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TECHNICAL NOTE
D-1340

SCIENTIFIC SATELLITES AND THE SPACE ENVIRONMENT

John Goddard Space

C. New Flight Maryland Center

Greenbelt,

NATIONAL
z_ i w

AERONAUTICS

AND

SPACE ADMINISTRATION June 1962

WASHINGTON

a

l_

1H

w

¢xl

6 SCIENTIFIC SATELLITES AND THE SPACE ENVIRONMENT
by John C. New Goddard Space Flight Center

SUMMARY

This the next

paper ten

outlines and scientific

the the

need general satellite

for

space objectives is

science of the and

information NASA contrasted space

in

years The

programs. military satellites mission space fields, discovery effects

defined a graphical

to of the

and application launched profile environment, are discussed. of the of solar

satellites

and

summary space

to date

is presented. The general

A typical

vehicle of the and as the and

is also such

given.

characteristics structures, particles, such earth,

as atmospheric Major findings belts, pressure, the

from pear are

satellites, shape of the surveyed.

Van Allen radiation

briefly

CONTENTS Summary
"4 I%1

................................... ............................... ............................ OBJECTIVES ...................

i 1 1 2 2 4 5 6 6 MISSION .............. 9 10 13 13 15 16 17 18 19 21 21 21 21

INTRODUCTION THE SPACE NASA

MISSION

PROGRAM

Scientific Application Military Sounding Launch SATELLITE FUTURE THE

Satellites Satellites and Manned

.......................... ........................ Satellites ..................

Rockets Vehicles

........................... ............................ AND

STRUCTURE SATELLITES

.......................... ...................... .......................

SPACE Atmospheric Magnetic Radiation Cosmic Thermal

ENVIRONMENT Structure Fields Belts Rays

............................ ............................

.............................. ............................ .......................... ...................... ........................

Micrometeorites Radiation

INDUCED

ENVIRONMENTS REMARKS

CONCLUDING

ACKNOWLEDGMENT Refer ences

...........................

..................................

111

In this act Congress

declared "that itis the policy of the United States that activities in for the benefit of all mankind."" The act

space should be devoted to peaceful purposes

established such general objectives as the advancement

of space science and technology

and their application to space flightsfor peaceful purposes, the enlistment of the cooperation of the scientific community, the promomotion of international cooperation, and the C3
I

fullestpracticable dissemination of information on the space activitiesof the U.S. The act also provided that the Department applications of space science of Defense for should have the responsibility for military national defense.

tO
t-a

and technology

SPACE PROGRAM OBJECTIVES
The of the of these on the origin of life for the The cation weather navigation. The the third specific national of space. on May objective The 5 and is to study suborbital July 21, the role of man in space Alan the and to begin and in first objective environment are: events the earth. of the major satellites (Reference and celestial 1) of the bodies the and and the national to gain nature on the space program is the scientific The study goals

space

new scientific of the connection

knowledge. between the for the

missions sun and

(1) to understand in the solar Such solar atmosphere system,

phenomena nature presence adequate and

earth; and

(2) to understand (3) to search design

of the outside

earth, the

universe; also

knowledge system national uses global

is needed both

in the

of spacecraft himself. is the early

exploration second

by instruments of the

and by man U.S. program Current

scientific

objective for human

appliare and to

of earth research

to practical

benefit. and television

applications

and forecasting,

telephone

communications,

manned

exploration Grissom t

flights 1961,

by Commander were

Shepard first steps

Captain this

Virgil

respectively,

program,

Scientific Satellites
The scientific scientific addition Figure (Reference satellites as observations to the scientific all the It will USSR, satellite of the is a man-made space object placed and application, been relay in a selected this manned, launched over much orbit to make to earth. satellites. 13, 1961 many 60,000 In

environment there which the U.S. only are

information and military

satellite, satellites that

1 indicates 2). the

have has about

through three weight

September times as

be noted but has

launched half as

placed

in orbit:

*Public fAs this

Law report

85-568, goes

72 to

Stat. press

426, Lt.

July Col.

29, John

1958, Glenn

42 has

U.S. just

Code made

2451. his historic orbital flight of February 20, 1962.

SCIENTIFIC SATELLITES AND THE SPACE ENVIRONMENT"
T..4 _ !

by John Goddard C. New Flight Center

Space

INTRODUCTION
On May 25, 1961, President Kennedy said in a message to the U. S. Congress:

"Now it is time to take longer strldes--time for a great new American enterprise-time for this Nation to take a clearly leading role in space achievement .... I belleve is out, that this Nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before ''t the decade of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to earth.

With decade. travel of

this

statement has the

the enacted

President the his

launched necessary safe in space return space

a very legislation to earth

bold to is and

and

vigorous this will The our

program program. accelerate benefits

for

this The the

Congress man to of can

implement which

moon

and

a goal

development a program as a leader

a massive be applied application

capability to other

science and

technology. enhance practical

of position

such

missions, and technology

will for

general to

in the

of science

benefits

mankind.

This to

paper

discusses of the and bridge

scientific space the the to

satellites

and It is

their intended hoped

contribution to that serve this as

to

space

science on both presenta-

and the

understanding environment will thereby scientific help to

environment. scientific gap between satellite. the

primer

space tion and the

It is diverse

elementary

backgrounds of the vast and

represented complex

in technology, problems facing

contribute community.

a better

understanding

THE NASA MISSION
The bility for National scientific Aeronautics satellites and through Space the Administration National is Aeronautics charged and with Space the Act responsiof 1958.

*This Michigan. t_Urgent 1st

report

was

presented

as

paper

J-1

at

the

Thirtieth

Shock

and

Vibration

Symposium,

October

12,

1961,

Detroit,

National Session, II.R.

Needs" 174, p.

Address 11.

of

the

President

of

the

U.S.

before

a

joint

session

of

Congress,

87th

Congress,

4

Application Satellites
U.S. vision It has 12, and had application Infra-Red three satellites Observation highly These in orbits successful have been particularly program April successful. is a notable 1, 1960, The example November cameras of about earth's the TIROS (from Tele5). and O
I t_

Satellite) launches,

(Reference 23, 1960, and 450

July

1961:

250 to 300 pound having

satellites distance

carry from

television the earth

infrared miles. cover atmos-

instrumentation TIROS (Figure phere orbited storm sesses the the most I (1960/_2) 2); and

an average nearly 23,000

transmitted lI (1960n,) of solar the

television

pictures information earth into

of the about space;

cloud

TIROS the

has

relayed heat back

important from the

earth's

radiation with

TIROS pictures

III (1961pl), on tropical 1) asas than

to coincide development the

hurricane

season, The head of which

is providing of the U.S.

excellent Bureau

and movement. satellite,

Weather

(Reference prototype, importance

meteorological

TIROS

is an early

research of greater

significant

development

in the Echo

history I (1960,1)

of meteorology, is an example by millions in orbit satellite findings for

invention

of the barometer. field which

of an application of people around the has radio

satellite world. demonwave

in the This strated

communication 100-foot the 1.

has plastic

been

seen

aluminum-coated feasibility theory. of a passive Some of the

sphere,

over and from

14 months, confirmed Echo I are

communication most significant

propagation in Table

enumerated

Forthcoming (RELAY), (telephone, will

communication greately enhance and

satellites, the march

both toward

"passive" world-wide

(REBOUND) "triple T"

and

"active",

communication

telegraph,

television).

Table Major Communication Relay Findings from the Echo

1 I Communication Satellite

Studies from President between Eisenhower U.S. and U.S. west during France. and England. coasts by U.S. of U.S. Post Office Department. first orbit.

of message

Transmission Voice and

of RF music

energy

communication between and letter

between east and

Telephone Facsimile Scientific Confirmed Revealed Revealed

conversation photographs Studies orbital that that

transmitted

behavior

theory drag

with increases

respect with wilt

to solar solar survive

radiation

pressure.

atmospheric large,

flares long

or storms. periods in space.

inflatable

structures

"As

this

report goes

to press

Tiros

IV (1962

_/1 ) has

been

launched

successfully

into orbit,

February

8,

1962.

25
? ? ? ? ? MA-4 DIS XXX _=_ c_ I DiS XXlX

2O
_J

Ln.
LIJ O 0O3 • DIS VIII DIS VII EXP Vll I i I i 1 I I' Ili VAN 111 DIS Vl DIS V EXP VI DIS tt PIONEER IV DIS I VAN tt SPUTNIK SPUTNIK SPUTNIK viii VI_

L_

15

DIS XVIII /" l I TIROS II DIS )(VII EXP Vltl COURIER I-E DIS XV DIS XlV ECHO I DIS Xlll GREB TRAN II-A MIDAS II

EXP X|lt HANGER I EXP Xll MIDAS tll TIROS III II ? ? ? VOSTOK II VOSTOK I SPUTNIK X SPUTNIK IX VENUS ;PUTNIK VIII SPUTNIK Vtt I I'l DIS XXVI TRAN IV-A DIS XXV EXP Xl DIS XXtll EXP X TRAN IlI-B DIS XXI DIS XX EXP IX SAMOS It

u_ l0
O r_ m

5
g SPUTNIK SPUTNIK II_ I i; _

_1
-'J [SPUTNIK Illll/

SCORE I
t ExP I iv '1 ExPm [
VAN I EXPt I

.

olsxl Ivl;
T{ROS I TRAN I-B PIONEER V

[ I t IINIK tt tuNt_ t

1957

1958

1959

1960

1961

NATION

NUMBER

WEIGHT

(Ib}

U.S. USSR

52 16

60,000 II0,000

Figure 1--Spacecraft orbited as of

September

13, 1961

pounds year launch been percent U.S. ceed, may

compared 1961 has about totaled cost

to II0,000 nearly about

pounds.

The

cost

of the 3). cost been

U. S.

space

effort each

through

fiscal U. S. has

$4,000,000,000 and the

(Reference average have been orbital

Therefore per pound

successful

$80,000,000 U.S. launch

of material slightly better than ten miles)

in orbit than years will 50 the

$67,000.

attempts 4). It has

successful that

of the time orbit

(Reference capacity (for the

estimated altitude

in less

annual

an average pounds

of 300 nautical By that time

ex-

by a factor weigh The

of ten,

60,000 U.S.

now in orbit. now in orbit. have enabled

a single

spacecraft

as much U.S. scientific For

as the

poundage to date

satellites

man

to make unexpected

some

very

striking effects from the

discoveries. which existence a deep

example, shape

Vanguard of the earth

I (195813_ was

) exhibited

orbital series belts.

the pear-like

deduced,

and the Explorer radiation

disclosed Pioneer

and measured space probe, storms

the

extent much

of the great information This miles. latter

Van Allen

V (1960a), of

provided

on the nature satellite

and spatial

relationships record

interplanetary for radio

and particles. 22.5 million

established

a distance

communication,

t-4 _q

6

Figure 2--Photographlc mosaic of an extensive weather system (top) taken by TIROS I, and corresponding weather map (May 20, 1960)

The jointly Sciences world

application

of satellite

techniques

to the

communication Dr. has L. V. Berkner, that

field

is being chairman

investigated of the Space the

by the

government National

and private Academy

industry. of Sciences,

Board, communication

indicated (Reference

satellites

can increase

capacity

by a factor

of 10,000

6).

Military and Manned Satellites
A second to fulfillment those program establishing satellites. per month. in the contrast of some Advent, to the mission Saint, scientific in the satellite national and Midas This is the defense. programs. military Examples The Air satellite, of such Force's program which satellites Discoverer aimed low of about at is devoted are

Transit, known.

is probably military The

the best spacecraft has

is a scientific through February

research

technology continued since

a series 1959

of short-life, at the rate

altitude one launch

program

6 The U.S.manned satellite program hasits beginning Project Mercury. in
ect has had extensive review will and and publicity Apollo and will which flight. not be discussed is intended The Apollo here• to provide vehicle The program Orbiting conceived to Mercury Laboratory be the manned project This proj-

follow-up

a Manned is currently
I

circumlunar

as a three-man

spacecraft•

Sounding Rockets
The rocket have 4000 most important 7). 20-200 tool This mile in space vehicle region science probes the research near-earth stage to date has been the sounding efforts altitudes a few in their to specific vertical sounding rockets, to minutes cheap-

(Reference been miles) in the

atmosphere rockets

(major

but multiple scientific great their

can achieve in space rockets are for lies

by placing vertical and

a 25 to 150 pound flight profile. The however satellite

experiment of sounding

in a nearly ness, regions rocket satellites,

value

simplicity, and times. for space and

reliability; The scientific

measurements extension

limited of the

is a natural The differences 3.

sciences space probes

investigation. are shown

in trajectories

of sounding

in Figure

Launch Vehicles
In order it to the velocity. compared to orbit, altitude existing the scientific and provide and proposed basis by their satellite it with must sufficient are capacity be launched kinetic shown for by a vehicle energy in Figure a 300 which can Iift orbital they orbit. :: are

desired Typical

to achieve 4, where mile

vehicles payload

on a common ROCKET

nautical

SOUNDING

EARTH SATELLITE

SPACE

PROBE

PERIGEE NEVER ESCAPES EARTH'S GRAVITY FIELD

• ,"

.

,"

MAXIMUM ALTITUDE LESS THAN EARTH RADIUS

ESCAPES

EARTH'S

GRAVITY FIELD AND ORBITS SUN OR OTHER BODY

Figure

3-Space

exploration

SATU 4O

R N

__

35

I

SPACECRAFT

WEIGHT

30
v--I ¢q I

28,500

Ib

O

--J_' (:Dr,,"(O Q-_j

25 DELTA SCOUT

ATLAS-AGENA

CENTAUR

__.e 2o

A

(._ <<

_z

10

8,500 5,000 200 Ib t 480 Ib tb

Ib

--

i
1964

5

Ilrl 1960 1960 1961 1962

Figure 4--Exlsting

and proposed launch vehicles

for scientific .':te llites

In a typical of guidance the satellite rocket orbital velocity final and

space control the

vehicle which ear_'s

there

is a multistage spacecraft the

rocket or payload spacecraft

booster to the fairing

with proper

varying altitude.

degrees When 5).

lift@ the

leaves stage

atmosphere, the 6). required After to the 7).

is jettisoned the payload the

(Figure to the re-

A final quired a small provides

provides (Figure

impulse orbital last

to accelerate velocity

velocity

is achieved, stage

satellite spring

is given which

increment separation

relative (Figure

rocket

by a mechanical

i

:

:%?C

-J_

Figure 5--Jettisoning

of the nose fairing

6

Figure

6--Orblt

injection

Figure 7--Fina

I sate l llte

separation

,

9

SATELLITE STRUCTURE AND MISSION
Present-generation to more satellite
v-4 g_ I

scientific pounds. structure - 30 percent; These Particles primary A typical

satellites weight

may

vary

in weight among experiment

from the

less

than

100 pounds of a

than might

1000 be:

distribution scientific

primary - 20 percent;

elements

- 25 percent; power supply

communisolar XII

cation cells-50

electronics percent).

- 25 percent are shown

(batteries-50 8 for

percent, the Explorer

O

elements

in Figure

(1961v 1) Energetic

Satellite.

As previously space purposes. environment. For

stated

the

purpose

of a scientific scientific XII measures

satellite satellites energetic

is to collect are particles 50,000 designed and miles

data for

about specific

the

Present-generation example, in Figure Explorer 9, its

magnetic at apogee belts,

fields. vs. the

As can be seen about variation charged satellite

highly

eliptical the

orbit inner

(nearly

500 at perigee) of the particles is carrying earth's

allows

it to investigate field,

and outer magnetic components

Van Allen fields,

magnetic than those

interplanetary in these detection

cosmic This

rays,

and

other ten

included particle

of space.

particular

different

instruments.

EXPERIM ENTS STRUCTURE Proton Analyzer Magnetometer Cosmic Ray Experiments Ion Electron Detector Solar Cell Experiment

TELEMETRY SUBSYSTEMS Transmitter Telemetry Encoder

POWER SUBSYSTEMS Solar-Celled Paddles Batteries Converters elements of the scientific satellite Explorer XII

Figure 8--Principal

10

C_
! b$

Figure 9--H_ghly elliptical orbH of Explorer XII traversing both inner and outer Van Allen radiation betts

FUTURE SATELLITES
Future multitude experiments and Federal The ments width scientific of scientific representing establishments. Geophysical 10). and This 6 feet from the at the Observatory Earth-Oriented in length. the spacecraft It has (OGO) half-ton several can accommodate up to 50 space about of which experiin satellites experiments the best are generally provided in American called through observatories. international from They will include as well and a as

cooperation, universities

technology

industrial

orbiting

(Figure and depth

spacecraft booms, OGO

measures the longest

3 feet locates

experiments design equipment experiment required. so if a given another. resulting

21 feet from

proper. of modular and occupy

represents

a standardization can get that is,

in their the

development last only minute several will

concepts. a standardized ahead rather

Experimenters module; than intervals shortly be

on board need Also,

be planned these

months

2 to 3 years - one placed

as is now -

satellites "misses"

be launched one satellite

at regular it can

or two a year on board

experiment

11

!

F_gure lO--Orb|fing

Geophyskal

Observatory

°

The always

Orbiting Solar Observatory

(OSO), a 440 pound satellite,is designed to look

at the sun (Figure 11). The Lop portion (solar cells and telescopes) rotates on a The lower wheel structure (with about a 44-inch diameter) will spin

center bearing.

to provide stability. Gas satellite. The OSO

stored in the balls on the arms

acts through jets to orient the

will permit the study of the surface of the sun and the corona around and examination of sunspots in detail. Itwill at the sun outside

the sun, and spectroscopic measurements provide man

his first opportunity to accurately point his instruments of the earth's atmosphere.

the limiting "window"

The

Orbiting Astronomical

Observatory

(OAO)

is the heaviest unmanned

satellite

currently planned

(Figure 12). It will weigh

about 3500 pounds

and will carry a large for

telescope (36 inch diameter). pointing accuracy
"The co_figuration of this

This satellite has some

very stringent requirements

- about 0.0003 degree or about 1 second of arc. This opportunity to get
spacecraft has changed slishdy since flais figure was drawn.

12

! t_ imL

0

O
0 Lt_ C ,4-

O I

C_J LL

13

-4 -4

F_gure 12--Orbitlng a telescope every beyond the limiting effects

Astronom|cal earth's

Observatory atmosphere has been the dream of

of the

astronomer.

THE SPACE ENVIRONMENT
In some ful; For phere, particles fields, radiation. the information convenience interplanetary which are areas experimental subject consider and data areas the their about the nature almost of the entirely space environment are plenti-

in other we will

is based space

on theoretical only the

concepts. earth's by fields atmosand

environment Space those

to include

space, substantially belts,

components. from

is characterized These solar

different rays,

on earth. and

include and other

magnetic thermal

Van Allen

cosmic

micrometeorites,

Atmospheric
It is appropriate Reference miles, (varies ozone 8). The

Structure
to review composition by volume, to 2 percent), gas molecules the structure cloud N2, of the of gas, earth's atmosphere of which about first lies (Figure below water CO2 the earth 20 vapor and 13,

of this 78 percent less than

99 percent 02,

is roughly, from (03). 0.3 These

20 percent argon,

1 percent with some from

1 percent

together distance

decrease

in amount

as the

ee

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15

increases action into miles
I-4

except of the sun's oxygen

ozone, rays.

which Above

reaches about

a maximum 60 miles, of the - the sun's light the

at 20-30 molecular

miles

due

to the begins

ultraviolet to dissociate 100 go down. is 10 _

oxygen

atomic

due to the

effects place

radiation. gases

At an altitude go up, the heavier the Pressure up to about

of about gases

diffusive

separation from

takes

As mm

can be noted

the pressure by a factor of 10 for every

scale

(Figure the

13) at 100 next

miles

pressure

o

!

Hg and decreases by a factor 9). temperature molecules. that gas

of 10 for 10 mile

100 miles. in altitude

decreases 100 miles

roughly (Reference The the gas

increase

curve In the

shown denser,

in Figure lower

13 is based this In the rapidly.

on the

average the

kinetic sensible

energy tem-

of

atmosphere, would read.

represents upper They

perature, are per little few

is, what

a thermometer it means are very they few

atmosphere, have lots

where of kinetic is heated

there energy very

molecules, but there

are

moving As

particle by these The

of them.

a consequence

a satellite

atmospheric ionosphere 40 miles molecules the molecules ions,

gases. is the to tens are spherical shell of charged above atmospheric the from together produce order earth the gases (Reference sun, wlth electrons the remaining effects. The variable, daily D, E, which 8). are

earth's from the gas

stretches Because separated molecules, Maximum ionosphere being

of thousands exposed giving free charged

of miles

to intense electrons particles

radiation which that are

from now electron

called

are per

the

ionospheric of 2 x l0 s. it is quite as well

densities

cubic

centimeter communications. latitude,

on the

is important by solar changes regions the

in world-wide activity, (Figure

However, and altitude,

affected

geographic 14). The

as having by the respectively. disappears,

and seasonal F1, and F2

daytime

ionosphere 120,

is characterized and 180 miles, D region a single pass

at approximate atmosphere sporadic,

altitudes more two

of 35, 60, quiescent merge which

At nighttime, E region regions frequency shortwave The charge and the

becomes and the

and the into selectively are

the

becomes might

F regions sieves

region. or reject

These radio

be thought

of as electronic Thus commercial

transmission. by the principal around increased that the the F layer, effects object, drag electrical it.

broadcasts frequencies has

reflected pass through is the

by the the

E layer, ionosphere. of a space satellite, data have

and TV and that the which "size" the effect the

higher

ionosphere on radio may

on a satellite

creation the

communications create. may Explorer double

to and from VIII

charge

(1960_s) cloud

shown particles

of a satellite

because

of the

of ionized

surrounding

Magnetic Fields
Out calculated about 0.5 to about for gauss 5 earth radii the magnetic At the In the field earth's range about the earth the agrees total radii, very well with that is

a theoretical or 50,000

dipole. gamma.

surface

magnetic deviations

intensity in the

of 8 to 12 earth

16

1

Figure 14-

The ionosphere

magnetic (Reference

field 10);

suggest beyond value provide

the

presence 15 earth

of a strong radii the

ring

current field

of several becomes

million quiescent, of the of

amperes having fields Also, this as

about

magnetic Accurate so-called it

an interplanetary of space may

of about the and basis becomes

2 to 4 gamma. for making more

knowledge "road may its maps"

magnetic space. to exploit

knowledge phenomenon

increases to control

accurate,

be possible motion or

a spacecraft's

attitude

or to sense

velocity.

Radiation Belts
One and belts of the primary them are effects into what as million 3 and of the are earth's known 15. magnetic as the The field is trapping radiation in these The energetic belts. belts carry distance particles two

concentrating generally 20,000 lies inner

Van Allen particles volts.

These

depicted

in Figure or more radii.

energies of the of electo be activ-

of about outer trons. made ity.

to several between zone

electron

maximum

zone The

4 earth 1-1/2

It is thought radii, flux

to be made defined,

up primarily and with is thought flare

is at about The the

earth belt

is better varies bel_s

up primarily It is now

of protons. that

outer

markedly cause the

solar

suspected

particles

in these

earth's

aurora.

.

17

6

Figure 15--Radlation

belts

Dr.

Robert

Jastrow,

Goddard

Space

Flight

Center,

stated:

"The entire matter of Sun-Earth relationsr including the information of the Van Allen Belts and their possible role in geophysical phenomena, constitutes a relatively new area of research in each of the sciences. It is an area which was greatly stlmulated by the discovery of the Van Allen Belts during the IGY, which is at the moment perhaps the most exciting and fruitful field of research in the space sclence program. ''°

CosmicRays
Cosmic may have rays very is very (Figure pervade energies all of outer (as total much space as (Reference 1015 ev). they bring by Forbush 8). These particles the is about fields the intensity equivalent (Figure drop 15). individually of these to that Satelof

high

Fortunately, to earth magnetic decrease,

particles starlight lite

low and the 16). have on earth The shown during

energy are the

particles that

deflected

observations rays which

so-called storm,

in intensity plasma per all cosmic 1 or 2

of cosmic clouds" second. directions. rays percent are

a magnetic interplanetary less are

can be ascribed at a speed particles/cm of atoms. are About alpha

to "magnetized of about 2 per 1000 second miles for

move

out across are

space than nuclei 0.5

In space The protons. of heavier

there particles Most atoms

probably themselves

90 percent

of the

of the

remaining iron)

10 percent have been

particles, (Figure

although 16).

(up to about

detected

*NASA 87th

Scientific Congress,

and 1st

Technical session,

P rojgramss, February 28

ltearings and March

before 1, 1961,

the

Committee Washington,

on U.S.

Aeronautical Govt. Print.

and Off.,

Space 1961,

Sciences, p. 125.

U.S.

Senate,

18

1
(100 TIMES ACTUAL INTENSITY) I

,
I
L .... __-_ ._ 6 "_ H He 10" C 0

1o t
-J. /

20
.... Ca Fe

3oi
J
!

_0_ 10"4 I-_z
tY

10"6

o

10 "s

8

10.io
I

10-2

1

102

104

106

108

1

10 CHARGE

20

30

PARTICLE ENERGY (Bey)

Figure 16--Cosmlc ray energy and charge spectrum (Reference 8, page 598)

Micrometeorites
The as the optically, measure. interplanetary velocities correlation of sensors. gm/cm around the 3 have "particles" larger. in space The waves. range in size ones are from easily particles frangible sizes, The the submicroscopic and observed than 1 mm) While are its to something either very as large visually, difficult in to

sun or

larger The dust

detected (less

or by radio This

smaller is very

interplanetary space is well are

and porous. masses, problem spatial

existence and involves

established, not well with down

the known. impacts

distribution,

of the

particles

of measurement and the mass vary field) from adequate

the

of these The size

parameters does range

(on spacecraft) microns, the earth and can

calibration of 0.05 limit 70 to 1 of

to a few near earth's

densities from a lower

been

assumed. (determined for

Velocities by the

10 km/sec

gravitational earth's for distance

up to about the sun. There 2 per of the

km/sec,

maximum

velocity

particles is often to date. gm can

at the assumed The give

An average are second wide for But dust 11). varia-

velocity tions masses daily has

of about in the

30 km/sec

micrometeorites. impacts/cm the influx day nature rate on the

measurements than may 3 x 109

figure

of 10 -7 for

larger counts

a "feel" The daily tons

problem.

vary

by a factor 1000

of five.

of interplanetary earth (Reference

been

estimated

to be from

to 10,000

per

"

19

Thermal Radiation
Solar radiation has been extensively studied and its total intensity is known within a few percent (Reference 12). There
,--4 C_

are three primary

parts to the solar spectrum

(Figure

17). The ultraviolet,with wavelengths the total energy.

from 0.2 to 0.4/_,accounts for about 9 percent of is subject to the most speculation since it Satel-

This region of the spectrum

is effectively shielded from direct ground observation by the earth's atmosphere. lites are providing the first good measurements

In this region. The visible spectrum

(0.4 to 0.7_) takes in about 40 percent of the energy and the infrared region (0.7 to 7.0#) about 51 percent. (The actual energy between 0.7 and 2.0/_,as shown by the graph, is The amount of of

45 percent.) The peak energy is associated with a wavelength of 0.45#. energy in the spectrum

below 0.2# is less than 0.02 percent and similarly the amount

energy above 7.0/_ is less than 0.04 percent. The electromagnetic radiations encountered by a satellitebeyond the earth's atmos-

phere are shown by Figure 18. The direct radiation from the sun, the solar constant, is the value of the total area under the curve in Figure 17 and has a value of 0.14 w/cm 2

or 130 w/ft 2. The earth's albedo is that portion of the incident radiation which is reflected back into space without being absorbed by the atmosphere.

0.20

VISIBLE-40% 0.15
_A CD Z

5
rY 1 < tY

0.1
<XXXXX

iiiiiiiiiiiiii ii!
i!iiiiiiiiii}iiiiii iiiiiiiiiil

o
t3_ O9

0.05

iiiii}iiiiiiiiii!iijiiiiiiii
_INFRARED-51%

i!iiiiiiiii iiiiiiiii iiiiiiiii
0 0 0.5 1.0 WAVELENGTH (_,) 1.5 2.0

i

Figure 17--Solar spectral irradlance above the earth's atmosphere at the earth's mean distance from the sun

2O

C)
!

F;gure 18--Thermal

Radiations encountered

by an earth satell;te

It varies and and atmospheric

from

30 to 40 percent conditions. also around radiative its emit A typical radiation _.

of the

solar for

constant the earth's

and depends albedo infrared a satellite's

upon

latitude, 2. The

season, earth

value

is 50 w/ft region.

its atmosphere is typically by the sources, of the not difficult solar

characteristic It should be noted the

of the that

The

total is its on-

energy determined board (a/e 60°C

20 w/ft heat

temperature thermal flux,

balance capacity, Satellite

between and the

aforementioned

heat ratio) are

thermal surface.

absorptivity

and emissivity between

properties 0 ° and

satellite

equilibrium

temperatures

to achieve. radiation creates radiation been has been primarily force considered which affects orbits from the viewpoint For The of its large-area perigee pressure XII (about for

Although thermal low-mass Echo I, for effects,

it also this has

a definite pressure decreased that

satellites. appreciably.

objects, example, 13). per pitched 14).

can affect by more the for increasing by solar increase than

30 percent spin rate

by radiation of Explorer

(Reference 0.1 percent

There day)

is evidence can

be accounted that

radiation spin rate

pressure for the

on the paddles, current sun angle

which are (Reference

in a direction

would

22 3. NASA nautical June
.

Authorization and Space

for

Fiscal

Year U.S.

1962,

Hearings 87th Govt.

before Ist Off., 1 No.

the

Committee

on Aero6874,

Sciences,

Senate, U.S.

Congress, Print. Vol. from the

Session, 1961

on II.R.

7, 8, and Space Log

12, 1961, (Space

Washington: Technology

STL Stroud,

Laboratories), Measurements

6, September Satellites,"

1961 C) NASA,
I t_ b.L

5.

W. G., Space James

"Meteorological Flight E., Center,

TIROS

Goddard
.

August

1961 and Space," NASA Press Release 61-197,

Webb,

"International

Relations

September
.

6, 1961 H. E., Jr., "Sounding for Fiscal Rockets," Year New York: 1961, Hearings McGraw-Hill, before 1959 Authorization U.S. Senate, and 1960 February

Newell, NASA

8.

Authorization of the

the NASA Sciences, Pt.

Subcommittee 86th Congress,

Committee

on Aeronautical on H.R. 10809, June

and Space 30, 1960. U.S.

2nd Session, of NASA "The

2, Scientific Print. Off.,

Technical
.

Aspects H. E., Jr.,

Program,

Washington: Science

Govt.

Newell, 12, 1960

Space

Environment,"

131(3398):385-390,

I0.

Berkner, 1961

L. V.,

and

Odishaw,

H.,

eds.,

"Science

in Space,"

New York:

McGraw-Hill,

II.

McCracken, Interplanetary December

C. W., Dust 1961 F. S., ed.,

Alexander, Particles

W. M., and Dubin, in the Vicinity

M., "Direct NASA

Measurements Technical Note

of D-1174,

of Earth,"

12.

Johnson, Press,

"Satellite

Environment

Handbook,"

Stanford:

Stanford

University

1961 R. W., NASA "The Effect of Solar Note R_diation Pressure 1961 XII (S-3)" 2, 1961 NASA, Memorandum on the Motion of an Artificial

13.

Bryant, Satellite,"

Technical

D-1063, Fact Sheet

September on Explorer October

14.

Marcotte, to File,

P. G., "Preliminary NASA, Goddard Space

Flight

Center,

NASA-Langley,

1962

G-211

21

INDUCED ENVIRONMENTS
This natural marily
g,q

discussion causes.

so far A scientific

has

considered

those

space several

environments induced These

which

derive

from privibranature

satellite phase, balance, which

experiences must

environments, include heating. shock, The

during noise,

the spin,

launch dynamic

be considered.

6

tion, and

acceleration, have been

and aerodynamic discussed in the technical

extent

of these

environments

literature.

CONCLUDINGREMARKS
The tremendous Artificial the origin, next decade, responsibility satellites nature, both knowledge technological practical President's value have in which man will attempt the conquest of the resources tools They The into by which also have Moon, will place a

on the proved

scientific

and technological research

of this man had

country.

to be powerful space

can discover practical will the provide basis The

and extent in meteorology for man

of the and

environment.

applications the for basic great

communications. confidently benefit

scientific It may

satellite provide years.

to proceed for the exploration

space.

advances of any

of mankind

in the

ensuing in the 26,

ultimate The

is difficult Committee

to assess

beginning. 1958:

Science

Advisory

stated

on March

"Scientific research, of course, has never been amenable to rigorous cost accounting in advance. Nor, for that matter, has exploration of any sort. But if we have learned one lesson, it is that research and exploration have a remarkable way of paying ofF--quite apart from the fact that they demonstrate that man is alive and insatiably curious. And we all feel richer for knowing what explorers and scientists have learned about the universe in which we live.""

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The infancy. appropriate the very writer This has paper had was from work the opportunity from many of seeing this experience cited. which the space program develop and gratefully used. from its

culled the

and by gleaning The author freely

summarizing acknowledges

material excellent

references

in these

references,

he has

REFERENCES
,

Dryden,

H. L.,

"The

Utilization Manpower

of Technical Conference,

Personnel Rocky Mountain

in the

Space

Age," Denver,

an address Colorado,

at the Engineering May 2. "Space Off.
*"Introduction

Region,

8, 1961 Activities Info.,
Space,

Summary," NASA,
_ Washington:

1957-1961

(single

summary

sheet

for

each

launch),

Public
to Outer

Washington
U. S. Govt. Print. Off., 1958, p. 6.

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