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Home Matter Index Page Concrete Introduc tion Concrete is effectively an artificial stone or rock. Its primary properties are that is is workable before hardening, strong in compression and stays strong for extremely long timescales. Concrete is a strong hard building material composed of sand and gravel and cement and water. It is used for making buildings, roads, bridges, vessels pipes etc etc etc. As the concrete formulations develop concrete is increasing its range of applications such that it is making inroads into those presently monopolised by metals. To enable concrete to withstand tensile loads it is often reinforced with steel rebars or with natural or artificial fibres... Concrete is a mixture of a binding agent (generally cement) to bond the other materials together :, fine aggregate (sand), coarse aggregate ( gravel/ stones ), and water.. A typical composition is about 7-15% cement, 14-21% water and the rest agregate. The water/ cement ratio (w/ c) of the mixture has a control over the final properties of the concrete. The water/ cement ratio is the relative weight of the water to the cement in the mixture. The water/ cement ratio is a factor selected by the civil engineer. Selection of a w/ c ratio gives the engineer control over two desirable properties: strength and workability. A mixture with a high w/ c will be more workable than a mixture with a low w/ c: it will flow easier. But the less workable the mixture, the stronger the concrete will be. The civil engineer must decide what ratio will give the best result for the given situation. The water/ cement ratio needs to be about 0.25 to complete the hydration reaction. Typical values of w/ c are between 0.35 and 0.40 because they give a good amount of workability without sacrificing a lot of strength. T ypes of Conc rete Type of Concrete Cement concrete
Description This is the most common type of concrete and is made mostly from portand cement, sand, aggregate and water. It is used reinforce and un-reinforce for structures, roads, foundationa. The compositions of cement, sand and aggregate vary from 1:1:2 ( a richest practical mixture) to 1:3 :6 (a lean mixture used for concrete filling) Concrete not strengthened by reinforcement. Used for foundations and mass structures such as damn, and gravity retaining w alls.. also called non-reinforced concrete A plain concrete w ith a large ratio aggregate to cement than structural concrete. It is used for filling and not structural duties
Plain mass concrete Lean concrete
Lightw eight concrete of such a quality that it is suitable for load-bearing members of structures. If it is a compact concrete made w ith stone aggregate , it is of Structural concrete comparatively high density ( about 2.4 ) and great strength. If it is based on lightw eight aggregate then high strengths are available but the design generally requires special considerations Lightw eight concrete of such a quality that it is suitable for load-bearing members of structures. If it is a compact concrete made w ith stone aggregate , it is of comparatively high density ( about 2.4 ) and great strength. If it is based on lightw eight aggregate then high strengths are available but the design generally requires special considerations Structural concrete w hich is subjected to compression in those parts w hich in service are subjecte to tensile forces so that generally,the concrete is now here is a state of tension under the w orking load.
This is deposited in its permanent position to harden. This is the most common method Cast in Place /Cast of construction and w hen to concrete is not deposited on the ground as for roads and in Situ Concrete similar it is generally placed in temporary moulds or is contained w ithin formw ork or shuttering. This is concrete w hich placed in separate moulds, under controlled factory conditions, to harden and w hen required transferred to site for final erection. This procedure allow high quality concrete castings to be made at low relative costs. This method is used for the production of paving slabs, bricks, road channels , kerbs lintels, fence posts, bridge beams etc etc. Precast units can include re-inforcement and Engineered steel inserts.
This is concrete w hich includes high w ater content to allow sufficient w orkability to enable it to be placed into complicated moulds or around extensive reinforcement. The concrete is then subject to a vacuum w hich removes significant quantities of Vacuum Concrete w ater resulting in a stronger concrete on hardening. Pumped concrete needs to include higher w ater content to improve the flow characteristics. If a high strength concrete is required then special additives are use in place of the additional w ater. Concrete pumping stations may be static or mobile Concrete w hich is conveyed from the mixer to the point of deposit through pipes. The
LC30/ 33. impact resistance and greater strength.1760 kg/ m3 Lightweight aggregate (structural grade) Concrete ... C50/ 60. performance. LC40/ 44.. Liebig.html 2/3 . C90/ 105... LC80/ 88 Density of Conc rete Concrete is produced in a range of densities as listed below Plain Concrete..2300 kg/ m3 Plain Concrete. C70/ 77. with natural Broken brick aggregate. Candidate materials include barytes.641 kg/ m3 Lightweight aggregate structural grade Concrete . production and conformity BS 8500:2002. carbon and steel.2400 kg/ m3 Reinforced Concrete. LC55/ 60. Specification.. The compressive strength classes are in N/ mm (MPa) Typical concrete classes include Normal Concretes C8/ 10. C30/ 37... According to the above standards the compressive strength class of a concrete is expressed as Prefix: C for normal-weight and heavyweight concrete or LC for lightweight concrete The minimum characteristic 150 300mm cylinder strength required A Backslash (/ ) The equivalent minimum characteristic 150mm (and. LC50/ 55.. LC25/ 28. LC60/ 66. with dense aggregate . C28/ 35.. The concrete is flung against the w all be centrifugal action to form a dense hard impermeable w all.co. C12/ 15. 2. Complementary British Standard to BS EN 206-1. This is an area of concrete development w hich is under continuous development. Water Resistant concrete can either be w ater proofed or w atertight. Concrete w hich is made at a mixing plant and delivered to the site in special transport vehicles.Information on Anchor Bolts Hilti.uk/…/Concrete. LC12/ 13..1760 kg/ m3 Steelshot aggregate Concrete . The transport includes a rotating drum in w hich the concrete is continuously mixed until it is discharge on site. C40/ 50. in the UK. BS EN 206-1:2000 Concrete.2400 kg/ m3 Lightweight cellular (aerated) Concrete .. A number of reinforcement materials are available including glass. lengths This process is used for the production of vessels and pipes.Has been superseded by the above standards. C70/ 85. polypropylene. The mix specification is agreed betw een the supplier and the user prior to delivery and generally a high quality product results . 4. haematite. The water tight layer can be formed using a spray of lacquer. C55/ 67.. Spun Concrete Ready mixed Concrete Water Resistant Concrete High density Concrete Fibre reinforced Concrete Conc rete Strength / Designation Relevant Standards.. C32/ 40..5285 kg/ m3 Links Providing inform ation on concrete 1..Information on Anchor Bolts Artex-Rawlplug Fixings ..-> Product Range-Mechanical Anchors -> Anchor data sheet downloads BS EN 206-1/ BS8500 Guide. LC20/ 22.. C16/ 20. Concrete so formed as increased strength. C20/ 25.->Tarmac Informative download Ads by Google Concrete Testing Concrete Design Concrete Houses Concrete Company T his P a g e is b e ing d e v e lo p e d roymech... iron shot.2000 kg/ m3 Reinforced Concrete.11/24/2010 Pumped Concrete Concrete concrete is discharged from the mixer into a hopper w hich feeds it inot a pump w hich forces it through the pipe. C100/ 115 Lightweight Concretes LC8/ 9. The process involves feeding relatively dry concrete into a rotating cylinderical mould.. High strength high performance concrete can be produced by including short fibres in the mix.. LC16/ 18. LC35/ 38. The concrete so formed can be sufficiently water-tight to enable use for tanks retaining water High density concrete for use as nuclear shield w alls and ballast blocks and sea w alls can be produced by using different materials for the aggregate.. C25/ 30. or applying a coat of asphalt or bitumen or using a wash of soda (water glass) A watertight concrete can be produced by ensuring and dense product using tight quality control of the production process. steel shot and lead shot. C60/ 75. with natural stone aggregate . Concrete. nylon.. 3. The pipe is 100 or 150mm dia and the method can be used to pump over distances of 650m horizontally or 50m vertically. Waterproofed concrete is formed with a water resistant layer or surface whilst the mass of concrete being ordinary concrete. or some combination of these lengths. 100mm) cube strength required. Method of specifying and guidance for the specifier Note: BS 5328: Parts 1-4: 1997.. with dense aggregate .
uk Last Updated 12/ 03/ 2010 Concrete roymech.html 3/3 .co.co.11/24/2010 Home Matter Index Please Send Comments to Roy@roymech.uk/…/Concrete.
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