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BACTERIAL METABOLISM

METABOLISM

1. Definition: all chemical processes occurring in living cells.

A. Catabolism - chemical reactions involved in breakdown of complex


compounds into simple ones; release energy.

B. Anabolism - chemical reactions involved in synthesis of complex


compounds from simple ones; utilize energy.

2. Some general principles of metabolism - the chemical reactions involved in


metabolism:
A. Consist of many overlapping reactions occurring in orderly stepwise fashion,
called pathways.

B. Many intermediate products are produced between starting reaction and end
products.

C. All reactions require


1). ENERGY
2). CATALYST

3. Metabolic Pathways

A. Photosynthesis
1. Occurs in cells that produce chlorophyll
2. Catalyst: light-activates chlorophyll
3. Energy: produced when electron released by chlorophyll
light
4. 6CO2 + 12H2O →→→→→→→→C6H12O6 + 6H2O + 6O2
chlorophyll→e- (glucose)
5. Phototrophs :
a. Photoautotrophs - utilize inorganic compounds (i.e., CO2)
b. Photoheterotrophs - utilize organic compounds (i.e., methanol)

B. Chemosynthesis
1. Occurs in cells that do not produce chlorophyll.
2. Energy: produced by oxidation of chemical compounds (i.e., sugars).
3. Catalyst: enzymes produced by cell.
4. Chemotrophs :
a. Chemoautotrophs - utilize inorganic compounds (i.e., CO2)
b. Chemoheterotrophs - utilize organic compounds (i.e., glucose)

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ENZYMES

1. Importance
A. Determines biochemical activity (metabolic reactions).
B. Inherited characteristic so biochemical activity used for identification
classification, classification.
C. Chemical agents, antibiotics often interfere with enzyme activity to inhibit
bacterial growth.
D. Responsible for many pathological changes in host tissue.
E. Industrial application dependent on enzyme activity of bacterial cell.
F. Environmental activity dependent on enzymes produced by bacterial cell.

2. Characteristics
A. Large globular proteins.
B. Heat sensitive - 10° doubles activity; easily denatured by excess heat
C. pH sensitive - easily denatured by acid, alkaline conditions.
D. Organic catalysts - speed up reactions by lowering activation energy.
E. Specific in action - reacts with one particular substrate,
catalyze one type reaction.
F. Specificity is determined by active site on enzyme.
that is complementary to combining site on substrate.
G. Do not directly enter reaction, remain unchanged, so can react with another
molecule of same substrate.

3. Coenzymes, Cofactors
A. Coenzymes
1. Organic molecules - vitamins
2. "Carrier" molecules - transfer electrons from one molecule to another.
B. Cofactors
1. Inorganic molecules - metal ions
2. Completes structure of active site on enzyme so that it is
complementary to combining site on substrate.

4. Grouping, Naming Enzymes


A. Grouped - type chemical reaction they catalyze
B. Named - type chemical reaction catalyzed, specific substrate on which they
act.
C. Names - end in "ase."

5. Two Groups Bacterial Enzymes


A. Exoenzymes - excreted; break down large complex compounds into smaller
ones that can cross the cell membrane.
B. Endoenzymes - remain inside cell; involved in the production of energy and
cell parts.

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PRODUCTION OF ENERGY

1. Produced as result of oxidation-reduction reactions.


2. Stored in ATP ( see structure pg. ).
3. Release of energy: ATP ↔ ADP + PO4 + E
4. Pathways :

A. Embden-Meyerhoff pathway (Glycolysis)


1). Does not require oxygen.
2). Occurs in presence or absence of oxygen.
3). 2 ATP's used to initiate reaction → 2ADP + E
4). Oxidation of glucose to pyruvic acid (3C).
5). Glucose (6C) → 2 3C compounds → 2 pyruvic acids (3C)
5). H+ transferred to coenzyme (NAD) → E.
6). 4 ATP's produced → net gain 2 ATP's.

B. Fermentation (see fig. in text)


1). Anaerobic metabolism of pyruvic acid (3C).
2). Conversion of pyruvic acid to organic acids & alcohols
3). H+ transferred from coenzyme NAD to pyruvic acid or its
derivatives (intermediate compounds).
4). By-products (alcohols, acids) useful in production of cheeses, wines,
etc.

C. Aerobic Respiration - Kreb's Cycle & Electron Transport


System (see fig. in text)
1). Aerobic
2). 2 pyruvic acids (3C) → acetyl (2C) + CoA → acetyl CoA (2C) →
Krebs Cycle (cyclic reactions)
3). H+ ions → coenzymes → electron transport system
4). H+ → oxidation reduction react. → O final acceptor → H2O + CO2 + E
5). Kreb's cycle → 2 ATP, electron transport → 34 ATP, total = 36 ATP
6) 36 ATP + 2 ATP (Embden Meyerhoff) → 38 ATP

OTHER METABOLIC PATHWAYS

1. CHO →→→ monosaccharides ←→ glycogen (starch)


↓ ↓
energy precursors for cell parts
(amino acids, purines, pyrimidines, vitamins, etc.)

2. Triglycerides →→→ Glycerol + 3 fatty acids


↓ ↓ ↓ ↓
Embden-Meyerhoff cell parts acetyl-CoA → Krebs cycle

3. Proteins →→→ amino acids


↓ ↓
cell proteins acetyl-CoA → Krebs cycle
(enzymes)

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EMBDEN MEYERHOFF
GLUCOSE (6 CARBONS)
(DEXTROSE)


2 ATP→→→→2 ADP + E


2 3-CARBON COMPOUNDS


2 H+ →→→→2 H + CoEz

4 ADP →→→→4 ATP


2 PYRUVIC ACID (3 CARBONS)
↓ ↓
↓ ↓
FERMENTATION ACETYL CO A
(ANAEROBIC) ↓ → 2 H+COEZ
↓ RESPIRATION
↓ (AEROBIC)
↓ ↓
ORGANIC ACIDS KREBS CYCLE
ORGANIC ALCOHOLS
2 ADP → 2 ATP

→→
H+ H+COEZ


ELECTRON
TRANSPORT



CO2 + H2O
34 ATP