In addition to fighting its perennial enemies, the Ottomans and Uzbeks, as the 17th century progressed Iran had

to contend with the rise of two more neighbors. Russian Muscovy in the previous century had deposed two western Asian khanates of the Golden Horde and expanded its influence into the Caucasus Mountains and Central Asia. In the east, the Mughal dynasty of India had expanded into Afghanistan at the expense of Iranian control, taking Qandahar. Furthermore by the 17th century, trade routes between the East and West had shifted away from Iran, causing a loss of commerce and trade. Moreover, Shah Abbas had a conversion to a ghulam-based military, though expedient in the short term. Except for Shah Abbas II, the Safavid rulers after Abbas I were ineffectual. The end of his reign, 1666, marked the beginning of the end of the Safavid dynasty. Despite falling revenues and military threats, later shahs had lavish lifestyles. Shah Soltan Hosain (1694–1722) in particular was known for his love of wine and disinterest in governance.[56] The country was repeatedly raided on its frontiers — Kerman by Baloch tribesmen in 1698, Khorasan by Afghans in 1717, constantly in Mesopotamia by peninsula Arabs. Shah Sultan Hosein tried to forcibly convert his Afghan subjects in eastern Iran from Sunni to the Shi'a sect of Islam. In response, a Ghilzai Pashtun chieftain named Mir Wais Khan began a rebellion against the Georgian governor, Gurgin Khan, of Kandahar and defeated the Safavid army. Later, in 1722 an Afghan army led by Mir Wais' son Mahmud marched across eastern Iran, defeated the Safavid's at The Battle of Gulnabad on March 8th, 1722, then besieged and sacked Isfahan. Mahmud proclaimed himself 'Shah' of Persia. The Afghans rode roughshod over their conquered territory for a dozen years but were prevented from making further gains by Nadir Shah, a former slave who had risen to military leadership within the Afshar tribe in Khorasan, a vassal state of the Safavids. Nadir Shah defeated the Afghans in the Battle of Damghan, 1729. He had driven out the Afghans, who were still occupying Persia, by 1730. In 1738, Nadir Shah reconquered Eastern Persia, starting with Qandahar; in the same year he occupied Ghazni, Kabul, and Lahore, later conquering as far as east as Delhi, but not fortifying his Persian base and exhausting his army's strength. He had effective control under Shah Tahmasp II and then ruled as regent of the infant Abbas III until 1736 when he had himself crowned shah. Immediately after Nadir Shah's assassination in 1747, the Safavids were re-appointed as shahs of Iran in order to lend legitimacy to the nascent Zand dynasty. However the brief puppet regime of Ismail III ended in 1760 when Karim Khan felt strong enough take nominal power of the country as well and officially end the Safavid dynasty.

. 's son. . considered the active recruitment of Turkmen tribes of Anatolia for the Safavid cause as a major threat. the Safavid empire survived. a mutiny among his officers who refused to spend the winter at Tabriz forced him to withdraw across territory laid waste by the Safavid forces.v. Khvoy and Xoy. However.v. which was officially proclaimed on October 29. forcefully deported many Shi'as from Anatolia to other parts of the Ottoman Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire ... also spelt Khoi.Tahmasp was born in Shah Abad and came to power at the age of 10. According to R. Savory. and 807 km north-west to Tehran.. It is located north of the state capital. eight days later". and a decisive war was fought there.. Most sources agree that the Ottoman army was at least double the size of that of Ismail. Yavuz in Turkish language. ... . October 10 1465/1466/1470 September 22. in 1502.. "Salim's plan was to winter at Tabriz and complete the conquest of Persia the following spring.More problematic for the Safavids was the powerful Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire . marched through Anatolia and reached the plain of Chaldiran near the city of Khoy Khoy Khoy .. 1520) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. also known by its contemporaries as the Turkish Empire or Turkey . when he succeeded to the throne of Persia in 1524 after the death of Ismail I.. It was Treaty of Lausanne by the Republic of Turkey. also known by its contemporaries as the Turkish Empire or Turkey . what gave the Ottomans the advantage was the artillery which the Safavid army lacked. To counter the rising Safavid power. Khuy. or the best translation "the Stern". Sultan Selim I Selim I Selim I also known as "the Grim" or "the Brave". realm. Iran. M..... was an empire that lasted from 1299?1923. 1923. and the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I.. It was Treaty of Lausanne by the Republic of Turkey.. a Sunni dynasty. the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim.) retook the area lost to the Ottomans by 1602. is a city in West Azarbaijan Province. Shah Tahmasp I Tahmasp I Tahmasp I was an influential Shah of Persian Empire of the Safavids Dynasty.. however. Although Ismail was defeated and his capital was captured.). was an empire that lasted from 1299?1923. which was officially proclaimed on October 29.. Bayezid Bayezid II Bayezid II was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512.. Urmia. The war between the two powers continued under Ismail's son. Sultan Bayezid II Bayezid II Bayezid II was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512. In 1514. 1923... (q. The Ottomans. until Shah Abbas (q.

Early Safavid power in Iran was based on the military power of the Qizilbash.). based on his claimed divine status.The consequences of the defeat at Chaldiran were also psychological for Ismail: the defeat destroyed Ismail's belief in his invincibility. which temporarily ceased before the defeat at Chaldiran. The tribal rivalries between the Qizilbash. and most ostensibly Shah Abbas I successfully diminished the Qizilbash's influence on the affairs of the state. His relationships with his Qizilbash followers were also fundamentally altered. Ismail exploited the first element to seize power in Iran. . he left the affairs of the government to the office of the Wakil (q.v. Ismail's successors. resurfaced in intense form immediately after the death of Ismail. But eschewing politics after his defeat in Chaldiran. and led to ten years of civil war (93040/1524-33) until Shah Tahmasp regained control of the affairs of the state.

and the signing of the Treaty of Zuhab ended the war in an Ottoman victory. Abbas resolved to attack the Ottoman possessions in Iraq. while the Safavids were staunchly Shia Muslims of the Qizilbash sect. since 1621. In response. during the war of 1532–1555 the Ottomans conquered Arab Iraq. Background Starting in 1514. which the Shah visited.[4] The fall of Baghdad was a major blow to Ottoman prestige. while Baghdad.[7] Bakr then turned to Abbas. but the Sultan had ordered Hafız Ahmed Pasha. Ottoman garrisons and the local tribes began to defect. had been. who in turn returned to the Ottoman allegiance. Tabriz. Hafız Ahmed quickly restored relations with Bakr.[7][8] The fall of the city was followed by the massacre of a large part of its Sunni inhabitants. and took it on 14 January 1624. in the hands of an officer of the Janissaries. with Mesopotamia remaining henceforth in Ottoman hands. and even the former Safavid capital. he launched an offensive that retook Tabriz. rose in rebellion. Abbas I. taking Baghdad in 1534 and securing recognition of their gains by the Treaty of Amasya in 1555. failed to offer effective resistance. for over a century the Ottoman Empire and Savafid Persia were engaged in almost constant warfare over control of the Caucasus and Mesopotamia. the governor of Diyarbakir. over control of Mesopotamia.[6][7] Bakr had sought his recognition as the local pasha from the Porte. the Ottomans were able to recover Baghdad.[5] The Shah's opportunity came with a series of rebellions in the Ottoman Empire: Abaza Mehmed Pasha.[5] Emboldened by this success. It ended with the Treaty of Constantinople in 1590. and the rivalry was further fueled by dogmatic differences: the Ottomans were Sunnis. and seen as heretics by the Ottomans. then the two major powers of the Near East. The Persians were hard pressed. The two states were the greatest powers of the Middle East. the war became a stalemate. as the Shah endeavored to transform Baghdad into a purely Shiite city. and the Ottomans themselves were distracted by wars in Europe and weakened by internal turmoil. and his followers. the Persians besieged Baghdad. the governor of Erzurum. Azerbaijan and Georgia. After initial Persian success in capturing Baghdad and most of modern Iraq. as the Ottoman advances were combined with an attack by the Shaybanids into Persian Khorasan. with a clear Ottoman victory: the Ottomans occupied Georgia.[4] and bided his time.[3] The new Persian Shah. until lost in the aftermath of World War I. Yerevan. with the aid of Bakr's son. Eventually. and the Persians soon captured most of Iraq.[2] Peace lasted for two decades before another war began in 1578. raising the new ghulam infantry in imitation of the Janissaries. as the Persians were unable to press further into the Ottoman Empire. Muhammad. The Ottomans. distracted by wars with the Habsburg Monarchy in Europe. to intervene. the Shibashi Bakr. To forestall a Persian capture of Baghdad.[9][5] . including the cities of Kirkuk and Mosul and the Shia holy shrines of Najaf and Karbala. In 1603. who sent troops to Bakr's aid. and exploiting the internal turmoil within the Ottoman Empire following the murder of Sultan Osman II.The Ottoman–Safavid War of 1623–1639 was the last of a series of conflicts fought between the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia. reorganized his army.[1] After the Battle of Chaldiran eliminated Safavid influence in Anatolia.

[9] In response. Abbas decided to intercept Ottoman supply convoys.[11] A severe winter. and having secured peace with the Habsburgs. which was repulsed with heavy losses. in a conscious effort to emulate his warrior predecessors. however.In 1625. the Ottoman army lifted the siege and withdrew to Mosul. Shah Safi sent a peace delegation to the Ottoman court. the Persians re-established their control of Iraq. but failed to take the city before the arrival of a relief army under Shah Abbas. and despite future conflicts and minor adjustments. and subdued the rebellious Kurdish populations. under the new and capable Grand Vizier Gazi Ekrem Khüsrev Pasha. a Georgian convert. made operations in central Iraq impossible. Sultan Murad IV himself took up the leadership of the army. Tabanıyassi Mehmed Pasha rejected its demands. the Persians had given up on politics and militarism and had submerged themselves in Islamic devotion. The Ottomans took Yerevan (on 8 August) and plundered Tabriz. In 1634. marched to retake Baghdad. Shah Safi retook Yerevan and defeated an Ottoman army.[12] The Caucasian front of the Persians flared up again in 1633. and peace negotiations began soon after.[10][7] In 1629. He would however manage to restore himself on the throne of Kakheti in 1638. and Khüsrev turned his army east. concluded on 17 May 1639.[9] The Ottoman assaults on the city managed to penetrate the outer fortifications. under the rule of King Teimuraz. Teimuraz was defeated. On 4 May 1630. with Yerevan remaining Persian. However the siege had to be lifted soon.[16][17] The Treaty of Zuhab. and Iraq ceded to the Ottomans. which had traditionally formed an important part of various Persian empires from the time of the Achaemenids. Murad IV himself led an army against Baghdad.[14] In 1635. was irrevocably lost. when the restless Georgian kingdoms of Kartli and Kakheti. finally settled the Ottoman– Persian frontier. The Ottomans then withdrew within their strongly fortified camp. and even win Persian recognition of this fact. and continued to prosecute the siege. in the 1200s. he routed the Persians under Zainal Khan Begdeli Shamlu in battle at Mahidasht near Kermanshah and proceeded to sack the city of Hamadan. mustered their forces for another offensive. Sufism and religious eclecticism. now Grand Vizier. This strategy bore fruit: the Ottomans were forced to risk an attack on the Persian army. including floods.[7][12] Khüsrev Pasha then turned back towards Baghdad and besieged it in November. as the onset of another heavy winter threatened his lines of communication. but his victories were short-lived: in the spring of the next year. Despite a "scorched earth" policy ordered by the Shah. without either side claiming any decisive advantage.[12][13] In the wake of his withdrawal. which. the frontier postulated by the treaty remains to this day the western border of Iran with Iraq and Turkey The Safavids and War between Shia and Sunni Muslims While under the rule of the Mongols. Hafız Ahmed Pasha. the Ottomans. Iran had Mongol and Turkish immigrants who adopted the . The next few years saw constant raiding and skirmishes. and in 1638. [16] The peace established a permanent equilibrium of power in the region. effectively restoring Ottoman control over Iraq. was sent by the Shah to subdue them. defied Safavid sovereignty. the Ottoman army reached Baghdad and invested it in November on three sides. but managed to escape to safety in Imereti. Rustam Khan.[16][17] Renewed Persian peace proposals failed. The city fell in December after a siege of 39 days. and on 4 July 1626. Mesopotamia. but the new Grand Vizier. During these times.[15][12] The victorious Sultan returned in triumph to Constantinople. invading Persia proper.

which had cavalry with only spears. Bayezid II (ruled 1481-1512). The Ottoman sultan. Bayezid was dethroned. They were bewildered by their defeat. and they viewed their leader's position as rightly passed from father to son . In addition to Persians. were a power behind the throne and chose as the new sultan the son that was most warlike: Selim. Selim becoming Selim the Shia tradition. and their leader. In the year 1500. was declared Shah (king). congratulated Isma'il on his military victories and suggested that he and his Shia followers stop destroying the graves and mosques of Sunni Muslims. and Selim secured his rule by having his two brothers and their sons executed by strangulation. In 1501 the Safavids seized Tabriz and made it their capital. His three sons fought each other for his throne at the Ottoman capital. The Ottoman Empire Expands . Convinced of the righteousness of their cause and the evil of the Sunni branch of Islam. To help organize the state the Safavids used Persian bureaucrats with a tradition in administration and tax collecting. Iran had Kurds. Azerbaijan and Khurasan. It wavered between Christianity and Islam and chose Islam. on their father's side. and he and his Safavid followers had believed that Allah was on their side. the Safavids ignored Bayezid. Arabs. Meanwhile a militant Islamic Sufi order. a dynasty founded by a grandson of Genghis Khan. the thirteen-year-old son of a recently deceased Safavid leader set out to conquer territory. He died ten years later at the age of thirty-seven. Those special warriors. The Safavids became the strongest force in Iran.a difficult task as his authority with a variety of tribes had been little accepted. Isma'il denigrating the Sunni branch of Islam and trying to force people to become Shia . Selim's army defeated the Safavid army.Persian language and Persian customs. At Isma'il's court a Turkish language was spoken. And they conquered in Armenia. And the Safavid order survived the coming of Timur (Tamerlane) in the 1300s. the Janissaries. They viewed their religious leader as a perfect guide as well as an able military chieftain. In the 1300s. He is reported to have exterminated thousands of Shia Muslims in Asia Minor. By 1500 the Safavids had adopted the Shia branch of Islam. but having adopted much of Persian culture the Safavids were thought by outsiders to be Persian. Isma'il had been accustomed to victory. Isma'il. Then he launched a war against the Shia king of Persia: Isma'il. In 1512 the aged Bayezid was ill. now fifteen. of the Prophet Muhammad. the Safavids. west of the Caspian Sea. ruled in Iran. a Sunni Muslim. Turkomans and Baluchis to name a few. Isma'il found relief from psychological depression in wine. Hulagu. and they tried to create religious unity. Shi'ism became the state religion. Selim's armies advanced through northern Mesopotamia. Isma'il described himself as a descendant. Constantinople. Selim embarked on a war against what he saw as the heresy of Shi'ism. and in August 1514. bows and swords against Ottoman artillery and muskets. The area of the world thought of as Iran was mountainous and it had a variety of nomadic tribes with egalitarian traditions not yet completely erased. their home base at Ardebil. just west of Tabriz. and they were eager to advance Shi'ism by military means. Safavid males wore red headgear for identification. appeared among Turkish speaking people.

He died and was succeeded by his only son. In 1516 his troops moved southward and captured Damascus. In 1517 the Ottomans defeated the Mameluk Sultan Tuman outside Cairo. He moved against Vienna. 1521. Suleiman (Sulayman). almost all of them Christians. Suleiman sending an armada of 400 ships to Rhodes and leading 100. Armenia. Suleiman's army made a gap 150 feet wide in Vienna's wall.Next. Selim had almost doubled the size of the Ottoman Empire. the Abbasid caliph having moved to Egypt after the conquest of Baghdad by the Mongols in 1258. and with winter approaching Suleiman lifted his siege against Vienna. He believed that he should unite the peoples of the East and West as had Alexander the Great. lands to the Caspian Sea. Suleiman's army was essentially a summer force. But he believed that he should conquer as had his father.000 men over land to a point just opposite the island. that was most celebrated. The Ottomans set fire to their . who was twenty-six. Gaza and Jerusalem. his use of the tradition of Abu Bakr and Umar ibn-al-Khattab aside from the harem that he had inherited.known to be the best in the world . Now the head of the Abbasid family was taken to Constantinople as prisoner. Palestine and Egypt. The Abbasids surrendered the title of caliph and the sword and mantle of Muhammad the Prophet. Ottomans losses were heavy. but for the world it was his conquests. Selim's forces confronted the last of Abbasid authority. Suleiman was commander of the faithful. the Abbasids had been making only a feeble show of authority in religious matters. In Europe he was to be called Suleiman the Magnificent because of wealth and grandeur. In 1526 he overran Buda and Pest on the Danube River in Hungary. who declared himself caliph. and those who stayed were promised freedom of worship and freedom from taxation for five years. In nine years. Under the Mameluks. The Ottomans employed their artillery again . Next. The island's inhabitants were allowed to depart if they wished. His troops had to endure much rain. At Vienna's walls the Ottomans applied their light cannon. Selim moved against the Mameluk rulers who had allied themselves with the Persians.1529. Rhodes capitulated. Suleiman surrounded the city and bombarded it with heavy cannon. And after a siege of 145 days. During Suleiman's first year as sultan he moved against Belgrade. The Ottomans viewed the knights there as cutthroats and pirates and were annoyed with their attacks on Ottoman ships taking goods to Egypt and pilgrims to Mecca. He was also an accomplished poet in three languages. filled with 300 women under the age of twentyfive. In Egypt. Suleiman inherited a well organized nation. He became known as a great conqueror. Europeans were too distracted by conflict amongst themselves to rally to Belgrade's defense. Syria. musketry and skilled archery. a treasury filled with taxes drawn from far and wide. Selim became ill in 1520. a man of sincere religious convictions. although amid his wealth he was thought to be a man of discipline and simplicity . to Selim. Beirut. with more kindness and tolerance than his father. The conquest over Rhodes was to eliminate all threats to Ottoman naval power in the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean seas. Four years after his victory over Rhodes. The Ottoman Empire now included all of Mesopotamia. Suleiman aimed at conquest of the Christian island of Rhodes. but with ferocious resistance the Christians stopped the Ottomans from pouring through. and a disciplined army. but lacking enough soldiers he returned to Constantinople and tried again in May.and they reinforced their bombardments with sappers and explosives. Suleiman aimed against at conquest in Europe. guarded by eunuchs. and Belgrade fell to the Ottomans in August. The assault on Rhodes began in 1522.

Shia society not immune from the same temptations that had plagued their enemy. and Philip II of Spain entered the alliance. Spain and a small squadron from the Papal states. Suleiman lived until 1566. the ruling pirate. In 1529. Suleiman made Khaya ad-Din admiral-in-chief of his navy. Suleiman had suffered his first defeat. massacred their prisoners except for those young enough to qualify for their slave markets and returned home. had been in conflict with the Portuguese and Spanish. Suleiman sent Khayr ad-Din reinforcements. sent a force that retook Tunis. Members of the order were scholar-priests known as ulama. Khayr adDin took control of Algiers and made it the base for piracy.Khayr ad-Din defeated the Italian admiral Andrea Doria. In Vienna.a victory that Pope Pius V attributed to the intercession of Saint Mary.camps. Under Suleiman. ruling in succession to 1587. And the local Qizilbash chiefs grew wealthy . the Habsburg emperor of Spain. And the Safavids turned again against Ottoman power and fought for control over Tabriz. These shahs tightened controls over their subjects. In 1571. and in 1534 Khayr ad-Din captured Tunis. Khayr enjoyed a great presence at court until his death in 1546. The Christian alliance lost 12 galleys and around 8. The Safavids. But it was not a totally effective intercession: the Ottomans immediately began to rebuild their navy. Bloodletting and Shia Politics to the End of the Century Safavid confidence returned. the Ottoman Turks captured Cyprus from the Venetians. the most famous of which the Christians called Barbarossa. Safavid shahs. The pirates held territory along the coast of North Africa.the last great battle with oar propelled vessels. Tahmasp. That same year. Islamic pirates there. From the Ottoman ships the Christians seized 15. Barbarossa took over. a force of more than 300 ships.000 Christians said to have been slaves. It was the first defeat of an Ottoman force . and fearing loss of territory to the Spanish he offered homage to Suleiman.the Umayyads. the Ottomans made further gains in empire along the coast of North Africa west of Egypt. Twice . In 1570. a Turk from Lesbos. Christian Europe saw itself as having been delivered from Islam and the Ottomans. as far as Transoxiana. In time of war the Qizilbash chiefs were responsible for providing soldiers for the shah's army and for collecting revenues to pay for war. was killed by the Spanish in 1518. giving the Ottomans control over the Mediterranean Sea. Charles V. expanded in the direction opposite from the Ottomans. Isma'il II and Muhammad Khadabandeh. centuries before . The most learned of the Ulama achieved the . and Cyprus was not recovered. Then in 1538 Khayr ad-Din defeated Charles' navy at the Battle of Préveza. In the early 1500s. met the Turks inside the Gulf of Lepanto . assuming title of Khayr ad-Din. Christian communities along the eastern Mediterranean coast shook with fear. answerable to the Shah. Barbarossa's brother. The Ottomans lost an estimated 25.000 killed and 117 galleys. Ottoman naval superiority in the Mediterranean was soon restored. a Qizilbash chief. the sight of the Ottoman withdrawal was followed by the ringing of bells and great celebration. The shahs created an ideological and judicial order as a part of their 1533 and 1544 . each district having its own Safavid leader. Baghdad and Armenia. supplied by Venice. Pope Pius V allied the Church with Venice.000 men killed. to be harassed by Christian cavalry and bad weather along the way. Arüj.

and those who did were allowed to give authoritative interpretations to questions of religious law. few reached this highest rank level. In Safavid times. and Qizilbash chiefs loyal to the royal family fought and defeated Qizilbash chiefs who were not. As often happens. Some of these chiefs tried to reduced the chances of another choice by executing the heir. politics by murder was less than efficient. Abbas. They tried to convince Shah Khadabandeh that he should select a successor amenable to them. . similar to the position to be known as ayatollah. The younger brother of the murdered heir was secretly whisked away to Khurasan. and full power was returned to the old dynasty of shahs. The younger brother of the murdered heir. some local Qizilbash chiefs wished to have more freedom from the Shah's authority. and he was to rule until 1629. succeeded Khadabandeh in 1587.rank of mujtahid. his mother and some other possible heirs within the royal family. With their self-esteem and power derived from their increased wealth.

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