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( )

A
(1) a b a b a b
a b b 0
a b 3 4 a b a b 3 4
(2)
a b 3 5 a 3 b 5 a b 3 5
B
a a
(1)a b a b (b 0)
b b
a
(2) a b 1 1( )
b
a 0
(3) a 0 b 0 a b 0
b b
a a
a b 0 a b a b
b 0
a
(4) a b
b
2
a b 2 3 a b a b 2 3 a b
3
2
a b
3
C
(1)
(2) a b c d
a c a c
a b c d a b c d
b d b d
4 2 12 2
4 6 12 18 4 6 12 18
6 3 18 3
(3)
a b k 0
a b (a×k) (b×k)
a b (a÷k) (b k)
D
(1) 1

12 27 (12 3) (27 3) 4 9 4, 9 1 4 9

177
( )
A
(1) a : b c : d( d 0) a : b c : d
a d b c
(2) a b c d ad bc
a c
a b c d
b d
a c a c
bd bd bd ad bc
b d b d
B
(1) x y a b a b 0
x y
a b
x y a b xb ya
x y
ab xb ab ya ab
a b
x ak y bk k 0
x y
x y a b k k 0 x ak y bk
a b
x y
x y 2 x 2k y 3k
2 3
(2) mx ny a b a b m n
a b
x y
m n
k k
mx ny a b any bmx k x y
bm an
k k 1 1 a b
x y
bm an bm an m n
2k 5k 2k 5k
4x 3y 2 5 x y x y 6 20 3 10
4 3 4 3
C
(1) x y a b x y k
a b
x k y k
a b a b
x y
x y a b r x ar y br
a b
k
x y ar br ( a b )r r
a b
k a k b
x ar a k y br b k
a b a b a b a b

178
( )
A 100

B 100

C 100

D 100

(1)18 27 __________ (2)( 12) 42 ___________ (3)48 ( 72) __________

(4)2 1 30 ___________ (5)2 40 1 30 ___________

3 2
(6) ( 2.4) 3 __________ (7) 4 2 __________ (8)4.5 12 _________
5 3

4 4 3
(9)3 750 _________ (10) ( 1 ) 3 _________ (11) _________
5 15 10

(12)4 3 __________ (13)1200 3.2 ___________


(1 600 )

179
14 21 27 1 1
(1) _________ (2) ( 3.6) _________ (3) 3 4 ________
15 10 15 4 3

(4)120 3 _________ (5)4 30 2 20 __________

2
(6)4.5 1800 _________ (7) 2 1200 __________
3

1
(8)3.6 2.4 __________ (9) ( 4 ) ( 3) ________
2

2
1. 4 6
(1) _________
(2) _________

2. 5 2
(1) _________
(2) _________

2
3.
3
(1) _________
(2) _________

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3
2
1. 3
3
(1) ________
(2) _________

2. 240 20
(1) _________
(2) _________
(3) _________

8
3.
7
(1) ________
(2) _________

4. 4 16 15 800
(1) ________
(2) ________

5. 5 3 3
__________

6. 3 2
(1) a _________ _________
(2) a _________ _________

181
3
1.
4
(1) ________
(2) _________

2. 180 20
(1) _________
(2) _________
(3) _________

8
3.
3
(1) _________
(2) 15 ________

2
4. 75 2 1500
3
(1) ________
(2) ________

4 5
5. 6 5
3 3
__________

6. 2 1
(1) a _________ _________
(2) a _________ _________

182
4
1. 4 9 24 3x x __________

2. (2 x 4) (3x 4) 4 5 x __________

5 x
3. 3 4 x __________
3 2

4. (3x 5) 2 (5x 3) 3 x __________

5. (2x 3) 3 ( x 4) 2 x __________

1. 5 4 x 60 x __________

2. (6x 4) 4 (5x 4) 3 x __________

3
3. 9 30 x x __________
5

4. 5 (7x 5) 4 (6x 2) x __________

5 4x
5. 10 15 x __________
3 15

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5
1. x y 4 3
(1)(2x y) (2x 3y) __________
(2) 3x y 18 x ________ y __________

2. x y 3 5
2
(1)2x 3xy __________
(2) 6x 3y 24 x ________ y __________

3. x y 0 5x 3y 3x 7y x y _________

4. x y 3 8 3x 2y 50
(1)2x 3y _________
x y
(2) __________
x y

5. x y 3 5 2x 13y 142
(2x 1) (y 1) __________

6. x y 0 3x 2y x 7y
(1)x y __________
2x y
(2) ___________
x y

7. (x y) (x y) 5 2
(1)x y __________
(2)(x 3y) (3x 4y) __________

184
1. (x y) : (x y) 8 3
(1)x : y _________
(2)(4x 3y) : (5x 2y) __________

2. x y 0 3x 2y 5x 6y
(1)x y __________
(2)(x 2y) (x y) _________

3. a b 7 3 a b 24
a ________ b _________

4. 2(x y) x y
(2x y) (2y x) ________

5. x 5
(x2 15) : (x2 6x 25) __________

6. x y 2 3 6x 8y 36
(x 2) (y 3) _________

7. (a b) : (a b) 3 ( 2) 3a 2b 56
2a b ________

8. x y 0 4x 3y
(1)x y ________
(2)8x 5y _________

185
6
1. 1 120 32 1 150
150 ________

2.14K 24 14
12 18K _______

3. 10 3 8 12 5
_______

1 1
4. a b a b 126
5 4
a b _________

1
5.
5
1
6
___________

6. 1 x 5 3
________

7. 600 3 :1 300
400 __________

186
1. 500 7 3
100 6 _________

2. 4 3 3 2 3 4
590
_________ _________

3. 4 6 0.6
_________

4. 4 7 140
__________

5. 20 16
_________

6. 2 7 1
3 __________

7. 2 1 ________

8. 7 5 5 3 5 4
__________

187
7
1. 2:5 10 1 2
________

2. 500c.c. 3 7
25c.c. 100c.c. _________

1 1 1
3.
4 7 5
__________

4. 2 5
1 3 2 3 __________

5. 1 : 250000 6 cm
________

6. 3 2 40
30 _______

7. 1 1:3:7 12
1 3 2 6 8 4
________

188
1. 1:3 48
______ 2:5

2. 7 3 2 35
3:1 _________

1 1
3.
5 3
__________

4. 2 5
3 25 __________

5. 10 3 4 8
9 8 ________

6. 800
50 30
_________

7. 5 4 20
3
4 ________
7

189
8
1. 3 4 500 2000
5 4 ________

2. 4 3 5 8
__________

3. 12 9
2000 ( )
_________

4. 100 5 1 2 1

________

5
5.
4
1 1
6 8
_________

6. 3 5 4 3
2 1 ________

7.
6.8 3.2 80
750 ________

190
1. 1 1 1 1 2 3 2 3
4 14 10 2 _______

1 1
2. 9 8
9 4
__________

3. 1 40000 7.5
_________

4. 7 3:2
35 1 3
________ ________

5. 8 9 3 4 2000 4000
________

2 1
6. 2 3
5 4
________

7. 6
1 3 4
1 2 ________

191
9
1. 1 : 5000 20 ________

2. D BC BD CD 4 3
(1) _________
(2) 48 _______

3. A B C A×B 156 A×C 208 2B 3C _______

4. 20 150 _______ 15

5. 120 2 1
________

6. 3 2 4×104
________

7. 5 7 4 6
7 _______ ( )

8. 8 15 2 3
1 2 __________

9. 3 2
_______

192
1. 160 5 3
________

2. 37
5 7 ________ ( )

3. 12 8 9
______

4. 14
35
_______

1
5.
5
b
a b _________
a

6. C R r
5
( )
4
(1)r R ________
(2) ( ) ________

7. ( ) (
) 3 8 77
_________

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