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KOMPONEN ALAM SEKITAR Aspek perbincangan tentang alam sekitar melibatkan beberapa perkara yang menjadi komponen alam

sekitar, iaitu bumi, manusia, tumbuh-tumbuhan, haiwan, air, tanah dan udara. Anda boleh membaca tentang komponen-komponen ini di dalam bab-bab seterusnya. Di sini diberikan sedikit maklumat awal tentang komponen alam sekitar sekadar pengenalan. Bumi Ahli pengkaji angkasa lepas menganggarkan bahawa usia bumi dalam lingkungan 4,600 juta tahun. Menurut satu teori, bumi terjadi melalui pengumpulan pelbagai bahan atau jisim yang terapung-terapung di angkasa selepas berlakunya satu letupan yang amat besar sekitar 15,000 juta tahun lalu. Teori ini dinamakan ‘Teori Big Bang’. Hasil letupan tersebut, maka terwujudlah juga planet lain, bintang, bulan dan sebagainya. Ada kuasa seperti kuasa graviti yang menarik bahan-bahan apungan ini untuk membentuk bintang dan planet. Sehingga hari ini beribu juta jisim di angkasa atau kosmos mampu kekal di dalam lingkungan atau orbit masing-masing, tanpa berlanggar atau berlawanan dengan arah pusingan. Bagi orang Islam, pasti ada Tuhan Yang Maha Kuasa yang mengendalikan perjalanan jisim-jisim di kosmos dengan teratur. Contohnya, di dalam galaksi Bima Sakti, jutaan jisim kosmos wujud dalam keadaan yang mantap. Anda sendiri boleh lihat keadaan ini jika anda mendongak ke langit di malam yang terang. Pemandangan yang sangat indah dan mengkagumkan ini lebih jelas dilihat dari kawasan tanah tinggi seperti bukit atau gunung. Pengkaji bintang atau ahli astronomi sering membina tapak pemerhatian atau balai cerap di bukit-bukit untuk meninjau ciri dan pergerakan jisim kosmos dengan menggunakan teropong besar atau teleskop. Pengembaraan ke angkasa lepas yang dilakukan sama ada oleh kapal angkasa yang dipandu manusia atau sebaliknya, seperti satelit, memberi banyak maklumat tentang bumi. Bumi umpama sebuah oasis yang terletak di tengah-tengah alam semesta yang luas terbentang. Gambar bumi yang diambil dari angkasa lepas jelas membuktikan betapa rapuhnya planet ini. Umpamanya, satu lapisan gas yang dinamakan ozon (setiap molekul ozon mengandungi tiga atom oksigen). Lapisan ozon menapis sinar ultra-lembayung cahaya matahari yang berbahaya daripada sampai ke bumi. Kajian di awal tahun 1980 an mendapati sesetengah tempat di mukabumi seperti Antartika, dilindungi lapisan ozon yang semakin menipis. Penjumpaan ini kemudiannya dipastikan melalui kajian yang dilakukan dari satelit yang dilancarkan ke angkasa. Sehingga hari ini, kajian penipisan lapisan ozon masih diteruskan. Manusia Tahukah anda berapa ramai penduduk dunia pada hari ini? Penduduk dunia kini lebih kurang 6 bilion orang. Kadar peningkatan penduduk dunia lebih kurang suku juta orang setiap hari. Dengan kadar ini, dianggarkan apabila Malaysia mencapai taraf negara maju dalam tahun 2020, penduduk dunia meningkat hampir 10 bilion orang. Soalnya, adakah bumi ini mampu menampung bilangan penduduk yang begitu ramai? Jawapannya, boleh, tetapi dengan syarat mesti ada taburan penduduk yang lebih seimbang. Negara-negara mundur dan sedang membangun kini mempunyai bilangan penduduk terlalu ramai. Kadar peningkatan penduduk negara-negara ini juga adalah yang tertinggi. Keupayaan menyediakan makanan dan keperluan asas di negara-negara ini amat terhad. Justeru, kita mendengar kisah kebuluran, kekurangan tempat tinggal dan wabak penyakit sering berlaku di dalam masyarakat seperti ini. Taburan penduduk

banyak spesis haiwan yang diwartakan sebagai haiwan terlindung. Buku ini membincangkan tingkah-laku haiwan dan pengaruh alam sekitar terhadap kehidupan haiwan. Haiwan yang dihalalkan untuk dimakan.w.yang lebih seimbang boleh menyediakan kehidupan yang lebih selesa bagi seluruh penduduk dunia. Banyak spesis haiwan yang telah atau hampir pupus.w. Baginda Rasullulah s. tetapi kualiti mereka. haiwan tunggangan. menyatakan bahawa berbuat baik terhadap binatang sama pahalanya seperti berbuat baik terhadap manusia. Tumbuh-tumbuhan Pernahkah anda melihat gambar pemandangan dipadang pasir? Apakah perasaan anda jika terpaksa hidup di kawasan padang pasir yang panas dan tanpa tumbuh-tumbuhan ? Kehidupan di situ pasti sukar. maka manusia berperanan sebagai khalifah. Ada pertalian antara ibu dan anak. Setiap haiwan mesti dijaga dengan baik dan sempurna. Haiwan Haiwan adalah makhluk ciptaan tuhan dan terdapat berjuta-juta spesis haiwan wujud di dunia ini. Kaedah menjaga haiwan juga mesti diutamakan dengan mengambil-kira bahawa haiwan adalah amanah yang dipertanggungjawabkan kepada manusia. Tiada pokok untuk berteduh dan tiada sungai sebagai sumber bekalan air. Berapa ramaikah pula penduduk di negara ini? Di Malaysia terdapat 26 juta orang penduduk. Beberapa jenis burung helang juga turut terancam. al-Jahiz telah menulis sebuah buku bertajuk Buku tentang Haiwan. Khalifah Islam pertama selepas Nabi Muhammad s.w. Justeru. Secara umum haiwan boleh dibahagikan kepada dua kumpulan. beberapa jenis ikan paus mungkin pupus kerana sering diburu oleh nelayan dilautan luas. penjaga rumah atau haiwan kesayangan. Jadi perkara-perkara ini mestilah diberi perhatian oleh penternak atau penjaga haiwan.. dalam usaha untuk mengelakkan kepupusan dan menggalakkan pembiakan. Manusia hanya satu daripada jutaan jenis atau spesis makhluk hidup yang lain. Kebajikan haiwan juga perlu dijaga kerana ia juga mempunyai naluri serta boleh merasai kesakitan . Kita bernasib baik kerana Tuhan Yang Maha Kuasa telah mengurniakan pelbagai jenis tumbuh-tumbuhan di Malaysia. Tuhan menganugerahkan alam ini kepada manusia untuk dikongsi bersama dengan haiwan dan tumbuh-tumbuhan. Haiwan juga kerap hidup sebagai sebuah masyarakat. perlu disembelih dengan sempurna terlebih dahulu. . Umpamanya. akibat perbuatan manusia. Sebenarnya bukan kuantiti manusia yang dipertikaikan. Aktiviti pemburuan yang tidak terkawal boleh menjejaskan kewujudan sesetengah jenis haiwan. Kawasan ini diberi nama hema. Seorang cendekiawan Islam di kurun ke-8. Haiwan ternakan dijadikan sumber makanan atau diberi tugas khusus seperti haiwan pengangkut barang. Sebagai makhluk yang diberi akal dan keupayaan mental yang tinggi berbanding makhluk lain yang hidup di bumi.a. Manusia mempunyai tanggungjawab yang berat di dunia. dan berbuat kejam kepada binatang sama dosanya seperti berbuat kejam terhadap manusia. iaitu haiwan liar dan haiwan ternakan.a. Nabi Muhammad s. Sebuah buku lain tentang hak-hak haiwan telah ditulis oleh Izzah-Din Abd as-Salam dalam kurun ke-13. Semunya ciptaan Tuhan Yang Maha Kuasa.a. sendiri menyediakan sebuah kawasan rehat untuk kuda perang yang berukuran satu batu lebar dan enam batu panjang yang terletak di sekeliling kota Madinah. Haiwan liar juga mempunyai hak. Saidina Abu Bakar As-Siddiq pernah menasihati askar-askar yang akan berperang akan tidak memusnahkan tumbuhtumbuhan dan membunuh haiwan kecuali untuk dijadikan makanan.

Satu persepuluh kawasan tanah yang lain membentuk kawasan tundra yang sukar didiami.000 dari 3. Lebih kurang satu persepuluh kawasan tanah lagi sentiasa dipenuhi ais seperti sebahagian besar Kutub Utara (Artik) dan Kutub Selatan (Antartik).Tahukah anda bahawa satu pertiga tanah di permukaan bumi ini ditumbuhi oleh tumbuh-tumbuhan. Contohnya. Projek penebusgunaan tanah telah dijalankan di Utara Jakarta (8. Dalam masa beberapa tahun akan datang kawasan seluas 97. Justeru. Selain menjadi tempat pergantungan tumbuh-tumbuhan dan haiwan. Tanah Tanah membentuk 30 peratus permukaan bumi.750 hektar). Didalam tanah pula terdapat pelbagi galian lain. melindungi bekalan air dan menjadi tempat haiwan dan manusia berteduh. Tanah yang ditebusguna akan menjadi tapak .000 hektar akan ditebusguna di sepanjang pantai Malaysia sejauh 4. Selain itu. Bagi kawasan terbangun seperti sebuah kampung. maka usaha ditumpukan kearah menebusguna tanah dikawasan tepi pantai. Tumbuh-tumbuhan juga menjadi sumber makanan manusia dan haiwan. 2. Sumber tanah biasanya dianggap milik negara dan faedahnya dikongsi oleh semua penduduk secara adil.000 pokok yang dipercayai mempunyai kesan menyembuh kanser diperolehi dari hutan Amazon di Amerika Selatan. Hutan simpan ialah kawasan terlindung. Menurut undang-undang Islam. Satu pertiga keluasan tanah dunia terdiri daripada padang pasir dan tanah yang kering kontang. antimoni dan gala-gala. Baki 103 juta hektar tanah lagi terlalu kering atau sukar diterokai.800 kilometer. Kawasan ini biasanya meliputi hutan dan kawasan sekitarnya yang menjadi tempat tumpuan akar-akar pohon hutan mendapatkan air. Walaupun 71 peratus permukaan bumi diliputi air. emas dan perak. tumbuhtumbuhan juga adalah sumber ubat-ubatan semula jadi. Daun menyerap karbon dioksida dan membebaskan oksigen.200 hektar). Terdapat kira-kira 329 juta hektar daratan kawasan daratan di bumi ini. hutan simpan merangkumi kawasan persekitarannya yang menjadi sumber rezeki atau tempat bersiar-siar dan berehat. Pulau Jurung di Singapura (1. Kaedah ini dikenali sebagai al-mawat dan dibenarkan selagi ianya tidak mendatangkan bahaya dan kerosakan kepada masyarakat dan alam sekitar. Fungsi tumbuh-tumbuhan ialah menyamankan cuaca. Sumber ini mungkin sedia wujud dipermukaan tanah seperti garam. Tumbuh-tumbuhan adalah satu-satunya makhluk Tuhan yang mampu berdikari membuat makanan sendiri. kurang daripada separuh keluasan tanah di mukabumi yang boleh digunakan untuk penempatan manusia. Lapangan Terbang Kansai di Jepun (511 hektar) dan Lapangan Terbang Chek Lap Kok di Hong Kong (200 hektar). Tindakan ini menyebabkan kandungan gas dalam udara seimbang. Bukan semua tanah mampu menampung kehidupan dengan mudah. Sesetengah kawasan kaya dengan sumber fosil seperti minyak petrol. Di zaman ini terdapat pelbagai program yang dijalankan bagi menambah keluasan tanah untuk tujuan pembangunan. suhu dan cuaca dunia terkawal.047 hektar tanah di sepanjang pantai.790 hektar). bekas lombong atau padang pasir. diiktiraf sebagai hutan simpan.804 hektar dan 4. Walau bagaimanapun hanya 226 juta hektar tanah sahaja yang sesuai untuk didiami atau dijalankan aktiviti pertanian. termasuk haiwan liar didalamnya. Perak dan Selangor masing-masing akan menebusguna 6. pantai Barat Taiwan (2. haiwan dan tumbuh-tumbuhan. sesetengah kawasan hutan. Usaha menebusguna tanah juga akan dilakukan di 210. namun 97 peratus daripadanya merupakan air masin dan tidak boleh digunakan untuk kehidupan manusia. tanah juga menjadi sumber bahan semulajadi. Memandangkan bekalan tanah semakin berkurangan.000 hektar bekas tanah lombong di seluruh Malaysia. atau dikekalkan sebagai hutan simpan. termasuk bijih timah. pertanian dan perladangan. Justeru.

seperti kumpulan pendaki Malaysia yang menawan Gunung Everest dalam tahun 1997. Setiap hari dianggarkan 25. Dianggarkan bahawa setiap tahun 113. Kadang-kadang mereka terpaksa berjalan berbatu-batu setiap hari untuk mendapatkan air. oksigen. Udara sekarang terdedah kepada pelbagai pencemaran. Hampir 2 bilion penduduk dunia dari 80 buah negara mengalami kekurangan air secara berterusan. Penduduk di situ mungkin menggunakan air tercemar tadi untuk tujuan membersih tubuh. sungai dan tasik. Udara Ingatkah anda tentang jerebu yang melanda negara pertengahan tahun 1997? Bagaimanakah keadaan udara yang disedut pada ketika itu? Pasti anda masih ingat rasa kurang selesa di tekak apabila menyedut udara berjerebu. telah banyak . bukan! Sebenarnya. Air Pernahkah anda terfikir bahawa sebahagian besar tubuh manusia terdiri daripada air. Kandungan gas-gas ini perlu kekal dalam komposisi tertentu. Oleh itu sumber makanan di laut juga turut tercemar dan menjejaskan kehidupan penduduk di kawasan pantai yang bergantung kepada perikanan. Setiap tahun dianggarkan 20 bilion tan air kotor mengalir dari tasik dan sungai ke laut.000 bilion meter padu air hujan dan salji jatuh ke bumi. akuakultur. Punca air juga tidak menentu. Jika tidak manusia tidak dapat hidup dengan selesa. Atmosfera bumi terdiri daripada gas-gas seperti nitrogen. karbon dioksida dan lain-lain. terpaksa memebawa bekalan oksigen sendiri.03 peratus. Kandungan oksigen di dalam udara semakin kurang jika semakin tinggi kita mendaki gunung atau terbang di angkasa.000 orang dijangkiti penyakit kerana menggunakan air yang tidak bersih. udara bersih adalah sebahagian komponen penting alam sekitar. nitrogen 78 peratus dan karbon dioksida 0. pelancongan dan pembangunan infrastruktur seperti lapangan terbang dan jambatan. Jadi tidak hairanlah jika mereka terdedah kepada pelbagai jenis penyakit yang berpunca dari air. Walaupun peratusnya rendah.pertanian. tetapi jumlahnya agak besar. Namun demikian. masalah kekurangan air terus berlaku. Pernahkan bekalan air ke rumah anda terputus? Pastinya pernah. haiwan dan tumbuh-tumbuhan. hanya 0. Kebanyakan air tawar yang sesuai untuk diminum wujud beku di Kutub Utara dan Kutub Selatan. Tentu anda dapat merasai betapa sukar untuk hidup tanpa air. 97 peratus daripadanya air masin dan tidak boleh digunakan untuk kehidupan manusia. Pernahkan anda mengalami keadaan ini ketika mendaki bukit atau gunung? Oleh sebab itu maka pendaki gunung. perumahan. kerana 71 peratus permukaannya dipenuhi lautan. Perkara ini adalah salah satu kurniaan Tuhan yang paling penting. perindustrian. Air ini dicemari oleh sampah-sarap. Mereka bernafas menggunakan oksigen di dalam tangki kerana kandungan oksigen di persekitaran terlalu rendah. Umpamanya oksigen merangkumi 21 peratus udara. Baki air yang boleh diminum terdapat jauh di dalam tanah. Gas toksid dari pembakaran bahanapi dan aktiviti perkilangan yang tidak sistematik dan terkawal. Sebahagian daripada air sungai yang tercemar mengalir dari sebuah negara ke sebuah negara yang berjiran. Namun demikian. pencemaran air juga semakin menjadi-jadi. sebagai air minuman dan menyediakan makanan. Bumi yang dilihat dari angkasa lepas juga nampak seperti sebuah planet yang dipenuhi air. Kekurangan oksigen boleh menyebabkan manusia sesak nafas atau pitam. Bayangkan rakan-rakan di negara lain di dunia yang saban hari ketandusan air.6 peratus dari air di mukabumi ini tersedia untuk dikongsi bersama oleh haiwan dan manusia. Selain masalah kekurangan air. najis dan sisa toksid industri dan pertanian. membasuh pakaian. Sebenarnya. Kita di Malaysia hanya perlu membuka paip dan air keluar mencurah-curah.

Dia mengetahui perkara ghaib dan yang kelihatan. Pelbagai usaha telah diambil bagi menangani masalah ini. menjadikan mereka girang. surah al. Masalah jerebu yang pernah melanda negara pada pertengahan 1997 juga telah menyebabkan tahap kebersihan udara berada di paras tidak memuaskan. Perkataan-Nya adalah benar. seperti klorofluorokarbon. 3. Maksud ayat al-Quran. Surah ad-Dukhan 44:38-39. tanam-tanaman dan pohon kurma yang bercabang dan yang tidak bercabang. dada kami lapang menghela nafas siang dan malam. (Maksud ayat al-Quran. Dia mengetahui perkara ghaib dan yang kelihatan. Gas-gas seperti karbon dioksida. Pendidikan Alam Sekitar . kita mesti mempastikan bahawa kita mengembalikan semula bumi dan alam sekitar kepada mereka dalam keadaan yang sebaik-baiknya. KESIMPULAN Bumi dan alam sekitar adalah ciptaan Tuhan Yang Maha Kuasa. dan dia adalah Maha Bijaksana lagi Maha Mengetahui. apa khabar alamku masih ceriakah seperti semalam masih anggunkah seperti dulu dengan pepohon menghijau dengan anak-anak sungai mengalir jernih dengan udara yang bersih membuatkan aku senang. “Dan tidaklah Kami menciptakan langit dan bumi dan apa yang ada di antara keduanya untuk permainan. maka jadilah dia. Manusia dijadikan Tuhan untuk menjaga alam sekitar yang telah diamanahkan kepada kita. Alam sekitar ini juga kita ‘pinjam’ dari generasi akan datang. Jadi penipisan ozon menyebabkan atmosfera semakin telus kepada sinaran ultralembayung. Justeru. dan pada hari Tuhan menyatakan: “ jadilah engkau”. seperti pembakaran secara terbuka dan bekerjasama mengamalkan cara hidup yang selamat dengan tidak mencemarkan alam sekitar. disirami dengan 2. Lapisan ozon yang menyelubungi atmosfera bertindak sebagai pemantul sinaran ultra-lembayung cahaya matahari. maka jadilah ia. Maksud ayat al-Quran. Sinaran ini berbahaya kerana boleh menyebabkan ketidakselesaan dan barah kulit kepada manusia. Indeks kualiti udara di kebanyakan bandar utama amat membimbangkan. dan Dia adalah Maha Bijaksana lagi Maha Mengetahui”. dan Dia mempunyai kerajaan pada hari serunai sangkakala itu ditiupkan.An’am 6: 73) “Dan di bumi ini terdapat bahagian-bahagian yang berdampingan dan kebun. . Dan tidaklah keduanya kami jadikan melainkan dengan tujuan yang benar”. Para saintis menjangkakan suhu bumi akan meningkat secara purata dalam masa 50 tahun akan datang. Satu lagi masalah yang timbul akibat pembebasan gas toksid. PENDIDIKAN APA KHABAR ALAM Hai. Surah al-An ‘am 6:73.kebun anggur.Presentation Transcript 1. Peningkatan suhu ini boleh mencairkan salji di Kutub Utara dan Kutub Selatan dan menyebabkan banjir di kawsan tanah rendah. Kesan yang dikenali sebagai kesan ‘rumah hijau’ ini menyebabkan fenomena pemanasan global. RM/jks/jun2004 ANUGERAH RM/jks/jun2004 FIRMAN ALLAH SWT •“Dan Dialah yang menjadikan langit dan bumi dengan sebenarnya. Oleh itu rakyat negara ini mesti peka dengan isu-isu yang boleh memburukkan lagi keadaan jerebu. Usaha telah diambil agar penggunaan klorofluorokarbon akan dimansuhkan menjelangkan tahun 2000. ialah proses penipisan lapisan ozon. Perkataan-Nya adalah benar dan Dia mempunyai kerajaan pada hari serunai sangkakala itu ditiupkan. sebelum kita meninggalkan dunia ini. dan pada hari Tuhan menyatakan “jadilah engkau”. “Dan Dialah yang menjadikan langit dan bumi dengan sebenarnya. methana dan klorofluorokarbon membentuk halangan yang mampu meninggikan suhu permukaan bumi.mencemarkan udara kita.

water and soil of the environment make up the abiotic that can provide environment. An ecosystem is all the living A community is all of organisms and the the population of living non-living factors in organisms in one area. PENCEMARAN BUNYI 10.1998. BIOLOGIKAL DAN PROSES SEMULAJADI ALAM. DEFINISI PENDIDIKAN ALAM SEKITAR P.g. RM/jks/jun2004 18. The land must remain productive and fertile. KITA PERLU MEMASTIKAN AGAR PROGRAM PENDIDIKAN DAPAT MENCERMINKAN KEPENTINGAN ETIKA UNTUK KEHIDUPAN YANG LESTARI. IA ADALAH CARA UNTUK MELIHAT TENTANG PELBAGAI KEHIDUPAN YANG BERKAITAN BELAJAR MENGENALPASTI KESAN BAIK DAN BURUK TERHADAP FIZIKAL DAN TANGGUNGJAWAB YANG HARUS DITERIMA TERHADAP AKTIVITI ALAM (HUGHES. • Predators Physical Climatic • Food -Oxygen and . SOSIAL DAN BUDAYA SERTA PENINGKATAN KUALITI HIDUP RAKYAT MALAYSIA MENERUSI KESEJAHTERAAN ALAM SEKITAR DAN PEMBANGUNAN LESTARI RM/jks/jun2004 5. PENCEMARAN AIR 9.S. WWF AND IUCN) RM/jks/jun2004 10.A. VISION 2020 “ensure that her invaluable resources are not wasted. MEMBANTU MASYARAKATθ MATLAMAT PENDIDIKAN ALAM SEKITAR MENGUASAI KEMAHIRAN DANθ SARWAJAGAT MENYEDARI DAN MEMAHAMI ISU-ISU ALAM SEKITAR MEMBENTUK MASYARAKATθ KESUNGGUHAN DALAM MEMBANTU MENGATASI ISU ALAM SEKITAR YANG LEBIH PEKA DAN PRIHATIN TERHADAP ISI ALAM SEKITAR SUMBER: BUKU GARIS PANDUAN P. DEFINISI PENDIDIKAN ALAM SEKITAR P. HAKISAN TANAH 7. PENEBANGAN HUTAN 4. RM/jks/jun2004 20. KITAR KARBON RM/jks/jun2004 22. (CARING FOR EARTH (1991)-UNEP. RM/jks/jun2004 12. food. NEGARA DAN DUNIA. ADALAH DIMENSI BARU DALAM SISTEM PENDIDIKAN YANG TERHASIL DI ATAS KERUMITAN DAN KEPERLUAN YANG MENDESAK TERHADAP MASAALAH ALAM SEKITAR (MUTHOKA.S. 1985) RM/jks/jun2004 7. PEMANASAN BUMI / KESAN RUMAH HIJAU 12. Kami melebihkan sebahagian tanam-tanaman itu di atas sebahagian yang lain tentang rasanya. KEKURANGAN . PELUPUSAN SPESIS FLORA DAN FAUNA 3.air yang sama. KITAR HIDROLOGI RM/jks/jun2004 25. RM/jks/jun2004 13. ADALAH SATU PROSES YANG BERPANJANGAN. RM/jks/jun2004 17. • IALAH SEMUA KOMPONEN FIZIKAL. a patch of grassland) A population is all of the members of the same species in a particular area.A. able to yield the needs of the national development. – Ecology is the study of living organisms in relation to their environment. RM/jks/jun2004 11.g. shelter and a breeding site for a living organism (e. KOMUNITI. MENGADAPTASIKAN POLA TERSEBUT MEMERLUKAN PERUBAHAN SIKAP DAN AMALAN HIDUP MANUSIA. KITAR NITROGEN RM/jks/jun2004 24.A.” (Surah ar-Ra’ad – 4) RM/jks/jun2004 4. A habitat is a part Air. a particular part of The community is the the environment biotic environment. Sesungguhnya pada yang demikian itu terdapat tanda-tanda (kebesaran Allah) bagi kaum yang berfikir.1 JENIS ISU 1. DEFINISI PENDIDIKAN ALAM SEKITAR P. the water unpolluted. 1998) RM/jks/jun2004 8. the forest resources capable of regeneration.S. 3. the atmosphere clear and clean. PENGHAPUSAN PAYA 5. 8. SEIMBANG DAN TERJAMIN DISAMPING (PUSAT PERKEMBANGAN KURIKULUM DAN WORLD WIDE FUND FOR MALAYSIA. PERTAMBAHAN PENDUDUK 2. SIHAT. DASAR ALAM SEKITAR NEGARA KENYATAAN DASAR UNTUK MENERUSKAN KEMAJUAN EKONOMI. 1977) RM/jks/jun2004 9. ADALAH BERTUJUAN UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PENGETAHUAN DAN KEFAHAMAN SESEORANG MENGENAI BAGAIMANA DUNIA BERFUNGSI DAN PERKAITANNYA DENGAN KEHIDUPAN UNTUK MEMUPUK SIKAP POSITIF UNTUK MEMILIH CARA HIDUP YANG BERTANGGUNGJAWAB MEMELIHARA DAN MEMULIHARA ALAM SEKITAR UNTUK MEWUJUDKAN SATU EKOSISTEM YANG BOLEH MENYOKONG KEHIDUPAN BERSIH.humidity Concentration -Light intensity -Water availability RM/jks/jun2004 19.A. SIGNIFIKAN PENDIDIKAN KEHIDUPAN YANG LESTARI HARUS DIJADIKAN POLA HIDUP BARU BAGI SEMUA PERINGKAT INDIVIDU. KITAR SEMULAJADI • KITAR KARBON • KITAR NITROGEN • KITAR HIDROLOGI RM/jks/jun2004 21. ECOSYSTEMS A living organism interacts with its environment •ABIOTIC • BIOTIC (‘non-living’) factors (‘living’) factors e. MERENTAS KURIKULUM KBSR/KBSM PPK. The beauty of the land must not be desecrated: for its own sake and for its economic advancement” RM/jks/jun2004 6. (ASAS) RM/jks/jun2004 15. KOMPONEN ALAM SEKITAR • ALAM SEKITAR SEMULAJADI • ALAM SEKITAR BUATAN • ALAM SEKITAR SOSIO BUDAYA RM/jks/jun2004 16. RM/jks/jun2004 14. PRODUKTIF.0 ISU ALAM SEKITAR 3. PEMINDAHAN TENAGA DALAM RANTAI MAKANAN & SIRATAN MAKANAN RM/jks/jun2004 23. PENCEMARAN TANAH 11. PENCEMARAN UDARA.S.temperature • Mates Carbon dioxide . PENINGKATAN GURUN 6.

CFCs decrease high-level ozone. human Reduce burning of fossil fuels – explore alternative energy sources♣should: Replant fprests♣Reduce cutting of forests for cattle ranching or rice growing ♣ RM/jks/jun2004 43. KENDERAAN BERMOTOR¬KILANG PERINDUSTRIAN ¬PUNCA UTAMA KEGUNAAN BAHAN AGROKIMIA INORGANIK¬PENJANAAN KUASA ELEKTRIK ¬PEMBAKARAN ¬ RM/jks/jun2004 37. Chlorine + ozone chlorite + oxygen and each chlorite (CIO) releases more chlorine so that even more high-level ozone is degraded. CAUSES OF THE INCREASED OF LOW-LEVEL OZONE Combustion of fossil fuels produces oxides of nitrogen. RM/jks/jun2004 46. Peningkatan gurun RM/jks/jun2004 32. 2. CFCs are very long lived. Mealting of polar ice and changes in density of sea water – raising sea levels and flooding. 1. i. refrigerator coolants and expanded plastics (used as insulating packaging) release chlorine. human should: Reduce the burning of fossil fuels and explore alternative sources of energy. RM/jks/jun2004 49. PENIPISAN LAPISAN OZON RM/jks/jun2004 44. and so♣irritation of eyes. RM/jks/jun2004 38. KESAN RUMAH HIJAU RM/jks/jun2004 40. RM/jks/jun2004 42. such as the melanoma. BUNYI DAN DARAT INDUSTRI PENGANGKUTAN RM/jks/jun2004 34.♣so decreased ozone means increased of : sunburn. PEMENDAPAN ASID DI PERMUKAAN BUMI 14. RM/jks/jun2004 41.♣mutations ♣cataracts ♣ humans should: Use fewer CFCs (develop alternatives). RM/jks/jun2004 48. and those already in the atmosphere will take 100 years to degrade. The greenhouse effect is increasing because of raised levels of these greenhouse gases: CARBON DIOXIDE released by combustion of fossil fuels in power station and internal combustion engines (in cars and lorries. SOLUTIONS To limit damage to the ozone layer.Ruum-41) RM/jks/jun2004 27. Evaporation of water from fertile area – deserts form. SOLUTIONS To limit the effects of greenhouse gases. THE OZONE LAYER Ultraviolet High-level ozone Low-level ozone Earth’s surface RM/jks/jun2004 45. Holes in the ozone layer HOLE have been detected over antartica and are thought to have been caused by chlorine from long-lived CFCs. RM/jks/jun2004 47.BEKALAN SUMBER API. 6. EFFECTS Good and bad results Global warming (raised temperatures closed to the earth’s surface) causes: Greater climate extreme – strong winds.PENCEMARAN UDARA. EFFECTS High-level ozone absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation.pelupusan spesis flora dan fauna (Flora & Fauna depletion) RM/jks/jun2004 29. human should: Reduce the burning of fossil fuels and explore alternative sources of energy. CFCs(chloroflurocarbons) from aerosol propellants and refrigerator coolants. e. causing smog ♣as a greenhouse gas (see above) Damages mesophyll in leaves.Hakisan tanah RM/jks/jun2004 33. 7. Solar radiation is allowed to enter the lower atmosphere but is not allowed to escape. NO2 which react with oxygen: NO2 NO + oxygen radical Oxygen radical (O) + O2 ozone (O3) So. ADA 3 MASALAH UTAMA DENGAN ATMOSFERA BUMI IAITU: • KESAN RUMAH HIJAU • PERUBAHAN DALAM LAPISAN OZON • PENGHASILAN HUJAN ASID RM/jks/jun2004 39. CAUSES OF THE INCREASE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Greenhouse gases trap infrared radiation (‘heat) close to the Earth’s surface. 3. nitrogen oxides act♣increase low-level ozone. CAUSES OF REDUCED HIGH-LEVEL OZONE Chloroflurocarbons (CFCs) used in aerosols.e. throat and lungs reduces yield of crops. surah ar . heavier rainfall and unseasonal weather. PENCEMAR SEMULAJADI RM/jks/jun2004 35. for example) METHANE prodused in the guts of ruminants such as cows and in the waterlogged conditions of swamps and in rice fields. EFFECTS Low level ozone is dangerous because it: Causes♣Traps dust and smoke. PENGHASILAN HUJAN ASID SULFUR DIOKSIDA (SO2) NITROGEN DIOKSIDA (NO2 ) NITROGEN MONOKSIDA (NO2) RM/jks/jun2004 .penghapusan paya (Reduction of swamp) RM/jks/jun2004 31. SUPAYA ALLAH MERASAKAN KEPADA MEREKA SEBAHAGIAN DARI (AKIBAT) PERBUATAN MEREKA. AIR. PENIPISAN LAPISAN OZON RM/jks/jun2004 26. SOLUTIONS To reduce formation of low-level ozone.g. SOLUTIONS To reduce formation of low-level ozone. 5. GALIAN DAN AIR 13. 4.Pertambahan penduduk 2000 RM/jks/jun2004 28. FIRMAN ALLAH SWT “ TELAH NAMPAK KEROSAKAN DI DARATAN DAN DI LAUTAN DISEBABKAN OLEH PERBUATAN TANGAN MANUSIA. DOMESTIK RM/jks/jun2004 36. skin canser. AGAR MEREKA KEMBALI (KE JALAN YANG BENAR)” (Maksud ayat al-Quran. Penebangan hutan RM/jks/jun2004 30. Pets may spread to new areas But Higher temperatures and more carbon dioxide mean more photosynthesis and more food production.

3 Penerapan Pendidikan Alam Sekitar dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran P. RM/jks/jun2004♣sungai dan tasik. Repair. seperti merkuri dan aluminium yang dibebaskan dari tanah melarut-resap ke dalam Mencemarkan sumber air paip. ϖ Penubuhan Pusat Kitar Semula ϖ 6.50. RM/jks/jun2004 54. 6.2 Penglibatan Individu Dalam Usaha Pemeliharaan dan Menyenaraikan Kempen Cinta Alam Sekitar/ Hari Bumi/¬Pemuliharaan Alam Sekitar Menyertai gotong royong untuk¬ Menyertai kempen kitar semula ¬Kitar Semula Menyokong dan¬membersihkan kawasan maktab.0 Warga Alam Sekitar 5. 4. HJ. • Pengelolaan sumbersumber alam secara bijaksana. nitrogen dan sulfur More oxidation♣bertindakbalas dengan oksigen menghasilan sebatian oksida.1 Konsep Pembangunan Lestari • Kesinambungan antara pembangunan dengan kualiti alam sekitar. 6. Semalam Aku dengar cikgu kata Hari ini.4 Organisasi Kerajaan dan Bukan Kerajaan dan Badan Korporat terhadap Pemuliharaan dan Pemeliharaan Alam Sekitar • Organisasi Kerajaan • Organisasi Bukan Kerajaan(NGO) • Organisasi Badan Korporat RM/jks/jun2004 63. 51. 4. Oxidation is catalysed by ozone and by unburnt hydrocarbon The oxides dissolve in water. CIRI-CIRI SEKOLAH LESTARI IDAMAN SEKOLAH PERANCANGAN DAN PENGURUSAN PENGHIJAUAN KEGIATAN KO-KURIKULUM KURIKULUM RM/jks/jun2004 68. Semasa♣CAUSES Human activities release acidic gases pembakaran bahanapi dalam kenderaan bermotor atau di kilang.ppt RM/jks/jun2004 58. aku akan dengar lagi cikgu kata Entahlah……. Reduce. ENTAHLAH Semalam Aku dengar cikgu kata Kalau datang lambat ke sekolah Tak tahu apa yang cikgu ajar Tapi hari ini aku jugak. RM/jks/jun2004 71.2 • Kesejahteraan hidup yang berterusan • Peningkatan kualiti hidup manusia RM/jks/jun2004 62. RM/jks/jun2004 56.5 Program Penghijauan Penubuhan Pusat Sumberϖ Penanaman Pelbagai Tumbuhan ϖ Penubuhan Pusat Kompos RM/jks/ . PENCEMARAN DARAT RM/jks/jun2004 57. aku dengar lagi cikgu kata Esok.3 Strategi Pembangunan Lestari • Kitar dan guna semula bahan • Konsep 5R (Recycle.3 Kesan Isu Alam Sekitar Pengaruh negatif politik danθ Degradasi alam dan sumber θ Kualiti hidup menurun hubungan antarabangsa PUNCA & KESAN ISU ALAM SEKITAR. RM/jks/jun2004 60. RM/jks/jun2004 69.2 Punca Isu Alam Sekitar Budaya dan Etikaθ Politik dan Peperangan θ Bencana alam θ Penggunaan teknologi Penguatkuasaan Undang-undang RM/jks/jun2004θ 55.ppt RM/jks/jun2004 64. 4. datang lambat lagi Entahlah…….S.4 Menangani Isu Penglibatan Individu RM/jks/jun2004θ Penglibatan komuniti 59. 5. Semalam Aku dengar cikgu kata Kalau buang sampah merata-rata Harga diri jadi rendah Tapi hari ini Kulit gula-gula aku campak kat tangga Entahlah……. Sulphur dioxide +♣fuels. and fall as acid rain. angin dan ombak • Pembangunan ekonomi yang terancang • Pengelolaan kempen cinta alam sekitar • Undang-undang dan Konvensyen Antarabangsa RM/jks/jun2004 61. Menjejaskan♣air sulphuric and nitrogen oxides + air nitric acids EFFECTS Menyebabkan logam toksik♣Mengancam kemandirian tumbuhan ♣keseimbangan alam. PUNCA UTAMA SO DAN NO RM/jks/jun2004 53. θ Pertambahan Penduduk θ 3. 5. misalnya tenaga solar. θ Akta undang-undang dan penguatkuasaan θ 3.1 Konsep ¬ Kurikulum ¬Pendekatan Sekolah Secara Menyeluruh (Whole School Approach) Komuniti Sekolah RM/jks/jun2004¬ Pentadbir Sekolah ¬Kokurikulum 67. kampung. sungai dan pantai Menubuhkan Persatuan¬menganggotai persatuan/ kelab berasaskan alam sekitar Alam Sekitar di sekolah RM/jks/jun2004 66.1 Gaya Hidup Lestari • Amalan 5R sebagai cara hidup • Tidak membazir • Peranan Pengguna. KAMARUZAMAN MOIDUNNY) RM/jks/jun2004 73. 4. • Pembangunan yang perlu mengambil kira keperluan generasi akan datang. RM/jks/jun2004 70. RM/jks/jun2004 72. Semalam Aku dengar cikgu kata Kalau tak buat latihan Nanti periksa mulut terlopong Tapi hari ini Aku jugak.A. Pendidikan Alam Sekitar Merentas Kurikulum 6.2 Pendekatan Kurikulum untuk alam sekitar RM/jks/jun2004¬sekitar 65. Reuse. dalam alam¬ tentang alam sekitar ¬6. Rethink) • Penggunaan semula tenaga yang boleh diperbaharui. SUMBER HUJAN ASID RM/jks/jun2004 52. tak buat kerja Entahlah……. θ Kepupusan flora dan fauna θ 3. (TN. occurs in the clouds.

our home.Rio Declaration on Environment and Development The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. With the goal of establishing a new and equitable global partnership through the creation of new levels of cooperation among States. Proclaims that: Principle 1 Human beings are at the centre of concerns for sustainable development. They are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature. Having met at Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992. Recognizing the integral and interdependent nature of the Earth. environmental protection shall constitute an integral part of the development process and cannot be considered in isolation from it. and seeking to build upon it. Principle 5 . key sectors of societies and people. Principle 4 In order to achieve sustainable development. in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law. Reaffirming the Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment. the sovereign right to exploit their own resources pursuant to their own environmental and developmental policies. Working towards international agreements which respect the interests of all and protect the integrity of the global environmental and developmental system. adopted at Stockholm on 16 June 1972. and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. Principle 3 The right to development must be fulfilled so as to equitably meet developmental and environmental needs of present and future generations. Principle 2 States have.

adaptation. At the national level. including redress and remedy. Principle 10 Environmental issues are best handled with participation of all concerned citizens. Principle 7 States shall cooperate in a spirit of global partnership to conserve. Principle 9 States should cooperate to strengthen endogenous capacity-building for sustainable development by improving scientific understanding through exchanges of scientific and technological knowledge. protect and restore the health and integrity of the Earth's ecosystem. each individual shall have appropriate access to information concerning the environment that is held by public authorities. States have common but differentiated responsibilities. States shall facilitate and encourage public awareness and participation by making information widely available. The developed countries acknowledge the responsibility that they bear in the international pursuit to sustainable development in view of the pressures their societies place on the global environment and of the technologies and financial resources they command. Effective access to judicial and administrative proceedings. International actions in the field of environment and development should also address the interests and needs of all countries. shall be provided. . in order to decrease the disparities in standards of living and better meet the needs of the majority of the people of the world. States should reduce and eliminate unsustainable patterns of production and consumption and promote appropriate demographic policies. particularly the least developed and those most environmentally vulnerable. including new and innovative technologies. In view of the different contributions to global environmental degradation. Principle 8 To achieve sustainable development and a higher quality of life for all people. and by enhancing the development. at the relevant level. and the opportunity to participate in decision-making processes.All States and all people shall cooperate in the essential task of eradicating poverty as an indispensable requirement for sustainable development. diffusion and transfer of technologies. Principle 6 The special situation and needs of developing countries. including information on hazardous materials and activities in their communities. shall be given special priority.

management objectives and priorities should reflect the environmental and development context to which they apply. taking into account the approach that the polluter . lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing costeffective measures to prevent environmental degradation. States shall also cooperate in an expeditious and more determined manner to develop further international law regarding liability and compensation for adverse effects of environmental damage caused by activities within their jurisdiction or control to areas beyond their jurisdiction. Unilateral actions to deal with environmental challenges outside the jurisdiction of the importing country should be avoided. Principle 14 States should effectively cooperate to discourage or prevent the relocation and transfer to other States of any activities and substances that cause severe environmental degradation or are found to be harmful to human health. Trade policy measures for environmental purposes should not constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination or a disguised restriction on international trade. in particular developing countries. Principle 12 States should cooperate to promote a supportive and open international economic system that would lead to economic growth and sustainable development in all countries. Principle 16 National authorities should endeavour to promote the internalization of environmental costs and the use of economic instruments. Standards applied by some countries may be inappropriate and of unwarranted economic and social cost to other countries. as far as possible. the precautionary approach shall be widely applied by States according to their capabilities. Environmental measures addressing transboundary or global environmental problems should. to better address the problems of environmental degradation. Principle 13 States shall develop national law regarding liability and compensation for the victims of pollution and other environmental damage. Principle 15 In order to protect the environment.Principle 11 States shall enact effective environmental legislation. be based on an international consensus. Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage. Environmental standards.

Their full participation is therefore essential to achieve sustainable development. Principle 23 The environment and natural resources of people under oppression. . Principle 22 Indigenous people and their communities and other local communities have a vital role in environmental management and development because of their knowledge and traditional practices. Principle 17 Environmental impact assessment. domination and occupation shall be protected.should. with due regard to the public interest and without distorting international trade and investment. as necessary. Principle 21 The creativity. culture and interests and enable their effective participation in the achievement of sustainable development. in principle. Principle 18 States shall immediately notify other States of any natural disasters or other emergencies that are likely to produce sudden harmful effects on the environment of those States. Principle 24 Warfare is inherently destructive of sustainable development. States shall therefore respect international law providing protection for the environment in times of armed conflict and cooperate in its further development. bear the cost of pollution. Principle 19 States shall provide prior and timely notification and relevant information to potentially affected States on activities that may have a significant adverse transboundary environmental effect and shall consult with those States at an early stage and in good faith. as a national instrument. ideals and courage of the youth of the world should be mobilized to forge a global partnership in order to achieve sustainable development and ensure a better future for all. Every effort shall be made by the international community to help States so afflicted. shall be undertaken for proposed activities that are likely to have a significant adverse impact on the environment and are subject to a decision of a competent national authority. Principle 20 Women have a vital role in environmental management and development. States should recognize and duly support their identity.

having considered the need for a common outlook and for common principles to inspire and guide the peoples of the world in the preservation and enhancement of the human environment. are essential to his well-being and to the enjoyment of basic human rights the right to life itself. through the rapid acceleration of science and technology. 3. having met at Stockholm from 5 to 16 June 1972. air. Man has constantly to sum up experience and go on discovering. The protection and improvement of the human environment is a major issue which affects the well-being of peoples and economic development throughout the world.Principle 25 Peace. health and sanitation. Principle 27 States and people shall cooperate in good faith and in a spirit of partnership in the fulfilment of the principles embodied in this Declaration and in the further development of international law in the fieldDeclaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment. shelter and education. Millions continue to live far below the minimum levels required for a decent human existence. inventing. bearing in mind their priorities and the need to safeguard and improve the environment. earth and living beings. harmful to the physical. it is the urgent desire of the peoples of the whole world and the duty of all Governments. In our time. creating and advancing. Man is both creature and moulder of his environment. the same power can do incalculable harm to human beings and the human environment. Principle 26 States shall resolve all their environmental disputes peacefully and by appropriate means in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations. particularly in the living and working environment. man's capability to transform his surroundings. mental and social health of man. Both aspects of man's environment. and gross deficiencies. the developing countries must direct their efforts to development. destruction and depletion of irreplaceable resources. which gives him physical sustenance and affords him the opportunity for intellectual. In the long and tortuous evolution of the human race on this planet a stage has been reached when. development and environmental protection are interdependent and indivisible. in the man-made environment. deprived of adequate food and clothing. Proclaims that: 1. man has acquired the power to transform his environment in countless ways and on an unprecedented scale. We see around us growing evidence of man-made harm in many regions of the earth: dangerous levels of pollution in water. moral. For . if used wisely. In the developing countries most of the environmental problems are caused by underdevelopment. the natural and the man-made. Wrongly or heedlessly applied. Therefore. major and undesirable disturbances to the ecological balance of the biosphere. social and spiritual growth. 4. 2. can bring to all peoples the benefits of development and the opportunity to enhance the quality of life.

through their hard work. Along with social progress and the advance of production. a better environment. For the purpose of attaining freedom in the world of nature. man must use knowledge to build. There are broad vistas for the enhancement of environmental quality and the creation of a good life. as appropriate. all sharing equitably in common efforts. continuously transform the human environment. create social wealth. A growing class of environmental problems. Through ignorance or indifference we can do massive and irreversible harm to the earthly environment on which our life and well being depend. through fuller knowledge and wiser action. In the industrialized countries. What is needed is an enthusiastic but calm state of mind and intense but orderly work. Conversely. Principles States the common conviction that: Principle 1 . Local and national governments will bear the greatest burden for large-scale environmental policy and action within their jurisdictions. Individuals in all walks of life as well as organizations in many fields. International cooperation is also needed in order to raise resources to support the developing countries in carrying out their responsibilities in this field. The Conference calls upon Governments and peoples to exert common efforts for the preservation and improvement of the human environment. The natural growth of population continuously presents problems for the preservation of the environment. Of all things in the world. in collaboration with nature. by their values and the sum of their actions. the established and fundamental goals of peace and of worldwide economic and social development. and in harmony with. and adequate policies and measures should be adopted. 5. the capability of man to improve the environment increases with each passing day. environmental problems are generally related to industrialization and technological development. people are the most precious. 6. science and technology. we can achieve for ourselves and our posterity a better life in an environment more in keeping with human needs and hopes. It is the people that propel social progress.the same purpose. To defend and improve the human environment for present and future generations has become an imperative goal for mankind-a goal to be pursued together with. develop science and technology and. will require extensive cooperation among nations and action by international organizations in the common interest. because they are regional or global in extent or because they affect the common international realm. the industrialized countries should make efforts to reduce the gap themselves and the developing countries. A point has been reached in history when we must shape our actions throughout the world with a more prudent care for their environmental consequences. 7. To achieve this environmental goal will demand the acceptance of responsibility by citizens and communities and by enterprises and institutions at every level. will shape the world environment of the future. for the benefit of all the people and for their posterity. to face these problems.

must therefore receive importance in planning for economic development. as appropriate. in such quantities or concentrations as to exceed the capacity of the environment to render them harmless.Man has the fundamental right to freedom. water. In this respect. must be safeguarded for the benefit of present and future generations through careful planning or management. Principle 8 Economic and social development is essential for ensuring a favorable living and working environment for man and for creating conditions on earth that are necessary for the improvement of the quality of life. which are now gravely imperilled by a combination of adverse factors. wherever practicable. equality and adequate conditions of life. Principle 7 States shall take all possible steps to prevent pollution of the seas by substances that are liable to create hazards to human health. policies promoting or perpetuating apartheid. Nature conservation. racial segregation. and he bears a solemn responsibility to protect and improve the environment for present and future generations. including wildlife. must be halted in order to ensure that serious or irreversible damage is not inflicted upon ecosystems. including the air. Principle 3 The capacity of the earth to produce vital renewable resources must be maintained and. . Principle 6 The discharge of toxic substances or of other substances and the release of heat. Principle 2 The natural resources of the earth. The just struggle of the peoples of ill countries against pollution should be supported. restored or improved. discrimination. land. colonial and other forms of oppression and foreign domination stand condemned and must be eliminated. Principle 4 Man has a special responsibility to safeguard and wisely manage the heritage of wildlife and its habitat. to damage amenities or to interfere with other legitimate uses of the sea. in an environment of a quality that permits a life of dignity and well-being. flora and fauna and especially representative samples of natural ecosystems. Principle 5 The non-renewable resources of the earth must be employed in such a way as to guard against the danger of their future exhaustion and to ensure that benefits from such employment are shared by all mankind. to harm living resources and marine life.

since economic factors as well as ecological processes must be taken into account. and appropriate steps should be taken by States and international organizations with a view to reaching agreement on meeting the possible national and international economic consequences resulting from the application of environmental measures.from their incorporating environmental safeguards into their development planning and the need for making available to them. Principle 11 The environmental policies of all States should enhance and not adversely affect the present or future development potential of developing countries. Principle 12 Resources should be made available to preserve and improve the environment. additional international technical and financial assistance for this purpose. Principle 14 Rational planning constitutes an essential tool for reconciling any conflict between the needs of development and the need to protect and improve the environment. nor should they hamper the attainment of better living conditions for all. States should adopt an integrated and coordinated approach to their development planning so as to ensure that development is compatible with the need to protect and improve environment for the benefit of their population.Principle 9 Environmental deficiencies generated by the conditions of under-development and natural disasters pose grave problems and can best be remedied by accelerated development through the transfer of substantial quantities of financial and technological assistance as a supplement to the domestic effort of the developing countries and such timely assistance as may be required. upon their request. Principle 13 In order to achieve a more rational management of resources and thus to improve the environment. Principle 10 For the developing countries. Principle 15 Planning must be applied to human settlements and urbanization with a view to avoiding adverse effects on the environment and obtaining maximum social. economic and . stability of prices and adequate earnings for primary commodities and raw materials are essential to environmental management. taking into account the circumstances and particular requirements of developing countries and any costs which may emanate.

giving due consideration to the underprivileged. managing or controlling the 9 environmental resources of States with a view to enhancing environmental quality. It is also essential that mass media of communications avoid contributing to the deterioration of the environment. both national and multinational. In this respect projects which arc designed for colonialist and racist domination must be abandoned. environmental technologies should be made available to developing countries on terms which would encourage their wide dissemination without constituting an economic burden on the developing countries. is essential in order to broaden the basis for an enlightened opinion and responsible conduct by individuals. disseminates information of an educational nature on the need to project and improve the environment in order to enable mal to develop in every respect. must be promoted in all countries. to facilitate the solution of environmental problems. Principle 20 Scientific research and development in the context of environmental problems. on the contrary. as part of their contribution to economic and social development. enterprises and communities in protecting and improving the environment in its full human dimension.environmental benefits for all. in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law. Principle 18 Science and technology. especially the developing countries. but. Principle 21 States have. the sovereign right to exploit their own resources pursuant to their own environmental policies. Principle 17 Appropriate national institutions must be entrusted with the task of planning. must be applied to the identification. In this connection. for the younger generation as well as adults. Principle 19 Education in environmental matters. avoidance and control of environmental risks and the solution of environmental problems and for the common good of mankind. and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. the free flow of up-to-date scientific information and transfer of experience must be supported and assisted. . Principle 16 Demographic policies which are without prejudice to basic human rights and which are deemed appropriate by Governments concerned should be applied in those regions where the rate of population growth or excessive population concentrations are likely to have adverse effects on the environment of the human environment and impede development.

big and small. Principle 25 States shall ensure that international organizations play a coordinated. Principle 23 Without prejudice to such criteria as may be agreed upon by the international community. Principle 24 International matters concerning the protection and improvement of the environment should be handled in a cooperative spirit by all countries. and the extent of the applicability of standards which are valid for the most advanced countries but which may be inappropriate and of unwarranted social cost for the developing countries. in the relevant international organs. on the elimination and complete destruction of such weapons. Cooperation through multilateral or bilateral arrangements or other appropriate means is essential to effectively control. Source: Report of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment. in such a way that due account is taken of the sovereignty and interests of all States. prevent. on an equal footing. 21st plenary meeting of sustainable development. reduce and eliminate adverse environmental effects resulting from activities conducted in all spheres. Stockholm. or to standards which will have to be determined nationally. States must strive to reach prompt agreement. 516 June 1972 . Principle 26 Man and his environment must be spared the effects of nuclear weapons and all other means of mass destruction.Principle 22 States shall cooperate to develop further the international law regarding liability and compensation for the victims of pollution and other environmental damage caused by activities within the jurisdiction or control of such States to areas beyond their jurisdiction. it will be essential in all cases to consider the systems of values prevailing in each country. efficient and dynamic role for the protection and improvement of the environment.