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Fire Alarm
A BACHELOR’S THESIS
Submitted in 7th semester

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY In INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY/ECE (B.Tech in IT/ECE)

Submitted by 1. Ajit Kumar (IEC2006019) 2. Anjani Kr. Singh (IIT2006120)

Under the Guidance of:

Prof. G.N.Pandey IIIT-Allahabad

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ALLAHABAD – 211 012 (INDIA) Dec, 2010

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CANDIDATE’S DECLARATION
I hereby declare that the work presented in this report entitled “Fire Alarm”, submitted in the 7th semester of the degree of Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech), in IT/ECE at Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad, is an authentic record of my original work carried out under the guidance of Prof.G.N.Pandey due acknowledgements have been made in the text of the report to all other material used. This thesis work was done in full compliance with the requirements and constraints of the prescribed curriculum.

Place: Allahabad Date:

Ajit Kumar (IEC2006019) Anjani Kr.Singh (IIT2006120)

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to the best of my knowledge.

Date: Place: Allahabad Committee on Final Examination for Evaluation of the Thesis _______________________ _______________________

Prof.G.N.Pandey IIITA

_______________________ _______________________

N.Page |3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to express our sincere gratitude to Prof. Place: Allahabad Date: Ajit Kumar (IEC2006019 Anjani Kr.Pandey.Singh (IIT2006120) B Tech Final Year. IIITA .G.

.... Results and discussion ………….Page |4 Table of Contents 1.21 .19 5..... Bibliography…………………………………………………………………………....…………………………………... Literature survey……………………………………………….5 2............ Introduction……………………………………………………………………………....………………………6 3. Conclusion and future prospective………………..……………………………….20 6........ Plan of work……………………………………………………………………………8 4...

The passing of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The proliferation of high-rise construction and the concern for life safety within these buildings. . power requirements. They are designed to fulfill two general requirements: protection of property and assets and protection of life. Automatic fire alarm systems can be used to notify people to evacuate in the event of a fire or other emergency. manually activated. these requirements included detailed accessibility standards for both new construction and Renovation toward the goal of equal usability of buildings for everyone.Page |5 Introduction An automatic fire alarm system is designed to detect the unwanted presence of fire by monitoring environmental changes associated with combustion. 1990. synthetic fabrics. institutional. and educational occupancies. providing comprehensive civil rights protection for individuals with disabilities. This had a significant impact on fire alarm system signaling devices. 4. 1992. a fire alarm system is either classified as automatic. In general. regardless of limitations of sight.). 3.e. As a result of state and local codes. Vast improvements in smoke detection and related technology made possible through quantum advances in electronic technology. plastics. to summon emergency services. With an effective date of January 26. or both. and mobility. and to prepare the structure and associated systems to control the spread of fire and smoke. signed into law on July 26. 5. and device locations.. hearing. Increased hazards caused by new building materials and furnishings that create large amounts of toxic combustion products (i. A growing awareness of the life-safety hazard in residential. foremost of which are 1. etc. There are a number of reasons for the substantial increases in the life-safety form of fire protection during recent years. the life-safety aspect of fire protection has become a major factor in the last two decades. Fire alarm systems have become increasingly sophisticated and functionally more capable and reliable in recent years. 2.

and lightning strikes that cause fires. the resistance of the thermistor (TH1) is approximately 10 kilo-ohms. a thermistor works as the heat sensor. When temperature increases. . The circuit uses readily available components and can be easily constructed on any general purpose PCB. At normal temperature. its resistance decreases. the paper looks at the following concepts in greater detail: Fire protection/suppression systems. It then discusses the different classes of fires and provides information on the source of combustion and ignition of each class of fire.. and extinguishing methods are also discussed. Specifically.blogspot. exit drill in the home (EDITH). Next.and vice versa. malfunctions.fire-alarm-using-thermistorIn this fire alarm circuit. types of fire alarms. and other home safety programs. Training programs. The paper concludes with recommendations on fire prevention. the paper describes the common causes of fires in the oil industry and provides facts and statistics that support these claims. which reduces to a few ohms as the temperature increases beyond 100°C.Page |6 Literature survey engg-project2. Fire Safety ManagementThis paper explores several key concepts related to Fire Safety Management. The paper also takes a closer look at electrical problems. building construction. Research Paper # 46036 Fire Prevention in the Oil Industry This paper begins with an introduction stating why fire prevention is necessary.

then: \Delta R=k\Delta T \. ThermistorA thermistor is a type of resistor whose resistance varies significantly(more than in standard resistors) with temperature. Camenzind in 1970 and brought to market in 1971 by Signetics (later acquired by Philips). The word is a portmanteau of thermal and resistor.Page |7 555 timer ICThe 555 Timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) implementing a variety of timer and multivibrator applications. Assuming. The IC was designed by Hans R. The original name was the SE555 (metal can)/NE555 (plastic DIP) and the part was described as "The IC Time Machine". as a first-order approximation. that the relationship between resistance and temperature is linear. Thermistors are widely used as inrush current limiters. self-resetting overcurrent protectors. and self-regulating heating elements. temperature sensors. .

01μF 2NOS. MISC. 1NOS . IC555 1NOS. 2 0. BC548 1NOS T1 2 ½” 8Ω/1W SPK/.2KΩ (PRESET) H 100KΩ CAPACITORS C1. RESISTORS R1 (+5% CARBON.1/4W) R2 33KΩ R3 470Ω R4 560Ω R5 47KΩ R6 2. . DR25 GER DIODE 1NOS .Page |8 PLAN OF WORK We have used following components in our project.

Page |9 About the components used: IC555 TIMER:The 555 Timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) implementing a variety of timer and multivibrator applications. Internal block diagram . The IC was designed by Hans R. Camenzind in 1970 and brought to market in 1971 by Signetics (later acquired by Philips).

. if the DIS pin is not connected and no capacitor is used. logic clocks. Uses include LED and lamp flashers. Applications include timers. pulse position modulation. frequency divider. the 555 functions as a "one-shot". Uses include bounce free latched switches. etc. etc. Bistable mode or Schmitt trigger: the 555 can operate as a flip-flop. security alarms. tone generation. pulse generation. touch switches. pulse-width modulation (PWM) etc Astable . capacitance measurement.P a g e | 10 NE555 from Signetics in dual-in-line package The 555 has three operating modes:    Monostable mode: in this mode. bounce free switches. missing pulse detection.free running mode: the 555 can operate as an oscillator. In this project we are using IC555 in astable mode.

P a g e | 11 Astable mode Standard 555 Astable Circuit In astable mode. Resistor R1 is connected between VCC and the discharge pin (pin 7) and another resistor (R2) is connected between the discharge pin (pin 7). the 555 timer puts out a continuous stream of rectangular pulses having a specified frequency. and discharged only through R2. R2 and C: [7] The high time from each pulse is given by and the low time from each pulse is given by . since pin 7 has low impedance to ground during output low intervals of the cycle. In the astable mode. the frequency of the pulse stream depends on the values of R1. Hence the capacitor is charged through R1 and R2. therefore discharging the capacitor. and the trigger (pin 2) and threshold (pin 6) pins that share a common node.

CTRL "Control" access to the internal voltage divider (by default. RESET A timing interval may be interrupted by driving this input to GND. low level (0 V) Purpose OUT rises. THR DIS The interval ends when the voltage at THR is greater than at CTRL. This bypasses R2 during the high part of the cycle so that the high interval depends only on R1 and C1. Open collector output.P a g e | 12 Where R1 and R2 are the values of the resistors in ohms and C is the value of the capacitor in farads. and interval starts. . when this input falls below 1/3 VCC. Pinout diagram The connection of the pins is as follows: Pin Name 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 GND TRIG OUT Ground. VCC Positive supply voltage is usually between 3 and 15 V. V+. 2/3 VCC). may discharge a capacitor between intervals. This output is driven to +VCC or GND. To achieve a duty cycle of less than 50% a diode can be added in parallel with R2 towards the capacitor.

Thermistors are widely used as inrush current limiters. The word is a portmanteau of thermal and resistor. Thermistor symbol Assuming. temperature sensors.P a g e | 13 Thermistor A thermistor is a type of resistor whose resistance varies significantly(more than in standard resistors) with temperature. then: Where ΔR = change in resistance ΔT = change in temperature k = first-order temperature coefficient of resistance . The temperature response is also different. and self-regulating heating elements. while RTDs use pure metals. RTDs are useful over larger temperature ranges. that the relationship between resistance and temperature is linear. as a first-order approximation. self-resetting overcurrent protectors. while thermistors typically achieve a higher precision within a limited temperature range [usually −90 °C to 130 °C]. Thermistors differ from resistance temperature detectors (RTD) in that the material used in a thermistor is generally a ceramic or polymer.

and the device is called a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) thermistor. the resistance increases with increasing temperature. If k is negative. insulated wire. NTC thermistor. This αT coefficient should not be confused with the α parameter below. It is defined as For example. so that their resistance remains nearly constant over a wide temperature range. Resistors that are not thermistors are designed to have a k as close to zero as possible(smallest possible k).00385 or 0.385 %/°C. α = 0. bead type. . or posistor. for the common PT100 sensor. and the device is called a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor. the resistance decreases with increasing temperature. If k is positive. Instead of the temperature coefficient k. depending on the sign of k. sometimes the temperature coefficient of resistance α (alpha) or αT is used.P a g e | 14 Thermistors can be classified into two types.

and vice versa. The circuit uses readily available components and can be easily constructed on any general purpose PCB. Timer IC NE555 (IC1) is wired as an astable multivibrator oscillating in audio frequency band. When temperature increases. a thermistor works as the heat sensor. Switching transistors T1 and T2 drive multivibrator NE555 (IC1). . its resistance decreases. At normal temperature. the resistance of the thermistor (TH1) is approximately 10 kilo-ohms.P a g e | 15 Working of fire alarm system:- Circuit diagram:- In this fire alarm circuit. which reduces to a few ohms as the temperature increases beyond 100°C.

Since the collector of transistor T1 is connected to the base of transistor T2. Capacitor C1 charges up to the positive voltage and increases the „on‟ time of alarm. b and c are called the Steinhart-Hart parameters. It also stops the conduction of T1. To give resistance as a function of temperature. The frequency of IC1 depends on the values of resistors R5 and R6 and capacitor C2. The Steinhart-Hart equation is a widely used third-order approximation: where a. which drives the loudspeaker (LS1) to generate sound. Diode D1 stops discharging of capacitor C1 when the thermistor Connected to the positive supply cools down and provides a high-resistance (10-kilo-ohm) path. LED1 is used to indicate that power to the circuit is switched on. the higher the forward voltage applied to the base of transistor T1 (BC548). it provides a low-resistance path to extend positive voltage to the base of transistor T1 via diode D1 and resistor R2. The higher the value of capacitor C1.P a g e | 16 The output of IC1 is connected to npn transistor T3. When thermistor TH1 becomes hot. Resistor R4 is used such that IC1 remains inactive in the absence of positive voltage. The circuit works off a 6V-12V regulated power supply. T is the temperature in kelvins and R is the resistance in ohms. transistor T2 provides positive voltage to reset pin 4 of IC1 (NE555). the resistance/temperature curve of the device must be described in more detail. the linear approximation (above) works only over a small temperature range. Sensitivity of thermistor Steinhart-Hart equation In practice. the above can be rearranged into: where and . and must be specified for each device. For accurate temperature measurements. To prevent the thermistor from melting. wrap it up in mica tape.

Solving for R yields: or. . The average slope of this function will then yield an estimate of the value of the B parameter.1°C over a temperature range of -30°C to +125°C.01°C between -20°C to +50°C. alternatively. and errors of less than 0. 1 / T. b = 1 / B and c = 0.P a g e | 17 The error in the Steinhart-Hart equation is generally less than 0. where the temperatures are in kelvins and R0 is the resistance at temperature T0 (usually 25 °C = 298. This can be solved for the temperature: The B-parameter equation can also be written as . typical values for a thermistor with a resistance of 3000 Ω at room temperature (25 °C = 298. This can be used to convert the function of resistance vs.15 K) are: B parameter equation NTC thermistors can also be characterised with the B parameter equation. As an example. where . which is essentially the Steinhart Hart equation with a = (1 / T0) − (1 / B)ln(R0).02 °C in the measurement of temperature. temperature of a thermistor into a linear function of lnR vs. The Steinhart-Hart equation introduces errors of less than 0.15 K).

P a g e | 18 Temperature Sensitivity – Thermistors achieve their highest sensitivity at low temperatures. where the resistance vs.600 Ω/°C 439 Ω/°C 137 Ω/°C 65 Ω/°C 20 Ω/°C R-T slope changes for differing thermistor. . the sensitivity varies as follows: Temperature -20°C 25°C 50°C 75°C 100°C Sensitivity 5. temperature curve is steepest. For a typical 10 kΩ thermistor. This sensitivity drops rapidly as the temperature increases.

which reduces to a few ohms as the temperature increases beyond 100°C. Systems provide fire detection in specified parts of the building where there is either high risk or where business disruption must be minimized. In our fire alarm project . which drives the loudspeaker (LS1) to generate sound.the objective being to call the fire brigade as early as possible to ensure that any damage caused by fire is minimized. Timer IC NE555 (IC1) is wired as an astable multivibrator oscillating in audio frequency band. The circuit uses readily available components and can be easily constructed on any general purpose PCB. At normal temperature. Such fire accidents can be prevented if timely alarms are available. When temperature increases. and vice versa. The circuit should be placed in fire-prone areas such as a kitchen. The circuit presented here warns the user against such fire accidents. Switching transistors T1 and T2 drive multivibrator NE555 (IC1). a thermistor works as the heat sensor.P a g e | 19 Results and discussion With the onset of summer. The output of IC1 is connected to npn transistor T3. The system is installed throughout the building . chances of fire accidents increase. its resistance decreases. Detection should be provided in parts of the building where the risk of ignition is high and/or the contents are particularly valuable. . the resistance of the thermistor (TH1) is approximately 10 kilo-ohms.

when sounded. in addition to a burglary protection system.P a g e | 20 Conclusion and future perspective A fire alarm is a device that detects the presence of fire and atmospheric changes relating to heat change. and fire mode. Graphic output states are displayed on personal computer. Fire alarms can be found in homes. churches and businesses. a beep. PC. schools. For most fire alarms. . In some cases. interfacing with microcontroller. This distinct sound exists to allow the notification to be heard . a firm alarm is a part of a complete security system. open circuit of wiring signal mode. regular working mode. short circuit mode. and function as the catalyst to saving lives. The fire alarm operates to alert people to evacuate a location in which a fire or smoke accumulation is present When functioning properly. bell or horn noise is made.The fire alarm constructed by this project work is reliable at low cost In our future work we can use computer system which can be used to indicate situations of the system composed of 4 modes of working state. by using software delphi. a fire alarm will sound to notify people of an immediate fire emergency.

ca/obj/irc/doc/pubs/nrcc48321/nrcc48321.ca/obj/irc/doc/pubs/rr/rr252/rr252.org/xpl/mostRecentIssue.pdf 8.wikipedia.http://www.asp 17.org/wiki/555_timer_IC 15.google.nicet.aspx?DID=300 12.ieee.pdf 9.nrc-cnrc.org/wiki/555_timer_IC 13.“Fire Alarm System Standard” The Engineering .http://www.nrc-cnrc.nist.pdf 11.http://wtc.http://en.com/docs/9481547/Fire-Alarm-Systems 6.http://www.http://www.electronicsforu.tollesonaz.sciencedirect.http://www.circuitstoday.wikipedia.docstoc.http://www.in/images 16.http://www.http://en.gov/pubs/NISTNCSTAR1-4CDraft.http://www.slideshare.co.net/guestdbe029/automatic-fire-detection 7.gc. 4.pdf 2.org/nicetmanuals/alarms.com/electronicsforu/default.com/low-cost-fire-alarm-circuit.nist.fire.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V37-481DSG116&_user=5610621&_coverDate=12%2F31%2F1989&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_or igin=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1575903713&_rerunOrigin=google &_acct=C000067884&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=5610621&md5=ed666e9cb02ba1b e32b4e0785c2fd20c&searchtype=a 10.P a g e | 21 Bibliography 1.org/wiki/Thermistor 14.jsp?punumber=5472906 5.http://www.gc.http://ieeexplore.gov/bfrlpubs/fire93/PDF/f93021.pdf 3.http://www.wikipedia.org/DocumentView.http://en.http://www.

June 1992.I. Fred Bulback “Programming Delphi Custom Components” M&T Books. 20.Sunthron Vitusutrapoj “Advance Microcontroller 8051 Series” Se-ed Education Co.P a g e | 22 18.T. Ltd.Patronage Standard (E. Standard). 1996. .Su-jet Juntarang “Introduction to Digital Circuit” Mahanakorn University of Technology.Institute of Thailand Under His Majesty The King‟s 19. 19. 1996.

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