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Bearing Capacity Of Shallow Foundation

* A foundation is required for distributing the loads of the superstructure on a large area. * The foundation should be designed such that a) The soil below does not fail in shear & b) Settlement is within the safe limits.

Basic Definitions : 1) Ultimate Bearing Capacity (qu) : The ultimate bearing capacity is the gross pressure at the base of the foundation at which soil fails in shear. 2) Net ultimate Bearing Capacity (qnu) : It is the net increase in pressure at the base of foundation that cause shear failure of the soil. Thus, qnu = qu – γDf (ovrbruden pressure)

3) Net Safe Bearing Capacity (qns) : It is the net soil pressure which can be safely applied to the soil considering only shear failure. Thus, qns = qnu /FOS

FOS - Factor of safety usually taken as 2.00 -3.00

4) Gross Safe Bearing Capacity (qs) : It is the maximum pressure which the soil can carry safely without shear failure. qs = qnu / FOS + γ Df

. if qnp > qns qna = qnp . Thus. 6) Net Allowable Bearing Pressure (qna ): It is the net bearing pressure which can be used for design of foundation.5)Net Safe Settlement Pressure (qnp) : It is the net pressure which the soil can carry without exceeding allowable settlement. qna = qns . if qns > qnp It is also known as Allowable Soil Pressure (ASP).

3) Punching Shear failure . 1) General Shear failure. 2) Local Shear failure.Modes of shear Failure : Vesic (1973) classified shear failure of soil under a foundation base into three categories depending on the type of soil & location of foundation.

55 . * The failure occurs at very small vertical strains accompanied by large lateral strains.General Shear failure – Strip footing resting on surface of dense sand or stiff clay Load –settlement curve * The load . * ID > 65 . * A loaded base on such soils sinks or tilts suddenly in to the ground showing a surface heave of adjoining soil * The shearing strength is fully mobilized all along the slip surface & hence failure planes are well defined. Φ > 360.N>35.Settlement curve in case of footing resting on surface of dense sand or stiff clays shows pronounced peak & failure occurs at very small stain. e < 0.

* The failure occurs at large vertical strain & very small lateral strains. * ID = 15 to 65 . * The shear strength of soil is not fully mobilized along planes & hence failure planes are not defined clearly. * The failure surface gradually extend out wards from the foundation.75 . e>0. N=10 to 30 . Load –settlement curve * The foundation movement is accompanied by sudden jerks.2) Local Shear failure - Strip footing resting on surface Of Medium sand or Medium clay * When load is equal to a certain value qu(1). Φ <30. * The failure starts at localized spot beneath the foundation & migrates out ward part by part gradually leading to ultimate failure.

* The failure surface do not extend up to the ground surface.3) Punching Share failure - * The loaded base sinks into soil like a punch. * Failure planes are difficult to locate 222 . * Large vertical strains are involved with practically no lateral deformation. * No heave is observed.

Terzaghi’s Bearing Capacity Analysis – Terzaghi (1943) analysed a shallow continuous footing by making some assumptions – .

* The failure zones do not extend above the horizontal plane passing through base of footing * The failure occurs when the down ward pressure exerted by loads on the soil adjoining the inclined surfaces on soil wedge is equal to upward pressure. * Downward forces are due to the load (=qu× B) & the weight of soil wedge (1/4 γB2 tanØ) * Upward forces are the vertical components of resultant passive pressure (Pp) & the cohesion (c’) acting along the inclined surfaces. .

(Pp)c & (Pp) q. qu× B = 2Pp + BC’ tanø’ . Pp = (Pp)r + (Pp)c + (Pp)q .¼ γ B2tanø’ –-----. Thus. (Pp)r.(1) The resultant passive pressure (Pp) on the surface CB & CA constitutes three components ie.For equilibrium: ΣFv = 0 1 γ B2tan ø + quxB = 2Pp +2C’× Li sinø’ 4 where Li = length of inclined surface CB ( = B/2 /cosø’) Therefore.

qu× B= 2[ (Pp)r +(Pp)c +(Pp)q ]+ Bc’tanø’-¼ γ B2 tanø’ Substituting. We get. Nq & Nr are Terzaghi’s bearing capacity factors & depends on angle of shearing resistance (ø) . qu =C’Nc + γ Df Nq + 0. Where Nc.5 γ B N γ This is Terzaghi’s Bearing capacity equation for determining ultimate bearing capacity of strip footing. 2 (Pp)r .¼rB2tanø1 = B × ½ γ BNr 2 (Pp)q = B × γ D Nq & 2 (Pp)c + Bc1 tanø1 = B × C1 Nc.

0 4.3 Nr 0.1 Nr’ 0.3 .7 0 15 45 5.7 12.9 37.7 35.ø General Shear Failure Nc Nq 1.7 51.0 2.9 172.4 173.0 0.5 Local Shear Failure Nc’ 5.5 297.2 Nq’ 1.7 9.0 2.

factors for local shear failure qu = CmNc’+ γ Df Nq’+ 0. Nc’.5 γ B Nr’ * Ultimate Bearing Capacity for square & Circular footing -Based on the experimental results.2c1Nc + γ Df Nq + 0.C.2c’ Nc + γ Df Nq + 0.4 γ BNr Circular footing qu = 1.Nq’ & Nr’ are B. Terzaghi’s suggested following equations for UBC – Square footing qu = 1.3 γ BNr . * Terzaghi has suggested following empirical reduction to actual c & ø in case of local shear failure Mobilised cohesion Cm = 2/3 C Mobilised angle of øm = tan –1 (⅔tanø) Thus.Important points : * Terzaghi’s Bearing Capacity equation is applicable for general shear failure.

. the equation needs modification. * If the water table is located close to foundation .Effect of water table on Bearing Capacity : * The equation for ultimate bearing capacity by Terzaghi has been developed based on assumption that water table is located at a great depth .

r +x.i) When water table is located above the base of footing - * The effective surcharge is reduced as the effective weight below water table is equal to submerged unit weight.γsub )Dw . q = Dw.γsub put x = Df-Dw q = γsub Df +( γ.

5 γsub BNr & when x = 0 qu = c’Nc + γ Df Nq + 0. qu = c’Nc + [γsub Df +(γ .5 γsub BNr . Dw =0 qu =c’Nc + γsub Nc + 0.Thus.5 γsub BNr When.γsub )Dw] Nq + 0.

* Unit weight in term is γ = γsub + B Thus.ii) When water table is located at depth y below base : * Surcharge term is not affected.T.5B γ Nr When y = B . the equation is not y ( γ – γsub ) . qu = c’Nc + γ Df Nq + 0. W.5 B γ Nr Hence when ground water table is at b ≥ B. qu = c’Nc + γ Df Nq + 0. at B below base of footing.

factors. Ic. & Nr are Hansen’s B.Nq. dc. Nc. iq & ir are iodination factors .5 γ BNrSrdr ir where.C factors which are some what smaller than Terzaghi’s B.dq.Hansen’s Bearing Capacity Equation : Hansen’s Bearing capacity equation is : qu = cNcScdcic + qNqSqdqiq + 0.Sq &Sr are shape factors which are independent of angle of shearing resistance.C. & dr are depth factors . Sc.

5 γ BNrSrdr ir W’ .The same form of equation has been adopted by I.S. 6403 –1971 & may be used for general form as qnu = c Nc Sc dc ic + q(Nq-1)Sqdqiq + 0.

The secondary consolidation is nonsignificant for inorganic soils. It is determined using Terzaghi's theory of consolidation. 3. It is also known as the distortion settlement as it is due to distortions within foundation soil. 2. . Secondary consolidation settlement (Ss): The settlement occurs after completion of the primary consolidation. Elastic settlement (Si): Elastic or immediate settlement takes place during or immediately after the construction of the structure. Consolidation settlement (Sc): Consolidation settlement occurs due to gradual expulsion of water from the voids at the soil.Settlement of foundation : a) Settlement under loads Settlement of foundation can be classified as1.

2. 5. Thermal changes.Thus. . 4. Total settlement (s) = Si+ Sc + Ss b) Settlement due to other causes 1. . Subsidence etc. Lowering of water table. Underground erosion. Structural collapse of soil. 3.

μ . . the vertical settlement under uniformly distributed flexible area is.characteristic length of loaded area. I . Alternatively. Es . Si = q B 1.μ2/Es I where q -uniformly distributed load.influence factor which dependent upon elastic properties of base & shape at base.Elastic settlement of foundation : a) On Cohesive soils According to schleicher.modulus of elasticity of the soil.poisson's ratio. B . the value of [1- μ2/Es] I can be determined from the plate load test.

modulus of elasticity = 766 N (KN/m2) from SPT = 2qc from SCPT ZB . C1 -Correction factor for depth of foundation embedment C2 .pressure at the level of foundation q -surcharge (γ Df) Es. q .correction factor for creep is soils.b) On Cohesionless Soils According to Stuartmann & Hartman immediate settlement on Cohesionless soils is given by - I2 S i = C1C2 ( q − q ) ∫ ∆∈ E Z =0 S Where.

c = 1. The settlement of each layer is determined using the following equationS = H/C Log (σ0+Δ σ) / σ0 Where. The average value of the cone resistance of each small layer is determined. the sand layer is divided into small layers such that each small layer has approximately constant value of the cone resistance.5 qc/ σ0 . 1. Static Cone Penetration method In this.Settlement of foundation on Cohesionless Soils Settlement of foundations on Cohesionless soils are generally determined indirectly using the semi-empirical methods.

2. The total settlement of the entire layer is equal to the sum of settlements of individual layers. .static cone resistance .mean effective overburden pressure.in which qC σ0 σ Δ . H . . Plate Load Test The settlement of the footing can be determined from the settlement of the plate in the plate load test.thickness of layer.Increase is pressure at center of layer due to net foundation pressure. Standard Penetration Test IS 8009 (part I) 1976 gives a chart for the calculation of settlement per unit pressure as a foundation of the width of footing & the standard penetration number. 3.

* The difference between the magnitudes of settlements at any two points is known as differential settlement. * The differential settlement may caused due to tilting of a rigid base. distortion may occur due to additional moments developed.S2 ) / L = . dishing of flexible base or due to non uniformity of loading. * If there is large differential settlement between various part of a structure.then differential settlement is ∆ = S1 -S2 Angular distortion = (S1. * If S1 & S2 are the settlements at two points.

* It is observed that the differential settlement is less than 50% of the maximum settlement is most of the cases. The differential settlement can be reduced by providing rigid rafts.* It is difficult to predict the differential settlement. * It is generally observed indirectly from the maximum settlement. . founding the structures at great depth & avoiding the eccentric loading.

* IS 1904-1978 gives values of the maximum & differential settlements of different type of building. * The maximum settlement ranging from 20mm to 300mm is generally permitted for various structures. .Allowable Settlement * The allowable maximum settlement depends upon the type of soil. the type of foundation & the structural framing system.

0033L 1/300 0.0033L 1/300 0.0033L 0.Settl Angular distortion Max.002L 1/500 Theoretically. However. no damage is done to the superstructure if the soil settles uniformly. sewers.0015L 1/666 Raft foundation i) steel struct ii) Rcc struct.0033L 0. settlements exceeding 150mm may cause trouble to utilities such as water pipe lines.002L 1/300 1/500 100mm 100mm 0.Settle. telephone lines & also is access from streets. 75mm 75mm 0.Settle Plastic clay Diff. . Diff.Sand & hard Clay Max. Settle. Angular distortion Isolated foundation i) steel struct ii) RCC struct 50mm 50mm 0.0015L 1/300 1/666 50mm 75mm 0.

* The compression of a saturated soil under a steady pressure is known as consolidation. . * The compression of soils can occurs due toA) Compression of solid particles & water in the voids. B) Compression & expulsion of air in the voids.Consolidation Settlement : * Compressibility of soil is the property of the soil due to which a decrease in volume occurs under compressive forces. It is entirely due to expulsion of water from the voids. the solid particle shift from one position to the other by rolling & sliding & thus attain a closer packing causing reduction in volume. Due to expulsion of water. C) Expulsion of water in the voids.

sectional area. the applied pressure is transferred from the water to the solids. is applied to a saturated soil sample of unit cross. Initially.Consolidation of laterally confined soil: When a pressure ∆ σ . The excess hydrostatic pressure so developed sets up a hydraulic gradient. thus.)= ∆ σ . Thus at t = tf. the entire load is taken by water in form of excess hydrostatic pressure ( u ). . ∆ σ +0=∆ σ . just after the application of pressure. the pressure is shared by the solid particles & water as ∆ σ +u=∆ σ . & the water starts escaping from the voids. load. As the effective stress increases the volume of soil decreases & consolidation completes under ∆ σ . 0+(u. As the water escapes.

* Consolidation test apparatus.saturation of sample & measurement of change in thickness of sample at every stage of consolidation process . Consolidation cell are of two types. * The consolidometer has arrangements for application of the desired load increment. known as consolidometer or an odometer consists a loading device & a cylindrical container called as consolidation cell. i) free ring or floating ring cell & ii) fixed ring cell * The internal diameter of the cell is 60 mm & thickness of sample taken is usually 20 mm.Laboratory Consolidation Test: * The consolidation test is conducted in a laboratory study the compressibility of soil.

4.40. the weight of ring & sample is taken.* An initial setting load of about 5 kN/ m 2 is applied to sample. Immediately after complete unloading.16. increment of load is then applied. 160 & 320 KN/ m 2 etc till the desired maximum load intensity is reached. The sample swells & reading of dial gauge is taken when swelling is complete. * The first increment of load to give a pressure of 10 KN/ m2 is then applied to the specimen. the dial gauge readings are taken after 0. 2. The successive pressures usually applied are 20. The sample is dried in over for 24 hours & its dry mass Ms is taken.0. ( Actual loading on soil after construction of structure) * The second * After consolidation under final load increment is complete.9.25. 80. . 1. The process is repeated till complete unloading. the load is reduced to ¼th of final load & allowed to stand for 24 hours.…… etc up to the 24 hours.

Consolidation test results 1) • • • Dial gauge reading time plot : Plotted for each load increment Required for determining the coefficient of consolidation. Useful for obtaining the rate of consolidation in field. .

2) Final void ratio – effective stress plot: • Plotted for entire consolidation process under desired load. . • Required for determination of the magnitude of the consolidation settlements in field.

3) final void ratio – log σ plot .

4)Loading. unloading & reloading plot .

.initial void ratio. ∆ v – change in volume ∆ σ . vo – initial volume. ∆ v = ∆ H mv = .change in effective stress a) mv = -(∆ e / 1+ eo)/ ∆ σ b) for one dimension. Ho initial thickness.(∆ v / v o)/ ∆ σ in which.(∆ H / Ho) / ∆ σ also mv = av / (1+ eo ) in which.σ curve units – m 2 /KN ) 2) Coefficient of volume change ( mv) is defined as the volumetric strain per unit increase in effective stress. eo.change in void ratio. ∆ e . mv = .Important Definations 1) Coefficient of compressibility ( av) is defined as decrease in void ratio per unit increase in effective stress. av = -de/dσ = -∆ e/ ∆ σ ( slope of e .

σ 0 = initial effective stress.10 ) b) for remoulded soils Cc = 0. ∆ σ .change in effective stress.35 ) .3) Compression index ( Cc) is equal to the slope of the linear portion of the void ration versus log σ plot. Empirical relationship after Terzaghi & Peck.007 ( W L.6 wo.10 ) c) Also Cc = 0.∆ e/ log 10 (σ 0 + ∆ σ ) / σ 0 in which.009 ( W L.35 ) Cc = 0.54 ( eo – 0.0054 ( 2. Cc = . a) for undisturbed soils Cc = 0.

• Normally consolidated soil :.A normally consolidated soil is one which had not been subjected to a pressure greater than the present existing pressure. . The portion AB of loading –unloading curve represent the soil in normally consolidated condition.A soil is said to over consolidated if it had been subjected in the past to a pressure in excess of the present pressure. The soil in the range CD (loading –unloading curve) when it recompressed represent overconsolidated condition. • Over consolidated soil: .

. the weight of overlying material is removed.The maximum pressure to which an overconsolidated soil had been subjected in the past is known as preconsolidation pressure or overconsolidation pressure ( σ c) • When a soil specimen is taken from a natural deposit. This causes an expansion soil due to reduction in pressure.• Normally consolidated soils & Overconsolidated soils are not different types of soils but these are conditions in which a soil exists. Thus the specimen is generally preconsolidated. • Preconsolidation Pressure.

. • Final settlement using coefficient of volume change : Let Ho = initial thickness of clay deposit... the Terzaghi’s theory is used.Final Settlement Of Soil Deposit In The Field • For computation of final settlement. sf = ∫ 0 Ho ∆SF = ∫ H − − Ho mv ∆ ∂ ∆z − if both mv & ∆ ∂ are cons tan t .(2) i =1 n - .. For time rate of computation. Then ∆ H = mv Ho (∆ σ ) Representing the final settlement as ∆ sf & taking Ho = ∆ z Thus... ∆ σ = effective pressure increment causing settlement... the coefficient of volume change or compression index (Cc) is required.... ( 1) alternatively Sf = ∑ ( mv ) i ( ∆ ∂ ) i ( ∆z ) i .. SF = mv ∆ ∂ Ho . total settlement of the complete layer...Consider a small element of thickness Δz at depth z.

(1) where eo is the initial void ratio.Final Settlement Using Void Ratio The value of ∆ e corresponding to the given load increment is read off from e – σ plot & substituted in – ∆ H = Ho (∆ e / 1 + eo ) i.e Sf = Ho (∆ e / 1 + eo )……. The usual practice is not to use ∆ e but to use the coefficient of compression (Cc) or coefficient of recompression index ( Cr) .

. Cc Sf = 1+e0 Ho Log 1 0 σ0+Δ σ σ0 b) Pre Consolidated Soils Cr Sf = 1+e0 Ho Log 1 0 σ0+Δ σ σ0 The above equation is applicable when (σ0+Δ σ) < σc.The compression index of a normally considered soil is constant.a) Normally Consolidated Soils .

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