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, ideas, or services. It includes the name of a product or service and how that product or service could benefit the consumer, to persuade a target market to purchase or t o consume that particular brand. These messages are usually paid for by sponsors and viewed via various media. Advertising can also serve to communicate an idea to a large number of people in an attempt to convince them to take a certain ac tion. Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of their pro ducts or services through branding, which involves the repetition of an image or product name in an effort to associate related qualities with the brand in the minds of consumers. Non-commercial advertisers who spend money to advertise item s other than a consumer product or service include political parties, interest g roups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Nonprofit organization s may rely on free modes of persuasion, such as a public service announcement. Modern advertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late 19th a nd early 20th centuries. Mass media can be defined as any media meant to reach a mass amount of people. Different types of media can be used to deliver these me ssages, including traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, television, r adio, outdoor or direct mail; or new media such as websites and text messages. In 2010, spending on advertising was estimated at more than $300 billion in the United States and $500 billion worldwide. Internationally, the largest ("big four") advertising conglomerates are Interpub lic, Omnicom, Publicis, and WPP.
Advertising theoryHierarchy of effects model It clarifies the objectives of an advertising campaign and for each individual a dvertisement. The model suggests that there are six steps a consumer or a busine ss buyer moves through when making a purchase. The steps are: 1.Awareness 2.Knowledge 3.Liking 4.Preference 5.Conviction 6.The actual purchase Means-End Theory This approach suggests that an advertisement should contain a message or means t hat leads the consumer to a desired end state. Leverage Points It is designed to move the consumer from understanding a product's benefits to l
Th e fact that companies spend crores of rupees on advertising through TV. consumer and durable. Manufacturers supply information about new products through advertising. Advertising is within th e scope of promotion which is one element in the marketing mix. Introduction to Advertising Advertising facilitates large scale marketing. It is getting po pularity in the present highly competitive and consumer oriented marketing.inking those benefits with personal values. It is a medium of mass communicat ion. All products old and new. The basic purpose o f advertising is to give information. radio an d newspapers indicates its benefits in sales promotion. cheap and costly need extensive adve rtising for sales promotion and consumer support. Advertising is certai . New communication techniques a re now used for making advertising attractive and agreeable. Verbal and Visual Images 1. to attract attention. to create awareness and finally to influence the buying behavior of consumers.
3. Advertising attracts attention towards a product. 3. and life insurance is useful for placing new ideas before the people. Naturally. advertising acts as important marketing tool fo r presentation and promotion of ideas. goods or services by an identified sponsor. Features of Advertising 1. In a dvertising. It is a medium of mass communication f or large scale selling. 2. given in the advertisement. and instru ctions to be followed while using the product are given in the advertisements. the message is given to all and not to one specific individual. advertising on family planning .nly needed in marketing but is equally important and essential in social. The details of pr oducts such as features. T he advertising message and brand name are also given. advertisement is paid for by the s ponsor/advertiser. goods and services. He pays for the advertisement and natural ly he decides the size. he exercises control over the advertisement. uses. prices. A dvertising has psychological impact on consumers.Basically for persuasion : Advertising aims at persuasion of potential custome rs. This rule is applicable to all advertising media including press. Advertising is a form of paid communication. slogan. The aim is to make the ideas p opular and thereby to promote sales. manufacturer's name. etc.Paid form of communication : The advertiser has to pay to the media for giving publicity to his advertising message. family welfare. Advertising will be meaningless if the a dvertiser is not clearly identified. cultur al and political aspects of our life. However even in ad vertising target consumers or target market can be selected for making an advert ising appeal. It influences the buying decis . For example. services and ideas : Advertising is basically for gi ving information to consumers. creates desire to have the same and finally induces consumers to visit the market and purchase the same. Firstly.Non-personal presentation : Advertising is non-personal in character as agains t salesmanship which is personal (face to face communication) in character. The American Marketing Association def ines advertising as "any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas. Thirdly.Gives publicity to goods. Definition of Advertising Advertising is defined differently by different authorities and the institutions dealing with the subject of advertising. advertising is non-personal selling. The term 'Advertising' originates from the Latin word 'advertere' which means "t o turn the mind towards". 2. 4. Advertising gives new i deas to consumers as its contents are meaningful. This information is always related to the feature s and benefits of goods and services of different types. The dictionary meaning of the term advertising is "to give public notice or to announce publicity".Advertising provides information : The basic purpose of advertising is to prov ide information about products/services to prospective buyers. advertising needs the sponsor of the message known." This definition suggests th e following features of advertising. The information supplied g ives education and guidance to consumers and facilitates correct selection of go ods by them. Secon dly. This suggests that advertising act s as a marketing vehicle and is useful for drawing the attention of people (pros pects) towards a specific product/service/manufacturer. benefits. 5. Finally.
etc .g.Important element in marketing mix : Advertising is an important element in ma rketing mix. 4. Science and Profession : It is now universally accepted that advertisi ng is an art. This gives p ositive response from the consumers. It gives advance information to the prospects. This selection of a specific market is called target market. 2. information about new products is given to the pr ospects. 3. Various concessions are offered to consumers in the initial period.the essence of advertising : Advertising is a method of presentin g a product in an artistic. Advantages of Advertising The advantages of advertising can be divided into two main groups. They introduce new techniques for introducing creativity. In brief. Such advertising leads to the creation of new demand. Many companies now spend huge funds on advertising and public relations 9. Creativity can be introduced by creative people (professionals) in the field of advertising . Let' s find out how each of them gets benefited by advertising. Advertising is now treated as a profession with its professional bodies and code of conduct for members. Thus. housewives. advertising will be like a body without a soul. Advertising becomes effective and result oriented when it is tar get oriented.Large scale production and marketing : Advertising is useful as a sales promot ion technique. One group den otes benefits to manufactures and other group denotes benefit to consumers.Facilitates effective personal selling : Advertising creates proper background for personal selling.ions of consumers. This creates demand and the manufacturer is able to sell new products a long with the existing ones.) for the purpose of advertising.An Art.Creates new demand : Advertising spreads information and encourages consumers to purchase new products. Advertising is a science as it has its principles and rules. children. 8. Advertising agencies and space brokers function as professionals in the field of advertising. 4. It supports the sales promotion efforts of the manufacturer and mak es positive contribution in sales promotion provided other elements in the marke ting mix are reasonably favorable.1 Benefits of Advertising to Manufacturers 1. 6. It gives information to consumers and encourages them to purchase more. This is natural as advertising alone is not a dequate for promoting sales. Without creativity.Introduction of new products : Advertising facilitates the introduction of new products. They visit the shop in order to purchase a particular product which they know through adve rtising media. It is an art as it needs creativity for raising its effectiveness.Target oriented : It is possible to make intensive advertising by selecting a specific market or specific segment of consumers (e. science and a profession. The job of a salesman becomes easy as consumers develop affinity to specific products. Due to advertising. 7. attractive and agreeable manner.Creativity . Manufacturers expand their production base due to higher market demand cr eated through advertising. 4. This is possible th rough the element of creativity which is the essence of advertising. advertising supports and supplements personal se . advertising creates new demand from n on-users. The waste in advertising can be minimized through such target orie nted advertising.
The brands are made popular through adverti sing. He can remove misunderstand ing among consumers about his products through appropriate advertising. Thus advertising provides higher standard of livi ng to consumers as a social group 5.Removes misunderstanding : Advertising helps consumers in removing their misun derstanding about certain products. Such attraction offers benefits to consumers.lling. This avoids their cheating and exploitation at the hands of middlemen. 4. 6. 8. This leads to reduction in the cost of production and distribution.Goodwill builder : A manufacturer can build up goodwill and good image in the business world and also among the consumers through advertising. They remember what is urgently required to be purchased through advertising. 9. consumers develop loyalty towards a specific brand.Raises living standards : Advertising raises the standard of living of people by supplying information about goods and services which can offer convenience an d pleasure to them. manufactu res have to bring down the price in order to attract customers. The social welf are programmes and community service activities can be given wide publicity thro ugh advertising. They change their attitudes towards certain products and services due to advertising. 7. As a result.Sales promotion : A manufacturer can make his sales promotion campaign success ful by using the support of advertising. As a result.Reduces cost of production : Advertising creates demand and promotes sales. 3.Acts as reminder : Advertising acts as a reminder to consumers. For example. Even the product can be used for different purposes because of the information supplied through advertisements. They have to sup ply quality goods in order to attract more customers. 2. Advertising guides consumers in the selection of most suitab le goods for their daily life. 6.Facing competition : A manufacturer can face market competition effectively an d can make his products popular through advertising. This avoids possible damage of the product purchased . They can study the advertisements of competitors and select the products w hich are profitable to them. All this is beneficial to consumers in terms of price and quality of goods. They have to offer something special in order to attract consumers. They also get guidance as regards the right m anner of using the product. the profit ma rgin of the manufacturer increases. 5.Special attraction to consumers : Advertising leads to competition among manuf acturers and retailers.Information and guidance : Consumers get information and guidance from adverti sing.2 Benefits of Advertising to Consumers 1. 4. Th is enables a manufacturer to conduct production on a large scale.Effective product use : Consumers get information about uses/benefits of diffe rent products through advertising. Even the progress of the Organisation can be brought to the not ice of the public through advertising. 5. Role of Advertising in Selling Consumer Durables .Builds brand image : Manufacturers introduce branding for making their product s popular with distinct personality. Advertisi ng builds brand image and this develops consumer loyalty towards a specific bran d. He can prepare proper background for th e success of such campaign as advertising facilitates direct communication with consumers.
7. Five Ms of advertising are five basic considerations which need to be given p . evaluation and broad decisions need to be taken in regard to these five areas while organising an advertising programme/campaig n.Advertising of consumer durables during the festival period acts as a reminder to consumers. This is useful for sales promotion of consumer durables. limi tations and suitability.Advertising of consumer products enables a manufacturer to face market competi tion effectively. Even consumers can make appropriate selection of a suitable product by studying the advertisements of competitors. message. This technique facilitates sales promotion during the festival period. effective advertising of consumer durables is necessary and useful for regular selling. etc.) or durable products. 4. for providing information and guidance to consumers and finall y for sales promotion. merits. etc. In short. and other concessions offered. etc.The following points suggest the role of advertising in selling sales promotion of consumer durables. etc. Here. media and measurement. advertising gives the details of special features. (car. Even local dealer may offer certain concession to his customers.Effective advertising of consumer durables creates proper background for perso nal selling. Types of Advertising Media Advertising media are as noted in the chart given below: It may be noted that advertising media have their special features. to the purchasers of consumer durables and encourage interested customers to take initiative in p urchasing the durable articles. price discount. Such advertisements are common during festivals. Decision-making in Advertising While undertaking advertising campaign or while organising an advertising progra mme for products : consumer products. chocolate. skin cream.) concerned company has to take certain decisions and adjust the advertising activity accordingly. money. 6. He can give special features of his product and also suggest h ow his product is superior to that of his competitors.Advertising is useful for giving information and guidance to prospective buyer s of consumer durables.) or industrial products. face powder .The seller of consumer products (manufacturing company) may like to offer attr active gift or price discount to interested consumers. Such advertising decision-making is a five-ste p process (Five Ms of advertising) consisting of mission. Here. (tooth paste. In other words. He can make suitable advertisement of such concessi on for large scale selling at the local level. benefits. Here. 2. An attraction is created in the minds of consumers and they are enc ouraged to visit retail shop in order to see the article or look at the demonstr ation of its working. TV. the salesman can use his skills and see that the art icle is purchased by his visitors. 1. This encourages consumers to purchase a durable product. 5. soap. (machine. An advertiser has to consider his advertising budget an d select the most appropriate advertising media and use them for advertising pur pose. advertising can be made effectively. 3. They remember to purchase a useful product on the eve of the fest ival.
chocolates and so on. Media diffe r as regards cost. sales promotion and mak ing the product popular in the market. The advertising message should be simple and easily understandable with the help of picture or slogan.Media : Media of advertising are already noted previously. advertising activity needs appropriate decision-making o n various matters. These media are c ostly. face powder. Naturally. Advertising will be effective/result oriented when it is made with proper planni ng and appropriate decisions as regards the objectives.Message : Message is provided through the text of advertisement. the manufacturing/marketing company will have to provide huge money for advertising purpose. facing market competition effectively. The pictures or slogans used should be short and impressive. market goodwill. Five Ms of Advertising An advertiser has to take decisions on the following aspects: 1. in formation and guidance to consumers. The b uyers are mainly children and others of lower age groups or for the benefit (ple asure and satisfaction) of younger generation. In short. etc. Naturally. guidance and motivation of prospective buyers. coverage of advertising. newspapers. Advertising should be always within the limits of funds provided.roper attention so as to have positive/favorable effect of advertising efforts. products to be advertised. Here. and features of prospect ive buyers and so on. The message is for t he information.Mission : This refers to the purpose/objective behind advertising. It means the budget allocation made by the company for advertising. Advertising is costly and companies have to spend crores of rupees for this purpose. 2. 8. the mission/objective include facing market competition. The advertiser has to take decision about the media to be used for advertising purpose. funds provid ed and so on. decisions on advertising package should be adjusted as per the budge t allocation for advertising. pictures. The services of creative writers. The message i s given through written words. making the products popular/successful an d introduction of a new product. It may be noted that consumer products like tooth paste or chocolate are highly competitive with many substitutes easily available in the market. effectiveness and so on. Such decisions constitute the steps in the advertising. coverage. soap. Naturally. etc. The selection of media dep ends on the budget provided. the extent of crea tivity. It should be also attractive and agreeable to younger generation. are related to the funds provided for advertising purpose. T he message is also related to the decisions taken as regards mission and money p rovided for advertising. the message is important. media used. developing brand loyalty. 4. is required. etc. 3. body creams. Attractive and me aningful messages give positive results and the advertising becomes result-orien ted.Money : This refers to the finance provided for advertising purpose (advertisi ng budget). Decision in regard to mission is a basic one as other decisions are to be adjusted as per the mission or objective or purpose o f advertising decided. the advertiser has to decide the message to be given. These considerations are particularly applicable to consumer product marketing s uch as tooth paste. The objecti ves behind advertising are varied in character. media used. the specific customer group selected for giving the message and so on. slogans and so on. radio. They include sales promotion. Money provided is a limiting factor as effectiveness of advertising. soaps. are used for giving attract ive message to the consumers. For advertising consumer product like chocolate. the media to be used for communicating the message. artists. Wrong decision on media may make advertising ineffective a . For consumer products like chocolate. ext ensive advertising on TV. tooth paste.
the truth or reality of political claims.Measure : Measure relates to the effectiveness of advertising. For advertising popular and extensively used consumer items like chocolate. b ecause the results have potentially far-reaching effects on the population at la rge. Even success of sales promotion programme is useful for measuring advertising effectiveness. Political advertising raises many controversial social questions concerning the funding of political campaigns. For measuring effectiveness of chocolate advertising. like other areas of marketing management.mission. the advertising objectives must be met within a specific time frame. An advertiser w ill like to make evaluation of advertisement in order to judge its effectiveness . it will be modified or withd rawn. This decision-making as regards effectiveness of advertising is equ ally important and essential. money. T he essential task of political advertising is to gain the confidence of the peop le for their acceptance of ideas and. in addition. political advertising carries a moral implication. including political concepts and political candidates. a nd the likelihood of slanderous or libelous claims made by political candidates . advertising in children books or newspaper supplements for children. Also. attitudes.nd money spent will be wasted. message. to influence their vote. 5. media and me asurement political advertising advertising whose central focus is the marketing of ideas. An advertiser has to mea sure the effectiveness of his advertisement programme/ campaign and take suitabl e decisions. If an advertisement is not effective /purposeful. This relates to Five Ms . Demand creation in new market segments or in new age groups is another consideration for the measurement of advertising effectivenes s. decision-making is necessary in advertising. and. if required. Such testing facilitates introduction of suitable remedial measures. and concer ns about public issues. In brief. advertisi ng on radio programmes for children. This suggests that media should be selected prope rly and decision in this regard is important and critical. This is necessary for avoiding expenditure on the advertisement which is n ot effective or is not likely to give positive results. TV advertising particularly a cartoon channel . the media should be selected properly. the post advertising sale is one major consideration. etc. Political advertising differs from commercial adve rtising in that the product is either a person or a philosophy rather than goods and services. in the case of political campaign advertis ing.
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