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Amanda Riojas

Immigration Act of 1924


Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources

"An Un-American Bill: A Congressman Denounces Immigration Quotas." History Matters:


The U.S. Survey Course on the Web. Web. 20 Oct. 2010.
<http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5079/>.

Commonwealth foundations connected to current reports of immigration and restrictions that


shape the policy are shown as unrighteous and unconstitutional in sorts. This helps me by giving
direct provisions and comparison to other acts and laws due to race. Since the Immigration Act
of 1924 shaped American immigration policy until the 1960s and it passed with only six
dissenting votes, congressional debates over the Johnson-Reed Act revealed arguments on both
sides of this question of American policy and national identity. The audience that this article is
intended to those who are of interest in the immigrant foundation. Since my topic is on the
Immigration Act of 1924, this primary evidence gives history and controlling factors to build up
and wind down from the act and documents. Like my source on the federal act, these direct
quotas are data factors needed to build my information tables.

ARChive of Contemporary Music. Web. 24 Oct. 2010. <http://www.arcmusic.org/>.

The presented archive of music contains valuable audio files and genres of ideal containment
during the era. This helps me complete my project by creating an ideal environment and
appreciative placement from the time during the immigration ant, before and after to show the
culture involved in the period with foreigners and citizens. The primary music shows the
attitude of the people, citizens, and immigrants producing it based off of lyrics and feel. Like
the source from Helen Eckerson, this shows attitude and views of the time to contribute to my
history change starting and before the act of 1924, which contained a large impact. The authors
of the music are given evidence since they are vital and primary and will help with the view of
attitude. The audience received from the sounds and music is the persons who wish to listen and
are intended to have changed views on the policies.

Aristide Zolberg, A Nation by Design: Immigration Policy in the Fashioning of America, Harvard
University Press 2006

Press release from Harvard University prevents policy impact on the creation and formation of
America. The creation and change of policy of immigration allows me to give view and
reasoning as to why the changes are so important and as to what impact was made by the
release and proposals. The nation is going by design and this Harvard Press primary source
shows a table of transcription immigration lines and how it progresses. Being a Professor of
Political Science, Zolberg has primary information from his time and primary policy gatherings
to complete his work. Like other sources, this helps my topic in examining outcomes. The
policy is shown to create America's original policy and form it for the better.
"ASIAN AMERICANS." World History International: World History Essays From Prehistory
To The Present. Web. 15 Oct. 2010. <http://history-world.org/asian_americans.htm>.

Historical figures and background prior to, before and after the Immigration Act of 1924 is
given. The documented information is needed for experience on what and who became of use
and effected during the time period. The discrimination described shows the haltering of the Act
and residents as foreign workers in the immigrant kingdom. Japanese Americans in college
today are the second and third generations of their families born in the United States. The end of
immigration in 1924 did not stop discrimination in California and other Western states.
Comparing this with Hirobe, the information gives proper format to the audience on what the
views were in affect of the immigration acts through time.

Coolidge, Calvin. Speech Audio. Northampton, Massachusetts.: Vincent Voice Library, 1928.
Mp3.

President Coolidge was president at the time of the immigration act and gave signing and
declaration to the act and rules. His four minute speech is presented in well manner and his
background with presidency gives away any bias or overruling diction with his first
presentation. Notifications and this speech audio file from a previous speech and his views on
other things gives me views that might have affected his change and presentation of the law of
1924. Comparing this with the interview of the university professor, the actual hearing of voice
is a clear communication tool that would properly help me succeed in gathering correct insights
and effects from the laws and changes prior and after.

Daniels, Roger. The Politics of Prejudice: The Anti-Japanese Movement in California and the
Struggle for Japanese Exclusion. Berkley and others: University of California Press,
1977.

The development of the anti-Japanese movement in California from late 19th Century to the
passage of the Immigration Act of 1924 gives me a specific, regional take of the impression
from the act. I need this press release to help narrow down individualistic groups on foreign
relations. Daniels started at UC, following stints at a few other universities, as head of the
history department in 1976, a position he held for five years. He was named the Charles Phelps
Taft Professor of History in '94 and is a national expert on immigration. Comparing his views
and evidence to Helen Eckerson, he gives proper tone and time lapse of the time from the
1970's to the 1990's.
Eckerson, Helen F. (1966) "Immigration and National Origins" Annals of the American Academy
of Political and Social Science 367(The New Immigration).

A primary source from a political viewer of the time of the act of 1924, the information and
study on origins helps me with economic, political, and cultural changes presented from the
new immigration act. A study from Helen in 1945 revealed that Southern and Eastern
Europeans residing in the United States relied heavily on the non quota provisions for relatives
between 1925 and 1944. Eckerson said that prior to 1910, Northern and western European men
were more likely to bring their families with them to the US in contrast to Europeans later. Her
information gives me quota exacts and details of direct data and origins on the time. Like my
source from the American Anthropological Association, the definitions and values from the
terms of origins and immigrants help my topic in narrowing down sources and values on the
debate.

"European Immigration and Defining Whiteness." Understanding Race. American


Anthropological Association, 2007. Web. 09 Oct. 2010.
<http://www.understandingrace.org/history/gov/eastern_southern_immigration.html>.

Racial statuses are explained in depth, such as how southern Europeans were included in the
white category and were considered to be of same race, but containment of immigration was
still probable and in act. Individuals entering the United States of America information is shown
by the 1920's information and origins act claims, along with other acts and notices. Italian
immigration to the U.S. reached its peak of over two million between 1910 and 1920.
Immigration quotas passed in the 1920s tended to favor earlier generations of immigrants by
giving preference to Northern Europeans. This unique information gives me the fact that the
adoption of incest laws and many anti-miscegenation laws were also influenced by the premises
of eugenics. Like the data from Roger Daniels, this data helps complete what was affected and
what happened economically, politically, and culturally.

Hounshell, David A. From the American System to Mass Production, 1800-1932: The Development
of Manufacturing Technology in the United States. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins
University Press, 1984.

Manufacturing, mercantilism, mass production was all affected by the change in foreign policy
from the immigration act. The information from the time chronology is needed to better the
economic changes and true effects. David A. Hounshell is a Professor of Technology and Social
Change in the Department of Social and Decision Sciences, Department of History, and the
Department of Engineering and Public Policy at Carnegie Mellon University. His legitimated
information shares the mass production effects from immigrant laws and acts. Unlike other
sources, this source explains the American System of Mass Production during the 1800's and
early 1900's, The need for firms to train uneducated people to perform only one thing in the
productivity chain allowed for the use of non-specialized labor. Women and children were
employed more frequently within larger firms, especially those producing furniture and
clothing, mainly from foreign immigrants. Like my source on the Federal Act, this information
contributes to my topic by giving a clear background view.
Leach, William. Land of Desire: Merchants, Power, and the Rise of a New American Culture. New
York: Pantheon Books, 1993.

Because of the change from the immigration act, American Culture was altered and origins of
other relations and cultures were dissipating. Evidence from this book helps with political,
economic, and cultural aspects of the new world formed by the law of 1924. William Leach is a
professor who specializes in modern American cultural history. As Leach convincingly uses
documents, consumerism is an artificial, carefully crafted construct clearly traceable to
particular people and places in our history. Their paradigm of consumption, Leach further
shows, is one that has come to consume American culture in general--and, increasingly, world
cultures beyond it. Like my other source from Hounshell, the characteristics of people and
places throughout the history shows me a proper expectation to my topic.

"Social Origins of Eugenics." Image Archive on the American Eugenics Movement. Web. 12 Oct.
2010. <http://www.eugenicsarchive.org/html/eugenics/essay9text.html>.

As the numbers of immigrants increased, eugenicists allied themselves with other interest
groups to provide biological arguments to support immigration restriction. The article of
information presents that Immigration Restriction Act of 1924, was designed consciously to halt
the immigration of supposedly "dysgenic" Italians and eastern European Jews, whose numbers
had mushroomed during the period from 1900 to 1920. Upon signing the Act, President Calvin
Coolidge commented, "America must remain American." This phrase would become the
rallying cry of anti-immigration sentiment until after World War II. The eugenic intent of the
1924 law and the quota system it established remained in place until they were repealed by the
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965. This information in comparison with the data from
the source of “US Government” gives me proper incite for my topic.

Speech. Presidential Speech. White House, Washington D.C. Archive. Web.


<http://www.archive.org/details/coolidge_1924>.

The speech that Coolidge delivers states how big government and excessive taxes sap the
prosperity and freedom from the American people and is much needed for background reasons
to add onto the current act that he gave and signed. As President, Coolidge demonstrated his
determination to preserve the old moral and economic precepts amid the material prosperity
which many Americans were enjoying. He refused to use Federal economic power to check the
growing boom or to ameliorate the depressed condition of agriculture and certain industries. He
rapidly became popular. In 1924, as the beneficiary of what was becoming known as "Coolidge
prosperity," he polled more than 54 percent of the popular vote. His speech, like the speech
from Clancy gives session and idea to time and well balance from primary seeings.
Speech by Robert H. Clancy, April 8, 1924, Congressional Record, 68th Congress, 1st Session
(Washington DC: Government Printing Office, 1924), vol. 65, 5929–5932.

The speech by Robert Clancy in the congressional record gives information of proceedings and
headings to align with the law and act. This will help my website by adding transcription
evidence on the problem and debate. The original debate and source is located in print and on
speech. Robert Henry Clancy was a politician from the U.S. state of Michigan. He was defeated
by Republican John B. Sosnowski in the 1924 election. After leaving Congress, he engaged in
the real-estate business until the next election. In the 1926 election, he switched parties and ran
as a Republican. His primary information gives me facts on the Congressional Record, needed
for my own topic to prosper in recorded data.

United States of America. Federal. Act of May 26, 1924: The Immigration Act of 1924. Illegal
Immigration Procon. Web. <http://immigration.procon.org/sourcefiles/1924Johnson-
ReedImmigrationAct.pdf>.

This is the original document transcription on the Immigration Act of 1924. It helps me on my
project with actual information, statements, and sections from the act. It tells me of the
regulations prescribed, quotas, and direct claims for immigration along with actual definitions
of what said immigrants are. This original document helps me with citing original annitations
and amendments made. It shares that no immigrants were to e admitted and that the nationality
must be specified in the visa. It shared that no immigrant of any national shall have admission
to the United States under the immigration laws and deported. The author is the President at the
time and the audience would be the people. Like the Speech by the President, it is a source vital
that transfers information given to the audience at the time to my topic in need in the current.

U.S. Government. "Comprehensive Immigration Law (1924)." Civics Online - [Re]Envisioning


the Democratic Community. Web. 05 Oct. 2010. <http://www.civics-
online.org/library/formatted/texts/immigration1924.htm>.

The birth quota in the time during the Immigration Law of 1924 gives me nationality and
information of commerce, trade, and the people involved in the situation. There's a
proclamation that references to the document act and the reports made by the government gives
me an accurate view on what groups were affected during the time. Calvin Coolidge, President
of the United States of America acting under and by virtue of the power in me vested by the
aforesaid act of Congress, proclaimed and made it known that on and after July 1, 1924, and
throughout the fiscal year 1924-1925, the quota of each nationality provided in said act with the
information given. The exact quotas intended for the government audience is given to me in
primary source for my topic on the immigration acts and details from other countries. Unlike
the source of the president's speech, the proclamation is given no background and has straight
information in a document.
Secondary Sources

Divine, Robert A. American Immigration Policy, 1924-1952. New Haven: Yale UP, 1957. Print.

Known for its hard entrance, Yale is given a good background for intelligence and information
handling. The policies from this immigration act are given source through the time period of
1924-1952 which is the direct area of time limit I need to conclude time change and change in
the process. Robert A. Divine is a published author and an editor of young adult books. He is
commonly known for the professor works in writing and contains many facts and evidence in
his books. This source is on the policy from a set time and how it changes, which is what I
need. The intended audience is for those who are researching and for those who need to know
about the factors. Like Roger Daniels, this entry holds key facts in press and this source helps
my own topic by creating a timeline view.

Hirobe, Izumi. Japanese Pride, American Prejudice: Modifying the Exclusion Clause of the 1924
Immigration Act. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 2001. Print.

Stanford University has a variety of immigration held books and topics of acts and clauses on
many other acts for immigration, but this specific book helps me on my own topic of history
from the 1924 clause of the immigration act. This book explains the concerns under the cities
and rural areas and the division from the act. The anti-Japanese land law that came from the
anti-American sentiments is better explains and it shows the view of the Japanese who viewed
the law as a local incident, considering Americans to not agree with the law for moral reasons
and other reasons. The book goes into a more caring character view, rather than a factual view
of hard date, which is what I need to express opinions. Like James Olsen, this book expresses
views towards the audience on the effected people from the act.

Lipshultz, Robert J. American Attitudes toward Mexican Immigration, 1924-1952. San Francisco:
R and E Research Associates, 1971. Print.

The authors and researchers of UT university gather information over time evidence and current
data to present this book in their university library. He has served as a director and attorney of
financial institutions and private corporations, including banks, savings and loan associations,
credit unions, manufacturing companies, and real estate companies. In 1947, he began the
private practice of law. Like Izumi Hirobi, the explanation in book shows attitudes from the
opposition of law and ideals from the act of Americans against and for Japanese, Mexicans and
other nations coming in. These attitudes are a secondary necessity for my topic on the act
whereas attitudes are present and the law is not the only item occurring.
Professor Hines, Barbara. "Thoughts on Immigration." E-mail interview. Nov. 2010.

This interview will soon be conducted over email response. Barbara Hines co-directs the
immigration clinic. Professor Hines has practiced in the field since 1975 and is Board Certified
in Immigration and Nationality Law by the Texas Board of Legal Specialization. She frequently
lectures and writes on topics in the area of immigration law and I feel she would do well on my
topic of immigration history evaluation. At the BA University of Texas at Austin she specializes
in information over time history and her knowledge in the interview will help my on my topic to
know more about the immigration act of 1924 and of the conflicts in between. Her intended
audience is of those who wish to learn and major in history and like the speech of the President,
her source will be knowledgeable to facts, opinions, and matters that allow me to be aware of
situations.

Trotter, Joe William, Jr., ed. The Great Migration in Historical Perspective: New Dimensions of
Race, Class, and Gender. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.

True classification of freedom and celebrated American liberty is downed after 2 centuries of
belief. Giving specific citing such as Georgia repeals in 1923, and blossoming industries in the
1920's, the change from the act is covered in a source of new perspective. Other historians have
tended to treat black urban life mainly in relation to the ghetto experience, but Joe William
Trotter Jr. offers a new perspective that complements yet also goes well beyond that approach.
The process by which they achieved this status is the subject of Trotter’s groundbreaking study.
The essays collected in this book represent the best of our present understanding of the African-
American migration which began in the early twentieth century and the facts and knowledges in
the essays help trim my view down to certain aspects of economic, political, and cultural effects
during the immigration act. Like my source from William Leech, the expressed containments
help reference values during the era for the Immigration Act of 1924.