Bible - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Bible (from Greek τὰ βιβλία ta biblia "the books") is the various collections of sacred scripture of the various branches of Judaism and Christianity. The Bible, in its various editions, is the best-selling book in history. [1] There is no single Bible, and both the individual books (Biblical canon), their contents and their order vary between denominations. Mainstream Judaism divides the Tanakh into 24 books, while a minority stream of Judaism, the Samaritans, accepts only five. The 24 texts of the Hebrew Bible are divided into 39 books in Christian Old The Gutenberg Bible, the first printed bible Testaments, and complete Christian Bibles   range from the 66 books of the Protestant Part of a series on [2] canon to the 81 books in the Ethiopian Orthodox Bible.

The Bible

The Jewish Bible, or Tanakh, is divided into three parts: (1) the five books of the Torah ("teaching" or "law") comprise the origins of the Israelite nation, its laws and its covenant with the God of Israel; (2) the Nevi'im ("prophets") containing the historic account of ancient Israel and Judah plus works of prophecy; and (3) the Ketuvim ("writings"), poetic and philosophical works such as the Psalms and the Book of Job.[3] The Christian Bible (sometimes known as the Holy Bible) is divided into two parts. The first is called the Old Testament, containing the 39 books of Hebrew Scripture, and the second portion is called the New Testament, containing a set of 27 books. The first four books of the New Testament form the Canonical gospels which recount the life of Christ and are central to the Christian faith. Christian Bibles include the books of the Hebrew Bible, but arranged in a different order: Jewish Scripture ends with the people of Israel restored to Jerusalem and the temple and the Christian arrangement ends with the book of the prophet Malachi. The oldest surviving Christian Bibles are Greek manuscripts from the 4th century; the oldest complete Jewish Bible is a Greek translation, also dating to the 4th century. The oldest complete manuscripts of the Hebrew Bible (the Masoretic text) date from the Middle Ages.[4] During the three centuries following the establishment of Christianity in the 1st century, Church Fathers compiled Gospel accounts and letters of apostles into a Christian Bible which became known as the New Testament. The Old and New Testaments together are commonly

Biblical canon and books Tanakh (Torah · Nevi'im · Ketuvim) Old Testament (OT) New Testament (NT) Hebrew Bible Deuterocanon Antilegomena Chapters and verses Apocrypha (Jewish · OT · NT) Development and authorship Jewish canon Old Testament canon New Testament canon Mosaic authorship Pauline epistles

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2 Historic editions ■ ■ ■ ■ 3.5 Hebrew Bible translations and editions ■ 2.2 Documentary hypothesis ■ 6 Archaeological and historical research ■ 7 See also ■ 7.6 Belief in divine inspiration Dating the Bible Biblical criticism Higher criticism Textual criticism Canonical criticism Novum Testamentum Graece Documentary hypothesis Synoptic problem NT textual categories Historicity People · Places · Names Internal consistency Archeology · Artifacts Science and the Bible Interpretation Hermeneutics Pesher · Midrash · Pardes Allegorical interpretation Literalism Prophecy Perspectives Gnostic · Islamic · Qur'anic Christianity and Judaism Biblical law in Judaism · in Christianity Inerrancy · Infallibility Criticism of the Bible  · Book:Bible ■ 4 Bible versions and translations ■ 5 Biblical criticism ■ 5.2 New Testament ■ 3.4 Ethiopian Orthodox canon http://en. the Epistles (letters). a group of Jewish books.novapdf. The canonical composition of the Old Testament is under dispute between Christian groups: Protestants hold only the books of the Hebrew Bible to be canonical.3 Nevi'im ■ 2.wikipedia. the Acts of the Apostles.1 Old Testament ■ 3. to be canonical. the free encyclopedia Page 2 of 17 referred to as "The Holy Bible" (τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια).1 Apocryphal or deuterocanonical books ■ 3.6 The Oral Torah ■ 2. The New Testament is composed of the Gospels ("good news"). Johannine works Petrine epistles Translations and manuscripts Samaritan Torah Dead Sea scrolls Masoretic text Targums · Peshitta Septuagint · Vulgate Gothic Bible · Vetus Latina Luther Bible · English Bibles Biblical studies Contents ■ 1 Etymology ■ 2 Jewish canon ■ 2. and the Book of Revelation.7 Septuagint ■ 3 Christian canons ■ 3.1 Development of the Jewish canon ■ 2.1 Original language ■ 3.5 Marcionite Bible 3.2 Torah ■ 2.1 Higher criticism ■ 5.1.Bible .3 Development 2/11/2011 .2. Roman Catholics and Eastern Orthodox additionally consider the deuterocanonical books.1 Biblical topics ■ 8 Endnotes ■ 9 References and further reading Etymology Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.Wikipedia.4 Ketuvim ■ 2.2 Role in Christian theology ■ 3.1.

&version=ESV. the free encyclopedia Page 3 of 17 The English word bible is from the Latin biblia.designated by its most prominent collection). About that time. and so the word was loaned as a singular into the vernaculars of Western Europe. possibly so called from the name of the Phoenician port Byblos (also known as Gebal) from whence An American family Bible Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece. taken together. the New Testament. In this canon the thirty-nine books found in the Old Testament of today's Christian Bibles were grouped together as twenty-two books.biblegateway. gen. albeit with many textual variants.wikipedia.Bible .com/bible?passage=Luke%2024:44. traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin and ultimately from Greek τὰ βιβλία ta biblia "the books" (singular βιβλίον biblion). in addition to the books now called "prophets".canonized before the Exile. Otherwise. early Christian writings began to be accepted by Christians as "scripture".novapdf. The Hebrew Bible probably was canonized in three stages: 1) the law . bibliae) in medieval Latin.[7] The word βιβλίον itself had the literal meaning of "paper" or "scroll" and came to be used as the ordinary word for "book".shortly after AD 70 (the fall of Jerusalem). AD 223. and excluded both Christian and Jewish writings considered by them to be "apocryphal". 3) and the writings . This division is alluded to in the New Testament: Luke 24:44 (http://www. This canon of Jewish scripture is attested to by Philo. which include certain historical books. "the holy books". papyrus books")[8] was "an expression Hellenistic Jews used to describe their sacred books (the Septuagint). equaling the number of letters in the Hebrew alphabet. and the psalms (the "writings" . while biblia in Greek and Late Latin is neuter plural (gen. and the Writings). It gradually came to be regarded as a feminine singular noun (biblia.[6] Latin biblia sacra "holy books" translates Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια ta biblia ta hagia.[8] The Bible used at Qumran excluded Esther but included Tobit. the "prophets".) refers to the "law of Moses" (Pentateuch). The Greek ta biblia (lit.[11] and the Talmud.[9][10] Christian use of the term can be traced to ca. the Prophets. It is the diminutive of βύβλος the time of the Syrian persecution of the Jews.[5] Jewish canon Development of the Jewish canon Main article: Development of the Jewish Bible canon Tanakh (Hebrew: ‫ )תנ"ך‬refers to the threefold division of the Hebrew Scriptures (the Law. 2) the prophets .Wikipedia. bibliorum). They listed their own recognized Scriptures. "little dating to 1859. Josephus. Torah Main article: Torah Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www. "Egyptian papyrus".[5] Middle Latin biblia is short for biblia sacra "holy book". These 2/11/2011 . it seems to have been basically the same as the Hebrew Bible or Old http://en. may have caused the Jews to close their "canon".

The Torah contains the commandments. 5. and Jacob's children (the "Children of Israel"). There is some dispute as to how to divide these up (mainly between the Ramban and Rambam). and how the Children of Israel later moved to Egypt. Contemporary translations subdivide these into twenty-one books. which is called Simchat Torah.wikipedia. The Book of Jonah is read on Yom Kippur. and the prophets who. or "Prophets. 4. The remaining four books of the Torah tell the story of Moses. Joshua. or if it was spread out during the 40 years in the wandering in the desert). or "Instruction. Js—Yehoshua (‫)יהושע‬ Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www. and their wanderings in the desert until a new generation would be ready to enter the land of Canaan. thus Chumash from Hebrew meaning "fivesome. The Nevi'im comprise the following eight books: 6. its division into two 2/11/2011 . Nu—Bamidbar (‫)במדבר‬ Deuteronomy. The Torah comprises the following five books: 1. His story coincides with the story of the liberation of the Children of Israel from slavery in Ancient Egypt." is also known as the "Five Books" of Moses. especially Joseph. Isaac and Jacob (also called Israel).Bible . The Torah is divided into fifty-four portions which are read on successive Sabbaths in Jewish liturgy. who lived hundreds of years after the patriarchs. According to Jewish tradition. in God's name. Abraham. The remaining thirty-nine chapters of Genesis provide an account of God's covenant with the Hebrew patriarchs." tell the story of the rise of the Hebrew monarchy. the free encyclopedia Page 4 of 17 The Torah. Portions of the prophetic books are read by Jews on the Sabbath (Shabbat). eventually to settle in the land of Canaan. Tradition states that the number of these is equal to 613 Mitzvot or 613 commandments. The first eleven chapters of Genesis provide accounts of the creation (or ordering) of the world and the history of God's early relationship with humanity." The Hebrew book titles come from some of the first words in the respective texts. Nevi'im Main article: Nevi'im The Nevi'im. Ex—Shemot (‫)שמות‬ Leviticus. It ends with the conquest of the Kingdom of Israel by the Assyrians and the conquest of the Kingdom of Judah by the Babylonians. These commandments provide the basis for Halakha (Jewish religious law). Dt—Devarim (‫)דברים‬ The Torah focuses on three moments in the changing relationship between God and people. The Torah ends with the death of Moses. warned the kings and the Children of Israel about the punishment of God. 3. The cycle ends and recommences at the end of Sukkot. Genesis.Wikipedia. from the beginning of Genesis to the end of http://en. to the renewal of their covenant with God at Mount Sinai.novapdf. and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem. Le—Vayikra (‫)ויקרא‬ Numbers. It tells of how God commanded Abraham to leave his family and home in the city of Ur. of God. Ge—Bereshith (‫)בראשית‬ Exodus. revealed at Mount Sinai (although there is some debate amongst Jewish scholars as to whether this was written down completely in one moment. Nevi'im is divided into eight books. 2." and Pentateuch from Greek meaning "five scroll-cases.

Proverbs at the prime of his life.)עזרא‬includes Nehemiah (‫)נחמיה‬ Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www. called "The Five Scrolls" (Megilot).novapdf. the free encyclopedia Page 5 of 17 7. Ne—Ezra (‫ . Na—Nahum (‫)נחום‬ ■ H. Es—Ester (‫)אסתר‬ Daniel. Je—Yirmiyahu (‫)ירמיהו‬ Ezekiel. and the prophet Jeremiah is thought to have written Lamentations. 23. upon her husband's death. and the stories of the prophets and other Jewish leaders during the Babylonian exile. Ob—Ovadyah (‫)עבדיה‬ ■ E. includes First and http://en. or "Writings" or "Scriptures. Zephaniah. Judges. the Ketuvim contain lyrical poetry. 12. Ec—Kohelet (‫)קהלת‬ Esther. philosophical reflections on life. It ends with the Persian decree allowing Jews to return to Jerusalem to rebuild the Temple. followed in the ways of the Jews. Ho—Hoshea (‫)הושע‬ ■ B.wikipedia. 17. are read on Jewish holidays: Song of Songs on Passover. 1Ki–2Ki—Melakhim (‫)מלכים‬ Isaiah. Five of the books. 2/11/2011 . La—Eikhah (‫ . Ea. Many of the psalms in the book of Psalms are attributed to David. Jg—Shoftim (‫)שופטים‬ Samuel. Mi —Mikhah (‫)מיכה‬ ■ G. Dn—Daniel (‫)דניאל‬ Ezra. Habakkuk. The Book of Ruth is the only biblical book that centers entirely on a non-Jew. Lamentations on the Ninth of Av. Ez—Yekhezkel (‫)יחזקאל‬ Twelve. and the Book of Esther on Purim. Zechariah. includes Nehemiah. Nahum. So—Shir ha-Shirim (‫)שיר השירים‬ Ruth. Joel. into twelve through the division of Ezra and Nehemiah: 14. according to the Bible. 16. 11. The book of Ruth tells the story of a non-Jew (specifically. 10. Micah. Haggai. Hb—Havakuk (‫)חבקוק‬ ■ I. Is—Yeshayahu (‫)ישעיהו‬ Jeremiah. a Moabitess) who married a Jew and. Pr—Mishlei (‫)משלי‬ Job. Amos. Psalms. and Ecclesiastes at old age. 8. includes all Minor Prophets—Tre Asar (‫)תרי עשר‬ ■ A. The Ketuvim comprise the following eleven books. Jonah. 20. Jh—Yonah (‫)יונה‬ ■ F. Jl—Yoel (‫)יואל‬ ■ C. 13. Jb—Iyyov (‫)איוב‬ Song of Songs. in many modern translations. Obadiah. King Solomon is believed to have written Song of Songs in his youth. 9. the Book of Ruth on Shavuot. includes First and Second 1Sa–2Sa—Sh'muel (‫)שמואל‬ Kings. 22. Ecclesiastes on Sukkot. Zp—Tsefanya (‫)צפניה‬ ■ J. Zc—Zekharyah (‫)זכריה‬ ■ L.Bible . Hosea.)איכה‬also called Kinot (‫)קינות‬ Ecclesiastes. 21. Ml—Malakhi (‫)מלאכי‬ Ketuvim Main article: Ketuvim The Ketuvim. Hg—Khagay (‫)חגי‬ ■ K.Wikipedia. Am—Amos (‫)עמוס‬ ■ D. Ps—Tehillim (‫)תהלים‬ Proverbs. she was the great-grandmother of King David. 18. 15. Collectively. divided. Ru—Rut (‫)רות‬ Lamentations." may have been written during or after the Babylonian Exile. 19.

The article Jewish commentaries on the Bible discusses the Jewish understanding of the Bible. God. however. Christian canons Main article: Christian biblical canons Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www. According to the 2/11/2011 . Reform Judaism also gives some credence to the Talmud containing the legal elements of the Oral Torah. Orthodox Judaism continues to accept the Oral Torah in its totality. with some portions (notably in Daniel and Ezra) in Biblical Aramaic. includes First and Second. Written or Oral. the Oral Torah is essential for understanding the Written Torah literally (as it includes neither vowels nor punctuation) and exegetically. which did not include extended biblical interpretation. including Bible commentaries from the ancient Targums to classical Rabbinic literature. and modern day Jewish Bible commentaries. 1Ch–2Ch—Divrei ha-Yamim (‫ . and the Kabbalah (esoteric knowledge). Chronicles. but disregard its legal elements in varying degrees. the Sifra. the Tosefta. and the Mechilta. Reconstructionist Judaism denies any connection of the Torah.wikipedia. Modern Jewish Bibles follow the Masoretic Text rather than the Septuagint. as with the written Torah. only a minimal oral tradition of interpreting the words of the Torah existed. the Sifre. and both the Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds as well. Midrash. such as Midrash Rabbah. The Oral Torah has different facets. Septuagint Main article: Septuagint The Septuagint was an edition of the Hebrew Bible translated into Greek. The Septuagint included books and additions not found in the Hebrew Bible. for example. The Septuagint was also the source for the books found in the Christian Old Testament but not in the Hebrew Bible. In Rabbinic Judaism. but.)דברי הימים‬also called Divrei (‫)דברי‬ Hebrew Bible translations and editions Main article: Bible translations The Tanakh was mainly written in Biblical Hebrew.Bible . principally Halacha (laws). the classical medieval commentators. God revealed both a Written Torah and an Oral Torah to Moses. The Septuagint splits certain books in two. became First Kings and Second Kings.[12] The Oral Torah According to some Jews during the Hellenistic period. such as the Sadducees. It may have even influenced early Jewish Christianity. the free encyclopedia Page 6 of 17 24. so that the book of Kings.Wikipedia. Christian Bibles maintain these divisions. the midrash literature. Major portions of the Oral Law have been committed to writing. notably the Mishnah. with God. but not dictated by. the Aggadah (stories). Masorti and Conservative Judaism state that the Oral Tradition is to some degree divinely inspired. asserts that both were inspired by.novapdf. the Oral Torah consisting of both stories and legal traditions.

" It is a legal term denoting a formal and legally binding declaration of benefits to be given by one party to another (e. Some modern Western translations make use of the Septuagint to clarify passages in the Masoretic text. Here it does not connote mutuality.&version=ESV.wikipedia. known as the New Testament.[14] Much of the material.[14] The Old Testament is accepted by Christians as scripture.&version=ESV. a sister language which became the lingua franca of the Semitic world.) . For a complete list.biblegateway. and the English King James Version. Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf. from Alexandria in Egypt under the Ptolemies) was generally abandoned in favour of the Masoretic text as the basis for translations of the Old Testament into Western languages from St.) and 7:12–26 (http://www. rather. the RSV.biblegateway.&version=ESV. the free encyclopedia Page 7 of 17 The Christian Bible consists of the Hebrew scriptures of http://en. see List of English Bible– 26. A few groups consider particular translations to be divinely inspired. the order of the books is not entirely the same as that found in Hebrew manuscripts and in the ancient versions and varies from Judaism in interpretation and emphasis (see for example Isaiah 7:14). In Eastern Christianity. Very few manuscripts are said to have survived the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70.[8] Groups within Christianity include differing books as part of one or both of these "Testaments" of their sacred writings—most prominent among which are the biblical apocrypha or deuterocanonical books. "Testament" is a translation of the Greek διαθηκη (diatheke). and the 2010:11. including many genealogies. which are known as the Old Testament. is thought to have been handed down by word of mouth for many generations.Wikipedia. However. except for brief portions (Ezra 4:8–6:18 (http://www.[13] Old Testament Main article: Old Testament The Old Testament consists of a collection of writings believed to have been composed at various times from the twelfth to the 2nd century BC.biblegateway. Christian denominations disagree about the incorporation of a small number of books into their canons of the Old Testament. the KJV.&version=ESV.Bible .) . Broadly speaking. Daniel 2:4–7:28 (http://www. and later writings recording the lives and teachings of Jesus and his followers. also often translated " 2/11/2011 .com/bible?passage=Daniel% 202:4–7:28. translations based on the Septuagint still– 6:18.) ) which are in the Aramaic language. it is a unilateral covenant offered by God to individuals. the term Christian Bible is commonly used to identify only those books like the New Testament which have been added by Christians to the Masoretic Text. The books were written in classical Hebrew. it contains the same material as the Hebrew Bible.g. the Aramaic Peshitta. Apocryphal or deuterocanonical books The Septuagint (Greek translation. Jeremiah 10:11 (http://www. In Judaism. Significant versions of the English Christian Bible include the Douay-Rheims. poems and narratives. They also sometimes adopt variants that appear in other texts e. those discovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls. and excludes any reference to an Old Testament. "last will and testament" in secular use). where the Septuagint may preserve a variant reading of the Hebrew text. Jerome's Bible (the Vulgate) to the present day. notably the Greek Septuagint.

2 Esdras and the Prayer of Manasseh.Wikipedia.e. which were in the Vulgate appendix. deutero) canon. The Anglican Churches uses some of the Apocryphal books liturgically. However. editions of the Bible intended for use in the Anglican Church include the Deuterocanonical books accepted by the Catholic Church. http://en.[15] Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www. Most Protestants term these books as apocrypha. Bible scholar N. Role in Christian theology Further information: Sola scriptura and Christian theology The Old Testament has always been central to the life of the Christian church. Latin Esdras in the Russian and Georgian Bibles There is also 4 Maccabees which is only accepted as canonical in the Georgian Church. but was included by St.wikipedia. Jerome in an appendix to the Vulgate. and is an appendix to the Greek Orthodox Bible. They regarded the ancient Israelites' scriptures as having reached a climactic fulfillment in Jesus himself. and it therefore sometimes included in collections of the Apocrypha. the Greek and Russian Orthodox Churches recognize the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ 3 Maccabees 1 Esdras Prayer of Manasseh Psalm 151 Some other Eastern Orthodox Churches include: ■ 2 Esdras i. generating the "new covenant" prophesied by Jeremiah. The Roman Catholic Church recognizes: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Tobit Judith 1 Maccabees 2 Maccabees Wisdom of Solomon Sirach also called Ecclesiasticus Baruch The Letter of Jeremiah (Baruch Chapter 6) Greek Additions to Esther The Prayer of Azariah and Song of the Three Holy Children Susanna Bel and the Dragon In addition to those.Bible .org/wiki/Bible 2/11/2011 . He adds that the earliest Christians also searched those same scriptures in their effort to understand the earthly life of Jesus. the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches include these books as part of their Old Testament. Evangelicals and those of the Modern Protestant traditions do not accept the deuterocanonical books as canonical. Wright says Jesus himself was profoundly shaped by the scriptures..e. although Protestant Bibles included them in Apocrypha sections until around the 1820s.T. plus 1 Esdras. the free encyclopedia Page 8 of 17 A number of books which are part of the Peshitta or Greek Septuagint but are not found in the Hebrew (Rabbinic) Bible are often referred to as deuterocanonical books by Roman Catholics referring to a later secondary (i.

the language of the earliest extant manuscripts. Cl Jewish Epistles ■ First Epistle to the ■ Epistle of James. 2Co ■ Epistle to the Hebrews. Jn ■ Acts of the Apostles.wikipedia. 1Pe ■ Second Epistle to the ■ Second Epistle of Peter.Bible . The New Testament presupposes the inspiration of the Old (2 Timothy 3:16). These books can be grouped into: The Gospels ■ Synoptic Gospels ■ Gospel According to Matthew. presented undergraduates "with a more demanding set of interlocking intellectual challenges than any other subject in the university". Pm Corinthians.T. Lk ■ Gospel According to John. Ac (continues Luke) Pauline Epistles ■ Epistle to the Romans. Pp General Epistles. N. He ■ Epistle to the Galatians. Nearly all Christians recognize the New Testament (as stated below) as canonical scripture. 2/11/2011 . one account of the Acts of the Apostles. of 4 different genres of Christian literature ( http://en. In 2008. Tt Revelation. Christopher Evans of King's College London. Certainly the Pauline Epistles were written in Greek for Greek-speaking audiences.Wikipedia. Dr. Of these. Original language See also: Oral tradition and the historical Jesus The books of the New Testament were written in Koine Greek. Some scholars believe that some books of the Greek New Testament (in particular. stated that Dr. 1Jn ■ First Epistle to ■ Second Epistle of John. Jesus is its central figure. Jd ■ Epistle to Titus. Epistles and an Apocalypse). the Bishop of Durham. the free encyclopedia Page 9 of 17 New Testament Main articles: Canonical gospels and New Testament The New Testament is a collection of 27 books.[16] Historic editions Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www. used to argue that the study of the Greek New Testament. even though some authors often included translations from Hebrew and Aramaic texts. not least the synoptic gospels. Jm Thessalonians. or the Apocalypse Re The order of these books varies according to Church tradition. 2Th 2Pe ■ Pastoral Epistles ■ First Epistle of John. the Gospel of Matthew) are actually translations of a Hebrew or Aramaic original. the Syriac tradition and the Ethiopian tradition. a small number accept the Syriac Peshitta as representative of the original. Wright. See Greek primacy. Mt ■ Gospel According to Mark. See Aramaic primacy. the Slavonic tradition. 1Co ■ Second Epistle to the ■ Epistle to Philemon. 3Jn Timothy. also called ■ Epistle to the Colossians. Ga ■ Epistle to the Ephesians.novapdf. 1Th ■ First Epistle of Peter. Ep ■ Epistle to the Philippians. Ro ■ First Epistle to the Corinthians. Mk ■ Gospel According to Luke. The New Testament books are ordered differently in the Catholic/Protestant tradition. 1Ti 2Jn ■ Second Epistle to ■ Third Epistle of John. 2Ti ■ Epistle of Jude. Timothy.

[17] During the Protestant Reformation. It should also be noted. since the Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www. at the insistence of the Pope. was in accord with the earlier Synods. Prayer of Manasseh and Psalm 151. In addition to the Septuagint. Over time. The autographs. The Orthodox Churches.wikipedia. Some include 2 Esdras. With the benefit of hindsight it can be said that this process effectively set the New Testament canon. The term "Hebrew Scriptures" is often used as being synonymous with the Protestant Old Testament. in a Catholic context these texts are referred to as deuterocanonical books. held at the Royal Library in Sweden. the canon of which. the list of New Testament books would come to remain the same. Development Main articles: Development of the Old Testament canon and Development of the New Testament canon The Old Testament canon entered into Christian use in the Greek Septuagint translations and original books. fell out of favor. Scholars surmise the original Greek text from the versions that do survive. Thus. have not survived. Jerome produced a definitive Latin edition of the Bible (see Vulgate). and their differing lists of texts. they were sometimes uncertain if a note was intended to be included as part of the text. Together they comprise most of the ancient manuscripts. see Antilegomena. The Anglican Church also recognises a longer canon. Christianity subsequently added various writings that would become the New Testament. recognise 3 Maccabees. the Protestant Old Testament of today has a 39-book canon—the number varies from that of the books in the Tanakh (though not in content) because of a different method of division—while the Roman Catholic Church recognizes 46 books as part of the canonical Old Testament. When later scribes were copying the copy.novapdf. certain reformers proposed different canonical lists to those currently in use. the label applied to all texts excluded from the biblical canon which were in the Septuagint. The Codex Gigas from the 13th century. each with its own assemblage of omissions and additions. whereas in a Protestant context they are referred to as Apocrypha. and  Textual criticism When ancient scribes copied earlier books. 1 Esdras. but not included in the Jewish http://en.Wikipedia. Somewhat different lists of accepted works continued to develop in antiquity. In the 4th century a series of synods produced a list of texts equal to the 39-to-46-book canon of the Old Testament and to the 27-book canon of the New Testament that would be subsequently used to today. See textual criticism. although there are examples of other canonical lists in use after this 2/11/2011 . different regions evolved different versions. Also c. A definitive list did not come from an Ecumenical Council until the Council of Trent (1545–63). as apocryphal. the Greek manuscripts written by the original authors. In time they would come to be removed from most Protestant canons. and the Western text-type (occasionally wild). such as the Acts of Peter. the free encyclopedia Page 10 of 17 See also: Biblical manuscript. the Byzantine text-type (generally maximalist). Hence. most notably the Synod of Hippo in AD 393. that Catholics and Protestants both describe certain other books. 400. The three main textual traditions of the Greek New Testament are sometimes called the Alexandrian text-type (generally minimalist). they wrote notes on the margins of the page (marginal glosses) to correct their text— especially if a scribe accidentally omitted a word or line—and to comment about the text. however. Bible translations. the Old Testament texts present in the Septuagint.Bible . Though not without debate. in addition to the Catholic canon.

[19][20] and this belief can also be seen in the earliest of Christian writings. i. as well. The Ethiopian Old Testament Canon includes the books found in the Septuagint accepted by other Orthodox Christians.Wikipedia.&version=ESV. The order of the other books is somewhat different from other groups'. It consisted of an edited Gospel of Luke (excluding what Marcion considered Jewish additions). Norman Geisler and William Nix wrote: "The process of inspiration is a mystery of the providence of God.[21] the most explicit being: "All scripture is breathed out by God and profitable for passage=2Tim%203:16. Biblical infallibility. Others hold the Biblical infallibility inerrant. Various texts of the Bible mention Divine agency in relation to prophetic writings. an early Christian heretic. Both Catholics and Protestants have the same 27-book New Testament Canon. also Greek Ezra First and the Apocalypse of Ezra.[18] Belief in divine inspiration Main articles: Biblical literalism."[2 Timothy 3:16 (http://www.[26] A minority even within adherents of biblical literalism extend the claim of inerrancy to a particular translation. and his followers. spoken by God and written down in its perfect form by humans. The New Testament writers assumed the inspiration of the Old Testament. the free encyclopedia Page 11 of 17 surviving scriptures in Hebrew include only those books. had a Bible that excluded the Old Testament.biblegateway. and Biblical inerrancy Some Christians adhere to a doctrine of biblical literalism. e. The three books of Meqabyan are not to be confused with the books of 2/11/2011 .com) http://en. and authoritative record.) . and passages rejected as Jewish additions).) ] In their book A General Introduction to the Bible. and the Epistles of Paul (excluding Titus."[15] Belief in sacred texts is attested to in Jewish antiquity.e. for example some American Protestants adhere to the 1978 Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy which asserted that inspiration applied only to the autographic text of Scripture. they regard both the New and Old Testament as the undiluted Word of God. while Catholics and Orthodox include additional texts that have not survived in Hebrew. the Epistle to the Hebrews. probably earliest stated in 2 Timothy 3:16 (http://www. and Psalm 151 at the end of the Psalter. for reproof. 3 books of Meqabyan. The Old Testament follows the Septuagint order for the Minor Prophets rather than the Jewish order.&version=.Bible . Marcionite Bible Marcion. the two epistles to Timothy. "Bible scholars claim that discussions about the Bible must be put into its context within church history and then into the context of contemporary culture."[22] Most evangelical biblical scholars[23][24][25] associate inspiration with only the original text."[8] Ethiopian Orthodox canon The Canon of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church is wider than for most other Christian groups.wikipedia. but the result of this process is a verbal.g. that the Bible is free from error in spiritual but not scientific matters. Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www. "all Scripture is inspired of God. for correction. and for training in righteousness. in addition to Enoch and Jubilees which are ancient Jewish books that only survived in Ge'ez but are quoted in the New Testament (citation required).novapdf. the King-James-Only Movement. plenary.

185 451 The Bible continues to be translated to new languages. Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www. an Aramaic version of the Bible. although some portions were in Aramaic. It was based on the Septuagint. The earliest Latin translation was the Old Latin text. There are several different ancient versions of the Tanakh in Hebrew. the translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek. Coptic. Especially since the Protestant Reformation. and the Targum Onkelos. and presumably mistakes had been made in copying the text over the generations. Translations were made into Syriac. Ge'ez and Latin. The primary biblical text for early Christians was the Septuagint or (LXX).com) http://en. while Bible translations can be found on a separate page. among other languages. Bible translations. In addition. on display in Malmesbury Abbey.novapdf.Wikipedia. from internal evidence. 2/11/2011 . largely by Christian organisations such as Wycliffe Bible Translators. which. Pope Damasus I assembled the first list of books of the Bible at the Council of Rome in AD 382. Jews still refer to the Septuagint.Bible . while the Greek-speaking East continued to use the Septuagint translations of the Old Testament and had no need to translate the New Testament. because the oral tradition is considered more fundamental than the written one. The original texts of the Tanakh were in Hebrew. or Vetus Latina. seems to have been made by several authors over a period of time. worldwide[27] Statistic Approximate number of languages spoken in the world today Number of translations to new languages currently in progress Number of languages the New Testament has been translated to Number of languages the Bible (Protestant Canon) has been translated to Number 6.wikipedia. mostly differing by spelling. This Bible was transcribed in Belgium in 1407 for reading aloud in a monastery. Even in this version by itself. This translation became known as the Latin Vulgate Bible and in 1546 at the Council of Trent was declared by the Church to be the only authentic and official Bible in the Latin Rite. and thus included books not in the Hebrew Bible. the free encyclopedia Page 12 of 17 Bible versions and translations Further information: Bible translations and Bible translations by language Bible versions are discussed below.300 1. A Bible handwritten in Latin. He commissioned Saint Jerome to produce a reliable and consistent text by translating the original Greek and Hebrew texts into Latin. they translated the Hebrew Bible into several other languages. The Latin translations were historically the most important for the Church in the West. The Bible has seen a notably large number of English language translations. New Tribes Mission and the Bible society. Bible translations for many languages have been made.900 1. England. there are words which are traditionally read differently from written (sometimes one word is written and another is read). In addition to the authoritative Masoretic Text. and the traditional Jewish version is based on the version known as Aleppo Codex.

Each was discernible by its own characteristic language. This hypothesis was challenged by William Henry Green in his The Mosaic Origins of the Pentateuchal Codes (available online (http://www. both Catholic and Protestant. P (Priestly).. coherent narrative. concluding that it was "clearer than the sun at noon that the Pentateuch was not written by Moses. notably Eduard Reuss. Documentary hypothesis Main article: Documentary hypothesis The medieval tradition of Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch (Torah) came under philological scrutiny with the development of Biblical criticism in the 18th century. If you want to pose a new model. and authorial intention. These were synthesized by Julius Wellhausen (1844–1918). the views of Hobbes and Spinoza gained increasing acceptance amongst scholars.. and Johann Gottfried Eichhorn (1803) separated the Pentateuch into two original documentary components. It is not the same as criticism of the Bible. which is an assertion against the Bible being a source of information or ethical 2/11/2011 . dates of composition.novapdf.. Subsequent scholars. if you want to disagree. Witter. and D (Deuteronomist). and each.wikipedia. Higher criticism Main articles: Higher criticism and Lower criticism In the 17th century Thomas Hobbes collected the current evidence to conclude outright that Moses could not have written the bulk of the Torah. suggesting that much of the Laws and the narrative of the Pentateuch were unknown to the Israelites in the time of Moses. Nonetheless. you disagree with Wellhausen. and addresses questions such as authorship. E (Elohist). Others hypothesized the presence of two additional sources.html) ). according to contemporary Torah scholar Richard Elliott Friedman. presented a unified.biblicaltheology. Wellhausen's model of the documentary hypothesis continues to dominate the field of biblical scholarship: "To this day. Karl Heinrich Graf and Wilhelm Vatke. Many Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www. but pervasive throughout the five books. B. turned their attention to the order in which the documents had been composed (which they deduced from internal clues) and placed them in the context of a theory of the development of ancient Israelite religion. the free encyclopedia Page 13 of 17 Biblical criticism Main articles: Biblical criticism and Criticism of the Bible Biblical criticism refers to the investigation of the Bible as a text. you compare its merits with those of Wellhausen's model.Wikipedia. who suggested a historical framework for the composition of the documents and their redaction (combination) into the final document known as the Jean Astruc (1753)." Despite determined opposition from http://en. both dating from after the time of Moses. arguing that the problematic passages were not isolated cases that could be explained away one by one.Bible . when read in isolation. The four documents were given working titles: J (Jahwist/Yahwist). H. Shortly afterwards the philosopher Baruch Spinoza published a unified critical analysis."[28] The documentary hypothesis is important in the field of biblical studies not only because it claims that the Torah was written by different people at different times—generally long after the events it describes—[29] but it also proposed what was at the time a radically new way of reading the Bible.

It is considered the opposite of biblical minimalism which considers the Bible a purely post-exilic (5th century BCE and later) composition. prior to 587 BC). has been subjected to such intense dissection that it seems in danger of disappearing.[32] Archaeological and historical research Main articles: Biblical archaeology school and The Bible and history Biblical archaeology is the archaeology that relates to. [31] Martin Noth (who in 1943 provided evidence that Deuteronomy plus the following six books make a unified history from the hand of a single editor). even accepting Biblical minimalism. such as the Tel Dan Stele. and sheds light upon.Wikipedia. its terminology and insights continue to provide the framework for modern theories on the origins of the Torah. after 515 BC). but in what critics can infer about the times in which the authors lived (as critics may read Hamlet to learn about 17th-century England. the free encyclopedia Page 14 of 17 proponents of the documentary hypothesis view the Bible more as a body of literature than a work of history. accepted as historical. On the other hand. In any case. believing that the historical value of the text lies not in its account of the events that it describes.[30] The documentary hypothesis has been modified by numerous later authors. and.. The contemporary view is that P is earlier than D. Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www. Frank Moore Cross and Richard Elliot Friedman also presented versions of the hypothesis. with P.e. Critics question the existence of separate. the historicity of the biblical account of the history of ancient Israel and Judah of the 10th to 7th centuries BC is disputed in scholarship.[citation needed] The hypothesis dominated biblical scholarship for much of the 20th century. archaeological evidence providing information on this period. although increasingly challenged by other models in the last part of the 20th century. in particular. but not universally. E. but will not read it to learn about 7th-century Denmark). and P as meaningful terms. The biblical account of the 8th to 7th centuries is widely. containing the bulk of the Jewish law.Bible . Harold Bloom. For this reason. the Hebrew Scriptures and the New Testament.wikipedia. identifiable documents. The documentary hypothesis.novapdf. and there is universal scholarly consensus that the events of the Babylonian captivity of the 6th century onward have a basis in history. at least in the four-document version advanced by Wellhausen. while the verdict on the earliest period of the United Monarchy (10th century BC) and the historicity of David is far from clear. dating from the post-Exilic Second Temple period (i.e.. the Bible is a historical document containing first-hand information on the Hellenistic and Roman eras. Wellhausen's hypothesis proposed that the four documents were composed in the order J-E-D-P. can potentially be decisive. has been controversial since its formulation. One broad division includes Biblical maximalism that generally take the view that most of the Old Testament or Hebrew Bible is essentially based on history although presented through the religious viewpoint of its time. and that all four books date from the First Temple period (i. The J document. There are a wide range of interpretations of the existing Biblical archaeology. It is used to help determine the lifestyle and practices of people living in biblical http://en. and not all biblical scholars accept J. positing instead that the biblical text is made up of almost innumerable strands so interwoven as to be hardly untangleable. 2/11/2011 .

http://books.html) . the free encyclopedia Page 15 of 17 Finally.Bible .+Author+Russell&btnG=Search&tbm=bks&tbo=1&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq 2. p. B.ethiopianorthodox.. 9780789480439.perseus. Robert Scott. B.php?term=bible. but the mainstream opinion is clearly that Jesus was one of several known historical itinerant preachers in 1st-century Roman Judea. See also Google Link (http://www. ^ Halpern. Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.etymonline.htm. the First Historians: The Hebrew 2nd ed. ^ Ash. Harper & the biblical account of events of the Exodus from Egypt in the Retrieved See also ■ ■ ■ ■ Religious text Biblical studies Code of Hammurabi List of major biblical figures Biblical topics ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Alcohol in the Bible Circumcision in the Bible Crime and punishment in the Bible Ethics in the Bible Murder in the Bible Slavery in the Bible Women in the Bible Summary of Christian eschatological differences Endnotes 1.htm) .14 4. 2/11/2011 .html. There has nevertheless been some debate on the historicity of Jesus.5+billion+copies+sold. quoted in Smith. q=It+has+been+bought+and+read+more+than+any+other+book+%28Businessweek+7%2F18% 2F2005+reports+2. Mark S. ^ a b Harper. 7. ^ "The Catholic Encyclopedia" ( id=M1rS4Kce_PMC&lpg=PP1&ots=F92fs-7_dq&dq=Memories%20of%20Ancient% 20Israel&pg=PA7#v=onepage&q&f=false) . Russell (2001).com) http://en. teaching in the context of the religious upheavals and sectarianism of Second Temple Judaism. Retrieved 2010-11-19. Dorling 1988.7 (http://books..newadvent. p. id=M1rS4Kce_PMC&lpg=PP1&ots=F92fs-7_dq&dq=Memories%20of%20Ancient% 20Israel&pg=PA7#v=onepage&q&[33][34] Regarding the New Testament. http://www. the historical context is well 5. and the migration to the Promised Land and the period of Judges are not considered historical in scholarship. Retrieved 2010-04-23. ^ Philip R. Top 10 of Everything 2002. Online Etymology Dictionary. ISBN 978-0802839725. Wm. ISBN 0789480433. Ethiopianorthodox. "Memories of ancient Israel". 6. Henry George Liddell. ^ "The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church" (http://www. Eerdmans Publishing Co. at Perseus (http://www.tufts. 2002. "bible" ( Davies.ethiopianorthodox.The early history of God: Yahweh and the other deities in ancient Israel.novapdf.0057%3Aentry%3D% 2319917) .php?term=bible) .org/cathen/02543a. A Greek-English Lexicon. the setting being the Roman Empire period in the 1st century. ^ Biblion.04.

novapdf.Luke%201:70.294.newadvent.Luke%201:70.Heb%203:7. has no foundation in history. ^ For http://en. 1980.ridley.&version=ESV. 1984 "The Bible: Biblical Narrative" in Barry Holtz. Basic Bible Interpretation.biblegateway.pdf. like that of the Old. Biblegateway." HarperSanFrancisco. ISBN 0-8054-1613-7. 27. ^ (October 1996) (http://www. July 2010: Wycliffe Bible Translators (http://www.) .uk/documents/moulemem. the free encyclopedia Page 16 of 17 . 22. 20. Zondervan. 2002. ^ International Council on Biblical Inerrancy (1978) (PDF). De vita Moysis 3. 32. 9. Retrieved 2010-04-23. The Last Word: Scripture and the Authority of God—Getting Beyond the Bible Wars.86. ^ a b Wright. ^ Richard Elliott Friedman. 19.) 12. ^ Dictionary. 1986 Understanding Genesis New York:Schocken Books pp.Acts%203:18. ^ Although the bulk of all four documents date from before 587 ^ Evans. ISBN 0060872616 / 9780060872618 16. Nahum Sarna. ^ Finkelstein. King's College London. ^ Norman L. (WBT) Translation Statistics.html) on PBS's site From Jesus to Christ: The First Christians (http://www. and which did not reach its final term until the dogmatic definition of the Tridentine Council. Frank. 2005. Bible Facts" (http://www. 391. ^ Philo of Alexandria.10:15-16. The Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy (http://www. "Who Wrote the Bible?. Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.10:15-16.biblegateway.biblicalstudies.Acts%201:16. Nashville: Broadman. 1986.1%20Peter%201:11.reference. Donald . Web: 27 February 2010 N.23. http://www.churchcouncil. Christopher. 1991. xxi-xxiii. both within and without the see Leroy Zuck.T. Israel. ISBN 0-89693-819-0 24.html) 33. and retarded by certain obscurities and natural hesitations. 34. Gordon. ^ Norman L. Quoted in Wright. Themelios 22. ^ Josephus. http://www.html) .Mark% 2012:36. International Council on Biblical Inerrancy.aish. Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come from?.biblegateway. ^ Dever. Wright on NT Scholarship and Christian Discipleship (http://www. 67-68. Augustine and the Jews. Zuck.Acts%203:18. Moody Publishers. Chariot Victor Pub.1%20Peter%201:11. William. Basic Bible Interpretation. N. Contra Apion 1.2%20Tim%203:16. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Canon of the New Testament (http://www. 13.& etymology of the word "Bible" (http://dictionary.htm) : "The idea of a complete and clear-cut canon of the New Testament existing from the beginning." 18. ^ Luke 11:51 (http://www.html.2%20Peter%201:20-21. ISBN 0-310-39281-0 26.churchcouncil. N. .pbs. William E. ISBN 0-8024-2916-5 23. ^ Accuracy of Torah Text (http://www. Zuck. Nix.Wikipedia.pdf) .aspx) 28. the strand of D known as Dtr2 dates from the following Exilic period. Victor. of a process at once stimulated by disputes with doubters.T.&version=50) .8. http://www. ^ "From Hebrew Bible to Christian Bible" by Mark Hamilton (http://www. Neil Silberman. that is from Apostolic times.biblegateway. ^ Paula Fredriksen. The Bible Unearthed. HarperCollins. ^ "Basis for belief of Inspiration Biblegateway" (http://www. New Testament Theology. The Canon of the New Testament. Luke 24:44 (http://www. ^ Wycliffe Bible A General Introduction to the Bible.p.Acts%201:16.2%20Peter%201:2021. ISBN 978-0-385-50270-2 (2008). "New Testament Scholarship and Christian Discipleship. 29. ed Back to the Sources New York: Summit Books p. p. Roy B. ^ Wellhausen adopted the idea of a post-Exilic date for P from Eduard Reuss. 1997 (2nd edition). is the result of a development. ^ Joel Rosenberg.&version=50.Heb%203:7. ^ a b c d Stagg.Acts%2028:25.Mark%2012:36. ISBN 0-7814-3877-2 31. ^ "Bible Study. Retrieved "Pentateuchal Studies Today".68. 1962. ^ Roy 2/11/2011 .2%20Tim% "Introduction to the Old Testament of the New English Bible.pbs.asp) .pdf) 17. 30. ^ a b Sir Godfrey Driver. Inc. 14. Geisler." Web: 30 November 2009 15.wikipedia." 5 June 2008.

org/0195297512/) . Joel M. ISBN 0-310-27681-0 ■ Masalha. Zondervan Publishing House. Bart D. 2005. The Manga Bible: From Genesis to 2/11/2011 . a non-profit organization. ISBN 0-06-073817-0.jstor. eds. ISBN 0-8028-0975-8. The Origins of the Bible: Rethinking Canon History Mahwah. The Bible: A Very Short Introduction. ■ Berlin. Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www. 1410. 1978. Chicago: Moody Bible Press. 580 and "prophecy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-529751-2. 1986. ISBN 0-8147-3690-4 ■ Lienhard. Norman (editor). Indianapolis. 2005.newjewishbooks. 2007. ISBN 07897-3419-2 ■ Hoffman. 2004. Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come from? Grand Rapids. Adele. ■ Lindsell.jstor. ■ Head. 224p.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=32&Itemid=34) . Archaeology and Post-Colonialism in PalestineIsrael. New York: Simon & Schuster. Marc Zvi Brettler and Michael Fishbane. Inc. Collegeville. Hawley" Categories: Bible | Greek loanwords | Judeo-Christian topics ■ This page was last modified on 8 February 2011 at 04:55. "Mathematics and Prophecy. http://creationontheweb. The Battle for the Bible. the free encyclopedia Page 17 of 17 References and further reading ■ Anderson. Lee M. New York University Press. James A. Neil Asher (2001). Israel. ■ Riches.newjewishbooks. See Terms of Use for details. ISBN 0-19-285343-0 ■ Siku. How Scholarship Affects Scholars" (http://creationontheweb. Asimov's Guide to the Bible." p. MN: Liturgical Press. ■ Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Silberman. 175–83. ■ Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia. 1994.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=32&Itemid=34 ■ Dever. Hendrickson Publishers (January 1. 1948. . IN: Que Publishing. Bernhard W. Neil Asher (August 2002). Isaac. ISBN 1565635175 ISBN 978-1565635173 ■ Miller. NJ: Paulist London. Nur. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. 662p. John W. John. Harold. MI: William B.novapdf. ISBN 0-517-34582-X. Oxford University Press.vv. The Canon Debate. Deconstructing the walls of Jericho (http://mideastfacts. Inerrancy. ■ Finkelstein. ■ Finkelstein." p.. Retrieved from "http://en. Zondervan Publishing House. Biblical Archaeology Review 33 (2): 54. ISBN ■ Herzog. "Review: "The Bible Unearthed": A Rejoinder" (http://www. (March/April 2007)." Modern Science and Christian Faith. The Bible and Zionism: Invented Traditions. pp. Wheaton: Van Kampen. ISBN 0-8091-3522-1. 1999). Joseph T. The Bible. 2003. ISBN 0385524315 ISBN 978-0385524315 ■ Taylor. Understanding the Old Testament. Ha'aretz. and Authority. Galilee Trade (January 15. ■ McDonald. Israel. 2002). s. 2008). ■ Geisler. 1980. Eerdmans Publishing . ISBN 0-7432-2338-1. and Sanders.pdf) . In the Beginning (http://www. Sponsored by the International Council on Biblical Inerrancy.Bible . New York.pdf ■ Dever. NY: HarperSanFrancisco. The Jewish Study Bible (http://www. "Book of Ezekiel. http://www. Tom.. 2003. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 327: 63–73. "Losing Faith: Who Did and Who Didn’ Ze'ev (October Zed Books. additional terms may apply. ■ Asimov.wikipedia. NY: Avenel Books. 1995. ISBN 0-13-948399-3. The Church. 2000. The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts. The Absolute Beginner's Guide to the Bible. William G. William G. ■ Ehrman. Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why New York. http://mideastfacts.

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