchangeably.
You can have CompuFoil compute the proper angle or sweep to achieve a planform
where the trailing edge is perpendicular to the fuselage centerline by clicking on the
[Compute Sweep for Straight T.E.] button.

Defined by Main Spar Distances allows you to define the distances from the
panels’ root and tip leading edges to the main spar which dictates the alignment of
the ribs, and therefore the planform shape, (referred to by CompuFoil as the
Alignment Spar ). The alignment spar location is also utilized by spar slots and/or
building jig holes. In the case of the elliptical sections, the alignment spar placement
is referenced from the elliptical alignment line, (this line is drawn for the purpose of
placing the ribs to achieve the proper elliptical planform). Remember that the
leading edge of the airfoil is at the origin, so a negative number will set the spar to
the left of the elliptical alignment line. You will need to define the geometry of the
spar in the Spar Setup function under the Airfoil menu.

Lofting Method:

This section allows you to select one of three lofting methods:

[X] Straight Lofting - This is the most common method of lofting, and yields the
most consistent results. However, depending on how different the high and low
point positions between the root and tip rib are, it may not be the most accurate.
This method maps new Y-coordinates for the tip rib based on the root rib X-
coordinates. In other words, both root and tip rib will contain the same raw X-
coordinate values. When lofting, these points between the root and tip are then
connected by mesh lines. The intersection between the mesh lines and the rib
position then becomes that rib's coordinates. However, consider if your root rib
has its high point at 25% and the tip rib has its high spot at 50%. When lofting, you
would expect that once all of the cut ribs are laid out, there would be a consistent
"bulge" from the root high spot to the tip high spot. But using this method, this will
not be the case. If you have very dissimilar airfoils in this respect, you should use
the Match Lobes method below.

[X] Match Lobes - In this method, the high spot of the root and tip rib stay in the
same position and are matched up. The remaining tip x-coordinates are spaced
proportionately around this high point, based on the root airfoils x-coordinate
distribution. The same is done for the bottom surfaces. In this manner, the "bulge"
or lobes, as described in the Straight Lofting method above, will be properly lined
up. Once again, there is a short fall to this method. Consider a tip airfoil such as an
Eppler 214, which has as it's low spot a position of about 18%, and it's node at this
point is has seven points between it and the leading edge. Now say as a root airfoil,
you have an airfoil with bottom surface totally under cambered. The low point of
the airfoil may well be at about 1%, and it may perhaps be the very first node after
the leading edge. When this airfoil pair is lofted, the low node of the root airfoil is
matched up with the low node of the E214. When CompuFoil goes to distribute the
remaining X-coordinates on the tip, there are no nodes between the low point and
the leading edge. The E214 tip airfoil will therefore have no coordinates from the
18% point to the leading edge. You would have a straight between these two points!
You could get around this problem by curve fitting seven new nodes between this
root airfoil low point and the leading edge, so that there are nodes available to
distribute along the bottom of the root airfoil. Under normal circumstances, this is
something you would realistically never run across.

[X] Match Coordinates - This function is somewhat like the Match Lobes option
above, except that all nodes are matched up one-to-one; not just the high and low
positions. As mentioned above, when CompuFoil executes a lofting, the X-
Coordinates of the root rib are mapped to the tip rib, and the new tip rib Y-
Coordinates computed. The root and tip nodes now are at the same percent location.
These nodes are now connected with imaginary mesh lines, node to node. When a rib
is lofted at a certain position, it's like slicing the mesh lines at that position. The
intersection of the mesh lines with the plane at this position become the
coordinates of the airfoil here. Now where this technique could fall short is you
have a feature at a certain percent location on the root that you want matched up
with a feature at a different percent location at the tip. If you set up your
coordinates such that the node numbers at these features are the same, and use
coordinate alignment, no mapping of tip coordinates will occur. Instead the mesh
lines will run to and from corresponding node numbers. In order for this to work
however, you must have an equal number of nodes at the root and tip airfoil.
Furthermore, the number of nodes on the tops of the root and tip as well as the
nodes on the bottoms of the root and tip airfoil must be equal. If they are not equal
in both manners, CompuFoil will inform you of this and default to the Straight
Lofting method. The Match Coordinates option works well for lofting a bulkhead
section.
Imagine instead of an airfoil shape you have the shape of a bulkhead. Your "Wing" is
instead your fuselage. By using lofting, you can generate the bulkheads from the
thickest part of the fuselage back to the tail in a straight taper. Two sample
bulkheads are supplied called BULKHD1.USR and BULKHD2.USR. Again, in order to
use this feature, you must have the same number of coordinates on each side of the
bulkhead in the "root" bulkhead as in the "tip" bulkhead. Enabling coordinate
alignment will match each corresponding coordinate point between the two
bulkheads. The lofting routine will then proceed like a cross-section of these
imaginary lines connecting these points.

Parameter Airfoil Parameters

Root/Tip Airfoil - These are the airfoils you wish to appear at the root/tip of the
individual wing panel. Click on the [...] button and you can choose your airfoil from
the file list box. You can also select the F12 key to bring up the file list box to
choose your airfoil. If you are generating a wing with multiple panels, and you wish
to only define the airfoil at the root of the inner panel and the tip airfoil on the last
panel, and have CompuFoil generate the appropriate shapes, leave the tip airfoil
selection blank. When you click on the [Add Panel] button, CompuFoil will fill in the
inner panel's tip airfoil name with {interp}. On the second panel, select the tip
airfoil name only and CompuFoil will again fill in the outer panel's root airfoil name
with {}.

Chord Parameters - These are the chord lengths you wish to have at the root/tip
end of the panel. The root end of the panel is the Inboard chord, as this is
typically the larger chord, and the tip chord is the Outboard chord. Note that
unlike previous versions of CompuFoil, you can have a larger Outboard chord than
Inboard chord.

In the case of the Elliptical planform style, there will be no tip chord entry. For the
Modified Elliptical type the chord lengths define the minor axis chord lengths of
the two ellipses that make up the modified elliptical planform. As you add panels to
your wing, the root chorf0 f0 d length will automatically be the same as the tip
chord for the panel just inboard of the current panel. Changing the root chord will
therefore also change the tip chord for the panel just inboard of the current panel.

Panel Number

Here you can select the [Add Panel] button to initialize another panel. Note that
you have to have the inboard panel defined first, then work you way out to the tip of
the wing. As you add panels, the root and tip chord for the current panel will be the
same as the tip chord of the last panel. The same holds true for the Alignment Spar
value. Simply change these to what you wish. You can change the root alignment
spar value for panel #2 without affecting the value of tip alignment spar of panel
#1. However, any main spars defined to snap to the alignment spar locations will not
be continuous.
The [Insert {Panel] button will insert a panel in front of the currently selected
panel.

To delete the last panel in the wing, simply select the [Delete Panel] button.

Washout

Geometric Transition Checkbox– CompuFoil3D supports two different ways to


progress the washout from the root to the tip. The default is angular transition.
In this method, half way out to the tip of the wing, the washout will be half of the
tip washout. In other words, the degree of washout is proportional to the distance
to the end of the panel. For example, if you have a 20" panel with 4 degrees
washout, at 10" the rib would have 2 degrees, at 15", 3 degrees, etc. Although the
angular transition is linear, because the chord length might changes as you go from
root to tip, the trailing edge may take on a curved attitude.

The geometric transition makes the amount the trailing edge rises due to the
washout proportional to the distance in the wing. For instance, for the same wing, if
the tip chord is 6" and has 4 degrees of washout, the trailing edge elevated .28".
Geometric transitioning would set the angle of the rib at 10" such that the trailing
edge is elevated .14". The resulting wing would have an undefined angular transition
to the ribs, but a linear change in trailing edge elevation. When you view the tailing
edge edge-on, it will look to be rising in a straight line. In the case of elliptical,
modified elliptical, and planform from file, since these type wings have no definite
chord length at the tip, (after all, they have rounded tips so the chord is zero), the
tailing edge elevation of last rib in the wing is calculated based upon it’s location
within the wing panel. All ribs will have their washout calculated based upon its
location to the last rib.

Below are two screen shots from the CompuFoil3D rendering module. Picture 1
shows the trailing edge view of a highly washed out wing using the default angular
transition. Picture 2 shows the same wing with geometric transition.
Picure 1. Angular Transition

Picture 2. Geometric Transition

Inboard/Outboard - The washout will affect the angle of the template base. You
can also force full depth spars to assume the washout angle in the spar slot setup
function. If you leave the Outboard value blank, (blank, not zero), then when the
second panel is created, and the second panel Inboard washout, (which is the same
as the first panel's Outboard washout), is also left blank, the washout values for
each rib will be transitioned between the two panels. You can also force the angle of
the leading edge to assume the computed washout angle of the rib by checking the
[X] Match L.E. to Washout Angle option.

When you have finished entering information, select the [OK] button. You may save
all of your lofting parameters for this wing by saving it as a .LFT (Loft) file.

CompuFoil also calculates the projected area as well as the surface area of the wing
panel.

Note: A file must be accessible from disk in order to use it in the interpolate
function. If you had previously modified an airfoil, you must save it to disk first,
and then use the Lofting functions. This also holds true for airfoils generated by
the NACA generator. Any airfoils used for lofting produced by the NACA generator
must be saved to disk first as either a .cor file or a .usr file.

Shortcuts

Toolbar:
Menu Item Generate/N.A.C.A. Airfoils
Note! Be sure to read the special note on the N.A.C.A. airfoils created by
CompuFoil.

This function will bring up a tabbed dialog box where you can create either four,
modified four, sixteen, five, modified five, or six digit N.A.C.A. Airfoils. The
coordinates are created in memory only. If you wish to use the selected airfoil
within CompuFoil's Lofting features, you must save the airfoil to disk first. You can
do this by selecting the Save button, or by selecting the Use button, and then
performing a File|Save As operation.

Four Digit Airfoils

Defined by four digits, the first digit defines the camber, second the camber
position, and third and fourth define the airfoil thickness.

Four Digit Modified Airfoils

The four digit modified airfoils are the same as the four digit, but have two
modifier options. Modifier1 alters the curvature of the leading edge area and
Modifier2 alters the thickness at the trailing edge section.

Sixteen Digit Airfoils

The sixteen digit airfoils are essentially Four Digit Modified airfoils with the
modifiers being four and five.

Five Digit Airfoils

The first three numbers are simply the airfoil class, which define the shape. The
fourth and fifth digits define the airfoil thickness.

Five Digit Modified Airfoils

These are Five Digit airfoils with a dual modifier. The first modifier...

Six Digit Airfoils

The six digit airfoils are classified as laminar flow airfoils. As such, they have a
very low drag coefficient. However, they have a corresponding very sharp increase
in drag coefficient at certain +/- angles of attack. The width of this laminar flow
region is called the drag bucket.

The first two numbers define the airfoil series, which classifies its shape. The
third number is not given by CompuFoil. It defaults to an "x" inserted after the
series. The third number is an empirically derived number specifying the width of
drag bucket. The fourth number defines the designed coefficient of lift. The fifth
and sixth numbers define the airfoil thickness.
Note that the airfoils will be generated in memory only. If you wish to retain the
coordinates, you will need to save the file. It is recommended that the coordinates
be saved as .COR files. (The .COR, .USR, and .INV extension are supplied for the
user to help organize his files. They are no different in format). This is needed if
you are generating the airfoils for use in CompuFoil's lofting routines for creating
full sets of ribs for instance.

Shortcuts

Toolbar:

Special Note on NACA Airfoils


Please read this section carefully. It describes the special handling of N.A.C.A.
airfoils created with CompuFoil's N.A.C.A. generator.

For sake of discussion, I will refer to the four, five and six digit airfoils generated
by CompuFoil as simply the N.A.C.A. airfoils. CompuFoil creates N.A.C.A. airfoils
true to the N.A.C.A. airfoil equations and generates the coordinates using a full
cosine node distribution. This means that you will have a denser grouping of nodes
at the leading and trailing edges of the airfoils, with a default total of 120 nodes,
giving you a very, very smooth airfoil.
Traditionally, the forward most point of the airfoil, (the nose), is the leading edge.
In terms of coordinate files, this leading edge has a coordinate of zero-zero, with
the trailing edge at one-zero. The mean camber line of these traditional airfoils run
from the trailing edge to the leading edge.

N.A.C.A. airfoils define their leading edges with a circle, with one point on the circle
at the leading edge. In the case of a cambered N.A.C.A., the circle is rotated about
this point. If you visualize this rotated circle, you will realize that the circle now
extends forward of the leading edge point around which it is pivoting. In other
words, the leading edge is not the nose of the airfoil.

This anomaly poses induces some constraints in managing the airfoil. First off, if
you have selected the airfoil to be ten inches in length, it would be scaled ten inches
from the trailing edge to the leading edge. However the real length of the airfoil
will be longer than ten inches since it goes from the trailing edge to the nose of the
airfoil, (which remember extends forward of the leading edge). What CompuFoil
does for you is re-scale the airfoil such that the nose of the airfoil is at the back at
the zero x coordinate, but remains at the proper y-coordinate position. This then
forces the leading edge to go from the traditional zero-X, zero-Y point to non-zero-
X and zero-Y coordinates.

The mean camber line extends from the trailing edge of the N.A.C.A. airfoil to the
leading edge, (which again, as a reminder, is NOT the forward most point!).
CompuFoil makes extensive use of mean camber lines for among other things,
thickness and camber modifications. Despite the odd location of the leading edge,
the mean camber line is easy to compute due to the fact that corresponding top and
bottom nodes are generated by the N.A.C.A. airfoil equation that converge on the
leading edge. The mean camber line is therefor defined be the midpoint between
corresponding top and bottom coordinate points. This leads to the next important
considerations.

Since the mean camber line is an important part of many of CompuFoil's


computations, and it is defined by corresponding top and bottom mathematically
defined nodes, performing a deletion or insertion of new nodes would destroy this
needed consistency. Therefore, when a N.A.C.A. airfoil is created with the N.A.C.A.
Generator, modifications that disturb this node pairing is not allowed. This includes
coordinate point deletion & insertion, combining of airfoils, replacing the thickness
profile, or mirroring a surface. You CAN modify the airfoil's thickness and camber,
but the resulting airfoil will only be a close approximation to the airfoil you would
get if you used the NACA generator to produce the airfoil at the correct thickness
and camber in the first place.

If you wish to have more nodes created, you can add a line in the [Settings] section
of the CompuFoil initialization file, found in the Windows directory:
NumberOfNacaStations = XX, where XX is the number of nodes along the top and
bottom surface, (i.e., with the default 60 stations, you would have a total of 121
nodes including the leading edge node.) Setting this value too high will result in slow
performance, and a much greater increase in memory requirements. In order to use
values over 120, you must also override CompuFoil's default of 250 total nodes by
adding the line MaxNodes = XXX to the settings section. Make XXX twice the
number given to the NumberOfNacaStations plus ten.

CompuFoil will create the normal chord line for you. In addition, a special reference
line from the trailing edge to the nose of the N.A.C.A. airfoil will be created using a
dash-dot-dash type line. This line lives in conjunction with the chord line. When the
chord line is toggled off, so will the "nose line" be hidden from view.

Since one of the rules of the CompuFoil airfoil format is that the leading edge lives
at the zero-zero point, a special file type had to be created in order to retain the
leading edge position information when you store an airfoil or template created with
the N.A.C.A. generator. Specifically, the text file of the coordinates starts with
the line:

XX=NACALEPT

Where XX is the coordinate number pair that defines where the leading edge is.
Menu .DXF File
Menu Item Generate/CNC type Outline .DXF File

The .dxf file created by this utility is on a single layer, and is composed of one
polyline. The polyline image is the outline only of the airfoil(s). This is in contrast
to Full .DXF file of Current option where your dxf file contains the full image of you
patterns. There are several options that override the default dxf output settings.

Extra Output Settings: Include Items -Select which items you wish to include in
the dxf output. All items will have their dimensions affected by the Cutter
Allowance setting.

Extra Output Settings: Misc. Items –

Use Arcs for Round Holes – Normally CompuFoil3D will save holes as a
polyline. Selecting this option will force CompuFoil3D to use the ARC entity
type in the .dxf file for round holes.
Maintain Planform Alignment – Unchecked, the ribs will have their noses
aligned long the left edge. When checked, they will be offset according to
the wing sweep.
Generate Ribs in 3D – Unchecked, the ribs will be laid out flat on the
screen. Checked, the ribs will be generated into the screen, in a three
dimensional manner.
Keep 0,0 Position at Rib#1 Nose - If selected the nose of the first rib
will be at 0,0. Unselected, the rib will be elevated such that it exists
above the X Axis.
3D CNC Axis Swap - If selected, the Y-Axis will go from front to back,
and the Z-Axis is up and down. Unselected, the Z-Axis will go from front
to back, and the Y-Axis is up and down.
Adjust for Dihedral - If selected and ribs are generated in 3D, the airfoil
will be elevated according to the dihedral angle.
Adjust for Washout - If selected, the airfoil angle will be adjusted
according to the washout angle.
Generate all Lines in One Layer - Normally, different items are placed on
several different CNC .dxf layers, depending on their type. Selecting this
option will cause all lines to generated on the first layer.

Cutter Allowance – This dimension is in effect the radius of the cutter. Entering in
a dimension will offset the lines by that amount, and circles will lose that much
radius.

Default Directory – This setting will determine the location that CompuFoil saves
your CNC-DXF outline files to.

Surface Selection – Here you select which surface, or both, you would like
generated in the .dxf file. Note that if you are generating a foam template, you
cannot select both surfaces to be generated.

Scale – Adjust this number to enlarge or reduce the size of generated items in the
.dxf file

Gap Between Ribs – This is the gap placed between the ribs in the .dxf file.

X and Y Offsets – These values will shift the image in the .dxf file.

Toolbar:
Menu Item Generate/Full .DXF File of Current View

With CompuFoil, you can easily create .DXF files of your leading edge shaping guide,
foam template, or full sets of ribs. The contents of the .DXF file will be whatever
of the before mentioned items is currently displayed.

What is a .DXF file anyway? Well, this is a file format that many different
programs recognize. You can produce and import this file into many popular CAD
programs as well as automated laser and mechanical cutting machines. You will be
presented with a window requesting a file name to create the .DXF file as.

Maintain Planform Alignment – Unchecked, the ribs will have their noses aligned
long the left edge. When checked, they will be offset according to the wing
sweep.
Keep 0,0 Position at Rib#1 Nose - If selected the nose of the first rib will be
at 0,0. Unselected, the rib will be elevated such that it exists above the X Axis.
Generate Ribs in 3D – Unchecked, the ribs will be laid out flat on the screen.
Checked, the ribs will be generated into the screen, in a three dimensional
manner.
Generate all Lines in One Layer - Normally, different items are placed on
several different CNC .dxf layers, depending on their type. Selecting this option
will cause all lines to be generated on the first layer.
Panel Option – This option is only available when you are in planform view. You
may select which panel, left, right, or both, will be included in the dxf file.
Scale – Adjust this number to enlarge or reduce the size of generated items in
the .dxf file

Gap Between Ribs – This is the gap placed between the ribs in the .dxf file.

X and Y Offsets – These values will shift the image in the .dxf file.

Shortcuts

Toolbar:

Menu Item Settings/.DXF Output Settings


The .DXF settings window allows you to alter several parameters of the .dxf file
created by either the Full .DXF file of Current View or CNC type Outline .DXF file
options. This option is also available under the Generate|.DXF File menu.

CNC-DXF Outline Settings

Extra Output Settings: Include Items -Select which items you wish to include in
the dxf output. All items will have their dimensions affected by the Cutter
Allowance setting.

Use Arcs for Round Holes – Normally CompuFoil3D will save holes as a polyline.
Selecting this option will force CompuFoil3D to use the ARC entity type in the .dxf
file for round holes.

Maintain Planform Alignment – Unchecked, the ribs will have their noses aligned
long the left edge. When checked, they will be offset according to the wing sweep.

Generate Ribs in 3D – Unchecked, the ribs will be laid out flat on the screen.
Checked, the ribs will be generated into the screen, in a three dimensional manner.

Keep 0,0 Position at Rib#1 Nose - If selected the nose of the first rib will be at
0,0. Unselected, the rib will be elevated such that it exists above the X Axis.

3D CNC Axis Swap - If selected, the Y-Axis will go from front to back, and the Z-
Axis is up and down. Unselected, the Z-Axis will go from front to back, and the Y-
Axis is up and down.

Adjust for Dihedral - If selected and ribs are generated in 3D, the airfoil will be
elevated according to the dihedral angle.

Adjust for Washout - If selected, the airfoil angle will be adjusted according to
the washout angle.
Generate all Lines in One Layer - Normally, different items are placed on several
different CNC .dxf layers, depending on their type. Selecting this option will cause
all lines to be generated on the first layer.

Surface Selection – Here you select which surface, or both, you would like
generated in the .dxf file. Note that if you are generating a foam template, you
cannot select both surfaces to be generated.

Cutter Allowance – This dimension is in effect the radius of the cutter. Entering in
a dimension will offset the lines by that amount, and circles will lose that much
radius.

Default Directory – This setting will determine the location that CompuFoil saves
your CNC-DXF outline files to.

Normal DXF Generation Settings

Default Directory – This setting will determine the location that CompuFoil saves
your DXF files to.

Planform Generation – This option is only available when you are in planform view.
You may select which panel, left, right, or both, will be included in the dxf file.

Generate all Lines in One Layer - Normally, different items are placed on several
different CNC .dxf layers, depending on their type. Selecting this option will cause
all lines to generate on the first layer.

Common DXF Generation Settings

X-Offset – This setting will shift the generated dxf items horizontally.

Y-Offset – This setting will shift the generated dxf items vertically.

Gap Between Ribs – This setting will alter how much space is allotted between the
rib images.

Scale – This setting will in effect multiply all dimensions by this amount.

Maintain Planform Alignment - Unchecked, the ribs will have their noses aligned
long the left edge. When checked, they will be offset according to the wing sweep.

Generate Ribs in 3D – Unchecked, the ribs will be laid out flat on the screen.
Checked, the ribs will be generated into the screen, in a three dimensional manner.
Wizards
Utilities Menu
Menu Item Utilities/Feather-Cut Calculator
The Feather/Cut® Calculator calculates the swing arm wire position based upon the
root and tip panel chord lengths, the panel length, and the distance between the
wires on the bow. These numbers, except for the distance between the wires, will
automatically be filled in for you after generating a lofted section of straight taper.
The Feather/Cut® is a device which can automatically cut your cores, hands off.
The Feather/Cut® is available directly from SoarSoft Software. Visit our web site
at http://www.compufoil.com to see a description, prices, and pictures of the
Feather/Cut®.

Toolbar Shortcut:

Menu Item Utilities/Weight Estimations


Weight Estimations are conducted based upon the surface areas and volumes
calculated using a lofting function. You must supply the Foam Density and Basis
Weight of the sheeting material. This feature is not available when generating a
lofted rib set from a user-defined planform.

Menu Item Utilities/Calculator

This function will invoke the CompuFoil calculator, CFCALC.EXE. You can do your
calculations and then use the [Copy] button on the calculator to copy the results to
the Window's clipboard. The [Paste] button will paste whatever number you have in
the Window's clipboard into the calculator.

If you select the button from any of CompuFoil's pop up windows, you can click on
the Transfer button in the calculator to automatically transfer the number shown in
the calculator to the number entry window you had your cursor in when you clicked
the [Calculator] button.

If you would rather have the standard Window's calculator come up, simply rename
the file CFCALC.EXE. to some other executable name.
Toolbar Shortcut:

Menu Item Utilities/Clipped Trailing Edge Chord Length Calculator


This calculator will calculate the chord length you need in order to have a certain
thickness if it is cut to the current chord length.

This function is best described by an example. Say that you wish to have a 1/16"
thick trailing edge on your 8" ClarkY airfoil, (which you currently have displayed),
and you don't wish to have the airfoil shape slightly modified in order to do it using
the Flare Trailing Edge function. When you select this function, you enter the 1/16"
thickness that you wish to have. Next, select click on the [Compute] button. The
required chord length of 8.199" will be displayed. In other words, if you print out an
8.199" airfoil, and then cut it to 8", you will have a 1/16" thick trailing edge. If you
then select the [Apply] button, your airfoil chord length will be changed to this new
value of 8.199". The important thing to remember is that the calculator always
operates on the chord length of the current airfoil

Menu Item Utilities/Query Thickness at Position


This utility allows you to enter a position of and airfoil and it will calculate the
thickness at that position. The position can be entered in as a percent of chord by
appending a percent sign at the end, such as 86%. It can also be entered as a linear
distance such as 5.125 for five and one eighth inch
Menu Item Utilities/Compute M.A.C. and A.C.
This Calculator will, among other items, compute the Mean Aerodynamic Chord and
Aerodynamic Center. You enter the Inboard and Outboard Chord lengths, panel
lengths and the sweep of individual panels. The sweep is the distance in inches of
the tip end from the root end. A panel with a straight leading edge has a sweep of
zero. A panel with a 8" root and 6" tip and straight trailing edge has a 2" sweep. If
you have a multi-panel wing, select the [Add Panel] button to define the next panel.
Notice that the chord length at the tip end of the first panel automatically becomes
the chord length of the root end of the second panel. Pressing the [Compute]
button will calculate the parameters. The Aerodynamic center is the 25% MAC
position that is distance from the root airfoil leading edge to the theoretical
position where your moment coefficient does not change with changes in angle of
attack.

Settings Menu
Menu Item Settings /Template Defaults
The Template Defaults Window allows you to select most aspects of how you want
your template to look when you first run CompuFoil. This allows for quick and easy
template generation, just give the airfoil and chord length, then print.

Among other settings, you may select the default:

· Stations

· Kerf Width

· Sheeting Thickness
· Rib Stock Thickness

· Leading Edge Stock Width

· Ramp Length

· Template Height

· Template Font

· Printed Line Width

Foam/Built Up Station Lines – If the Foam Station Lines option is selected, then
the airfoil will be divided up based on the length of the unsheeted core. If Built Up
Station lines are selected, then the airfoil will be divided up based on the full length
of the sheeted airfoil.

Rib Wood Thickness - When you generate a full set of ribs, the width of the ribs
will be drawn to this thickness when in planform view.

Optimize Resolution for Printouts Under 32" in Length - CompuFoil will normally
send your printer print information to a resolution of .1mm, which is just under
.004". This is the width of a laser jet line. If you check this box, then, if the
length of the print is less than the displayed upper dimension, CompuFoil will
recalculate the printer output to .001". Note that this does not affect the .DXF
output resolution. The DXF files are saved to .00001" resolution.

Allow embedding of printer setup information in template files. - If this option is


selected, when you save your .TPL, or .LFT file, the information about your printer
selection is saved as well. This way, if you normally use a laser printer, but for a
particular airfoil, you use your dot matrix, the next time you load this file, your dot
matrix will automatically be selected as the printer device to use when printed.

Autosize toolbars and Parameter Window Text with higher resolutions –If you
use screen resolutions greater than 640x800, CompuFoil will automatically size the
toolbars to give you a larger button to work with. You would normally always want
this turned on.

Include T.E. Wire Stop: Check this option if you would like a wire stopped
produced at the trailing edge of the foam template. You may enter the dimensions
in as well.

T.E. Ramp Angle: The template trailing edge ramp can be set to follow one of four
different angles: follow top surface, follow the mean camber, follow bottom surface,
follow both surfaces.

If you are glass-bagging wings with Mylar, you may want the ramp to follow the
upper surface slope. The reason you may want to elect to do this because when the
ramp follows the mean camber line, the Mylar is being bent up slightly at the
transition from the top surface to the ramp, since the stiffer Mylar can't make an
abrupt bend, the Mylar may cause a slight reflex type depression along your trailing
edge on the top surface. With the Mylar following the top surface slope onto the
ramp, you will not experience this condition. However, since the same condition
exists on the bottom surface of the trailing edge, having the ramp follow the top
surface will cause the bottom Mylar to make a larger bend. This may cause more of
a slight under camber depression along the trailing edge of the wing. This is usually
more desirable than having a reflex type depression on the top trailing edge's
surface. The extent to which either condition happens, or whether it happens at all,
is dependent upon the stiffness of the Mylar and the geometry of the trailing edge.
Likewise, follow Bottom Surface is normally used for reflexed trailing edge wings
commonly found on flying wing type aircraft.

Automatic Placement of Ref. Line How the Reference Line acts on startup is also
set here. If you have Automatic to Max. Thick checked, then the reference line
will be at the thickest part of the airfoil. You may define an alternative position in
the Manual Percent of Chord box. The alternative position is used if you select the
Reference Line function under the Template menu and enter nothing. Entering
nothing in this box toggles your selection between the Auto and Manual mode. If
"Automatic to Max. Thick" is not checked, then the program will default to setting
your reference line at the percentage of chord you have entered. This feature of
CompuFoil is legacy to the old versions of CompuFoil from the early ‘90s and is still
included only for compatibility reasons.

You may also set the default for displaying the Chord Line and Mean Camber Line.

You may elect to have CompuFoil use Metric units as a default or SI units. If you
change this setting, you must close CompuFoil and restart the program for the
change to properly take effect.

Template Font: Select this button to bring up the font selection window. The
chosen font will be used for the template text.

Line Weight: Select this button to select your relative line weight that the
printouts will use. The number you enter is not a dimension such as .mm or inches.
It will vary according to your printer. If you need fatter lines, start by entering 5.

Menu Item Settings/Print Defaults


The Print Defaults window displays your printer-targeted options.

Offsets and Margins

Top Offset –The top offset is the added gap in number of inches, (or millimeters if
you are in metric mode), given to the top of the paper when printing.
Side Offset –The side offset is the added gap in number of inches, (or millimeters
if you are in metric mode), given to the long side of the paper of the paper when
printing.

Top/Bot. Margin –This sets the gap at the top and bottom ends of the sheet in
either millimeters or inches.

Side Margin– This sets the gap at the left and right sides sheet in either
millimeters or inches.

Printout Colors button – Selecting this button will display the Printed Colors window.

Alignment Markers

(*) Bow-Tie – The bowtie option prints a bow-tie shaped registration mark in the
corners of the page. If you are using fanfold paper, no registration marks will be
printed. The Bow-Tie is the easiest of the markers to align, at the expense of
slightly less efficient use of paper.

(*) Corner Icon – The corner icon option prints a arrowhead shaped registration
mark in the corners of the page. If you are using fanfold paper, no registration
marks will be printed. The Corner Icon is most paper efficient, but not quite as easy
to line up as the Bow-Tie.

(*) None – This option will turn off registration markers.

Extra Printout Options

[ ]Force CompuFoil to treat printer paper as fanfold paper. - Some printer


drivers do not correctly inform Windows whether it uses fanfold or single sheet
paper. This causes CompuFoil not to create a continuous image on the paper. You
can force CompuFoil to treat your printer as a fanfold paper type by selecting this
option.

[ ]Include page numbers on single sheet printouts – When using single sheet
paper, this option will also print the page number on the paper. This is a great help
when taping multiple pages together. The page numbers will have the form 1A, 1B,
2A, 2B, etc.. The number is the column, and the letter is the row. Page 2C would be
the second page to the left, third row down.

[ ]Use Standard Windows Print Dialog Box – Selecting this will force CompuFoil to
us the standard Windows Print Dialog window rather than the customized one. The
customized window gives additional options. This function is supplied for
compatibility support and is not normally used.

Template Font: Select this button to bring up the font selection window. The
chosen font will be used for the template text.
Line Weight: Select this button to select your relative line weight that the
printouts will use. The number you enter is not a dimension such as .mm or inches.
It will vary according to your printer. If you need fatter lines, start by entering 5.

Menu Item Settings /Coordinate Path


When CompuFoil starts, it will look in the file path you have defined here for your
airfoils. The default path is the Coords directory under the path where CompuFoil
is installed.

When this item is selected, you will be presented with a coordinate path selection
screen. Simply choose you path and select OK.
Menu Item Settings /Coordinate File Deliminator Preference
CompuFoil normally saves the coordinate file with a tab character between the x and
y columns of number. This function allows you to have a space used between the
columns instead. This function does not affect CompuFoil, but some programs you
may wish to use the coordinate files in may prefer a space rather than a tab.

Menu Item Settings /Adjust Printer Aspect Ratio


In some cases, the printer feed mechanism may not be as accurate as desired. The
result of this is that a template printed at eight inches may actually be printed as
8-1/32". This function allows you to correct for this. When selected, a dialog box
will be presented. First, with the printer on-line, select the Print Test Rect.
button. This will send a 7" x 10" rectangle to the printer. Note that this function
operates only in SI units. Measure the actual dimensions of the rectangle and enter
them into the height and width box. You must use inches, not millimeters when
measuring the dimensions. Then select the Print Trial Rect. button. The resulting
rectangle will be printed with your correction factors in place. The default values
are 7" width and 10" length. In some rare cases the printer feed mechanism is so
bad that a consistent template length cannot be achieved. There is unfortunately no
other alternative than to get a better printer, or see if the one you have can be
adjusted to work properly. If you print in portrait mode such that the airfoils are
printed across the page, you will get a proper length, although the thickness might
be affected slightly.

Menu Item Settings/Customize Splash Screen Aircraft


When CompuFoil3D first starts, you are presented with a splash screen showing
three aircraft fly through the skies. Here you get to proudly display pictures of
your aircraft! The splash screen will mask out any white colors, and render them
transparent. By coloring the background of your picture white, the aircraft will
appear without the square background. After selecting your .bmp file, select the
Test button to see what the splash screen looks like with your aircraft.
Color Defaults
Menu Item Settings/Color Defaults/Template Screen Colors

CompuFoil allows you to define many of its screen colors.

A window will open with a series of buttons, divided into five groups: Template
Defaults, Overlay Defaults, Parameter Window Defaults, Full Screen Editor
Defaults, and Bulkhead Wizard Outline.

Click on the CompuFoil color item you wish to define. You will then be presented
with a color selection box from which to choose. The check box labeled: Maintain
Colors for Printouts allows you to print the templates in the same colors as the
screen if you have a color printer. The Use White FSE Cursor option is used when
you have selected a dark template background. When you are using the Full Screen
Editor (FSE), the cursor shape is changed to reflect the pending action. The
default is a black cursor that is extraordinarily difficult to see on a black
background (ha, ha). Selecting this option will cause the cursors to be white instead.

When you have finished your selection, select the Finished button.

Menu Item Settings/Color Defaults/3D View Color

You can adjust the colors of the wing items that CompuFoil3D renders in the 3D
Wing View. The same color adjustment window is available within the rendering
window as well. Select the item color to adjust and choose your desired color using
the color selection box.

Menu Item Settings/Color Defaults/Printed Template Colors


This function will allow you to select to print in color, as well as which colors to use
for your printed output. In order to enable color printing, select the [X]Print in
Color option. Once selected, you may then select the buttons for the different
entities and modify their print colors using the color selection box.
Color Dialog Box

The color selection dialog box allows you to choose from 48 predefined colors, as
well as 16 custom defined colors. Simply highlight the desired color and select OK.

If you wish to define your own custom color, first click on a custom color square
that you want to define. Now click the Define Custom Colors button. The window
will open to full size, displaying a color customization area. By clicking in the area of
desired color in color matrix window and the intensity slider on the right, you can
select your color. You may also define colors manually by adjusting the RGB values
or Hue, Saturation, and Luminance. There are no good guidelines at achieving a
desired color. The best way is to get something close, and make small adjustments
until you have what you like. One you have the color you are looking for, press the
Add to Custom Colors button. This will add your color to the color selection grid.
Select the color if you wish and press OK.
Menu_Item_Settings/DXF_Colors

Here you may select the colors used in the .dxf output of both CNC type and full
image dxf files. The current color is displayed. To change the color of the selected
item, click the button and the color selection window will display:

Click the desired color and select OK.


The setting window also has the option to put all lines on a single layer. When
selected, lines on the standard dxf output would be created on the Solid Line layer,
and CNC-DXF outlines will be created on the CNC Lines layer.

The DXF colors can also be selected with the button on the DXF Settings menu
item.

CompuFoil3D Update Settings


Menu Item Settings/CompuFoil3D Update Settings/Automatically
Check for Updates on Program Startup
When CompuFoil3D starts, it will automatically check the CompuFoil website to see
if there is an update available. If so, it will prompt you if you would like it
automatically downloaded. After downloading, the update will automatically start.
Once the update process is finished, the new version of CompuFoil3D will
automatically restart for you. If you would not like CompuFoil3D to automatically
check for updates, unselect this option. You will need to manually select the Check
for Newer Version menu item.

Menu Item Settings/CompuFoil3D Update Settings/Check for Updates


Now

You should have an Internet connection established before using this feature.
CompuFoil will contact the CompuFoil website and find out what the latest version of
CompuFoil3D is. Upon successfully gathering this information, CompuFoil will display
the option to automatically download and install the update if one exists. The same
will be checked for updates to the help file.

Menu Item Settings/CompuFoil3D Update Settings/Download the


CompuFoil3D Update Program
CompuFoil3D will automatically attempt to read a version file from the
compufoil.com server when it first starts up. If there is a later version available, it
will ask if you wish to download and install the update. If you answer OK,
CompuFoil3D will download the file for you, shut down and automatically run the
update. Once the update is finished, CompuFoil3D will restart automatically. This
automatic version checking only takes place if you have an Internet connection
active upon startup.

You can also manually check for updates via the Help/CompuFoil on the Web/Check
for Newer Version menu item.
Proxy Connection Settings
Menu Item Settings/Use Proxy Authentification

If your Internet connection requires Proxy Authentification, select this option,


(this is normally only required in a corporate setting). The Proxy Settings function
will automatically start if your information hasn’t been entered yet.

CompuFoil3D will not be able to check for free updates if it cannot reach the
internet upon startup.

Menu Item Settings/Proxy Settings

Here you can enter in your user ID and password required by your Internet proxy.
Be sure to enable the Use Proxy Authentification option.

Menu Upgrade CompuFoil's Features


Menu Item Settings/Upgrade CompuFoil’s Features/Enter
Registration Key

This option will open the key entry window. The key window is used for both the
initial registration of CompuFoil3d, as well as entering new keys to enable new
features.

Enter the key supplied to you exactly as given.


Menu Item Settings/Upgrade CompuFoil’s features/Run Credit Card
Ordering Program

If you are using the demo version of CompuFoil, you may send a secure credit card
order using the Order program Read about the SendOrder program here.

CompuFoil sports many features and functions that may not be available for full use
by you, depending upon your initial purchase options. You may still use non-
purchased functions, however, when you do, the program will default into Demo
Mode, allowing you screen previews only. To get out of demo mode, select the File-
Clear and Start New function. You may purchase additional features and easily
make these functions available to you.

Help
Menu Item Help/Tip of the Day
This function will display the Tip of the Day window. This function was designed to
give you handy tips, and to shorten the learning curve on using CompuFoil. This
window will normally be shown at the start of the program. If it is not, select this
item under the Help menu item and be sure that the [X ] Show tips at startup box
is checked. The tips are stored in a file called TIPS.TXT that resides in the same
directory as CompuFoil. The Next > button will move through the list of tips. The <
Previous button will back up in the list of tips. The Print Tips option will print the
unformatted list of tips.

Upgrading CompuFoil’s Features Process


The features you initially purchased are tied to the activation key used to fully
activate the software. Likewise, and new modules you wish to activate are done so
with a new activation key. The new activation key may be entered by selecting the
following menu item: Settings|Upgrade CompuFoil’s Features|Enter Registration
Key
Use the Order program to order your new modules.

Menu CompuFoil on the Web


Send Email to CompuFoil Support

Selecting this option will open a window that allows you to send email to CompuFoil
support. Once filled in, selecting the send button will create your email for you in
your default email program. If you are using AOL, or web based email such as
Yahoo, and HotMail, you should select the check box. Enter in your email address as
well.

If you must manually create an email, you can use send it to support@compufoil.com,
or visit http://compufoil.com/support.html for an online feedback form.

Go to the CompuFoil Web Site


This command will, in most cases, take you to the CompuFoil web site. There you can
read about foam cutting tips and techniques, download the latest version of
CompuFoil, and download free utility software.

When you select the [Utilities/Goto the CompuFoil Website] function, your web
browser should start and automatically take you to there. If this fails to happen,
then your web browser is not setup to automatically dial your web server. You may
need to dial into your internet server first, then connect.

Note: This feature may not work if your internet provider uses a dedicated
browser, such as America Online, or Prodigy.

Click here to go to the CompuFoil web site now

Menu Item Help/CompuFoil on the Web/Order Program


The Order program allows you to select your order options, add comments, email
address, customer information and credit card information. You can run the order
program from CompuFoil3d's [Help|CompuFoil on the Web|Send Secure Credit
Card Order] menu. When the [Send Order] button is pressed, your email program
will start a new email with the encrypted information in the body of the email. Do
not alter this information or it will mess up the decryption process. You may add
additional email text if you like below the encrypted information.
CompuFoil3D Interface and Use
Program Interface and Use
CompuFoil 's interface was designed for maximum flexibility and ease of use.

Architecture:

CompuFoil has two viewing areas. These two areas are separated by a moveable
splitter bar that allows you to adjust the sizes of the two windows. You can
increase the airfoil viewing area by pulling down the bottom of the top view like a
shade. Simply position your cursor over the bar and hold down your left mouse
button while you move the mouse.

The main view area is where the airfoil images are displayed. There are five view
modes that can be selected using the items under the View menu, by selecting the
six corresponding tool bar buttons, by selecting the tabs hanging below the splitter
bar, or by using the shortcut keys (Airfoil Template F2, Leading Edge Shaping Guide
F3, Planform View F4, Full Screen Editor F5, Overlay Airfoils F6, or Browse F7).

Depending on which view type you have selected, you will see either a leading edge
shaping guide, an airfoil template(s), CompuFoil's Full Screen Editor, airfoil
overlays, a Planform View or airfoils shown while browsing. You can also Right Click
your mouse in this area will present a popup menu where you can quickly access the
more commonly used airfoil functions.
The lower view window, is the Template Parameter Window This window is where the
template dimensions, computed wing panel figures, and NotesPad text are displayed
(when in Browse mode), or if an individual airfoil is being worked on, the local
pressure profile around the airfoil. These two modes can be selected with the two
tabs on the right of the splitter bar, through the [View] menu item, or via a popup
menu that is displayed when you to a right mouse click in this lower window.

Three additional information items showed in the parameter window warrant further
explanation: Zero-Lift Angle of Attack, Ideal Angle of Attack, and Moment
Coefficient (Cm0/4).

As mentioned, the two view areas are separated by a moveable splitter bar that
allows you to adjust the sizes of the two windows. You can increase the airfoil
viewing area by pulling down the bottom of the top view like a shade. Simply
position your cursor over the bar and hold down your left mouse button while you
move the mouse.

Near the top of the program is the Menu Bar that contains CompuFoil's menus. You
will notice as each menu item is highlighted; a short description of that menu item's
function will be displayed in the Status Bar. You may press the F1 key to invoke this
help file. The help file will automatically open to the topic pertaining to your
cursor's current position. Underlined letters within the menus can be selected by
pressing the Alt key and then the underlined letter.

Hint: Do not keep the alt key pressed while pressing the underlined letter. This
combination will attempt to execute ALT-letter shortcut.

Below the Menu Bar are CompuFoil's Tool Bars. The toolbars offer mouse driven
shortcuts to the more commonly used menu item functions.

Number Entry:

CompuFoil makes fractions a breeze to enter. Don't remember what 8-13/63 is in


decimal? No sweat... simply enter 8.13/63 and CompuFoil will automatically put it
into decimal notation for you as 8.203125. In many cases, you can also specify the
number as a percent. In this case, simply supply a percent sign (%) directly after
the number and the number will automatically be read as a percent of chord.
CompuFoil uses a sophisticated algorithm to only allow correct keys in the proper
order when entering data. For instance, you would not be able to enter in %3.4. You
will hear a beep if an illegal key is pressed.

In describing key presses, this manual makes use of the following nomenclature:

Keyboard Key Designations:

Keyboard keys are designated by the name of the key enclosed in brackets-
<KEYNAME>. If multiple keys are given, these keys are pressed together.
Example:<ALT-A> means you are to press both the Alt and A keys simultaneously.

Interpretations of text to be entered:

Text described in this manual that is to be entered at program prompts will be


enclosed in brackets {}. Normal text within the brackets must be entered exactly
as written.

Example:{INSTALL C:} must be typed in as INSTALL C: <Enter>.

Text that is written in italic should not be entered literally. Italic text must be
interpreted and the appropriate response should be given.

Example:{subdirectory path} directs you to enter in the path of the desired


subdirectory,

(i.e., C:\CFWIN\COORDS\).

Menu and entity selectable items:

Drop down menu items, as well as graphic buttons found in windows, are referenced
in square brackets. Menus are items listed with their respected hierarchy,
separated with a forward slash.

Example:[Template/Chord Toggle] Refers to the [Chord Toggle] sub menu item


located under then menu item [Template].

Mouse Clicks:

Left and right mouse clicks are sometimes designated with <LClick> and <RClick>. A
double click is done with the left mouse button and is designated by <DBLClick>.

Coordinate System
CompuFoil uses as an airfoil coordinates system, often called the Eppler System. If
you look at the coordinates in the View Coordinates window, you will see that the
coordinate list is made up of two columns. The left column are the X-coordinates,
the right column are the Y-coordinates. In describing the how the nodes define the
airfoil, you need to understand and keep in mind that the leading edge of the airfoil
is always at the origin. Therefore, the coordinates at the leading edge are always
0,0. The trailing edge point always lies on the X-axis, at coordinate 1,0. In other
words, the airfoil coordinates are always describing an airfoil one unit long.

As you look down the list of coordinates, notice that they always start at the
trailing edge. Going down the list, the x-values get smaller. These values are
describing the airfoil surface moving from the trailing edge along the top surface
towards the leading edge. Once you get past the leading edge, 0,0 node, the x-
values get larger as you are now moving away from the leading edge along the bottom
surface back towards the trailing edge.
CompuFoil allows up to 250 coordinate pairs; 125 on the top surface, and 125 on the
bottom surface. CompuFoil will warn you that too many nodes exist if you try to load
an airfoil with too many nodes.

How to Contact the Author


CompuFoil represents the latest in computer aided template generation technology.
CompuFoil is written by Eric Sanders in the C++ language using Microsoft Visual C++
and Symantec C++ development environments.

You can write Eric Sanders at:

SoarSoft Software

7682 Winfield Dr. N.E.

Brighton, Mi 48116

Phone/Fax: 810-225-1165

Internet: eric@compufoil.com, support@compufoil.com, or sales@compufoil.com

web page: http://www.compufoil.com

CompuFoil as a program started in its infancy in 1992, and through steady


development work has evolved into the undisputed leader in airfoil programs.
CompuFoil is in use in Universities, NASA, commercial model manufacturers such as
SIG, Midwest Models, Great Planes Inc., and demanding hobbyists around the world.

Please help me in my continuing


effort to keep this program the
best there is by advising me of any
glitches you may come across,
letting me know what features you'd
like to see, and by not allowing my
software to be pirated.

Thank You,
Eric Sanders

Take me to Table of Contents


System Requirements
CompuFoil will run on any IBM compatible PC that meets the following requirements:

· 15 megabytes hard disk space.

· Windows compatible Printing device.

· Pentium Processor

· Microsoft Windows 95/98/Me/XP/2000 compatible operating system with 128 meg


ram.

· SVGA or better monitor.

Frequently Asked Questins


Frequently Asked Questions
Questions Asked and Answered

Question:

I have a list of coordinates but it is composed of three columns of numbers, the


first is the x coordinates starting at 0 and ending at 100. The other two describe
the top and bottom surfaces respectively. How do you put these into CompuFoil
format?

Answer:

First realize that these numbers are in terms of percent and what we need is a
chord in terms of a length of 1. This is easily handled by dividing all numbers in the
list by 100 (move the decimal point over two places to the left). The next step is to
rearrange the numbers. The first three numbers in a row are 0 0 0. This is the
leading edge in this format. The last set of three are 100 0 0. This is the trailing
edge (where we need to start). We take the numbers that describe the top
surface first, (column two). Take both the X value in column one and Y value in
column two and divide them by 100. Go up the list until you get to the top at
coordinate 0 0. Now go down the third column, skipping he first row since we only
need one 0 0 coordinate pair. Take the X values from column one and the Y values
of column three (don't forget to divide by 100). Your new list should start with 1 0,
have single 0 0 in the middle and end with 1 0.

Question:
I am making an elliptical planform wing, but my spar slots do not follow a straight
path.

Answer:

You are probably telling the spar slots to be referenced from the leading edge.
When you create a full set of ribs in an elliptical planform, an elliptical reference
line is automatically produced, which, when you line the ribs up with this line, the
planform produced will be elliptical. The "Alignment Spar" designations you find in
the Generate/Full sets of ribs dialog box, in the case of elliptical wings, are offsets
from this elliptical reference line. If you then select "Snap to Alignment Spar", in
the Spar Slot dialog box, the spars will follow a straight path. Parallel spars can be
created by entering an value in the "Spar Distance". This distance will act as an
offset from the Alignment Spar.

Hint: When curve fitting new point using the Full Screen Editor, you don't need to
reselect the "Fit new Node" function for every new point you want to fit. Simply
click the right mouse button, and the last function you completed will be reinitiated.
Upgrades
Foam Cutting Tips
Foam Cutting Hints
The following is a list of stumbling blocks I've come across, things I do to make
foam cutting easier for me, and some useful suggestions. Keep in mind that this
tutorial is not the ONLY way to cut foam, it is how I do it to achieve the best cores
possible with minimal risk of screwing up. I offer it for guidance only, hoping that
you can avoid some common pitfalls.

THE TEMPLATE - First of all, accurate cores demand that you have accurate
templates. There are many different template styles available, including the
template that is the full outline of the rib. I prefer the template style CompuFoil
produces because it assures you that the root and tip template are parallel, (or at
the washout that you told CompuFoil to give it). In contrast, the full rib type
template must be VERY carefully aligned, root and tip or washout is introduced. Any
downward slippage of the template, and you can kiss that core good-bye. A full
template with a base cannot slip down since it is resting on the work surface. Since
the wire rides on the inside surface of the airfoil on the bottom template, you may
be lead to believe that this will cause the airfoil to be too thin because of the path
of foam that was lost due to the cutting action of the wire (called the kerf). This is
why it is crucial that you ALWAYS cut the bottom surface first. And ALWAYS cut
from leading edge to trailing edge as well. This will assure the best possible
feathered trailing edge. The kerf does not appreciably affect the airfoil thickness
because once the cut is complete, the top section of the foam will drop back into the
bottom bed and close up this gap. The kerf does affect the accuracy towards the
leading edge, however. The more vertical the cut becomes, the less the gap is filled
in by the top portion dropping down, and hence the greater the amount of undercut
at the leading edge you will experience. CompuFoil will adjust for this automatically
on the printed templates with a mathematically corrected bottom template line.
This correction compensates for the progressive undercut along the leading edge.
The template that CompuFoil produces is actually two in one. Depending on whether
you cut along the top or bottom solid lines will dictate which template you are
cutting out.

TEMPLATE PRODUCTION - My favorite choice for template material is a paper


based phenolic board. This material is similar to Formica, but is much easier to work
with. This material can be purchased through TEKOA and Aerospace Composite
Technologies. Produce two template images, either hand drawn or produced by your
favorite software. Spray the backside with 3M spray 77 glue and glue them to the
phenolic board. Cut the templates out using a jig saw and finish sand to the line, (I
use a disk and drum sanders with 220 grit wet-or-dry for this). Finish off the
airfoil edges with #0000 steel wool. This will put a nice polish on the edge and allow
the wire to glide smoothly along its surface. Inspect this edge carefully for nicks.
Anything that can stop or slow the smooth running of the wire will produce a defect
along the entire length of the panel. The templates will be attached to the foam
using rivets and tape. The rivets also assure proper alignment when you switch
templates (top and bottom). Align the two templates on top of another, making sure
that they are perfectly aligned. Then drill five 3/32" holes along the base, making
sure the holes are far enough from the edges to let the skirt of the rivet head
clear. (Rivets work well for this purpose because of the head, some people also use
bugle head drywall screws). Prepare the rivets by sharpening the tips to a
needlepoint as well. Print out a second set of templates and glue it to the backside
of the phenolic. This will allow you to see the station lines when cutting both your
left and right wing panels. Speaking of station lines, here is another thing to keep in
mind, (something that all other airfoil software I've seen handle incorrectly). When
you specify 9 stations on a airfoil without sheeting, there is a line every inch from
leading to trailing edge. When you define sheeting however, the CORE dimension,
not the outside wing is divided up into ten sections. Why do this? Well, keep in
mind that station lines are primarily for foam cutting purposes to help keep your
bow speed at the root and tip in sync. On a sheeted wing, you're not interested in
having the wire cross the trailing edge of the true airfoil. You want the wire to
leave the CORE trailing edges at the same time. This is very evident if you have a
fat section at the root and a thin section at the tip. The distance from the core
T.E.. to the airfoil T.E. is much greater for the thin airfoil than the thick, (because
of the small angle that the top and bottom sheeting comes together at on the thin
airfoil). If you followed airfoil spaced station lines instead of core spaced station
lines, you would have cut past the trailing edge of the tip long before the root.

FOAM PANEL PREPARATION - The first thing you need to do is cut the panels to
the proper size and planform. Don't stop there however. Careful inspection of the
panels will very often show that the surfaces are not flat. If used this way, you can
very easily introduce warps into you wing. The way I handle this is to clap two
pieces or wood vertically to a narrow bench. The end sticking up should have a notch
in it for the bow wire. Hang the bow on these such that the wire is parallel to the
bench surface. I adjust the wire to trim off about 1/8" of foam. Sprinkle a little
micro balloon on the bench to make it easy to slide the foam blank. Slowly push the
foam through the wire, surface planing off the thin piece of foam. Turn the blank
over and do the same thing to the backside, (lower the wire another 1/8"). The
blanks are now ready for use.

CUTTING THE CORES - Wipe the hairs, (produced by the cutting of the foam),
from the edges of the foam. These are tough for the wire to melt through and can
build up on the wire - a major problem when you're trying to get the wire to travel
smoothly. Use double-sided sticky tape to adhere the foam blank to your surface.
Position the bottom template on the edge of the foam blank and secure it with
rivets. Now here is a very important tip. When you push the rivets into the foam
spin them at the same time between your fingers. This will keep the foam from
bunching up at the tip of the rivet and will give you a much tighter hold. When you
cut your core, remember, always cut from the leading edge to trailing edge. After
you have cut the bottom surface, VERY carefully wipe the hairs from both surfaces.
At all times when wiping the hairs, don't let the hairs ball up. If you wipe a ball of
this stuff across the surface, it will roll a trough into the surface. Now let me get
into another aspect of foam cutting that will set the reason for the next step.
When you cut cores, the wire is cooler at the panel edges than in the interior of the
cut. You can see this in the core bed because the foam is right up at the same level
as the template near the template, but about an inch away, it is actually a little
lower than the template surface because the wire is hotter and has melted a little
more foam (i.e. the kerf is wider, leading to overmelt). Take a long sanding bar and
flatten the edges of both the core and the core bed. Be VERY careful when sanding
the core! If this raised edge is not taken care of, when you go to cut the top
surface with the top half pressed into the bed, you will be introducing a bend.
Replace the bottom template with the top template. Notice how the rivets
perfectly align the top template in relation to the replaced bottom template.
Replace the top cut away foam into the bed and add weights to keep it positioned
firmly in place. Cut the top surface from leading edge to trailing edge. Remove the
hairs and flatten the edges in the same manner as the bottom surface. This
completes the core!
Table of Contents

With CompuFoil, making templates has


never been easier!
Program Interface and Use

Coordinate System

How to Contact the Author

System Requirements
About CompuFoil

Upgrading Non-purchased CompuFoil


Features

New Version Update and Upgrade Policy

CompuFoil's Help File is easy to use. To select help on a particular function, choose
it from the other window, (the one on the left). Your selected subject will be
displayed in this help window.

Make liberal use of the Search button above! Several hundred key words have been
associated with the topics of this help file. You'll be amazed at how versatile it is.

D-Tube Configuration:

Window to setup the D-Tube

Spar Slot Setup Window:


Full Depth Spar:

The full depth spar is perpendicular to the chord line, unless washout is present and

you have the [ [X]Assume Washout Angle option selected.

Turbulator Spar Slots:

These slots are drawn such that the slot sides meet the
surface at right angles.

Distended Spar Depth:


Notice how the spar completely protrudes from the surface

Depth From Centerline:

Notice how the surface of the airfoil meets the center of the
spar.

Imbedded Spar Depth:

Notice how the spar is completely imbedded within the airfoil.

Direct Hole Modification Window

This window allows you to directly enter in either jig hole or leading edge round
stock hole dimensions and locations. In order to bring up this window, double click in
the hole to activate it, then perform a double right mouse click.

Toolbar #1:

Airfoil Foam Construction Template:


The Leading Edge Shaping Guide:

This is an invaluable tool to assure accurate templates.

Full Screen Editor's Tool Box:

The two slider controls change the intensity of the grid


lines.

Image Zoom Control:

Drop Down Zoom List exists on the lower tool bar.

Thickness Profile:

The thickness profile is the general shape of the airfoil without respect to the
camber. The other way to think of it is imagine the airfoil without any bend, or
camber to it.

Full Cosine Distribution:

This is a distribution that has a majority of the nodes at the leading and trailing
edge. The spacing is a function of the cosine of this distance. The best way to
imagine this is to visualize a circle with equally distant points around its perimeter.
If you dropped a vertical line from each of these points, they would be spaced in a
full cosine distribution.

Alignment Spar Definitions:

The shape that the wing panel takes is defined by the panel lengths, chord lengths
and relative positions of the beginning and ending ribs. The relative positions can be
defined by the Sweep of the leading edge at the interfacing ribs. An alternate way
of defining the planform shape is by defining the Alignment Spar distances. These
are the distances from the leading edge of the wing panel at the beginning end
ending rib positions, to the center of the main spar location. The main spar runs
perpendicular to the root template and aircraft fuselage centerline. .

Define Extra Rib Positions:


Rib Lofting Window:
Lofting:

Lofting is the act of smoothly transitioning from one shape to another. As an


example, the transitioning of one airfoil rib shape to another as you go from the
root of the wing to the tip of the wing.

Foam density:

The foam density is measured in terms of pounds per cubic foot. The following
values are typical: White-1.0lb/cu-ft, Pink or Gray-1.5 lb./cu-ft, Blue - 2.0 lb./cu-ft.

Basis Weight:

The basis weight is defined as weight per unit area. In our context, the weight of
the sheeting includes adhesive, covering material, etc. The basis weight should be
given in oz/sq.-ft.

Template Defaults Window :


Node:

The coordinate entities that make up the shape of the airfoil when connected by a

line.

Projected Area:

The projected area is the area of the shadow that the wing casts.

Surface Area:

The surface area is the area of covering material that it would take to cover the
wing panel. This value is slightly more than twice the projected area because of the
extra area that the "roundness" of the surface provides.

Resizing a hole:
Select one of the handles and drag it to resize the hole, after
having double clicked in a hole to select it.

Direct Entry Hole Modification:

A double right mouse click will bring up a manual entry box to modify an activated jig
hole or leading edge round stock's size and location. The location values are relative
to the leading edge of the airfoil, which is the standard 0,0 location for CompuFoil
values.

Dragging a hole:

Select inside the hole to drag it to a new location


after having activated it by having double clicked on the hole.

Status Bar

CompuFoil's Status Bar displays several items such as current cursor position when
using the Full Screen Editor

A portion of the Template Parameter Window:


Angle of Attack/Moment Coefficient

Zero-Lift Angle of Attack - This is the angle of attack at which the airfoil
produces zero lift.

Ideal Angle of Attack - This is the angle of attack at which the drag is at a
minimum.

Moment Coefficient (Cm0/4) - This is the airfoil pitching moment coefficient


about the mean aerodynamic chord quarter point. The mean aerodynamic chord is
the point on the airfoil where the pitching moment does not vary, (varies minimally),
with airspeed.

Splitter bar:

The splitter bar is being pointed to.

Title Bar

CompuFoil

The title bar is located along the top of a window. It contains the name of the
application and document.

To move the window, drag the title bar. Note: You can also move dialog boxes by
dragging their title bars.

A title bar may contain the following elements:

Application Control-menu button

Document Control-menu button


Maximize button

Minimize button

Name of the application

Name of the document

Restore button

Scroll Bars

The Scroll Bars are displayed at the right and bottom edges of the document
window. The scroll boxes inside the scroll bars indicate your vertical and horizontal
location in the template. You can use the mouse to scroll to other parts of the
document as well as your cursor keys.

System Size Command

Use this command to display a four-headed arrow so you can size the active window
with the arrow keys.

After the pointer changes to the four-headed arrow:

1. Press one of the DIRECTION keys (left, right, up, or down arrow key) to
move the pointer to the border you want to move.

2. Press a DIRECTION key to move the border.

3. Press ENTER when the window is the size you want.

Note: This command is unavailable if you maximize the window.

Shortcut

Mouse: Drag the size bars at the corners or edges of the window.

System Move Command

Use this command to display a four-headed arrow so you can move the active window
or dialog box with the arrow keys.
Note: This command is unavailable if you maximize the window.

Shortcut

Keys:

System Minimize Command

Use this command to reduce the CompuFoil window to an icon.

Shortcut

Mouse: Click the minimize icon on the title bar.

Keys:

System Maximize Command

Use this command to enlarge the active window to fill the available space.

Shortcut

Mouse: Click the maximize icon on the title bar; or double-click the title bar.

Keys: enlarges a document window.

System Restore Command

Use this command to return the active window to its size and position before you
chose the Maximize or Minimize command.

System Tasklist

Use this command to display a list of all open applications. Use this "Task List" to
switch to or close an application on the list.

Shortcut

Keys:

Dialog Box Options


When you choose the Switch To command, you will be presented with a dialog box
with the following options:

Task List

Select the application you want to switch to or close.

Switch To

Makes the selected application active.

End Task

Closes the selected application.

Cancel

Closes the Task List box.

Cascade

Arrange open applications so they overlap and you can see each title bar. This option
does not affect applications reduced to icons.

Tile

Arrange open applications into windows that do not overlap. This option does not
affect applications reduced to icons.

Arrange Icons

Arrange the icons of all minimized applications across the bottom of the screen.

Two column format:

This format lists the X values and Y values in two separate columns. The numbers
start at the trailing edge and work their way along the top surface to the leading
edge, then backup underneath ending once again at the trailing edge.

Three column format:

This lists the coordinates in three separate columns. The first column list the X-
values, the second lists the Y-upper values, and the third column lists the Y-lower
values. The numbers start at the leading edge and end at the trailing edge.

Mean Camber Line:

If you draw a series of circles that fit exactly within the confines of the airfoil
from one end to the other, and then connect the centers, you will have produced the
mean camber line. In a simplified, and very close approximation, it is the line drawn
through the midpoint of series of lines running perpendicular to the chord line, from
the top to bottom surface.
Chord Line:

The line produced when you connect the leading edge and trailing edge of an airfoil
with a line.