"Much Have I Roamed through the World": In Search of Sadi's Self-Image Author(s): Fatemeh Keshavarz Source: International

Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 26, No. 3 (Aug., 1994), pp. 465-475 Published by: Cambridge University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/163699 . Accessed: 04/01/2011 23:23
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Middle East Stud. 26 (1994). a far-reaching influence. In complete contrast.A. To these cherishing remarks one may easily add a multitude of others and yet they reflect little more than admiration. 1273). the existing critical literature on Sacdi offers little in the way of clarification or further exploration of these intriguing but ambiguous descriptions. ? 1994 Cambridge University Press 0020-7438/94 $5. Differently put.' As the undisputed master of eloquence he is commonly referred to as ustad-i sukhan by the lay and the expert alike. the self-descriptive remarksof Rumi could be problematic not only because of their general characterbut also on account of their deliberate attempt to magnify the ephemeral and volatile aspect of his nature (and consequently that of all humanbeings). St. how accessible is the personality of the poet through his poetry? Or more specifically. Washington University. Printed in the United States of America Fatemeh Keshavarz "MUCH WORLD": HAVE I ROAMED THROUGH THE IN SEARCH OF SA'DI'S SELF-IMAGE Persian literature has produced few poets who can rival Sacdi." and his poetry as pure magic. an undisputed mastery of his art. One Brookings Drive. Along the same lines. If the major aim in any biographical study. J. unlike some other poets such as Baba Tahir (d. free of geographical and cultural attachments.3Neither did Sa'di's references to himself. as Nadel puts it. it is difficultto tie him to any specific time. 465-475. One is tempted to ask why the "curious" and "captivating" personality of Sacdi has not been the subject of separate studies. A powerful personality. His critics have described his personality as "curious" and "captivating.4As a biographical tool. and of a remarkably Fatemeh Keshavarz is an Assistant Professor of Persian Language and Literaturein the Department of Asian and Near Eastern Languages and Literatures. Mo.2 Sacdi was not shy of making specific references to himself. 63130.S. or event long enough to permit a searching glance. is to "discern the complexities of being without pretending that life's riddles have been answered" then much light could be shed on the complexities of Sa'di's personality in this way. as did those of Rumi (d." to use Rumi's own words. U. 1055-56) who opted for complete anonymity to assume the persona of the selfless universal lover. point to an elusive and restless being who was subject to constant change and therefore belonged neither to the "East" nor to the "West. place. for example. Louis.Int.00 . Sacdi's allusions to himself are clear and specific. Curiously.00 + . what would be the outcome of exploring his works in search of the way he envisioned himself? The present paper is a first step toward such an exploration in an attempt to deal mostly with this last question. and an enchanting sense of humor are only a few on the long list of his widely accepted virtues.

beginning with eloquence and wisdom and continuing with other comparable attributes such as love for learning and candidness. Kih waz-i bi-'amaldn wdjib ast nashanldan (For. as the main quest of a biographer. the wealth of informationavailable here can be bewildering. an interesting topic for future research).it requires a thorough knowledge of the highly stylized modes of expression of the period as well as familiarity with the generic conventions. For instance. nevertheless. primarily on how well it was practiced by the preacher. the Bustan and the Gulistan. is. then as now.7On a different level. which is entitled "Shaykh Sa'di az didgah-i khvud-i u" (Shaykh Sacdi's Vision of Himself). Admittedly. The prospects here are encouraging. a comprehensive list of the poet's moral qualities as articulated by Sacdi himself." The major question. like Nadel. can be easily produced for other Persian poets before and after Sacdi. in addition to the former emphasis on the factual and documentary nature of biographical works. Fouchecour has sifted through two of the major works of Sacdi. could be used in a creative and reliable mannerto get glimpses of his vibrantpersonality. and the only one of its kind. The use of self-congratulatory remarks on the credentials of the poet could then be seen as a sanctioned generic convention. In a brief study. closer-to-life sketch of the writers of these works. in search of the poet's self-descriptive remarks. identical compendia of self-declared virtues. narrative technique and mythical elements" that the biographer employs to tell his story or depict his subject. then. has given way to fresh approaches. This convention most probably functioned to enhance the effectiveness of ethical guidance put forward in didactic as well as other thematic genres. however. reveals that it does not furnish us with many details peculiar to Sacdi. in fact. it is a religious duty to ignore). The question that follows is how. A second glance at the list. One might add that any sense of astonishment at this seeming excess in self-praise in medieval Persian poetry will be appropriatelymodified with taking a step back to look at the larger picture. a major breakthroughis the emphasis on the need to discern a pattern or a repeated image that has a clear metaphorical quality in the works or the life of the subject. Sa'di's allusions to himself. Furthermore. will be how best to utilize works of literatureto reach a more vibrant. That is to say. the sermon of those who do not practice [the religion]. A completely different approach would be to argue that any attempt to explore how a poet envisioned himself will fall within the boundaries of what may be termed "psychological biography. In the humorous words of Hafiz (d. critics today acknowledge the value of "the linguistic expression. which until recently prevented critics from deeming it a "proper"genre and theorizing about it. the value of the imparted wisdom depended.466 Fatemeh Keshavarz consistent naturethroughouthis works.5The article. To locate such a pattern or master trope-which is then to serve as a unifying factor in the life of the subject-is considered by some. Put in less technical terms. 1320). three-dimensional. one may conclude with certainty that compiling a list of self-declared virtues of Persian poets will grant us little access to their self-image in the majority of the cases.6 Whatever our explanation for the generic function of self-praise in medieval Persian poetry (incidentally. The earlier reluctance to consider writing biographical studies a creative literary task. More recent efforts emphasize the artistic and seminal aspects of this nonfictional but creative prose writing. In- .

whether figurative or referential.l11 respectively. This master trope was. Although a number of issues in these works. moreover. is not only developed through nuance and repetition but is often associated with most significant situations and sentiments.13 He . for it is capable of bringing a vast and meaningful array of the poet's experiences together for examination. Sa'di. therefore. inspired poets such as Nasir-i Khusraw (d. hardly any accounts of these journeys figured in their poetry. enjoined on every eligible Muslim." the majority seem to have favored the latter. Others were mostly forced to travel by wars and other social upheavals or the urge to find a more enthusiastic and generous patron. This leitmotif. wisdom. the inner feelings of the traveler. particularly in the Safarlnamah. Nadel values the availability of such a master trope to the extent of recommending that the biographer impose one "from his own biases" if a "self-generating" pattern does not originate out of the life-materials. recommended wholeheartedly sayr-i afdq along with sayr-i anfus. the Safar'namah'0 and the Tuhfat al-'Irdqayn.8 The present essay will demonstrate that in the case of Sacdi it is particularly beneficial to employ such a master trope to explore his personality. This master trope is traveling. spiritual journey."MuchHave I Roamed through the World" 467 deed. while as fleeting imagery it alludes. since at least one such major pattern originates out of the poet's life and is easily discernible in his language. Traveling did not have much significance in the literary life of most medieval Persian poets. Sacdi spent much of his life traveling or talking about it. 1199) to produce celebrated literary works. persistent throughout his works. they were not great travelers. on the contrary. chosen to be the focus of the present paper. Some. Although one may find allusions to traveling in all of his works. to adventure. his objectivity in observation. traveled far and wide and allowed the events of these journeys (factual and fictitious alike) to spill into his serious literary productions. Even then. and he lost his father around the age of twelve. the person of Sacdi is present and accessible in the nuances of emotion attached to this theme. the events of these works hardly acquired the personal dimension necessary to make the presence of the poet palpable for close examination. "physical vs. among other things. much legend was created around the purpose and the outcome of their journeys.9 The pilgrimage to Mecca. He commented frequently on the activity of traveling. 12 Abu 'Abd Allah Musharrif al-Din ibn Muslih Sa'di was born in Shiraz sometime between 1213 and 1219. In either case. As an extended metaphor it stands for the lasting human characteristics of endurance. so rarely ventured a move from their hometown that when they finally did. in no other work does Sa'di come closer to his traveler self than in the Gulistdn and the Buistn. such as the wisdom and the confidence of the traveler. mundane love. and attention to detail. and experience. brought under scrutiny the many facets of the personality of the traveler. between 1072 and 1077) and Khaqani (d. and. and ecstasy. This keen investigation into the psychology of the traveler is useful for our purpose. It is also indicative of Sa'di's awareness of the metaphoric quality of the experience insofar as it defines. and gives expression to. Between sayr-i afaiqand sayr-i anfus. like Hafiz and Nizami. By and large. can be explored. deserves much exploration. It is hoped that in this process the personality of Sacdi. and in particularhis vision of himself.

The Somnat episode. The Kashghar episode is open to doubt because it claims a reputation for the poet in that area that is unlikely to be substantiated for that period.'7 By accepting the Biistdn and the Gulistan as primarily ethical compendia. Upon his return to Shiraz. it must be borne in mind that.21 Because the use of saj'. Sacdi seems not to know the proper location of Somnat because. They accept. according to the episode in question.468 Fatemeh Keshavarz began his studies in Shiraz but was driven to Baghdad by the terror of the Mongols and the campaigns of the Khwarazmshahids. if taken as a factual report. that we are here concerned with. They are caught between taking such events for facts and consequently having to explain the grotesque personality that Sa'di appears to have had. these historians are at a loss to deal with stories in which Sa'di is involved as the protagonist in not very ethical affairs. however. Sa'di's biographers do not agree on the scope of his journeys. is that he studied in the Nizamiyya of Baghdad and sometime around 1226 set out on a journey that lasted at least thirty years.'6 Others dismiss the possibility of his journeys to Kashghar and Somnat mentioned in the fifth chapter of the Gulistdn and the eighth chapter of the Buistdn.23That Sa'di made major modifications in the example of Qazi Hamid al-Din Balkhi (d.22 Matini's suggestion merits serious consideration. he composed the Bustan and the Gulistdn. respectively. that Sa'di could not have been in Somnat. in fact. the episodic structure and the significance of wit and eloquence in these works correspond to the commonly held description of maqamdt. presents an even more serious problem because it pictures Sacdi as the main protagonist. or admitting that the master might have occasionally let his imagination get away with a few inventions. 'Abbas Iqbal says: "He has been so occupied with eloquence and rhetorical embellishment that his close attention to the beauty of the form has prevented him from distinguishing true from false.'4 What is certain.A multitude of legendary qualities and events."'8 Unfortunately.5 It is this set of journeys. for instance. his ethics are somewhat different from theories commonly professed in Western Europe. Edward Browne chooses the first option. the author of the best known maqdmdt in Persian. in 1256. as he claimed in the Gulistdn and the Bustdn. 559). however. he arrives in India after he escapes from Somnat.19On why he combined fact with fiction. taking all events mentioned in the Bustdn and the Gulistdn as factual. as reflected in these works. have been attached to Sacdi's life by biographers such as Dawlatshah. because otherwise he would have realized that it was."20Such accusations of unawareness will not be necessary if the idea that the Buistdn and the Gulistan are ethical compendia is appropriatelymodified. they argue passionately that Sa'di was unaware of these inventions in the narrative because of his preoccupation with the intricacies of the form. including a longevity of over 100 years and fourteen journeys to Mecca. Some accept that. that is. correct as this view in certain senses undoubtedly is. Additionally. Jalal Matini's suggestion that both of them be included in the genre of maqdmit certainly explains the fictional character of the narratives. he traveled eastward to India and westward to Africa. those who acknowledge the possibility of invention adopt an equally naive approach. in India. and explains away Sa'di's resultant moral weaknesses in the following terms: "When Sa'di is described (as he often is) as essentially an ethical poet. involved in the murder of a Hindu priest. how- .

a young athlete asks for the permission of his father to travel. Not stray and aimless passers-by. who have been cast adrift by accidental waves. where the traveler protagonist of the story. The example of the traveler who concocted stories. 228) mind-afflicted comes the stranger. without these modifications.a scholarwho is for the pleasDuvvum. Matini observes that. (p. by extension himself-as it comes to light during these anecdotes. in fact. 165) This leads us to our next observation. but even on the fate of the king who rules it. Sacdi would not have enjoyed the measure of success that he did in utilizing maqdma. Not surprisingly. who is to be punished for his lies. should be taken into account.24 Sa'di himself chooses a more humorous way of alluding to the fictitious nature of his anecdotes in the first chapter of the Gulistan. After all. who is the maker of events. the power of his eloquence and the fund of his instruction. is captivated. be not offended. Jahian didah bisydr giuyadduriigh (p. who plan their moves and whose presence or absence makes a lasting impression not only on the host city."MuchHave I Roamed through the World" 469 ever. Or in Sacdi's more candid words. this wise and confident traveler. only a true traveler knows how necessary it is to let the trying events of a long journey undergo a major reconstruction of the imagination before they are prepared for the inexperienced ears of the city dwellers. (p. five models for a successful traveler are described. almost magical attraction of traveling. brings us to our first significant point: Sa'di closely identified with travelers and with those who do not belong to a place but rather pass through it. 104).Secondly. real. for our purposes. A man who has seen the worlds utters much falsehood!" (p. in many cases. (p. It is also a warning that nothing in the Bidstanand the Gulistan is to be taken literally. (p. The kings are thus advised in the first chapter of the Bustan: musafir Buzurgan bi-janparvarand Kih nam-i nikFi! bi-'alam barand Greatmencherishthe traveler with very soul that he may carry a fair name to all the world Tabahgardad mamlikat an 'anqarib soon to ruinthatrealmcomes whence Kaz ii khatir azurdah ayad gharib. waited upon and honoured wherever he goes. and whether he did or did not indulge in deliberate literary invention. in the third chapter of the Gulistdn. everything that takes place in the Bustainand the Gulistan is. In the father's reply.Calimikih bi-mantiq-i quvvat-i fasahat va-mayah-'i balaghat har ja ravad bi-khidmat-i u iqdam va-ikram kunand. by the irresistible. 145) antness of his speech. 107). deep down. says to the king: "If thou hast heard heedless talk from thy slave. The verdict of the king who grants the stranger forgiveness for his honest confession is another humorous warning by Sacdi to his readers to understand and overlook the occasional fiction or exaggeration that he has indulged in.25 Whether Sacdi traveled to Somnat or not. For we are not concerned here with historicity but rather with the measure of access that these events grant us to the way Sa'di envisioned travelers-and. 18) Even more conspicuously. In the fifth chapter of Buistan: . but intelligent travelers in control of events. The second model on the list is unmistakably Sa'di himself: shirinva. a genre essentially unsuitable for the Persian language.

and spiritual. of sweet-breathed men like that. (p.26This suggestion does not sound all that persuasive. 130) Another attraction of traveling for Sacdi was undoubtedly in the challenges that it presented. (p. he could finally let the common people see a glimpse of his genius. Whether his reputation was substantial during his travels. 60). Sa'di himself certainly claims otherwise in the dibdchah to the Gulistdn when he talks of "the good reputation of Sacdi which is current among the people. On the question of Sacdi's reputation.27Therefore. running every whichway Asking who had seen a man of his description and appearance Said one. travel from that land did carry me away. challenges that were at once mental. it is obvious that." This is exactly what happens when he leaves after the disputation with the scholars: Naqib az payash raft u har su david Kih mardi bi-din na't u surat kih did? Yaki guft az in nau' shirin'nafas Dar in shahr Sa'di shinasim u bas (p. the assumption that Sacdi enjoyed some reputation in some of the places he traveled to cannot be too far removed from the truth." kiis-i rihlat. Many historians have argued that all of Sacdi's fame came with the composition of the Bustan and the Gulistdn so he could not have been a well-known poet during his travels. What makes it peculiar to Sacdi. for like many people of high reputation. or in his imagination. a kind of oblivion not unlike death. whether he met a young admirer in Kashghar. One may rightly argue that this much is common to all of medieval Persian poetry. 315) The beadle set out after him. the renown of his eloquence which has spread on the surface of the earth . he is searching for a shield to hide behind. "death's gateway. In reality. is not the imagery itself but the positive and ratherentertaining nuance that it acquires in place of the usual emphasis it has on the shortness of life. Claims like these could not be made in vain when the contemporaries could easily detect their falsehood. to him. In addition. however. physical. and whether he got entangled in a disputation with scholars who did not recognize him at first (as reported in the fourth chapter of the Buistdn).or whether all this was a figment of his imagination. The assumption that Sacdi composed no ghazals prior to the above works and turned into ustdd-i sukhan all at once is a curious one. and the scraps of his literary com- positions which are hawked about like bills of exchange" (p. The Biistdn and the Gulistdn are full of imagery common to traveling and death such as darwdza-yi marg. (p. disappear. 335) But all without warning. 154) As if underneathall the confidence and the wisdom. If he chose to. and that is Sacdi. he must have had a curiosity about how his work was judged in his absence. I know but one in this whole town.470 Fatemeh Keshavarz Safar nagaham zan zamin dar rubud. . A trav- . and leave them dumbfounded thinking "who else could he have been but Sacdi. "the drum of death." and the like. Sacdi enormously enjoyed appearing in disguise to observe the effect of his poetry on its audiences. one of the luxuries that travel offered was anonymity and the possibility of observing without being observed. a world of anonymity and equality in which to lose himself. . external evidence shows that Sacdi's reputation had traveled at least as far as Konya decades before his death. we have to be momentarily sidetracked to make an observation.

It becomes more understandablewhy he does not fail to specify the location of an event even when it seems to be of secondary or no relevance to the story. and other problems presented by nature. he needed to exhibit patience and endurance in the event of an unfriendly encounter in a host city. bi-gil It happened they were captured the that at gate of a townon suspicionof being spies. In Sacdi's times. no possibility was to be completely ruled out. Similarly. Not only is the young warriorin the seventh and chapterof the Gulistdn. 176) Despite Sa'di's emphasis on the educational merits of traveling. At the same time. The opposite is true. 532) Fearnot the dark. 135) (p. After all. at times. We in the present century have a rather different idea of traveling."Much Have I Roamed through the World" 471 eler was. even the hermit from Damascus. in the second chapterof the same work. one's trusted fellow traveler could turn out to be a thief in disguise (as in the second chapter of the Gulistan). he does not appear to have traveled in pursuit of a specific teacher.unable to put his skills to the test because he is mutana"im va-parvardah as opposed to jahan'didah wabut safarPkardah. loses all his spiritualmerits as a result of giving in to the comforts of city life. or.(p.is not to be taken lightly. recommends this activity in much the same way that a physician prescribes a bitter medicine: for the cure that follows ratherthan the pleasure of the action itself: Zi zulmatmatars pasandida dust ay Kih mumkin buvadki-ab-ihayvan uist dar Nahgiti pas az junbisharamyaft? Nah Sa'di safarkardta kamyaft?(p.therefore. he seems to have . one of whom is weak and the other strong. The benefits to be gained by traveling explain why Sa'di. In this chaotic world of adventures. Forlivingwatermaylie therein Aftercommotion. needless to say. notthe worldfoundrest? has Did not Sa'di traveltill he foundhis desire? (p. This is what happens to the two Khurasani dervishes. this activity required more than a ticket and a place of destination. worst still. There are at least twenty-five such references in the Bistdn and the Gulistdn as well as many more allusions to his journeys to remote lands that remained unnamed. he is the championof this world of unpredictedadventuresin which adventurismis only one of the qualities necessary for survival." an ordeal that could last as long as two weeks before the innocence of the traveler is proved. Against this background.after years of preparation training. one could be accused of spying in a God-forsaken land where the locals could go so far as to put one in a closet and "wall up the aperture with mud bricks. the pride that Sa'di takes in his own journeys makes more sense. Those who made the mistake of not realizing the danger paid dearly for their ignorance. in the third chapter of the Gulistdn: Qazara bardar-ishahribi-tuhmat-i jasulsi amadand. The personality of those who have not traveled leaves something to be desired. too. expected to resist temptations of involvement in adventures harmful to his journey's ultimate goals. 151) The traveler. thirst.esteemedfriend. giriftar Hardii rfa bi-khanah'i kardand va-dar baravardand. for instance. Rather. he had to put his physical strength to the test in the face of excessive hunger. whereoneach of them was confinedin a closet andthe aperture it walledup with of mudbricks. One could be forced into marriage with the ugly daughter of a self-appointed friend.

He clearly prefers to live in and benefit from a world colored with disagreement and quest for learning than a dull and homogeneous world that submits to one persuasion blindly. In particular." Dar aqsa-yi 'alam bigashtam basi Bi-sar burdam ayyam ba har kasi Tamattu' bi-har gushah-'i yaftam Zi har kharmani khushah-'i yaftam (p. Persians and Byzantines From every race his pure soul had learned its science World-Wandered. for instance. acquired through mixing with a variety of peoples all over the world. he rightly claims in the dlbachah to the Biustdn. A good example is the greedy merchant in the oasis of Kish who "possesses one hundred and fifty camel loads of merchandise with forty slaves. Sacdi's own awareness of the diversity of the world and the complexity of human nature. and there is pleasure as well as benefit in exploring the shades in between.472 Fatemeh Keshavarz viewed his own journeys as education of a practical nature complementing his scholastic training. and who invites Sacdi to his quarters one evening" to spend the whole night enumer- ating the goods that he is planning to buy in each city on his route and sell in the next. he takes pride in having spent time with people of various backgrounds and persuasions. there is little doubt that Sacdi's journeys are the prime source of his insight into human psychology as well as his ability. 230) From Oman sea there came a man. As a result. much traveled by ocean and desert. He sounds like a sleep-talker. to see benefit in diversity and difference. In the Bustdn and the Gulistdn absolute good and bad do not rule the world. but even the traveler may be traveling for the wrong reasons. 8) Whether planned for learning purposes or not. and Turks. rare for his time. Enjoyment I have found in every nook. is detectable in his assessment of good and evil. he'd learned sociability. and whose knowledge and wisdom are a synthesis of Muslim and non-Muslim learning. From every harvest I have gained a corn-ear. Nothing is completely black and white."from every harvest I have gained a corn-ear. and although he tries hard to anticipate a point at which he would retire from endless journeys of trade. The wise man who arrives from a journey over the sea of CUmman. Whichever we choose to accept. is clearly Sacdi's personification of an ideal wise man: Zi darya-yi CUmmanbaramadkasi Safar kardah hamin ii darya basi didah u Turk u Tajik u Rum CArab Zi har jins dar nafs-i pakash 'lum Jahan gashtah u danish andukhtah Safar kardah u suhbat amukhtah (p. Arab he'd seen. is a most beneficial activity. (p. 21) This CUmmani character in the first chapter of the Biistan is the closest that we can get to an existing self-image or an ideal toward which the poet has been striving. He may be so blinded by pursuit of material gain that he completely loses sight of the pleasures he may discover in seeing the world.wisdom he'd amassed: Traveled. (p. his ailment may have no other cure but death: . 220) Much have I roamed through the world's far quarters Spending my days with all and sundry. Traveling. has been everywhere but has seen nothing. as Sa'di observes. reminiscent of his CUmmani scholar.

" It is no wonder then that in Sacdi's life sayri-i afaq (physical journey) took precedence over sayr-i anfus (spiritual journey). (p. the ordinary traveler has his weaknesses too. In addition. Nevertheless. Whether talking about strangers who can freely lie. you who lack stability For herbage will not grow upon a rolling stone. or marriagesthat are worse than captivity. in the sixth bdb from the Bustdn: Sukuni bi-dast avar ay bi-sabat Kih bar sang-i gardan nartuyad nabat (p. The key to Sacdi's world is to understandhis ever-present sense of humor. 344) Acquire of rest a measure. Saying: the narrow eye of the wealthy man Will be filled either by content or by the earth of the tomb. were engaged in highest levels of mystical speculation in the Gulshan-i rdz and the Lamacdt. Sacdi agrees with this accusation at least in one incident. from time to time. in relation to travel. And isn't he saying the same thing in the second chapter of the Bistdn in the story of the man who had lost his son in a journey? Yaki ra pisar gum shud az rahila Shabangah bi-gardid dar qafila A man once lost his boy while in a convoy at nightfall he wandered round the caravan . 232) Who've traveled much live carelessly Not by realm and empire nurturedthey. 166) Sacdi has had ethical points to make in composing the Bustan and the Gulistan. for instance. Mahmud Shabistari and Fakhr al-Din 'Iraqi. Sacdi teaches the reader always to be prepared for a smile. travelers who get locked up in a closet. (p. it is only too fitting to actually go out in search of his ideals as opposed to seeking them in seclusion. a quality he did not share with many of his contemporaries. there are gradations: normal folks. 161) Between the traveler who returns from his journeys a saintly wise man and the one who is gripped by monomania of material gain." and "the prince with a dislocated neck. ordinary travelers. he is often accused of carelessness and instability: Safar'kardaganlaubali ziyand Kih parvardah-'i mulk u daulat nayand (p. (p. Sacdi devoted much of his attention to simple daily matters in life. He feels like a sick person who would only be cured with a drink of water from his native town." "the old man who could not bear the gayness of the youths. 23) An envious vizier accuses a wise traveler in chapter 1 of the Bustan. completely lose their spirit. namely his pragmatism. while Sacdi busied himself with "the cat who learned contentment."MuchHave I Roamed through the World" 473 An shanidasti kih dar aqsa-yi Ghiur Bar'salaribi-uftad az sutur Guft: chashm-i tang-i dunyai dust rai Ya qanacat pur kunad ya khak-i gur (p.28 It would be regrettable to close this discussion without referring to Sacdi's most outstanding quality. This underlying humorous tone is present in the poet's other works. Skalmowski is most probably referringto the same thing when he talks about "a joke-like combination of interconnected images" in the ghazals of Sa'di. For a man of such practical mentality. 142) Thou mayest have heard that in the plain of Ghur Once a leader fell down from his beast of burden. too. these works. Interestingly enough. if taken only as dry moral lessons.

Van Popta-Hope (Dordrecht. 1965). 176. P. idem. M. Daniel Aaron (Cambridge. 6Hafiz. '?Zabih Allah Safa. ed. . 286) NOTES at length he found that brightness in the dark When to the caravan's members he returned I heard him saying to the convoy leader: know you how I came across my friend? whoever came before me I said "It's him!" this is why men of heart pursue one and all that they may one day reach a man perchance for one heart they will carry loads unnumfor one rose's sake they swallow many thorns. 7Nadel. 3:131-41. ed. Life into Art: Conversations with Seven ContemporaryBiographers (Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press. Edward Rehatsek (New York: G. (Tehran: National Commission of Unesco in Iran and Ministry of Islamic Guidance." Irdn Ndmah 3 (1985): 706. History. 1978). see Henri Masse."Rypka. The Gulistan or Rose Garden of Sacdi. Muhammad CAliFurughi (Tehran: MuisaCIlmi. 12Forinformation on various editions and translations of the Gulistan and the Biistdn. see Morals Pointed and Tales Adorned: The Biistan of Sa'di. 2:893-989. For English quotations from the Biistan and the Gulistan. J.History of Persian Literature.: HarvardUniversity Press. 250. Holland: D. for a more detailed account. 8Nadel. 9A well-known example of a poet traveling in search of a proper patron is the case of Farrukhi(d. "Shaykh Sa'di az didgah-i khvud-i u" in Zikr-i Jamil-i Sacdi: Collected Articles and Poems for the Commemorationof the 800th Birth Anniversary of Sheikh Sacdi. (p. 1991). Fact and Form (New York: St. Mass. P. 4Ibid. Martin's Press. see MuhammadMuhit Tabataba'i. 240-42. 151. 153. 776-83. Muhammad Qazvini and Qasim Ghani (Tehran: Nashr-i Tuli'. Divdn-i Hdfiz-i Shirazi. 282. 234. 1982). "Nukati dar Sarguzasht-i Sa'di" in Zikr-i Jamil-i Sacdi. 5Charles-Henride Fouchecour. 1037-38) who "from being in the service of a dihgan came via the court of Chaghaniyan to Ghazna. 1974). Essai sur le poete Saadi (Paris: Paul Geuthner. For other interesting works concerning the more recent approaches to biography. Yohannan. Reidel.. 92) 1JanRypka. 1987). 1Ibid. 3:185-211. Biography. trans. see John D. 1984). History of Persian Literature.. Biography: Fiction. 14JalalMatini.474 Fatemeh Keshavarz asking at every tent and hastening in all directions shitaft Zi har khayma pursid u har su1 Bi-tariki ainraushanfa'ibi-yfaft Chiuamad bar-i mardum-i karivan Shanidam kih miguft ba sarivan And exclaims the joyous father: Nadainikih chun rah burdam bi-dust? Har an kas kih pish amadam guftam "ust" Az an ahl-i dil dar pay-i har kasand Kih bashad kih rfuzibi-mardi rasand Barand az bara-yi dili bar'ha bered Khurandaz bara-yi guli khar'ha. G. 1987). 158. Wickens (Leiden: E. "Maqamah-'i manzum bi-zaban-i Farsi. 1968). Brill. For Persian quotations from the Bustan and the Gulistan the following has been used: Kulliydt-i Shaykh Sa'di. The Poet Sacdl: A Persian Humanist (New York: University Press of America. Putnam's Sons. trans. Tdrikh-iAdabiyydt dar Iran (Tehran: Intisharat-iFirdaws. For a comprehensive and critical review of biographical works on Sacdi. History of Persian Literature. where he sang the praises of Mahmud. 3 vols. 2Ira Bruce Nadel. (p. see Gail Porter Mandell. 1959). 1919). 13Rypka. Biography. ed. trans. 1987). 116. Studies in Biography. 250-53. 3Rypka.

al-Hariri and the maqdmat Genre. Hasan Nishat Ansari. "Maqamah-'i manzuimbi-zaban-i Farsi. to have had a more complex and significant function.A Time to Speak: Anecdotes from Sacdi Shirazi (Leicester: Islamic Foundation. A Literary History of Persia: From Firdawsi to Sacdi (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. "Did Shaykh Sa'di Visit India?" Journal of the Bihar Research Society 59 (1973): 173-86. 25AshrafAbu Turab Zia Sardar. 2. R. 19Ansari. this is well demonstratedby Barat Zanjani's analysis of the panegyric qasida written for Atabak. "Sukhanwari-i dar zirakainah Qalamraw-i Sacdi" in Zikr-i Jamil-i Sacdi. 1-8. 1tIbid. 23One can briefly note here that other generalizations and unquestioned notions of generic function in Persian poetry call for serious modification. Gramlich (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag." 185-86."Majallah-i Taclim wa-Tarbiyat (Bahman wa Isfand 1937): 636.History of Persian Literature. ed. F. 1974). for instance." in Islamwissenschaftliche Abhandlungen: Fritz Meier zum sechzigsten Geburtstag. 1976)." 717-18. 28Wojciech Skalmowski. L. Julia Ashtiany et al. 528-29. Beeston." 716-20."MuchHave I Roamed through the World" 475 '5Rypka. 250. long taken as a symptom of social moral decay and an instrument of material gain is shown. . 20cAbbasIqbal. in the light of more recent studies.. "Zikr-i jamil-i Sacdi." Islamic Culture 8 (1934): 212-21. Literary History." Yaghmd3 (1952): 97-102. 1990). Edward G. see John Andrew Boyle. Panegyric poetry. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press." Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica 10 (1979): 273. Ahmedmian Akhtar. Browne. 1906). 26Rypka. "Sa'di's Visit to Somnat. 530. 2:197-208. accepts that Sacdi traveled eastwards to India and westwards to Africa. 22A." in Cambridge History of Arabic Literature: 'Abbasid Belles-Lettres. History of Persian Literature. "The Chronology of Sacdi's Years of Travel. "Zaman-i Tavallud va Ava'il-i zindagani-i SaCdi. 27MujtabaMinuvi. 16Inaddition to the works which all discuss Sa'di's travels. "al-Hamadhani. for specific treatment of the subject. 135. 2tMatini. "Notes on the Ghazals of Sacdi and Hafiz. In the case of Sacdi. 17Browne. 24Matini. ed. 529. See Barat Zanjani. "Maqamah-'i manzum bi-zaban-i Farsi."Did Shaykh Sa'di Visit India?. 250.

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