Purdue OWL Engagement
Welcome to the Purdue OWL
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Contributors:Tony Russell, Allen Brizee. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA.
MLA Formatting and Style Guide
MLA style specifies guidelines for formatting manuscripts and using the English language in writing. MLA style also provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through parenthetical citation in their essays and Works Cited pages. Writers who properly use MLA also build their credibility by demonstrating accountability to their source material. Most importantly, the use of MLA style can protect writers from accusations of plagiarism, which is the purposeful or accidental uncredited use of source material by other writers. If you are asked to use MLA format, be sure to consult the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th edition). Publishing scholars and graduate students should also consult the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd edition). The MLA Handbook is available in most writing centers and reference libraries; it is also widely available in bookstores, libraries, and at the MLA web site. See the Additional Resources section of this handout for a list of helpful books and sites about using MLA style. Paper Format The preparation of papers and manuscripts in MLA style is covered in chapter four of the MLA Handbook, and chapter four of the MLA Style Manual. Below are some basic guidelines for formatting a paper in MLA style.
Purdue OWL Engagement
General Guidelines Type your paper on a computer and print it out on standard, white 8.5 x 11-inch paper. Double-space the text of your paper, and use a legible font (e.g. Times New Roman). Whatever font you choose, MLA recommends that the regular and italics type styles contrast enough that they are recognizable one from another. The font size should be 12 pt. Leave only one space after periods or other punctuation marks (unless otherwise instructed by your instructor). Set the margins of your document to 1 inch on all sides. Indent the first line of paragraphs one half-inch from the left margin. MLA recommends that you use the Tab key as opposed to pushing the Space Bar five times. Create a header that numbers all pages consecutively in the upper right-hand corner, onehalf inch from the top and flush with the right margin. (Note: Your instructor may ask that you omit the number on your first page. Always follow your instructor's guidelines.) Use italics throughout your essay for the titles of longer works and, only when absolutely necessary, providing emphasis. If you have any endnotes, include them on a separate page before your Works Cited page. Entitle the section Notes (centered, unformatted). Formatting the First Page of Your Paper Do not make a title page for your paper unless specifically requested. In the upper left-hand corner of the first page, list your name, your instructor's name, the course, and the date. Again, be sure to use double-spaced text. Double space again and center the title. Do not underline, italicize, or place your title in quotation marks; write the title in Title Case (standard capitalization), not in all capital letters. Use quotation marks and/or italics when referring to other works in your title, just as you would in your text: Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas as Morality Play; Human Weariness in "After Apple Picking" Double space between the title and the first line of the text. Create a header in the upper right-hand corner that includes your last name, followed by a space with a page number; number all pages consecutively with Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.), one-half inch from the top and flush with the right margin. (Note: Your instructor or other readers may ask that you omit last name/page number header on your first page. Always follow instructor guidelines.) Here is a sample of the first page of a paper in MLA style:
Purdue OWL Engagement
Image Caption: The First Page of an MLA Paper
Section Headings Writers sometimes use Section Headings to improve a document’s readability. These sections may include individual chapters or other named parts of a book or essay. Essays MLA recommends that when you divide an essay into sections that you number those sections with an arabic number and a period followed by a space and the section name. 1. Early Writings 2. The London Years 3. Traveling the Continent 4. Final Years
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Books MLA does not have a prescribed system of headings for books. If you are only using one level of headings, meaning that all of the sections are distinct and parallel and have no additional sections that fit within them, MLA recommends that these sections resemble one another grammatically. For instance, if your headings are typically short phrases, make all of the headings short phrases (and not, for example, full sentences). Otherwise, the formatting is up to you. It should, however, be consistent throughout the document. If you employ multiple levels of headings (some of your sections have sections within sections), you may want to provide a key of your chosen level headings and their formatting to your instructor or editor. Sample Section Headings The following sample headings are meant to be used only as a reference. You may employ whatever system of formatting that works best for you so long as it remains consistent throughout the document. Numbered: 1. Soil Conservation 1.1 Erosion 1.2 Terracing 2. Water Conservation 3. Energy Conservation Formatted, unnumbered: Level 1 Heading: bold, flush left Level 2 Heading: italics, flush left Level 3 Heading: centered, bold Level 4 Heading: centered, italics Level 5 Heading: underlined, flush left How to Cite the Purdue OWL in MLA: Entire Website The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, 2008. Web. 27 Dec. 2008. Individual Resources Purdue OWL. "MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab,
The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
10 May 2008. whatever signal word or phrase you provide to your readers in the text. For example: Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful
MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics
Guidelines for referring to the works of others in your text using MLA style is covered in chapter six of the MLA Handbook and in chapter seven of the MLA Style Manual. must be the first thing that appears on the lefthand margin of the corresponding entry in the Works Cited List. Web.english. and the Works Cited page. Allen Brizee. but the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses. endnotes/footnotes. Contributors:Tony Russell. Basic In-Text Citation Rules In MLA style. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. 2008. More specifically. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. referring to the works of others in your text is done by using what is known as parenthetical citation. in-text citations. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. not in the text of your sentence.purdue. 15 Nov.) upon the source medium (e. This method involves placing relevant source information in parentheses after a quote or a paraphrase.edu/owl/…/747/ 5/45
. Web.) upon the source’s entry on the Works Cited (bibliography) page. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. DVD) and (2. so it's a good idea to consult them if you want to become even more familiar with MLA guidelines or if you have a particular reference question. Both books provide extensive examples. and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text. Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page.). This resource. General Guidelines The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends (1. In-Text Citations: Author-Page Style MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation.g.
english. Berkeley: U of California P. London: Oxford U.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
feelings" (263). If you provide the signal word/phrase in the sentence.P. Print. and newspapers. Literature. We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has “more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change . . In this example. 1999. 23 Mar.purdue. but right now it's important to know that
owl. which will be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of an entry in the Works Cited: Burke. and Method. Thus. Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" (Burke 3). Lyrical Ballads. 1966. In-text Citations for Print Sources with Known Author For Print sources like books. under the name of Wordsworth. tell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page 263 of a work by an author named Wordsworth. the writer includes the title in quotation marks as the signal phrase in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader directly to the source on the Works Cited page. use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name. . 2009. Web. Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work (e. plays. articles) or italicize it if it's a longer work (e. Print. magazines. you do not need to include it in the parenthetical citation.” GLOBAL WARMING: Early Signs. 1967. Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263). Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263). These examples must correspond to an entry that begins with Burke. where.. We'll learn how to make a Works Cited page in a bit. scholarly journal articles.g. In-text Citations for Print Sources with No Known Author When a source has no known author. they would find the following information: Wordsworth.edu/owl/…/747/ 6/45
. The both citations in the examples above. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life. The Works Cited entry appears as follows: “The Impact of Global Warming in North America. since the reader does not know the author of the article. television shows. they can turn to the Works Cited page. an abbreviated title of the article appears in the parenthetical citation which corresponds to the full name of the article which appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry in the Works Cited. Human beings have been described by Kenneth Burke as "symbol-using animals" (3).g. entire websites) and provide a page number. William. Kenneth. ” (“Impact of Global Warming” 6). books. If readers want more information about this source. provide a signal word or phrase (usually the author’s last name) and a page number. (263) and (Wordsworth 263).
give the page number of your edition (making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page. Citing Authors with Same Last Names Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. Or Legal experts counter Smith. For a source with more than three authors. Author-Page Citation for Classic and Literary Works with Multiple Editions Page numbers are always required.). counter Smith.). and Moore argue that tougher gun control is not needed in the United States (76). so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work. Citing a Work by Multiple Authors For a source with three or fewer authors. and Moore's argument by noting that
owl. section (sec. chapter (ch.). For instance. book (bk.). list the authors' last names in the text or in the parenthetical citation: Smith. Driscoll. Provide the first author's last name followed by et al. and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume (vol.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay. or paragraph (par. and Bell counter Smith. use the work's bibliographic information as a guide for your citation. Miller 46). provide both authors' first initials (or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials) in your citation. 4).purdue. For example: Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children (R. Yang.english. Yang.). or list all the last names. and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws (4). Yang. part (pt. and Moore 76). Yang. The authors state "Tighter gun control in the United States erodes Second Amendment rights" (Smith. 1). others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration (A. Yang. of course) followed by a semicolon.edu/owl/…/747/ 7/45
. and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws (Jones et al. but additional citation information can help literary scholars. ch. Ackerson. In such cases. For example: Marx and Engels described human history as marked by class struggles (79.). Miller 12). if two or more authors have the same last name. Jones et al. who may have a different edition of a classic work like Marx and Engels's The Communist Manifesto. Or Jones.
followed. Citing Multivolume Works If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work. when appropriate. For such indirect quotations. include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. (If you only cite from one volume. by page numbers: Visual studies. you want to make clear which Bible you're using (and underline or italicize the title). chapter and verse.purdue.english. followed by a shortened title of the work. Additionally. a lion. chapter. Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children ("Too Soon" 38). because it is such a new discipline.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws (4).5-10). list only the book. if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence. . Ezek. in Weisman 259). then provide the page number(s). in" to indicate the source you actually consulted. and an eagle (New Jerusalem Bible. Citing Multiple Works by the Same Author If you cite more than one work by a particular author. as Quintilian wrote in Institutio Oratoria (1: 14-17). use "qtd. If future references employ the same edition of the Bible you’re using.edu/owl/…/747/ 8/45
owl. as each version varies in its translation. "Visual Studies" 63). always include the volume number followed by a colon. provide only the page number in parentheses. An indirect source is a source cited in another source. and verse in the parenthetical citation. and they don't do that well" (qtd. 1. Citing Indirect Sources Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. . followed by book (do not italicize or underline).) . may be "too easy" (Elkins. For example: Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures." each with faces of a man. though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year ("Hand-Eye Development" 17). an ox. you would format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma. For example: Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers. Citing the Bible In your first parenthetical citation. Put a space after the colon.
com or Forbes. do not include URLs in-text. Film.com or http://www. Yates. . 2002.
owl.a beautiful and terrifying critique of obsession and colonialism" (Garcia. some Web sources are perfectly acceptable for research." Gaps Addressed: Future Work in Rhetoric and Composition. in most cases.com as opposed to writing out http://www. or Internet sources. In the two examples above “Herzog” from the first entry and “Yates” from the second lead the reader to the first item each citation’s respective entry on the Works Cited page: Herzog.. Fitzcarraldo.cnn. for example.purdue. Klaus Kinski. Citing Non-Print or Sources from the Internet With more and more scholarly work being posted on the Internet. a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source. Werner. article name. but often. Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the absence of page numbers. Palmer House Hilton. Herzog and Kinski were often at odds. Perf. but their explosive relationship fostered a memorable and influential film. rather than citing an indirect source. While many sources on the Internet should not be used for scholarly work (reference the OWL's Evaluating Sources of Information resource).2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
Note that. remember that your citation must reference the source in your Works Cited. film. you may have to cite research you have completed in virtual environments.edu/owl/…/747/ 9/45
. "Invention in Rhetoric and Composition.. website name. Filmverlag der Autoren.During the presentation.forbes. dir. follow the following guidelines: Include in the text the first item that appears in the Work Cited entry that corresponds to the citation (e.com. Klaus Kinski. Only provide partial URLs such as when the name of the site includes. Jane. 1982. When creating in-text citations for electronic. Unless you must list the website name in the signal phrase in order to get the reader to the appropriate entry. like CNN. “Herzog: a Life”). Miscellaneous Non-Print Sources Werner Herzog's Fitzcarraldo stars Herzog's long-time film partner. author name. You do not need to give paragraph numbers or page numbers based on your Web browser’s print preview function. During the shooting of Fitzcarraldo. Print.english. For electronic and Internet sources. film name).g. these sorts of entries do not require any sort of parenthetical citation at all. a domain name. CCCC. Jane Yates stated that invention and pre-writing are areas of rhetoric that need more attention. Electronic Sources One online film critic stated that Fitzcarraldo is ".
the writer includes both the author’s last name and the article title in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader to the appropriate entry on the Works Cited page (see below). they'll have different expectations of what constitutes common knowledge..” Both corresponding Works Cited entries are as follows: Garcia. Remember. "MLA Formatting and Style Guide.english. and the Works Cited page. 2009. Contributors:Tony Russell. for example. Karl. When a Citation Is Not Needed Common sense and ethics should determine your need for documenting sources. in-text citations. 10 May 2006.edu/owl/…/747/ 10/45
. Dewey 21).” meaning. . offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
The Purdue OWL is accessed by millions of users every year. this is a rhetorical choice.” in the parenthetical citation gives the reader an author name followed by the abbreviation “et al. In the first example. The Film School of New Hampshire.” for the article “MLA Formatting and Style Guide. You do not need to give sources for familiar proverbs. well-known quotations or common knowledge. 8 Jan." The OWL at Purdue. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. 2 May 2002. endnotes/footnotes. you will format quotations differently depending on their length. 12 May 2006 . based on audience. “and others. Multiple Citations To cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference. If you're writing for an expert audience of a scholarly journal. "Herzog: a Life. Allen Brizee.).purdue. the writer has chosen not to include the author name in-text. as has been discussed elsewhere (Burke 3.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. This resource. Stolley. “Stolley et al. Thus." Online Film Critics Corner. Below are some basic guidelines for incorporating quotations into your
owl. separate the citations by a semicolon: . Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. Web. however.). Its “MLA Formatting and Style Guide” is one of the most popular resources (Stolley et al. two entries from the same author appear in the Works Cited.
MLA Formatting Quotations
When you directly quote the works of others in your paper. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. Purdue University Writing Lab. Elizabeth. . In the second example.
and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. and include a complete reference on the Works Cited page. When quoting verse. or else attracted by hearing his voice. Punctuation marks such as periods. dreams express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184). though others disagree.english. maintain double-spacing. I put it on the landing of the stairs.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
paper.) For example: Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration: They entirely refused to have it in bed with them." Adrienne Rich explores the roles of women in shaping their world: The faithful drudging childthe child at the oak desk whose penmanship. Earnshaw's door. so. Only indent the first line of the quotation by a half inch if you are citing multiple paragraphs. "Of all the things that happened there / That's all I remember" (11-12). Please note that all pages in MLA should be double-spaced. For example: According to some. Provide the author and specific page citation (in the case of verse. and there he found it on quitting his chamber. or even in their room. hoping it would be gone on the morrow. (23) Adding or Omitting Words In Quotations
owl. dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (184). and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation. Short Quotations To indicate short quotations (fewer than four typed lines of prose or three lines of verse) in your text. Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text. provide line numbers) in the text. at the end of each line of verse: (a space should precede and follow the slash) Cullen concludes. with the entire quote indented one inch from the left margin. hard work. According to Foulkes's study. By chance. (You should maintain double-spacing throughout your essay. enclose the quotation within double quotation marks.edu/owl/…/747/ 11/45
. (Bronte 78) When citing long sections of poetry. Inquiries were made as to how it got there. commas. and I had no more sense. maintain original line breaks. Is it possible that dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184)? Mark breaks in short quotations of verse with a slash. Long Quotations For quotations that extend to more than four lines of verse or prose: place quotations in a freestanding block of text and omit quotation marks. I was obliged to confess. /. not to win prizes but to change the laws of history.purdue. it crept to Mr. style will win her prizes becomes the woman with a mission. keep formatting as close to the original as possible: In her poem "Sources. Your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. Start the quotation on a new line.
most academic style guidelines (including MLA and APA) recommend limited use of footnotes/endnotes.... you should indicate the deleted word or words by using ellipsis marks. and felt along the heart. . . .edu/owl/…/747/ 12/45
.. This resource.purdue.english. . however.. .. For example: In an essay on urban legends. Jan Harold Brunvand notes that "some individuals make a point of learning every recent rumor or tale .. Jan Harold Brunvand. ) preceded and followed by a space. and the Works Cited page.). 28-30) Contributors:Tony Russell. space several periods to about the length of a complete line in the poem: These beauteous forms. however.. MLA discourages extensive use of explanatory or digressive notes. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. With tranquil restoration. have not been to me As is a landscape to a blind man's eye: . Allen Brizee.
MLA Footnotes and Endnotes
Because long explanatory notes can be distracting to readers. If you omit a word or words from a quotation. which refer to other publications your readers may consult:
owl. Please note that brackets are not needed around ellipses unless adding brackets would clarify your use of ellipses. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities... which are three periods ( . use a standard three-period ellipses.. and in a short time a lively exchange of details occurs" (78). states: "some individuals [who retell urban legends] make a point of learning every rumor or tale" (78). When omitting words from poetry quotations. certain publishers encourage or require note references in lieu of parenthetical references. allow you to use endnotes or footnotes for bibliographic notes. MLA style does. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. Through a long absence. however.. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. . when omitting one or more full lines of poetry..2/26/2010 Adding
Purdue OWL or Omitting Words In Quotations Engagement
If you add a word or words in a quotation.. (22-24. Felt in the blood... And passing even into my purer mind. in an essay on urban legends..) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed... you should put brackets around the words to indicate that they are not part of the original text. endnotes/footnotes. in-text citations.
. The notes themselves should be listed by consecutive arabic numbers that correspond to the notation in the text. On the problems related to repressed memory recovery. Note that when a long dash appears in the text. she reiterated this point even more strongly: "I am an artist. 2. angle brackets (>). scholars have failed to address this point8—a fact that suggests their cowardice more than their carelessness.) The Notes page should appear before the Works Cited page. as indicated below) should correspond to the note references in the text. Several other studies point to this same conclusion. The list of endnotes and footnotes (either of which. Hull. Do not use asterisks (*). not a politician!" (Weller 124). which refers to brief additional information that might be too digressive for the main text: 4. Notes are double-spaced with a hanging indent. should be listed on a separate page.6 Scholars have argued for years that this claim has no basis.) Place a period and a space after each endnote number. for a contrasting view.7 so we would do well to ignore it. Krieg 78-91. for papers submitted for publication. Formatting Endnotes and Footnotes Endnotes Page MLA recommends that all notes be listed on a separate page entitled Notes (centered. This is especially important for papers being submitted for publication. See Johnson and Hull 45-79.purdue. subsequent lines are flush with the left margin. see Pyle 43. see Wollens 120-35.english. 3. Snyder 21-35. Johnson. you can also use footnotes/endnotes for occasional explanatory notes (also known as content notes). Footnotes (below the text body) In the case that you need to format footnotes on the same page as the main text. Numbering Endnotes and Footnotes in the Document Body Endnotes and footnotes in MLA format are indicated in-text by superscript Arabic numbers after the punctuation of the phrase or clause to which the note refers: Some have argued that such an investigation would be fruitless. Krieg 50-57. for an insightful analysis of this trend. especially chapters three and four. no formatting). Kather 2331. Or. (Each endnote is indented five spaces. or other symbols for note references. See Blackmur. In a 1998 interview. Provide the appropriate note after the space.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
1. begin footnotes
owl. the footnote/endnote number appears before the dash: For years. (Use Note if there is only one note.
when needed. endnotes/footnotes. Indent the second and subsequent lines of citations five spaces so that you create a hanging indent.) Place a period and a space after each footnote number.
MLA Works Cited Page: Basic Format
According to MLA style. but do not skip spaces between entries.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. List page numbers of sources efficiently. you must have a Works Cited page at the end of your research paper. Provide the appropriate note after the space. All entries in the Works Cited page must correspond to the works cited in your main text. you must determine the Medium of Publication. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. 259-60). Footnotes are single-space with a hanging indent. Most entries will likely be listed as Print or Web sources. in-text citations. page number header as the rest of your paper. consult “Using Notes with Parenthetical Documentation” in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. If you refer to a journal article that appeared on pages 225 through 250. 7.5. subsequent lines are flush with the left margin. (Each footnote is indented five spaces. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. However. Writers are no longer required to provide URLs for Web entries. or the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. 6. This resource.5. Basic Rules Begin your Works Cited page on a separate page at the end of your research paper. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. Contributors:Tony Russell. For more information on using endnotes and footnotes. Double space all citations.). Additional Basic Rules New to MLA 2009 For every entry.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
four lines (two double-spaced lines) below the main text. CD-ROM.purdue. Label the page Works Cited (do not italicize the words Works Cited or put them in quotation marks) and center the words Works Cited at the top of the page.edu/owl/…/747/ 14/45
. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. 230-32). if your
owl. list the page numbers on your Works Cited page as 225-50. It should have the same one-inch margins and last name. 3rd edition (sec. Allen Brizee. and the Works Cited page. but other possibilities may include Film. or DVD.english. 7th edition (sec.
include suffixes like "Jr. David Foster Do not list titles (Dr. do. The Art of War." or "II. Steven and Karen Pomeroy. John". editor names). Martin Luther King.) with names. for entire edited collections. A book listing an author named "John Bigbrain.] ---.. Heller. short prepositions. A Grammar of Motives. Sir. would be cited as "King. For long URLs.purdue. include them in angle brackets after the entry and end with a period. list solo-author entries first: Heller. [. etc.edu/owl/…/747/
.english. Kenneth. Jr. Jr.) or degrees (PhD. Wallace. Martin Luther. Design Literacy: Understanding Graphic Design." with the suffix following the first or middle name and a comma. break lines only at slashes. If you're citing an article or a publication that was originally issued in print form but that you retrieved from an online database. You do not need to provide subscription information in addition to the database name. David M. or conjunctions unless one is the first word of the title or subtitle: Gone with the Wind.. articles) Listing Author Names Entries are listed by author name (or. PhD" appears simply as "Bigbrain. and use three hyphens in place of the author's name for every entry after the first: Burke. a work by Dr. Steven. A Rhetoric of Motives. Work with No Known Author
owl. Saint. Author names are written last name first.. order the entries alphabetically by title.] When an author or collection editor appears both as the sole author of a text and as the first author of a group. [. MA.. DDS. books. middle names or middle initials follow the first name: Burke.. etc. etc. magazines) and quotation marks for titles of shorter works (poems. you should type the online database name in italics. ed.. Capitalization and Punctuation Capitalize each word in the titles of articles. The Education of an E-Designer. Kenneth Levy. There Is Nothing Left to Lose. New to MLA 2009: Use italics (instead of underlining) for titles of larger works (books. but do not capitalize articles.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
instructor or publisher insists on them. More than One Work by an Author If you have cited more than one work by a particular author. however." Putting it all together.
. Place of Publication: Publisher. Kenneth. Print. publication date. use a shortened version of the title in the parenthetical citations in your paper. consult “Citing Nonperiodical Print Publications” in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th edition (sec.] Boring Postcards USA. [.. 1999. Firstname.. In this case. book title.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed.6.). The Hummingbird House. publisher.. Medium of Publication. or the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing.] Contributors:Tony Russell. Patricia. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed.] Burke. Denver: MacMurray. 148-81).2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
Alphabetize works with no known author by their title.. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. first name format. Year of Publication. Allen Brizee. place of publication. James. This resource. The medium of publication for all “hard copy” books is Print. New York: Penguin.purdue. in-text citations. [. Jean. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. subsequent author names appear in
owl. Basic Format The first-give author’s name or a book with a single author's name appears in last name. Print. 1987.english. Book with One Author Gleick. 3rd edition (sec. A Rhetoric of Motives. Book with More Than One Author The first given name appears in last name. be sure to make note of the following bibliographic items: author name(s).. 5. and the Works Cited page. Henley. For more information.5. [. 6. first name format. endnotes/footnotes. The basic form for a book citation is: Lastname. 185-211).. Chaos: Making a New Science. Boring Postcards USA has no known author: Baudrillard. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers.
MLA Works Cited Page: Books
When you are gathering book sources. Simulacra and Simulations. Title of Book.
(Remember to ignore articles like A.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
first name last name format. Two or More Books by the Same Author List works alphabetically by title. Remember that for an in-text (parenthetical) citation of a book with no author.) Provide the author’s name in last name. Incorporate these entries alphabetically just as you would with works that include an author name. and The. Shaun and Forsythe. If there are more than three authors. provide the name
owl. (Note that there is a period after “al” in “et al. New York: Random. use three hyphens and a period. Boston: Allyn. Logan. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP. or you may list all the authors in the order in which their names appear on the title page. 1997. Gillespie. first name format for the first entry only. 1998. Book by a Corporate Author or Organization A corporate author may include a commission. Dickens and New Historicism. Allergies in Children. UT: Utah State UP. Book with No Author List by title of the book. Anne Frances. the following entry might appear between entries of works written by Dean. The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring. 1993. Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition. Print.english. and Neal Lerner. The Films of the Eighties: A Social History. Encyclopedia of Indiana. American Allergy Association. Logan. Print. Print.purdue. List the names of corporate authors in the place where an author’s name typically appears at the beginning of the entry. Anne Frances. Palmer. Selfe. New York: Somerset. 2000. Paula. Johndan Johnson-Eilola.edu/owl/…/747/ 17/45
. William J. ---. or Wysocki. 2004. 1993. Wysocki. For example. a committee. Print. Martin's. or a group that does not identify individual members on the title page. For each subsequent entry by the same author. Jonathan. 2004. (Latin for "and others") in place of the subsequent authors' names. et al.”). An.” Also note that there is never a period after the “et” in “et al. Cynthia L. you may choose to list only the first author followed by the phrase et al. New York: St. Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition. UT: Utah State UP. Print. and Geoffrey Sirc. Print. Print.
Print. New editions are typically revisions of the original work. 1990.e. but add the number of the edition after the title."—the abbreviation for translated by—and follow with the name(s) of the translator(s). Jane Eyre. A Subsequent Edition Cite the book as you normally would. which you can link to at the bottom of this page. Collection of Essays) To cite the entire anthology or collection. different from the first or other editions of the book). Gender Trouble. Charlotte. Ed. for
owl. You may also use a shortened version of the title of the book accompanied by the page number. Richard Howard. New York: Pearson/Longman. Erdrich. Print. Love Medicine. 1999. Margaret Smith. 1984. For books that are new editions (i. Michel. Add "Trans. New York: Perennial-Harper. insert the original publication date before the publication information. 1998. A Work Prepared by an Editor Cite the book as you normally would." or. New York: Routledge. For more information see In-text Citations for Print Sources with No Known Author section of In-text Citations: The Basics. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students. 3rd ed. Judith. Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Anthology or Collection (e. Trans. Oxford: Oxford UP. Louise. Print. A Translated Book Cite as you would any other book. For books that originally appeared at an earlier date and that have been republished at a later one. and Debra Hawhee. Foucault. Sharon. Crowley.edu/owl/…/747/ 18/45
. Republished Book Books may be republished due to popularity without becoming a new edition. An Edition of a Book There are two types of editions in book publishing: a book that has been published more than once in different editions and a book that is prepared by someone other than the author (typically an editor). list by editor(s) followed by a comma and "ed. but add the editor after the title. Print.g. Bronte.english. Butler. 2004. see An Edition of a Book below. Print.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
of the work in the signal phrase and the page number in parentheses.purdue. 1988. New York: Vintage-Random House. 1993.
13-24. Print." Rose and Weiser 15367. New York: Dover. Print. Reference. "Graphic Design Education as a Liberal Art: Design and Knowledge in the University and The 'Real World. Charles A. MLA indicates you may cross-reference within your works cited list in order to avoid writing out the publishing information for each separate essay. or a chapter of a book. Reference. 2000. ed. Some examples: Harris. You should consider this option if you have several references from a single text. or Collection Works may include an essay in an edited collection or anthology. To do so. Toni Morrison: Critical and Theoretical Approaches..
owl. "Talk to Me: Engaging Reluctant Writers.. "'Seeing' the WPA With/Through Postmodern Mapping. see A Work in an Anthology.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
multiple editors. Muriel. Note on Cross-referencing Several Items from One Anthology: If you cite more than one essay from the same edited collection. Print. 1999. "eds" (for edited by). Print. Robert. list the author's name in last name. Philip Smith. NH: Heinemann..edu/owl/…/747/ 19/45
. Portsmouth. New York: Allworth Press. eds. Ed. The Writing Program Administrator as Researcher. 2004. Hill.'" The Education of a Graphic Designer. Ed. Peterson. 1997. the editor's last name. Swanson. "Red. Ed. This sort of entry is somewhat rare. Print. Ben Rafoth. "Title of Essay. and Irwin Weiser. Nancy J. Then. the title of the essay.purdue. Defining Visual Rhetorics. Print. Barbara." 100 Best-Loved Poems. Page range of entry. and Marguerite Helmers. eds. Place of Publication: Publisher. first name format. Mahwah. Medium of Publication.english. Tim. Ed. 1998. and the page range: L'Eplattenier. Gunnar. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. or Collection below. Portsmouth. Print. The basic form is for this sort of citation is as follows: Lastname." Rose and Weiser 131-40. A Work in an Anthology. "Finding Ourselves in the Past: An Argument for Historical Work on WPAs. 24-34. NH: Heinemann. Steven Heller. include a separate entry for the entire collection listed by the editor's name as below: Rose. Poem or Short Story Examples: Burns. First name. Year. for each individual essay from the collection. Red Rose. Editor's Name(s). Shirley K." Title of Collection. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP. Peeples." A Tutor's Guide: Helping Writers One to One. If you are citing a particular piece within an anthology or collection (more common).
"Girl. a preface. New York: Penguin. Ed. Preface." The Vintage Book of Contemporary American Short Stories. Print. or Afterword When citing an introduction." The American Heritage Dictionary. cite the total number of volumes in the work. Butler. Print. A Multivolume Work When citing only one volume of a multivolume work. if the reference book is organized alphabetically.edu/owl/…/747/ 20/45
. An Introduction. or after the work's editor or translator. If the volume you are using has its own title. be sure in your in-text citation to provide both the volume number and page number(s).g. do not list the volume or the page number of the article or item. 306-07. which you can access by following the appropriate link at the bottom of this page. 1980. Also. Jamaica. Print. "Ideology. 1980.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
1995. Article in a Reference Book (e. cite the book without referring to the other volumes as if it were an independent publication. E. E. a forward. Butler. Print. Kincaid. "I Sing the Body Electric. Angela. Print. New York: Vintage. and other reference works. Print. Trans. New York: Dover. New York: Dodd. When citing more than one volume of a multivolume work. Walt. 12-19. Trans. 2. "The Tiger's Bride. Cambridge: Loeb-Harvard UP. 3rd ed. Dictionaries) For entries in encyclopedias. include the volume number after the work's title. 1995.) Quintilian.purdue. 1994." Selected Poems. Cambridge: Loeb-Harvard UP. 26. Quintilian. 1997.english. 4 vols. (See Citing Multivolume Works on the In-Text Citations – The Basics page. Print. Carter. H. Foreword. Churchill. cite the piece as you would any other work in a collection but do not include the publisher information. The Age of Revolution. 1957. or an afterword. Institutio Oratoria." Burning Your Boats: The Collected Stories. If the specific literary work is part of the an author's own collection (all of the works have the same author). Tobias Wolff. dictionaries. Also. 1991. Institutio Oratoria. H. Winston S. Print. as most are. then there will be no editor to reference: Whitman. write the name of the
owl. Vol. 154-69. Encyclopedias.
any editor(s) associated with it." For example. 110th Cong. which should not be italicized or enclosed in quotation marks. Washington: GPO. then write the full name of the principal work's author after the word "By. 1-13.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
author(s) of the piece you are citing. 3rd ed. 2007. Susan Jones. xiii-xliv. Remember that your in-text (parenthetical citation) should include the name of the specific edition of the Bible. you would write the entry as follows: Duncan. Print. By Kenneth Burke. Hearing on the Geopolitics of Oil. 1st sess.english. Climate Change: EPA and DOE Should Do More to Encourage Progress Under Two Voluntary Programs. A Pamphlet Cite the title and publication information for the pamphlet just as you would a book without an author. the chapter and verse(s). Print.. if you were to cite Hugh Dalziel Duncan’s introduction of Kenneth Burke’s book Permanence and Change. Otherwise. United States. which MLA abbreviates as GPO. 1993. New York: Doubleday. United States. Introduction.edu/owl/…/747/ 21/45
. followed by the agency (including any subdivisions or agencies) that serves as the organizational author. New Haven: Yale UP. Print. For congressional documents. Introduction.purdue. Permanence and Change: An Anatomy of Purpose. be sure to include the number of the Congress and the session when the hearing was held or resolution passed. Norms of Rhetorical Culture. Print.) The New Jerusalem Bible. Cong. Thomas B. US government documents are typically published by the Government Printing Office. 1984. start with the name of the national government. (See Citing the Bible on the In-Text Citations – The Basics page. Pamphlets and promotional materials commonly feature corporate authors (commissions. Other Print/Book Sources Certain book sources are handled in a special way by MLA style. Government Accountability Office. which you can access by following the appropriate link at the bottom of this page. Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. 2006. The Bible Give the name of the specific edition you are using. If the writer of the piece is different from the author of the complete work . followed by the publication information. 1935. Print. Senate.
owl. Berkeley: U of California P. Ed. By Farrell. Then give the name of the part being cited. Washington: GPO. Farrell. followed by an abbreviation of the book. A Government Publication Cite the author of the publication if the author is identified. 1985. Hugh Dalziel.
2002. 2002. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. Feminism. If the dissertation is published. Ohio University. This resource. Print. Cite the work as you would a book. Dissertations and Master's Theses Dissertations and master's theses may be used as sources whether published or not. Tarez Samra. Bile. of Social Services. Purdue University. cite as directed below. and the Works Cited page. Purdue University. Karl. Ann Arbor: UMI. Stolley.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. Print." MA thesis.purdue. (or MA/MS thesis) followed by the degree-granting school and the year the degree was awarded. Print.
owl. Print. CA: California Dept.edu/owl/…/747/
. Documenting Institutional Identity: Strategic Writing in the IUPUI Comprehensive Campaign. If the work is not published. Diss. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. Washington: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. "Towards a Feminine Ironic: Understanding Irony in the Oppositional Discourse of Women from the Early Modern and Modern Periods. in-text citations. You may also include the University Microfilms International (UMI) order number if you choose: Bishop. and a Revised Critical Rhetoric: Toward a Dialectical Partnership. first name format) or corporate author in the place where the author name typically appears at the beginning of the entry. AAT 3191701. If your pamphlet has an author or a corporate author. endnotes/footnotes." Diss. Diss. Jeffrey. italicize the title and include the publication date. (See also Books by a Corporate Author or Organization above. put the title in quotation marks and end with the date the degree was awarded: Graban. Your Rights Under California Welfare Programs. 2005. Contributors:Tony Russell. 2007. "Toward a Conception of Religion as a Discursive Formation: Implications for Postmodern Composition Theory. Sacramento. If the pamphlet you are citing has no author. Karen Lynn. 2004. Purdue University.). Ann Arbor: UMI. Ecology. 2006. put the name of the author (last name.english. 2006.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
committees. Print. but include the designation Diss. 2006.) Women's Health: Problems of the Digestive System. or other groups that does not provide individual group member names). Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. Allen Brizee. Print.
" Purdue Exponent [West Lafayette." New York Times 21 May 2007 late ed. Behre. 2007: A11. A Review
owl. consult “Citing Periodical Print Publications” in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers." Time 20 Nov. Print. Print. magazines. Buchman.4.5. newspapers. Andrew.g. Print." Post and Courier [Charleston. and italicizing the periodical title." Title of Periodical Day Month Year: pages.purdue. 2006: 143-48. IN] 5 Dec. Paul.. If there is more than one edition available for that date (as in an early and late edition of a newspaper). 174-85). Remember to abbreviate the month. "A Special Education. Follow with the date of publication. Medium of publication. "Title of Article. 136-48).g. 3rd edition (sec. late ed. The basic format is as follows: Author(s). Print.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
MLA Works Cited: Periodicals
Periodicals (e. "TV Makes a Too-Close Call.C. Bill.). Poniewozik. and scholarly journals) that appear in print require the same medium of publication designator—Print—as books. 2000: 20. "Brees Hopes to Win Heisman for Team. 17 May 1987. Brubaker. putting the title of the article in quotations marks. Robert. If the newspaper is a less well-known or local publication. Democrats. or the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. SC] 29 Apr. 7th edition (sec. Print. "Fear of Eating. include the city name and state in brackets after the title of the newspaper. James. but note the different pagination in a newspaper. Dana. 2000: 70-71. For more information on citing periodicals. but the MLA Style method for citing these materials and the items required for these entries are quite different from MLA book citations." Washington Post 24 May 2007: LZ01. Article in a Magazine Cite by listing the article's author.edu/owl/…/747/ 23/45
." Good Housekeeping Mar. Krugman. identify the edition following the date (e. Article in a Newspaper Cite a newspaper article as you would a magazine article. Trembacki. 6.english. 5. Print. "New Health Center Targets County's Uninsured Patients. "Presidential Hopefuls Get Final Crack at Core of S.: A1.
H. John. New York Times 30 May 2007 late ed. Seitz. "Title of Review (if there is one). and short stories). Review Author. of Sport. The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers 7th edition (2009) eliminates this step. Author(s). Title of Periodical day month year: page. Rhetoric. Print. but include the designators "Editorial" or "Letter" to identify the type of work it is. and Gender: Historical Perspectives and Media Representations. of Performance Title. ed. "Title of Article. Tourism in Greenland. 24 Oct." Women's Health Weekly 10 May 2007: 18. and finish the citation as you would any other for that kind of periodical. "Aging." Title of Journal Volume. If You Can Really Call It Living." Rev. K. Finally. 2007: 7. An Article in a Scholarly Journal In previous years." Editorial. Always provide issue numbers.Issue (Year): pages. Hamer. 2006/Jan. Weiller. dir. "Of Mines and Men. by Author/Director/Artist. Print. Fuller. then the abbreviation "Rev. Print. Print. poems. Linda K. "Life in the Sprawling Suburbs. Medium of publication. American Journalism Review Dec." The Economist 26 May 2007: 82.: E1.english.edu/owl/…/747/ 24/45
. Gary Burns and Jim Brown. Print. Letter. and films. 2007: 1377." Rev.purdue. 2003: A14. include the title of the review (if available). Medium of publication.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
To cite a review. plays. in quotation marks for articles. "Business: Global Warming's Boom Town. Print. Wall Street Journal east. Choice Apr. Women Expect to Care for Aging Parents but Seldom Prepare. Anonymous Articles Cite the article title first. An Editorial & Letter to the Editor Cite as you would any article in a periodical. provide performance and/or publication information. MLA required that researchers determine whether or not a scholarly journal employed continuous pagination (page numbers began at page one in the first issue of the years and page numbers took up where they left off in subsequent ones) or non-continuous pagination (page numbers begin at page one in every subsequent issue) in order to determine whether or not to include issue numbers in bibliographic entries. Matt Zoller. when available. Rev. of" for Review of and provide the title of the work (in italics for books. of Radiant City. ed.
Most Web browsers will include URL/electronic address information when you print. This resource. Print. Sue-Ellen. in italics. better. It is always a good idea to maintain personal copies of electronic information. An Article in a Special Issue of a Scholarly Journal When an article appears in a special issue of a journal. Spec. Alaknanda.purdue. list the medium as Web. also in italics. “Politics in the Novels of Graham Greene. to keep your own copies for future reference. Thus. issue of Modern Fiction Studies 43. Also. It is good practice to print or save Web pages or. in-text citations. "Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi's Bashai Tudu. using a program like Adobe Acrobat. 10 Feb. which makes later reference easy. Anthony.
Contributors:Tony Russell.english.3 (1994): 127-53. cite the name of the special issue in the entry’s title space. Print. “Eve's Apple. issue of” and include the name of the journal. Add the descriptor “Spec. you might use the
owl.). Allen Brizee.edu/owl/…/747/ 25/45
.2 (1967): 93-99. Duvall.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed." Arizona Quarterly 50. followed by the rest of the information required for a standard scholarly journal citation." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 15. when including the medium of publication for electronic sources.
Web entries should follow a similar format. Burgess. endnotes/footnotes.” Technocriticism and Hypernarrative. "The (Super)Marketplace of Images: Television as Unmediated Mediation in DeLillo's White Noise. issue of Journal of Contemporary History 2. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. John N.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
Bagchi. or Women's Narrative Bytes. Spec.
MLA Works Cited: Electronic Sources (Web Publications)
MLA lists electronic sources as Web Publications. Web. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers.1 (1996): 41-50. Print. and the Works Cited page. and end with a period. 2010. when possible. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities.” Literature and Society.3 (1997): 631-650. Case.
Web Atomic and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. MLA suggests that the URL appear in angle brackets after the date of access. pag. (Remember that some Print publications have Web publications with slightly different names. Important Note on the Use of URLs in MLA MLA no longer requires the use of URLs in MLA citations. or book in italics.edu/owl/…/747/ 26/45
.purdue. URL (if required. For instructors or editors that still wish to require the use of URLs. The Internet Classics Archive. . including revisions. Butcher. project. include the additional information or otherwise modified information. Poetics. 4 Nov. Because Web addresses are not static (i.
owl. When an entry requires that you provide a page but no pages are provided in the source (as in the case of an online-only scholarly journal or a work that appears in an online-only anthology). .net]. including the publisher name and publishing date. However.e. Take note of any page numbers (if available). Web. Aristotle.g. Use n. Use n. MLA explains that most readers can find electronic sources via title or author searches in Internet Search Engines. H.) Any version numbers available. Trans. They may. Break URLs only after slashes. or for your own personal reference). 2008. Abbreviations Commonly Used with Electronic Sources If publishing information is unavailable for entries that require publication information such as publisher (or sponsor) names and publishing dates. Not every Web page will provide all of the following information.p. MLA requires the use of special abbreviations to indicate that this information is not available. for example. posting dates. 13 Sept. Basic Style for Citations of Electronic Sources (Including Online Databases) Here are some common features you should try and find before citing electronic sources in MLA style.d. Publisher information. to indicate that neither a publisher nor a sponsor name has been provided. S.com or . like domain names [e. when the Web page does not provide a publication date.g. Date you accessed the material. volumes. collect as much of the following information as possible both for your citations and for your research notes: Author and/or editor names (if available) Article name in quotation marks (if applicable) Title of the Website.english. on multiple databases). they change often) and because documents sometimes appear in multiple places on the Web (e.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
Bookmark function in your Web browser in order to return to documents more easily. use the abbreviation n. 2007. or issue numbers.
Remember to use n. Felluga. 1800. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory. date of resource creation (if available). The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U. New York. 20 Apr. n. 22 May 2006. Purdue U.d. English Department. Madrid. Medium of publication.edu/owl/…/747/ 27/45
. The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. if not publishing date is given.d. 1922. 24 Feb. An Image (Including a Painting. eHow. if no publisher name is available and n.purdue. Remember to use n. the date of creation.english. Museo Nacional del Prado.com. Museum of Modern Art. Web. Felluga. if no publishing date is given. 2009. 2009. Give appropriate department and school names as well. and information available on one date may no longer be available later. Klee. the institution and city where the work is housed. Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher). Be sure to include the complete address for the site. Sculpture. author. Version number. Dino. Web. 2003. list the author or alias if known. Dino.d. the medium of publication.d. 23 April 2008. Editor. 28 Nov. Survey of the Literature of England. 22 May 2006.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
Citing an Entire Web Site It is necessary to list your date of access because web postings are often updated. or compiler name (if available). if no publishing date is given. or Photograph) Provide the artist's name. Paul. Name of Site.p. following the course title. 14 May 2009. Course or Department Websites Give the instructor name. Web. The Artchive. and the date of access.
owl. 2008. Follow this initial entry with the name of the Website in italics. 31 May 2007. 2006. the work of art italicized. "How to Make Vegetarian Chili. Museo National del Prado.p. Web." eHow. Purdue U. Web. Date of access. A Page on a Web Site For an individual page on a Web site. if no publisher name is available and n. Web. Aug. 10 May 2006. The Family of Charles IV. Francisco. Purdue U. Goya. Web. Twittering Machine. Remember to use n. followed by the information covered above for entire Web sites. Then list the title of the course (or the school catalog designation for the course) in italics.
owl. 8 Feb. Article in an Online Scholarly Journal That Also Appears in Print Cite articles in online scholarly journals that also appear in print as you would a scholarly journal in print. and the date of access. use that username for the author. Provide the medium of publication that you used (in this case. JSTOR.2 (2008): n. An Article from an Online Database (or Other Electronic Subscription Service) Cite articles from online databases (e. to denote that there is no pagination for the publication. 22 May 2006. A List Apart Mag. 2002. the title of the work. Web) and the date of access. there is no corresponding print publication) that does not make use of page numbers.e. Web. provide the author(s) name(s). brandychloe.edu/owl/…/747/ 28/45
. Web. including the page range of the article. publisher name.english.purdue. An Article in an Online Scholarly Journal For all online scholarly journals. pag. the title of the publication in italics. If the journal you are citing appears exclusively in an online format (i. publication date.g." Emerging Infectious Diseases 6. pag. Remember to use n. LexisNexis. American Greetings. use the abbreviation n. Mark. if no publisher name is available and n.
Purdue OWL Engagement
If the work is cited on the web only.d. medium of publication. and the year of publication.. An Article in a Web Magazine Provide the author name.p. Wheelis. Webshots. article name in quotation marks. 20 May 2009. title of the Web magazine in italics. the name of the article in quotation marks.6 (2000): 595-600. 16 Aug. If the work is posted via a username. "10 Tips on Writing the Living Web. Web. Bernstein. the medium of the work. "Great Horned Owl Family. Mark." Photograph. 5 November 2009. Article in an Online-only Scholarly Journal MLA requires a page range for articles that appear in Scholarly Journals. Web. Dolby.2/26/2010 Web. ProQuest." A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites. “Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future Directions. then provide the name of the artist. and then follow the citation format for a website.” Social Work and Society: The International Online-Only Journal 6. 4 May 2009. all volume and issue numbers.
22 May 2006. "Investigating Disease Outbreaks Under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. 2009. Nadine. if not publishing date is given.
Andrew. A Listserve. Kunka.” Name of Site. This resource. “Re: Best Strategy: Fenced Pastures vs. or Blog Posting Cite Web postings as you would a standard Web entry. Junge. State to whom to message was sent. screen name.
owl.” Historical Journal 50. Discussion Group. endnotes/footnotes. Salmar1515 [Sal Hernandez]. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. Editor.p.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
other subscription services just as you would print sources. BoardGameGeek. and Nathan Nelson. 2005: 642-44. Contributors:Tony Russell. 5 Apr. E-mail. Follow with the medium of publication and the date of access. 29 Sept. Web. author. and the date of access. the title of the posting in quotation marks. E-mail (including E-mail Interviews) Give the author of the message. or compiler name (if available). updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. Max Number of Rooms? ” BoardGameGeek. which you can access via its link at the bottom of this page. Wolfgang. Provide the author of the work. and the medium of publication. Web. the date the message was sent. 2008. Claire.english." Message to Joe Barbato. 1 Dec. 27 May 2009. the publisher. Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher). In addition to this information.purdue. Neyhart.1 (2007): 173-96. Include screen names as author names when author name is not known. followed by the subject line in quotation marks. Remember if the publisher of the site is unknown. Allen Brizee. provide the title of the database italicized. the medium of publication. Note: Previous editions of the MLA Style Manual required information about the subscribing institution (name and location). in-text citations. place the author’s name in brackets. Since these articles usually come from periodicals. David. 5 Mar. Web. "Re: Online Tutoring. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. Science Online. "Re: Modernist Literature. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England. Version number (if available). Date of access.” Science 29 Apr. Medium of publication. ProQuest. 2009." Message to the author. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. This information is no longer required by MLA. and the posting date. 15 Nov. use the abbreviation n.edu/owl/…/747/ 29/45
. and the Works Cited page.). 2000. be sure to consult the appropriate sections of the Works Cited: Periodicals page. Langhamer. 2000. E-mail. the Web site name in italics. 2009. “Posting Title. If both names are known. “Nature's Rotary Electromotors.
An Interview Interviews typically fall into two categories: print or broadcast published and unpublished (personal) interviews. although interviews may also appear in other. Print. give the publisher name (or sponsor). CA: Borgo. 1 Dec. If the interview has a title. 2000.g. Place the name of the Website in italics. Include the descriptor Personal interview and the date of the interview.purdue. Mississippi Review 27. similar formats such as in email format or as a Web document. Kingsley. Interview with Charles Bock. include the author or editor name after the book title. Note: If the interview from which you quote does not feature a title.3 (1999): 129-50. List the interview by the name of the interviewee. Personal interview. Personal Interviews Personal interviews refer to those interviews that you conduct yourself. DVD) and fill in the rest of the entry with the information required by that medium. published and unpublished conference proceedings. or a film series. periodical. If the interview appears as an independent title. San Bernardino. print. Pete. Cite the remainder of the entry as you would other exclusive Web content. a television program. place the title of the interview in quotation marks. Mary.english. interviews over email. Purdue. DVDs. the medium of publication (Web). Web. “Mimic and Moralist. especially those that appear in varied formats: films. For books. the publication date. italicize it. Print.edu/owl/…/747/ 30/45
.” Interviews with Britain’s Angry Young Men. place it in quotation marks. Gaitskill. Amis. videocassettes. Determine the medium of publication (e. Online-only Published Interviews List the interview by the name of the interviewee. The following section groups these sorts of citations as well as others not covered in the print. and the date of access. You may also use the descriptor Interview by to add the name of the interview to the entry if it is relevant to your paper. published and unpublished interviews. If the name of the interview is part of a larger work like a book.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
MLA Works Cited: Other Common Sources
Several sources have multiple means for citation. 1984. Published Interviews (Print or Broadcast) List the interview by the name of the interviewee. and electronic sources sections. By Dale Salwak. add the descriptor Interview (unformatted) after the interviewee’s name. Remember that if no publisher name is
owl. Place the title of the larger work in italics.
Conference Title that Includes Conference Date and Location. “Conference Paper Title. A Painting. Use the descriptor that appropriately expresses the type of presentation (e. Give the title of the artwork in italics. Skewed & Reviewed. Computers and Writing Conference.” Conference Title that Includes Conference Date and Location. give the title of the speech (if any) in quotation marks. 15 Mar. the location of the occasion. place the abbreviation n. Place of publication: Publisher. use n. insert the abbreviation n. if the date is not known. Speeches. Then. ed.g. Craig. Date of Publication. Follow with the name of the meeting and organization. Published Conference Proceedings Cite published conference proceedings like a book. Reading.p. The medium of publication is Print. Union Club Hotel. Remember to use the abbreviation n.edu/owl/…/747/ 31/45
. Place of publication: Publisher. if the publisher is not known. Remember to use the abbreviation n. Provide the date of composition.d. 2009. ed. Web. Note: If the interview from which you quote does not feature a title. You may also use the descriptor Interview by to add the name of the interview to the entry if it is relevant to your paper. Interview by Gareth Von Kallenbach. or Photograph Include the artist's name.english. Date of Publication. West Lafayette. Skewed & Reviewed. Lectures.d. Conference Location. Purdue University. Finally. Print.p. if the publisher is not known. If the date of composition is unknown. Ed. provide the name of the institution that houses the artwork followed by the location of the
owl. Print. Sculpture. LastName. Stein. Bob. and the date. FirstName. if the date is not known. To cite a presentation from a published conference proceedings. Place of publication: Publisher. Date of Publication. Place the name of the presentation in quotation marks. FirstName. Zinkievich.purdue. Follow with publication information for the conference proceedings. IN. Keynote address. begin with the presenter’s name.p. LastName. 23 May 2003. If the date and location of the conference are not part of the published title. Address. or Other Oral Presentations (including Conference Presentations) Provide the speaker’s name. Guest Lecture). add the descriptor Interview (unformatted) after the interviewee’s name. LastName. add this information after the published proceedings title. 2009. Conference Date. Lecture.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
give. Conference Title that Does Not Include Conference Date and Location. Conference Editor(s). FirstName. in place of the date. Print. Keynote speech. use n.d.
owl. Film. The Family of Charles IV. VHS.english." The X-Files. Films or Movies List films (in theaters or not yet on DVD or video) by their title. to head the list. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace. Radio). Perf.). Madrid.g. To emphasize specific performers (perf. Goya. followed by the appropriate abbreviation. Fox. The Family of Charles IV. The Usual Suspects. For artwork in an online format. Madrid. and the date of broadcast. Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. Goya. Use the abbreviation perf. and Benecio del Toro. list performer names after the director’s name. Stephen Baldwin. figure. including page or reference numbers (plate. 10th ed. the distributor. Francisco.). and the release year. Tim Burton. George. Chazz Palminteri.purdue. and the release year. 1998. Johnny Depp. or Photograph)” by following the link Works Cited: Electronic Sources at the bottom of this page. WXIA. Twentieth Century Fox. DVD. Sculpture. Francisco. Dir. cite the bibliographic information as above followed by the information for the source in which the photograph appears. dir. Sarah Jessica Parker. Recorded Films or Movies List films by their title. Use the abbreviation perf. Broadcast Television or Radio Program Begin with the title of the episode in quotation marks. list performer names after the director’s name.g. 1995. see “Recorded Films and Movies” below. Lucas. Kleiner. If relevant. images of artwork in a book). Provide the name of the series or program in italics. Martin Landau. For television episodes on Videocassette or DVD refer to the “Recorded Television Episodes” section below. Include the name of the director. begin the citation with the name of the desired performer or director. 1977. To cite a DVD or other video recording. Patricia Arquette.g. "The Blessing Way.) or directors (dir. Print. Kevin Spacey. Television. List film as the medium of publication. Perf. Bryan Singer. For photographic reproductions of artwork (e. Laser disc). call letters of the station followed by the city. 1800. Gardener's Art Through the Ages. 1800. 939. 1994. Ed Wood. Gabriel Byrne. Atlanta. Museo del Prado. DVD.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
institution. Include the name of the director. End with the publication medium (e. to head the list. End the entry with the appropriate medium of publication (e. By Richard G. Also include the network name. the film studio or distributor. Dir. 19 Jul. Museo del Prado. Touchstone.edu/owl/…/747/ 32/45
. Film. etc. Polygram. consult “An Image (Including a Painting. Tansey and Fred S. Television.
"The One Where Chandler Can't Cry. In Your Honor.). Cond. see the “Digital Files” section below. Strategic Grill Locations.english. Geffen. Provide the name of the recording manufacturer followed by the publication date (or n.g. citations begin with the artist name. Writ. MP3s. For MP3 recordings.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
Recorded Television Episodes (e. CD.. 2005. Spoken-Word Albums Treat spoken-word albums the same as musical albums. LP. RCA. Follow with the series name in italics.. Ludwig van. 2003. RCA. List the appropriate medium at the end of the entry (e. Nirvana. End with the medium of publication (e." Friends: The Complete Sixth Season. The 9 Symphonies. Use the appropriate abbreviation after the person’s name and a comma. Dir.. Note: If you know and desire to list the recording date. list composer and performer information after the album title. They might also be listed by composers (comp. writers. When the title of the collection of recordings is different than the original series (e. prod.d. Begin with the episode name in quotation marks. Andrew Reich and Ted Cohen. performers. Give the distributor name followed by the date of distribution. Sound Recordings List sound recordings in such a way that they can easily be found by readers. DVD. DVD. Videocassette. include this information before the manufacturer name. Comedy Central.edu/owl/…/747/ 33/45
. Audiocassette).g. producers between the title and the distributor name. 2004. Digital Files (PDFs.). JPEGs)
owl. dir. Generally. Put individual song titles in quotation marks.g. Foo Fighters. 2003. Videocassette) Cite recorded television episodes like films (see above).purdue. Use the abbreviation for “recorded” (Rec. NBC Symphony Orchestra. when needed. Album names are italicized. perf. the show Friends is in DVD release under the title Friends: The Complete Sixth Season). Hedberg.) and list the recording date (dd mm year format) before the manufacturer name. Laser disc). "Smells Like Teen Spirit. writ. Arturo Toscanini." Nevermind. CD. Perf. 1991.. Use appropriate abbreviations for these contributors (e. list the title that would be help researchers locate the recording. Beethoven. Audiocassette. Otherwise. DVD. CD.g. if date is unknown). Kevin Bright. Note: The writer may choose to include information about directors. Mitch.. CD.) or performers (perf. Warner Brothers.g.
) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed.edu/owl/…/747/ 34/45
. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. 3rd Edition (ISBN-13: 978-0-87352-2977) MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. For extraordinary questions that aren't covered clearly in the style manual or haven't been answered by your teacher or advisor. Phyllis. and the Works Cited page. the date of creation. give the author’s name. Smith. or other campus resources for help. Allen Brizee. Ludwig van. and the medium of publication.).4 (1968): 509-22. George. Use Digital file when the medium cannot be determined. “Yorkshire and the Novelist.” The Kenyon Review 30.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
Determine the type of work to cite (e. endnotes/footnotes. Moonlight Sonata. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. They're the ones who can tell you how the style should apply in your particular case. article. Microsoft Word file. Allen Brizee. If you are using MLA style for a class assignment. PDF. This resource. Contributors:Tony Russell.g. TA. it's also a good idea to consult your professor. Beethoven. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. 2006. If the work does not follow traditional parameters for citation. Crownstar. Bentley.g. contact the Writing Lab for help at (765) 494-3723 or email us at this form. sound recording) and cite appropriately. “Pax Americana: Strife in a Time of Peace. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite
MLA Additional Resources
It's always best to consult the current MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for any MLA question. in-text citations. Microsoft Word file. End the entry with the name of the digital format (e. MP3. PDF file. advisor. JPEG file. Print Resources from the Modern Language Association MLA Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. 7th Edition (ISBN-13: 978-1-60329-0241) Contributors:Tony Russell. MP3).purdue.” 2005. the name of the work. JSTOR.
. E.gov (URL suffixes) Note: Degree names are a notable exception to the lowercase abbreviation rule.purdue. conf..). James. endnotes/footnotes.m. Each section cross-references the appropriate sections and page numbers of the MLA Handbooks for Writers of Research Papers and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. . B. where the period should come before the abbreviation: assn. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. unless referring to an internet suffix. Tolkien. and the Works Cited page. 7th edition. .. R.edu. For a complete list of common abbreviations used in academic writing.. i. R. though there are always exceptions to these rules.e. PsyD Use periods between letters without spacing if each letter represents a word in common lower case abbreviations: a. This resource. e. PhD.
There are a few common trends in abbreviating that you should follow when using MLA. EdD. except in the case of proper names: US. D.edu/owl/…/747/ 35/45
.com. Uppercase Letter Abbreviations Do not use periods or spaces in abbreviations composed solely of capital letters. and Chapter 8 of the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. esp. HTML P.. Other notable exceptions:
owl. see Chapter 7 of the MLA Handbooks for Writers of Research Papers. in-text citations.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. White Lowercase Letter Abbreviations Use a period if the abbreviation ends in a lower case letter. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. MA. CD.english. 3rd edition. J.g.. Eng. This guide provides only a very small portion of the abbreviations suggested by MLA.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
sources within the liberal arts and humanities.
for journal Lib. ns For more on upper. 3rd edition. Sherbrooke. or ca. os.2. or Section 8.3. Logan.. UT. or Section 8. for library Sec. Nov. 7th edition. see Section 7.2.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
mph. QC For more information on time designations. 3rd edition. Abbreviations in Citations Condense citations as much as possible using abbreviations.and lowercase letter abbreviation designations.english. rpm. Time Designations (262-63) of the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. Geographic Names Geographic names of states and countries in book citations when the publisher's city is not well known or could be confused with another city. or sect. for section Ser. For more information on time designations. for series Var. Time Designations Remember to follow common trends in abbreviating time and location within citations. and state names. see Section 7.. Scholarly Abbreviations List common scholarly abbreviations as they appear below: Anon. 7th edition. 7th edition. Geographic Names (264-69) of the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing.1. for circa Comp. Abbreviate country. 3rd edition. for anonymous C. for compiler Fwd.purdue. Introduction (234) of the MLA Handbooks for Writers of Research Papers. for written by or writer
owl.. Manchester. province. Time Designations (235) of the MLA Handbooks for Writers of Research Papers. Eng. Sept. or Section 8.edu/owl/…/747/ 36/45
.3. for foreword Jour. Introduction (261-62) of the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. for variant Writ.1. Month names longer than four letters used in journal and magazine citations: Jan. Geographic Names (236-40) of the MLA Handbooks for Writers of Research Papers. see Section 7.
Common Scholarly Abbreviations and Reference Words (240-47) of the MLA Handbooks for Writers of Research Papers. or Section 8. or Inc.) Gale (Gale Research.) Harper (Harper and Row. Allen Brizee. Brown and Company.3. or Section 8. business abbreviations (like Corp.
owl.3. Acad. Inc. Cambridge UP or U of Chicago P) Here is a short list of publisher abbreviations that you might use. 3rd edition.edu/owl/…/747/ 37/45
. Inc. Norton) and only the last name of the first listed for a publisher with multiple names (e. see Section 7. or Soc. You only need to provide your readers with enough information for them to identify the publisher. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. 3rd edition. Inc. GPO) Use only U and P when referring to university presses (e.g. for Educ. Inc. Common Scholarly Abbreviations and Reference Words (269-82) of the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. Consult Chapter 7 of the MLA Handbook for a more complete list. Publishers. MLA.g. House) Cite only the last name of a publisher with the name of one person (e. see Section 7.) MIT P (The MIT Press) NCTE (The National Council of Teachers of English) SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series) UMI (University Microfilms International) For more information on publisher names. ERIC. Dev.g. Publishers. Many publishers can be identified by only acronyms or a shortened version of their names. Assn.g. Contributors:Tony Russell.english.g. Publisher Names Shorten publisher's names as much as possible in book citations.). & HarperCollins Publishers. W. This resource. 7th edition. (Academy for Educational Development. Norton for W.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. Publishers’ Names (247-49) of the MLA Handbooks for Writers of Research Papers. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. McGraw for McGraw-Hill) Use standard abbreviations when possible (e. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
For more information on scholarly abbreviations.purdue. and descriptive words (e.4. 7th edition.g. Inc. Publishers’ Names (282-85) of the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing.4.) Use the acronym of the publisher if the company is commonly know by that abbreviation (e. MLA suggests a few rules for you to follow when abbreviating publishers: Omit articles. Press.).) Little (Little.
Shulte. Michael. Web. 24 May 2009. Economic Theory and Global Warming. US News & World Rept.edu/owl/…/747/ 38/45
.org. Web. Environmental Defense Fund. 24 May 2009. dir.4 (2006): 63. Print." American Economic Review 96. 2006. 2 June 2006. Leroux. Web. Milken. May 2007. 2007. Gowdy. Web. 24 May 2009. 2001: 1283-84. Davis Guggenheim." International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 14. Works Cited "Blueprint Lays Out Clear Path for Climate Action. Bill. Cooler Heads Coalition. Cornelia. Roger.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
in-text citations. Global Warming: Myth Or Reality?: The Erring Ways of Climatology. "After Kyoto: Alternative Mechanisms to Control Global Warming. Print.
MLA Sample Works Cited Page
This handout provides an example of a Works Cited page in MLA 2009 format.1 (2007): 27-36. 8 May 2007. New York Times. Print.2 (2006): 31-34. Bret. Rogerebert. GlobalWarming. New York Times. Web. Gary Becker. Marcel. 2003. Web. Print Nordhaus." Usnews. Sun-Times News Group. “Clinton on Climate Change. Print. 2005. 25 May 2009. Clinton.com. 24 May 2009. "Avoiding Self-organized Extinction: Toward a Co-evolutionary Economics of Sustainability. Interview by Andrew C. and the Works Cited page. ---. "Putting a Price on Pollution. New York: Springer. An Inconvenient Truth.purdue." Rev." New York Times. of An Inconvenient Truth.com. Hirofumi. Paramount. Dean. "An Inconvenient Truth. 25 May 2009. Perf. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. Revkin. John." New Perspectives Quarterly 23.english.” New York Times. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Billy West. "Global Warming Economics. Uzawa." Science 9 Nov. Dir. Davis Guggenheim. "Executive on a Mission: Saving the Planet. 6 May 2007. 22 May 2007. William D. DVD. Al Gore." Environmental Defense Fund. and Daniel Kahneman.
owl. "On Global Warming and Financial Imbalances. endnotes/footnotes. Ebert. 24 May 2009. Web.. Myron Scholes. Science Online.
) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. Often pixilation and distortion occurs when writers manipulate image sizes. and the Works Cited page. and the Works Cited page. This resource. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers.
Collect sources. Gather the source information required for MLA Documentation for the source medium of the illustration (e. Allen Brizee.english. and the second sample uses endnotes. or distorted images for both print and electronic documents. endnotes/footnotes. in-text citations.purdue.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. musical scores. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. To download these sample MLA papers. pixilated. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. Keep images in their original sizes or use photo editing software to
owl. Contributors:Tony Russell. select the MLA 2009 Sample Papers PDF file in the Media box above.).
MLA Sample Papers
This resource contains two sample MLA papers that adhere to the 2009 updates. podcast). Allen Brizee. audio/video applications. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. or. print. The first sample paper uses footnotes. and Examples
The purpose of visual materials or other illustrations is to enhance the audience's understanding of information in the document and/or awareness of a topic. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. Avoid blurry. Consider the purpose of each illustration. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. in-text citations. how it contributes to the purpose of the document and the reader's understanding. Writers can embed several types of visuals using the most basic word processing software: diagrams.edu/owl/…/747/ 39/45
. photographs. endnotes/footnotes.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
Contributors:Tony Russell. and whether or not the audience will be able to view and/or understand the illustration easily. Determine what types of illustrations best suit your purpose. Use illustrations of the best quality. This resource. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. web.
MLA Tables. for documents that will be read electronically.g. Figures.). Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA.
a caption and/or source information. tables. Reproduce distorted graphs. MLA lists sources in note form.purdue. Note: Use semicolons to denote entry sections when long series of commas make these sections difficult to ascertain as being like or separate. a label. and Source Information
Illustrations appear directly embedded in the document. Remember that texts explain. 1).) Each illustration must include. Illustrations cannot carry the entire weight of the document. see fig. but be sure to include all source information.english. Captions. Decide what items can best improve the document's ability to augment readers' understanding of the information. Examples . In the case of student papers. If you provide source information with all of your illustrations. These entries appear much like standard MLA bibliographic entries with a few exceptions: Author names are in First_Name Last_Name format. you do not need to provide this information on the Works Cited page. (See examples below. (For preparing manuscripts with visual materials for publication.g. Use illustrations sparingly. Captions provide titles or explanatory notes. a number. 1) and near the illustration itself (Fig.Documenting Source Information in "Note Form" Book
owl. Scrutinize illustrations for how potentially informative or persuasive they can be. Commas are substituted for periods (except in the case of the period that ends the entry). Source information documentation will always depend upon the medium of the source illustration. and/or illustration of the main points. year) appears in parentheses. Do not use illustrations to boost page length. except in the case of manuscripts that being prepared for publication. Do not provide illustrations for illustrations' sake.
Source Information and Note Form
For source information. authors do not need to list the source in the Works Cited list. instructors often do not count the space taken up by visual aids toward the required page length of the document. or diagrams with spreadsheet or publishing software.) The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers 7th edition states that if the table or illustration caption provides complete citation information about the source and the source is not cited in the text. Publication information for books (location: publisher. Relevant page numbers follow the publication information. see Note on Manuscripts below.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
modify them. The illustration label and number should always appear in two places: the document main text (e.
Labels. appreciation for the subject. while illustrations enhance.edu/owl/…/747/ 40/45
. Always represent the original source information faithfully and avoid unethical practices of false representation or manipulation.
a space. Mining. Print. Do not capitalize the word table. Below the source information. one-inch margins). Use standard capitalization rules. Manufacturing. their inclusion here (US Dept. Dept. Furthermore. Situate the table near the text to which it relates. Census Bureau. making sure to maintain basic MLA style formatting (e.purdue. flush-left. provide a corresponding lowercase letter (not in superscript). In this example. of Commerce. 2008. of Commerce. Label the table Table and provide its corresponding Arabic numeral. figures. Use a hanging indent for lines after the first. 1999) 35. Align the table flush-left to the margin. Web. thus. indent. 2008. and Construction Statistics. Place the table below the caption. Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold (Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 23 Dec. and Construction Statistics had not appeared in the entry. followed by a colon. provide a caption for the table. Labels. use lowercase letters formatted in superscript in the caption information or table. "(see table 2)"). signal the source information with the descriptor Source. you do not need to provide this information on the Works Cited page. most often the table title.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
Tom Shachtman. If additional caption information or explanatory notes is necessary.
owl. of Commerce.edu/owl/…/747/ 41/45
. and the note. and notes are double-spaced. This is typically done in parentheses (e. the publisher and date in a standard entry are separated by a comma and belong together.g. the commas in Manufacturing. On the next line. table 1a. 5 Feb. and Census Bureau would have necessitated the use of a semicolon before and after the title and between ensuing sections to the end of the entry.english. then provide the correct MLA bibliographic information for the source in note form (see instructions and examples above). and Construction Statistics prompt the need for semicolons in order for the series information to be read easily. captions.
MLA Documentation for Tables. US Dept. Housing Units Authorized by Building Permits. Mining. No punctuation is necessary after the label and number (see example below). the multiple "author names" of United States. Mining. Figures. Dept. 5 Feb. of Commerce. and Examples
MLA provides three designations for document illustrations: tables. Below the title.g. If you provide source information with your illustrations. Even if Manufacturing. Tables Refer to the table and its corresponding numeral in-text. 2008) also necessitates the semicolons. and examples (see specific sections below). Website (using semicolons to group like information together) United States.
700 less women of that age group were enrolled in 1999. 1997.00 to 61.english.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
Table Example In-text reference: In 1985. and though 11.edu/owl/…/747/ 42/45
.000 persons while women accounted for 49. women aged 65 and older were 59% more likely than men of the same of age to reside in a nursing home. 1995. By Sex and Age Group.500 (see table 1). Older Americans 2008: Key
owl.purdue. Table reference: Table 1 Rate of Nursing Home Residence Among People Age 65 or Older. 1999a
Image Caption: Example Table Source: Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics. 1985. men over the same time period ranged from 30.000 to 39.
Below the figure. Do not capitalize figure or fig. Note: Rates for 65 and over category are age-adjusted using the 2000 standard population.com. Do not capitalize example or ex. 2008. Figures All visuals/illustrations that are not tables or musical score examples (e. Harry Potter and Voldemort final battle debate from Andrew Sims et al. Below the example. podcasts. you do not need to provide this
owl. Refer to the example in-text and provide an Arabic numeral that corresponds to the example. 2008. MLA does not specify alignment requirements for figures. the podcast. 2. If you provide source information with your illustrations. Fig. provide a label name and its corresponding arabic numeral (no bold or italics). 2).). Web.english.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
Indicators of Well-Being. etc. Refer to the figure in-text and provide an Arabic numeral that corresponds to the figure. maps. 27 Dec. provide a title and/or caption as well as relevant source information in note form (see instructions and examples above). Figure and Fig. and recently.edu/owl/…/747/ 43/45
.) are labeled Figure or Fig.g. of what part of the score is being illustrated. MuggleCast.purdue.g. 19 Dec. Figures Example In-text reference: Some readers found Harry’s final battle with Voldemort a disappointment.. People residing in personal care or domiciliary care homes are excluded from the numerator. provide the label (capitalized Example or Ex. charts. If you provide source information with your illustrations. are capitalized. followed by a period (e. one-inch margins).g. videos. Figure caption (below an embedded podcast file for a document to be viewed electronically): Fig.g. one-inch margins). continue to follow basic MLA Style formatting (e. 2008. population figures are adjusted for net underenumeration using the 1990 National Population Adjustment Matrix from the U. Beginning with the same line as the label and number. Examples The descriptor Example only refers to musical illustrations (e.S.) and number and a caption or title. Web. Mar. “Show 166”. diagrams.g. a. MuggleNet. Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics. for example. 1. Example is often abbreviated Ex. these images may be embedded as the reader sees fit. making sure to maintain basic MLA Style formatting (e. table 35A. However. thus. Census Bureau. The caption or title will often take the form of source information along with an explanation. Supply the illustration. portions of a musical score). Here. MuggleCast debated the subject (see fig. you do not need to provide this information on the Works Cited page. Beginning in 1997.
offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers.edu/owl/…/747/ 44/45
. provide label. in-text citations. Type these placeholders on their own line. and the Works Cited page. Allen Brizee.
MLA PowerPoint Presentation
Select the MLA PowerPoint Presentation link in the Media box above to download slides that provide a detailed review of the MLA citation style. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. This resource. in-text citations.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. endnotes/footnotes. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. Allen Brizee. you do not need to provide this information on the Works Cited page. Note on Manuscripts Do not embed illustrations (tables. [table 1]. At the end of the document. Select the Undergraduate MLA 2009 Sample Papers PDF file in the Media box above.).g. endnotes/footnotes. Contributors:Tony Russell. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA.english.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. number. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. Contributors:Tony Russell. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
information on the Works Cited page. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. and bracketed (e. and the Works Cited page. flush left. If you provide source information with your illustrations. Send files for illustrations in the appropriate format to your editor separately.purdue. caption. figures. Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite
owl. or examples) in manuscripts for publication.
MLA Undergraduate Sample Paper
This resource contains an undergraduate sample MLA paper that adheres to the 2009 updates. Contributors:Tony Russell. and source information in an organized list. Put placeholders in the text to show where the illustrations will go. Allen Brizee.). This resource. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers.
Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. and the Works Cited page. All rights reserved.Purdue OWL Internship class. reproduced. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. This material may not be published. Please report any technical problems you encounter.english.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. the poster is 27x36 inches.
MLA Classroom Poster
The MLA poster at the link below is a printable jpg file you may download and print out at different sizes for use in classrooms.2/26/2010
Purdue OWL Engagement
sources within the liberal arts and humanities. please see the complete OWL MLA resources here. in spring 2009. Please keep in mind that the file size. English 490.edu/owl/…/747/
owl.). or as a pocket reference. updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. Purdue OWL MLA Classroom Poster. The Purdue OWL MLA Classroom Poster was developed by Kate Bouwens for the Purdue Professional Writing . endnotes/footnotes. writing centers. offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers. or redistributed without permission. rewritten. broadcast.purdue. in-text citations.
Copyright ©1995-2010 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. Also please note that the poster only contains basic MLA guidelines. This resource. For detailed instructions. as a print-quality resource (120 dpi). is large. As is. so it may take a while to download. You may adjust the print size of the poster from your print menu.