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Art Therapy in Schools
Working with Children who have Experienced Political Violence and Torture A Booklet for Teachers
Written by Debra Kalmanowitz (MA, RATh Arts Therapist) and Sheila Kasabova (MA Counselling Aspects in Teaching and Learning) Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy Team

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The paintings I make can change my life. Rather than revealing something about who I was when they were created, the images will sometimes make a statement influencing who I will become. (McNiff1992:64)

Acknowledgements
Designed by Tom Salinsky (07956 009174) Printed by Alden Press This booklet was produced by the Medical Foundation as part of its work with lincs (Learning in Central Camden Schools), London Borough of Camden Education Action Zone (2000-2003). We are grateful to the staff, children and families with whom we worked. © Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture 2004 A registered charity number 1000340 Published July 2004

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .art_3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Children who have Experienced Political Violence and Torture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .qxd 19/07/2004 17:34 Page 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgements . . . . .19 How can Art Therapy Help Facilitate Learning and Social Development? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Trauma and Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 The Importance of Art for Normal Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 What are the Basic Practical Requirements for an Art Therapy Session? . . .7 Exerpts from Two Art Therapy Groups in Schools . . . .2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Booklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 What do the Children Say? . . . .21 What do the Teachers Say? . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Referral to Art Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Art Therapy 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Collaborating with Schools – Working in Partnership . .6 Art Therapy . . . . . . . . .

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art_3. loss and change. Some children may find it difficult to move forward while others show uneven development. Clearly.) and their past with their present. Art Therapy 5 . etc) with their external experiences (war. It 1 2 3 The term art therapy denotes all art forms arts therapy. Many teachers may find listening to the experiences of these children very difficult as the experiences of the children are often catastrophic and brutal. perceptions. violence. The Medical Foundation works specifically with people who have experienced torture and high levels of political violence. exile. etc. adolescents and families who have experienced a high level of political violence. complex feelings. School can be a positive environment for bringing in resources from the community and making them accessible to children. bringing to the listener situations of life and death and issues such as fear of annihilation and abandonment. separation.qxd 19/07/2004 17:34 Page 5 Introduction The aim of this booklet is to help teachers better understand art therapy1 in the context of schools and its usefulness to children who have experienced political violence and torture. Crucially this has a significant influence on the child’s academic and social functioning. The development of these children may be interfered with. This is particularly relevant for refugee families who may be socially isolated and unfamiliar with support services in the UK. not all refugees fall into this category. This work is for those children who do. loss. It is important to acknowledge from the outset that the majority of children who have experienced political violence and torture will not need specialist intervention. and confusing circumstances are often difficult for the child to talk about. School is a familiar environment for parents and children and therefore a place through which parents may feel confident enough to accept help that they might not ordinarily consider. emotions. The word parent denotes parent or carer.3 We recognise that the specific impact of these events are cumulative and often affect the child’s capacity to deal with new situations. their parents2 and teachers. The Medical Foundation works specifically with children. Art therapy provides an opportunity for children who are exhibiting problems to begin to integrate their internal experiences (thoughts. Teachers and clinicians are aware that extreme experiences.

This enables her perhaps to participate more fully in the complex and often confusing adult world. children have given us more than a picture or sculpture. War and killing. Art can be a means of 4 The word her is used to denote both male and female throughout the text. art therapy provides a creative and alternative way of working which centres around the making of art and developing flexibility. In so doing it has the potential to mobilise the resilient aspects of each child. painting.art_3. or constructing is a complex one in which children bring together diverse elements of their experience to make a new and meaningful whole. and understand her4 environment. imagination and spontaneity. feel and see. and reforming these elements. (Lowenfeld1987:2) Art is of vital importance to children. they have given us part of themselves: how they think. helps these children to express their feelings. creativity.qxd 19/07/2004 17:34 Page 6 The tank. But just as importantly. It provides the child with an opportunity to create and to see the product of her creation. In the process of selecting. The Importance of Art for Normal Development The process of drawing. to begin to give meaning to their experiences and perhaps to reconcile themselves with the multifaceted disruption and fragmentation in their lives. 6 Art Therapy . interpreting. The involvement of a child in art is a very individual and personal experience. It is one way in which a small child can interact with.

All this is vital in helping the child to develop and move forward. dancing. The former may help the child to feel her own worth. telling a story. In an art therapy session the child is involved in making art (painting. The disintegration of family. writing a poem.art_3. sculpting. and to re-connect with her past memories and feelings. Art making may allow for cathartic expression. The importance of art for interrupted development Artistic expression is also important in circumstances when extreme events and traumatic experiences have overwhelmed the child.qxd 19/07/2004 17:35 Page 7 self-expression and communication with others and can also be a very personal interaction between the self and the art medium. My Family. know greater self-esteem and begin to understand her world. Art Therapy What is art therapy? Art therapy is a combination of disciplines: art and therapy. It is through this process that the child can begin to make meaning of events. emotions or experiences in her life. Art therapy is the disciplined reflection on these two processes. acting out a scene). Art Therapy 7 . It can also help the child make sense of her difficult experiences and place them in context. in the presence of a therapist. help the child to express what may be ‘unspeakable’. The Greek origins of the word therapy suggest serving and attending to another and art is seen as a mode of intrinsic personal expression.

The child is encouraged to explore and experiment. to find her own way. Through the reflections and the attitude of the therapist the child gains an understanding of the therapeutic boundaries and the nature of her freedom and responsibilities. The child becomes aware of the permissive nature of the art therapy environment as set up by the therapist. or the transpersonal at one and the same time. Make a puppet of someone important the art-making process. clear boundaries or limits are set in which the art therapy session can take place. Art Therapy does not rely on previous art skills. reliable. the dynamic of relationships. confidential space in which the child receives focused attention. the archetypal.art_3. The art therapy session provides a regular. only a way in accordance with the unique nature of the individual child. which remain as a visual witness to which she can return. At the centre of art therapy is the understanding that all of the above can lead to change. This allows for the individual pace of the child to unfold as the child becomes ready to accept different levels of her initial expression. What happens in an art therapy session In the art therapy session the child makes art. through the dynamic of conscious and unconscious and through reflections on the content of the image itself. the social. however. through to you. The child is regarded as an individual with internal resources for her own development. In the art therapy session there is no right or wrong way to make art. It has the capacity to hold the personal. the political.qxd 19/07/2004 17:36 Page 8 The content of the image made in the art therapy session can contain many meanings. the spiritual. Art therapy works on many levels: through the absorption in Puppet. The therapist may use expressions 8 Art Therapy . Within this.

It is a situation in which individuals have been forced to experience the horror of the violence itself. or through displacement. In art therapy the art therapist must work not only with the traumatic experience and its impact on the child. express sadness. the decision is yours”. But her constant attitude is to encourage and empower the child to find and develop her own capacities and skills. • Trauma may result in the child becoming rigid so as to cope with her experience. The art therapist may offer technical help. for example.art_3. but with the resilience and coping of the child too. The art allows for concerns to be expressed in a very concrete form and yet still to be expressed symbolically. Why art therapy with children who have experienced political violence? Political violence is by its nature out of the realm of the ordinary. Following are a few working thoughts: • The experiences a child goes through may be imaginable but unspeakable. • The art-work can emotionally contain the child and/or serve as a cathartic expression. rather than saying it. Some children may find it easier to speak about a fictitious character (rather than themselves) or to draw/paint/sculpt something (abstract. “This is your art work. facilitate a creative environment. Art therapy can work with the dynamic of the conscious and unconscious and serve to allow for expression of both. Despite this we are aware that the internal resources of the child may have become stuck (inflexible and inaccessible) and refugee and asylum seeking children may feel trapped by worries and often long for a sense of freedom to play and imagine. offer information or point out possibilities the child has not seen. to vent anger. terror or fear. The use of art encourages the child to Art Therapy 9 .qxd 19/07/2004 17:36 Page 9 such as: “This is your time and space”. or concrete). • When children are terrified they may cope by forgetting some of their experience and in so doing they may keep things in the unconscious at some cost to their thinking and functioning. metaphorically. It is the role of the art therapist to help the child to reconnect to her internal resources and to her capacity to mobilise these. encourage expression. as well as to express joy and hope. reflect on individual or group process.

to become aware of similarities and to look at memories and feelings that may have been previously unavailable to them. • The art therapist is trained to know when to address the emotions or concerns that emerge (in the art work and/or in the dynamic of the session). 10 Art Therapy . Addressing death and dying. comment or reflect on these. This also allows them to learn from their peers. to broaden their range of problem solving strategies. seek answers. Lowenfeld (1987) writes that the art-work encourages the child to question. to tolerate difference. or hold them for the child until she may be ready to hold them herself. This creative approach towards art may carry over into other aspects of the child’s life – social interactions. work creatively and to find creative solutions to the art-work in front of her. academic functioning and ability to solve problems. to find form and order. and to become aware that other children may be feeling just like them.art_3. Through the group they learn to interact and share. to rethink and restructure and find new relationships. Art therapy groups In the art therapy group the child makes art in the presence of her peers and the therapist.qxd 19/07/2004 17:36 Page 10 Painting. This exposes each child to the images made by other group members on both a conscious and an unconscious level.

Slowly all the boys moved away from trying to reproduce John’s fake passport and individualised their own passports and ID cards. an opportunity to work through the art consciously and unconsciously and the possibility to be supported by a therapeutic relationship. beliefs. Interpretation of art in art therapy The image. Phillipe began a little unsure. The other boys looked on.art_3. The images hold multiple meanings and may be interpreted in many different ways. thoughts. picture or enactment in the art therapy session may take many forms (imagination. He worked hard at getting the shape Art Therapy 11 . He showed it to the children in the group and pretended that he could use it to leave the country. ‘but John it is not real’. But as the session progressed became increasingly involved. memories. Individual art therapy gives the child who is not suited to a group.qxd 19/07/2004 17:36 Page 11 Individual art therapy In an individual session the child makes art in the presence of the therapist alone. or an identity card for themselves. John was very excited by this fake passport and held it close. Case study: A year 6 group As we accompanied the children to the art therapy room John showed us a copy of a ‘passport’ he had been handed on the way to school. The art therapist never imposes interpretations on the images made by the individual or group. whilst others said. All names. Responding to the interest shown in the passport we suggested that the children may want to make a passport. as if he had been given something of extreme value by a stranger at the tube station. This idea was taken up with great excitement. dreams. For this case study we have chosen to describe the process of three boys out of seven in the group. Some getting pulled along by John’s excitement. Exerpts from Two Art Therapy Groups in Schools The following are two extracts from two different schools. countries and circumstantial evidence have been changed for confidentiality. but rather works with the individual to discover what her art-work means to her. feelings).

his brother’s name. He was very clear – he wanted to be able to leave the UK and for this he needed a formal ID. This became a British passport with an Afgani flag. After some time he began to draw as he always did. half concentrating on his own work and half on the group. He was so proud he wanted to immediately show it to his teacher. The other boys noticed what had unfolded and gently tried to understand what had upset him. On the front he wrote “London-Afganistan return”. his father’s name. his sister’s name. his mother’s name. When we asked where it was he shook his head. his date of birth. He sat folding a piece of paper in his hands casting his eyes around the table. but not yet finished. On his passport he wrote his name. By the end of the group he had decided 12 Art Therapy . but he just lowered his head. One quarter of his folded page had gone. He found a flag of his country and began to copy this. John wanted to make a ‘British passport’ for himself. Ardian waited for some time to see what the other children in the group were doing. Ardian appeared silently frustrated.art_3. Identity and belonging he wanted and the size of the ID picture just right.qxd 19/07/2004 17:37 Page 12 Passports. He began by meticulously copying the ‘British passport’ he had been handed at the tube station. What remained was a UK passport with his name on it. angry and sad. Phillipe had made the ID card of a 25 year old. It was in the few moments we diverted our attention from him that he tore the flag off his passport. He also wrote born in the UK and gave his address as Kings Cross. He coloured with great energy whilst vigorously blocking his work from the view of the group. Strong reds and blacks appeared on his page. He looked up proudly at what he had made. American wrestler. He received much praise for his self portrait (which was of a wrestler).

excited to be meeting again after six weeks and eager to make art. fantasies and thoughts about their own possible return. rolled and smoothed the clay. We had already come to understand that this group of children had little capacity for reflective thought and found dialogue and listening challenging. For the children in the group his departure raised the question of going ‘home’ and each child had individual ideas. and emotional support therefore took a concrete form. All the children in this group had lost at least one family member and a life that was familiar to them. Once the water had been poured the clay transformed into a slippery. None of these children or their families had passports and they knew that they were neither free to stay or to leave the UK of their own volition. cut. scraped. Some of the children punched it angrily. and a spirit of cooperation. There was a continuous babble in the room. Their emotions were played out in actions. This was significant for all the children but particularly for the unaccompanied children in the group. grandparents and siblings allowed for a documentation of a family history. The clay became Art Therapy 13 .art_3. and yet we could hear no particular words. This theme of passports seemed to resonate with each individual child. For this session clay was suggested. Over the break one member of the group (Robel) had left the group to return to his country. not to go so far as to destroy the group. This made it difficult for them to feel supported by either their peers or ourselves. sliced. and yet there seemed to be a desire to hold back. Case study: A year 7 group The children entered with an abundance of energy. including the names of parents. Robel’s departure from the group had raised an issue that had clearly caused anxiety and fear for each child. In addition the documentation of full formal names. almost like that of babies trying out their voices. slithery substance. light-heartedness. Along with this there was an undercurrent of volatility – a testing of boundaries. We observed as the clay sculptures emerged. others moulded.qxd 19/07/2004 17:37 Page 13 that this was the passport of a British born Chess Champion whose parents were born in Afghanistan. while others added water. There was a sense of playfulness. as if this was the first group.

The majority of the group were using the clay in a purely raw and sensual way. Mbenza poured so much water onto his block of clay that it became a muddy heap. Working in clay. rolling the clay and pouring water into her sculpture. difficult to control. Their emotions were raw. despite their chronological age and their adolescent airs. the rug and the television. rather than manipulating it to an aim. which he later transformed into a gun. There was a sense that no matter what was offered they could not get enough and running parallel to the fluid use of clay were requests for more clay. uncontained and potentially overwhelming to them. Beti spent the majority of the session punching the clay. Peter described his objects as a basket for fruit and a pizza. In the final moments we were surprised to see a sculpted form emerge. more time by the sink. more clay utensils. This was another reminder to us of how emotionally young most of these children were. She described this as an island. the cup. Valbona created a little doll’s house. thinner and in some cases grey and fluid.qxd 19/07/2004 17:38 Page 14 A pizza turns into a gun. Slowly and quietly she assembled the sofa. with two trees surrounded by a watery mote. The clay allowed for cathartic expression of the very young emotional needs of these children. Miriam finally produced what she described as a pizza and an African-style pestle and mortar for pounding grain.art_3. He found a polystyrene cup and forced his wet grey mass 14 Art Therapy . a longer art therapy session (“why can’t this club carry on for four hours”).

qxd 23/07/2004 10:25 Page 15 densely into the cup. The children’s need to test the trust worthiness and stability of this group and to test whether we. often under the real threat of being killed. In this particular art therapy session intense feelings of fear. In this session it was the engagement in the clay that provided a degree of relief. The ability of adults to keep their children safe is often a relevant theme for refugee children who may have lost faith in the adults in their lives and their capacity to protect them. The children in the group found great difficulty in coping with the experiences they had lived through. The art making process facilitated the expression of these explosive feelings in a safe and contained way. He pretended it was a phallus. anger and anxiety were prevalent. the adults could keep them safe. was particularly pertinent for each child. pushing it into the cup with such force that it split at the sides. rather than the final products that emerged. Out of the oozing clay he made what he described as a castle and yet it bore very little resemblance to a castle. This group of children was particularly emotionally volatile and developmentally young. Some may have Working with clay. Children who have Experienced Political Violence and Torture Children who have experienced political violence and torture have had to leave their home country and all that was familiar to them.art_3. but looked like a house compound set into a surrounding circle of bushes with a central gate. After an hour a castle emerges Art Therapy 15 .

16 Art Therapy . watched their homes being destroyed and people close to them being brutally treated and killed. in reality they may face hostility. They will also face harsh asylum legislation and prolonged uncertainty.art_3. Whilst most imagine a new country where peace and safety will be assured. tortured or killed. dangerous.qxd 19/07/2004 17:40 Page 16 experienced rape. torture and other violent physical attacks on themselves. extended and deeply terrifying experience in itself. and intrusive. Crucially this feeling of being overwhelmed will be Memories of a child soldier. it is often not useful to use the term ‘trauma’ but rather to think about the children in terms of being overwhelmed by sometimes diffuse feelings. anxiety. uninvited memories of the past. Others may have become child soldiers. to rape and to take drugs. been forced to kill. xenophobia and outright racism. Some may have seen dead and dismembered bodies. for some the journey into exile may have been a complicated. Additionally. These are some of the experiences we most commonly hear. In addition. raped. Children may have experienced all of this and in addition been forcibly separated from their parents or forced to witness their parents being beaten. Trauma and Loss When thinking about working with survivors of political violence. children face a life temporarily devoid of familiar references and one in which even their parents may be inexplicably changed and emotionally unavailable for them.

Limits define the boundaries of the relationship and tie it to reality. resilience and ritual.qxd 19/07/2004 17:40 Page 17 The hand. Cultural integration. strong moral values. loss of bladder control and/or loss of the capacity to sleep. Additionally. The child may have lost many functions (physical and psychological) such as an ability to concentrate. The child may feel isolated in her experience and may have lost her voice. The child’s self esteem often suffers as a result of trauma as this may halt her development. a degree of flexibility and a capacity to form relationships with others. humiliated. they may experience a loss of dignity and humanity. often leaving the child afraid. night terrors and nightmares.art_3. It is nevertheless important to keep in mind the resilient aspects of the child and assess what protective factors there are in the child’s life (such as a functioning family. They offer security and at the same time permit the child to move 5 See Melzak S and Punamaki R for further reading on coping and resilience. ability to memorise new information. experienced periodically at irregular intervals. regressed and experiencing a loss of control in many aspects of her life. These children are often intruded upon by bad dreams. Art Therapy 17 .5 What are the Basic Practical Requirements for an Art Therapy Session? An important aspect of the art therapy is the setting of limits.

qxd 19/07/2004 17:40 Page 18 freely in her art making and play. teachers and peers. rather than separate from it. • A regular space. The therapy session takes place at the same time each week. 18 Art Therapy . This is explained and adhered to from the outset. Art therapy can be offered as a short-term. How can Art Therapy Help Facilitate Learning and Social Development? A child’s internal conflicts may interfere with her social and intellectual development. • A regular time. medium or longterm intervention.art_3. It is preferable that the sessions take place in the same space each week. In this context consideration needs to be given to the cultural implications of therapy. aggressive or violent children. • Rules. space. for example. Some parents may equate referral to art therapy with ‘madness’. By working with these conflicts in the art therapy session the child may be enabled to relate better to family. Referral to Art Therapy6 Referral to art therapy will include children with many different needs: • children who are underachieving at school • children who find it difficult to concentrate • children who are withdrawn and isolated • children who find it difficult to express themselves verbally • children who may be overwhelmed by their experiences and express their emotions through different and unusual behaviours. The boundaries include the maintenance of time. children who are excessively restless or children who are sad or depressed. 6 When a referral is being made careful communication and dialogue needs to take place with parents as to the reason for referral and the nature of the therapeutic intervention being offered. Thus art therapy could be seen as integrative and part of the overall learning experience. without interruption. • Confidentiality. The establishment of clear rules concerns the safe use of the art therapy session and art therapy room. rules and confidentiality.

• Teaching and art therapy are both concerned with growth. • Through the arts and through play the child has the opportunity to learn and build upon their communication and social skills. Collaborating with Schools – Working in Partnership It is in the best interest of the child for different professionals (teachers. art therapists. for example manual dexterity. This can provide a framework in which teachers can ask difficult questions. and finding a way in which the child can function.qxd 19/07/2004 17:40 Page 19 • Within the focus of the National Curriculum. • Through the arts and through play the child has the opportunity to learn new skills. When working together professionals need to be able to acknowledge and be aware of the specific boundaries of their profession if they are to play a complementary role and form a holistic view of the child. many of the less formal elements in a child’s progress may be lost. Art therapy approaches the child from a different angle in the hope of providing. Art Therapy 19 . and from which the child can be viewed from a different frame of reference. potentially leading to improved educational functioning. • Art therapy has a unique contribution to make as a way of reaching children who sometimes appear unreachable.art_3. and listening to these children. mentors. Some children have difficulties in functioning educationally because of emotional distress. parents and so on) to work and to reflect together about the children in school. Art therapy attempts to address emotional concerns. and address the emotional impact on themselves of working with. visual communication and the possibility to find creative solutions to visual or artistic problems. Working with teachers and support staff Integral to an art therapy service in schools is the provision of an opportunity to teachers for consultation and supervision about the refugee children with whom they work. community workers. This is particularly important in working with children whose lives have been fragmented by war and political violence.

We are not allowed to say “that’s ugly”.’ Year 5 girl ‘I liked the painting that we did together. an artist or a cellist.’ Year 7 boy 20 Art Therapy . What do the Children Say? ‘Making art made me think – when I had to draw what I felt.qxd 19/07/2004 17:40 Page 20 In addition. In this case the art therapist could serve as a resource for teachers to help find the appropriate service.’ Year 5 girl ‘The art therapy helped me feel calm. but sometimes we did. Year 6 girl ‘The group was fun. I now want to be a lawyer. In the playground we don’t really talk to each other. a new experience. the children with whom we work may need to be referred to other agencies. to paint really good and to be a good art worker. leaving behind things that mean a lot to me’.’ Year 4 girl ‘The group helped me get used to things that don’t happen every day. It let the anger out of me. I don’t like it when that happens. The group is kind.’ Year 6 girl ‘This group has helped me feel calm. getting to know your friends proper. I like Mondays because of the group. Talking about private things that nobody else knows. we play football and stuff. Then we started to be friends.art_3. I liked talking to each other and painting together. Moving to secondary school is like cutting half my life off.’ Year 6 boy ‘I liked clay because you make it with your hands. Having someone to talk to that don’t tell.

art_3.’ Head of a Headway Programme Art Therapy 21 . He has come out of his shell. not so quiet and distant.’ Year 5 Teacher ‘He has settled better now.’ Year 5 Teacher ‘He is more confidant in class and in art making. is not getting into so much trouble.’ Year 4 Teacher ‘She is more emotional and oppositional now. and is also more easy. In the beginning she was reluctant to join the group.qxd 19/07/2004 17:40 Page 21 What do the Teachers Say? ‘For x (newly arrived) the group has given him space to think and to gain some reflective distance on his experiences of the mainstream classroom and contributed to him settling in socially and academically. more relaxed. less brittle and more fluent. this is helpful. a little quieter and can be calmed down more quickly. confident and flexible in class. not wrong”. she now thought “it is good to think. but in the end she said. He seems more relaxed in school.’ EMAS Co-ordinator ‘She is more flexible now.’ Year 5 Teacher ‘He is more talkative.

London References Lowenfeld. London Punamaki. D and Melzak. London Dokter. J (2001) Supporting Refugee Children in the 21st Century Refugee Council. T and Case.. New Jersey McNiff. London Melzak.. Englewood Cliffs. D ed (1998) Arts Therapists. Netherlands Richman. C (1994) The Handbook of Art Therapy Routledge. V (1987) Creative and Mental Growth (eighth edition) PrenticeHall Inc. London Rutter. Boston Massachusetts 22 Art Therapy . M & Horne A (eds) Psychotherapeutic work with child and adolescent refugees from political violence in The Handbook of Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy Routledge. R L (2000) Coping and protective factors in Health Hazards of organised violence in children(II) Pharos. London Dalley. N (1998) In the Midst of the Whirlwind – a manual for helping refugee children Trentham Books. Refugees and Migrants Reaching Across Borders Jessica Kingsley.qxd 19/07/2004 17:40 Page 22 Booklist Blackwell. R (1992) Integrating Refugee Children into Schools Minority Rights and the Medical Foundation. London (a pamphlet) Melzak. S (1992) Art as Medicine Shambhala Publications inc. S (1999) in Lanyado. S and Warner. S (2000) Far from the Battle but Still at War Troubled Refugee Children in School Child Psychotherapy Trust.art_3.

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