Economy of Malaysia: Agriculture - products: Peninsular Malaysia - rubber, palm oil, cocoa, rice; Sabah subsistence crops, coconuts

, rice; rubber, timber; Sarawak rubber, timber; pepper Industries: Peninsular Malaysia - rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, light manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, medical technology, electronics, tin mining and smelting, logging, timber processing; Sabah - logging, petroleum production; Sarawak agriculture processing, petroleum production and refining, logging Exports: $192.8 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 25 $157.5 billion (2009 est.) Exports - commodities: electronic equipment, petroleum and liquefied natural gas, wood and wood products, palm oil, rubber, textiles, chemicals Exports - partners: Singapore 13.9% , China 12.2% , US 10.9% , Japan 9.8% , Thailand 5.4% , Hong Kong 5.2% (2009) Imports: $149.2 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 29 $117.3 billion (2009 est.) Imports - commodities: electronics, machinery, petroleum products, plastics, vehicles, iron and steel products, chemicals Imports - partners: China 13.9% , Japan 12.5% , US 11.2% , Singapore 11.1% , Thailand 6% , Indonesia 5.3% (2009)

Malaysia - Agriculture Agriculture remains an important sector of Malaysia's economy, contributing 12 percent to the national GDP and providing employment for 16 percent of the population. The British established large-scale plantations and introduced new commercial crops (rubber in 1876, palm oil in 1917, and cocoa in the 1950s). The 3 main crops²rubber, palm oil, and cocoa²have dominated agricultural exports ever since, although the Malaysian share of the world's production of these crops declined steadily during the last 2 decades. In addition to these products, Malaysian farmers produce a number of fruits and vegetables for the domestic market, including bananas, coconuts, durian, pineapples, rice, rambutan (a red, oval fruit grown on a tree of the same name in Southeast Asia), and others. The Malaysian tropical climate is very favorable for the production of various exotic fruits and vegetables, especially since Peninsular Malaysia seldom experiences hurricanes or droughts. As rice is a staple foodstuff in the everyday diet of Malaysians and is a symbol of traditional Malay culture, the production of rice, which stood at 1.94 million metric tons in 1998, plays an important part in the country's agriculture. However, the overall production of rice does not satisfy the country's needs, and Malaysia imports rice from neighboring Thailand and Vietnam. In 1999, Malaysia produced 10.55 million metric tons of palm oil, remaining one of the world's largest producers. Almost 85 percent or 8.8 million metric tons of this was exported to international market. Malaysia is one of the world's leading suppliers of rubber, producing 767,000 metric tons of rubber in 1999. However, in the 1990s, large plantation companies began to turn to the more profitable palm oil production. Malaysia also is the world's fourth-largest producer of cocoa, producing 84,000 metric tons in 1999. Logging in the tropical rainforest is an important export revenue earner in East Malaysia and in the northern states of Peninsular Malaysia. In 2000, Malaysia produced 21.94 million cubic meters of sawed logs, earning RM1.7 billion (US$450 million) from exports. Malaysia sells more tropical logs and sawed tropical timber abroad than any other country, and is one of the biggest exporters of hardwood. Despite attempts at administrative control and strict requirements regarding reforestation in the early 1990s, logging companies often damage the fragile tropical environment. Sharp criticism from local and international environmentalist groups gradually led to bans on the direct export of timber from almost all states, except Sarawak and Sabah. In December 2000, the government and representatives of indigenous and environ-mentalist groups agreed that there is a need to adopt standards set by the international Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), which certifies that timber comes from well-managed forests and logging companies have to be responsible for reforestation.

Economy of Malaysia Petronas Towers Malaysia is a relatively open state-oriented and newly industrialised market economy.[118][119] The state plays a significant but declining role in guiding economic activity through macroeconomic plans. In 2007, the economy of Malaysia was the 3rd

largest economy in Southeast Asia and 29th largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity with gross domestic product for 2008 of $222 billion,[120] with a growth rate of 5% to 7% since 2007.[121] In 2009, GDP per capita (PPP) of Malaysia stands at US$14,900.[2] In 2009, the nominal GDP was US$383.6 billion, and the nominal per capital GDP was US$8,100.[122] In the 1970s, the predominantly mining and agricultural-based Malaysian economy began a transition towards a more multi-sector economy. Since the 1980s the industrial sector has led Malaysia's growth.[123] High levels of investment played a significant role in this.[3] The Malaysian economy recovered from the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis sooner than neighbouring countries, and has since recovered to the levels of the pre-crisis era with a GDP per capita of $14,800.[124][125] Inequalities exist between different ethnic groups, with a major issue being that the Chinese minority accounts for 70% of the country's market capitalization, even though it only makes up about one-third of it.[126] Oil palm plantations make Malaysia one of the largest producers of palm oil in the world[127] International trade, facilitated by the adjacent Strait of Malacca shipping route and manufacturing are both key sectors of the country's economy.[128][129][130]Malaysia is an exporter of natural and agricultural resources, the most valuable exported resource being petroleum.[3] At one time, it was the largest producer oftin,[131] rubber and palm oil in the world. Manufacturing has a large influence in the country's economy,[132] although Malaysia·s economic structure has been moving away from it.[133] In an effort to diversify the economy and make Malaysia·s economy less dependent on exported goods, the government has pushed to increase tourism in Malaysia. As a result, tourism has become Malaysia·s third largest source of income from foreign exchange, although it is threatened by the negative effects of the growing industrial economy, with large amounts of air and water pollution along with deforestation affecting tourism.[134] The country has developed itself into a centre ofIslamic banking, and is the country with the highest numbers of female workers in Islamic banking.[135] Knowledge-based services are also expanding.[133] [edit]Science and technology Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor, first Malaysian in space Science policies in Malaysia is regulated by the Ministry of Science, Technology, and Innovation. Other ministries, such as the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Health, also have science departments. The country is one of the world's largest exporters of semiconductor devices, electrical goods, and information and communication technology products.[3] In 2002, the Malaysian National Space Agency (Angkasa) was formed to deal with all of Malaysia's activities in space, and to promote space education and space experiments. In early 2006, Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor and three other finalists were selected for the Angkasawan spaceflight programme. This programme came about when Russia agreed to transport one Malaysian to the International Space Station as part of a multi-billion dollar purchase of 18 Russian Sukhoi Su-30MKM fighter jets by the Royal Malaysian Air Force.[136] In an effort to create a self-reliant defensive ability and support national development, Malaysia privatised some of its military facilities in the 1970s.[137] This has created a defence industry, which in 1999 was brought under theMalaysia Defence Industry Council. The government continues to try and promote this sector and its

competitiveness, actively marketing the defence industry.[137] One way it does this is through the Langkawi International Maritime and Air Show, one of the largest defence and civil showcases in Asia Pacific, regularly attended by over 500 companies.[137] The Malaysian Armed Forces relies heavily on local military technology and high-tech weapons systems designed and manufactured by foreign countries. [edit]Transportation and energy The North-South Expressway Malaysia's road network covers 98,721 kilometres (61,342 mi) and includes 1,821 kilometres (1,132 mi) of expressways.[2] The longest highway of the country, the North-South Expressway, extends over 800 kilometres (497 mi) between the Thai border and Singapore. The road systems in Sabah and Sarawak are less developed and of lower quality in comparison to that of Peninsular Malaysia.[138] Malaysia has 118 airports, of which 38 are paved.[2] The country's official airline is Malaysia Airlines, providing international and domestic air service alongside two other carriers. The railway system is state-run, and covers a total of 1,849 kilometres (1,149 mi).[2] Relatively inexpensive elevated Light Rail Transit systems are used in some cities, such as Kuala Lumpur.[139] Traditionally, energy production in Malaysia has been based around oil and natural gas.[140] The country currently has 13GW of electrical generation capacity.[141] However, the country only has 33 years of natural gas reserves, and 19 years of oil reserves, whilst the demand for energy is increasing. Due to this, the government is expanding into renewable energy sources.[140] Currently 16% of electricity generation is hydroelectric, the remaining 84% being thermal.[141] The oil and gas industry is currently dominated by state owned Petronas,[142] and the energy sector as a whole is regulated by the Energy Commission of Malaysia, a statutory commission who governs the energy in the peninsula and Sabah, under the terms of the Electricity Commission Act of 2001.[143]

Sectors [edit]Industry Malaysia industrial sector accounts for 48.1 percent of total GDP or 63.4 billion US dollars. The industrial output is ranked 32nd in the world.[106] The industrial sector is regulated and promoted by Malaysia Industrial Development Authority.[107] International trade, facilitated by the adjacent Strait of Malacca shipping route and manufacturing are both key sectors of the country's economy.[108][109][110] Manufacturing has a large influence in the country's economy,[111] although Malaysia·s economic structure is moving away from it.[112] Malaysia has 18 companies that rank in the Forbes Global 2000 ranking for 2009.[113] World Rank 493 Market Revenue Profits Assets Value (billion (billion (billion (billion $) $) $) $) 4.24 0.82 70.14 14.05

Company CIMB Group

Industry Banking

Holdings 599 642 706 709 904 907 1179 1192 1205 1224 1292 1485 1501 1613 1643 1755 Sime Darby Public Bank Maybank Tenaga Nasional Axiata Group MISC Genting RHB Capital Maxis IOI Group AMMB Holdings PPB Group YTL Hong Leong Financial Group PLUS Expressways Petronas Gas Conglomerates Banking Banking Utilities 8.82 2.75 4.63 8.17 0.65 0.74 0.20 0.26 0.48 0.39 0.31 0.35 0.46 0.28 0.24 0.46 0.24 0.18 0.35 0.25 11 9.92 63.27 87.98 20.26 10.80 10.08 12.68 33.49 5.17 4.53 24.56 3.82 12.92 24.54 5.36 2.76 1.81 15.27 11.52 14.70 10.21 9.71 10.66 6.81 3.49 12.08 10.78 4.42 5.60 4.16 2.39 5.11 5.70 2.63

Telecommunications 3.83 Services Transportation Hotels, Restaurants & Leisure Banking 4.33 2.60 1.57

Telecommunications 2.22 Services Food, Drink & Tobacco Banking Food, Drink & Tobacco Utilities Banking Transportation 4.15 1.45 0.57 2.53 1.08 0.93

Oil & Gas Operations 0.94

1987 Petronas Dagangan Oil & Gas Operations 60.69 [edit]Finance and banking

Finance and Banking sector in Malaysia is regulated by Bank Negara Malaysia. The central bank limits foreign participation through licensing limits. The central bank launched a Financial Sector Master plan in 2001 to revamp the finance sector following the Asian Financial Crisis. The master plan calls for emphasis on Islamic Banking,[114] of which Malaysia has become a centre of. Malaysia has the highest number of female workers in Islamic banking.[115] Maybank is Asia-Pacific's largest Islamic banking service provider with US$6.4 billion (RM22.48 billion) Syariah-compliant assets.[116]Malaysia also accounts for two thirds of global $82.2 billion sukuk market in 2007.[117] Khazanah Nasional owns the largest retakafulcompany in the world, ACR Retakaful Holdings Limited, with capital base amounting to 300 million US Dollars.[118] A quarterly report prepared by the Economist Intelligence Unit on behalf of Barclays Wealth in 2007 estimated that there were 48,000 dollar millionaires in Malaysia (over twice that of China).[119]

In April 2009, the government announce new licenses will be issued for investment banking Islamic banking, takaful and insurance business between 2009 to 2011. It also announced that the threshold foreign equity ownership has been raised from 49% to 70% and allowed foreign banks to open up new branches and micro-credit facilities. This move was done as an attempt to put Malaysia in as center for Islamic banking and also to liberalize the financial sector.[120] [edit]Oil and gas Malaysia has a vibrant oil and gas industry. The national oil company, Petronas, provides 32% of the federal budget in taxes, dividends and royalties.[121] The oil company ranked 121 in Fortune Global 500 list of companies in 2007. It also ranked 18 in the industry of the same list.[122] The company has ove up to the rank by being 95th in 2008 in terms of revenue and 8th most profitable company in the world and the most profitable in Asia.[123][124] Since inception in 1974, Petronas have paid the government RM 403.3 billion, with RM 67.6 billion in 2008. The payment represents a 44% of the 2008 federal government revenue.[125] Petronas is also the custodian of oil and gas reserves for Malaysia. Hence, all oil and gas activities are regulated by Petronas. Malaysia encourages foreign oil company participation through production sharing contracts, in which significant amount of oil will be given away to the foreign oil company until it reaches a production milestone. Currently, many major oil companies such as ExxonMobil, Royal Dutch Shell,Nippon Oil, and Murphy Oil are involved in such contracts.[126] As a result, 40% of oil fields in Malaysia are developed.[127] Malaysia and Thailand has a wedge shaped area 150 km from Kota Bharu, Kelantan and 260 km from the shores of Songkhla, Thailand which is jointly developed by Petronas and its Thailand counterpart. The area, which is called Malaysia-Thailand Joint Development Area, has 4.5 trillion cubic feet (130 km3) of proven reserves.[128] [edit]Tourism Main article: Tourism in Malaysia

Beach scenery of Pulau Tioman. In an effort to diversify the economy and make Malaysia·s economy less dependent on exported goods, the government has pushed to increase tourism in Malaysia. As a result tourism has become Malaysia·s third largest source of income from foreign exchange, although it is threatened by the negative effects of the growing industrial economy, with large amounts of air and water pollution along with deforestation affecting tourism.[129]The majority of Malaysia's tourists come from its bordering country, Singapore. In 1999, Malaysia launched a worldwide marketing campaign called ´Malaysia, Truly Asiaµ which was largely successful in bringing in over 7.4 million tourists.[130] In recent years tourism has been threatened by the negative effects of the growing industrial economy, with large amounts of air and water pollution along with deforestation affecting tourism.[131] The Ministry of Culture, Arts and Tourism (MOCAT) was established in 1987 under which the TDC was incorporated. TDC existed from 1972 to 1992, when it became the Malaysia Tourism Promotion Board (MTPB), through the Malaysia Tourism Promotion

Board Act, 1992.[132] Tourism Malaysia aims to market Malaysia as a premier destination of excellence in the region.[citation needed] [edit]Others Knowledge-based services are expanding in Malaysia.[112] Malaysia is being promoted as a destination for Medical tourism, regionally and internationally.[136]

Tourism in Malaysia Petronas Twin Towers, Kuala Lumpur Teluk Cempedak Beach, Kuantan South Beach, Perhentian Besar Malaysia is a country in South-East Asia, located partly on a peninsula of the Asian mainland and partly on the northern third of the island of Borneo. West Malaysia shares a border with Thailand, is connected by a causeway and a bridge (Malaysia-Singapore Second Link) to the island state of Singapore, and has coastlines on the South China Sea and the Straits of Malacca. East Malaysia (Borneo) shares borders with Brunei and Indonesia. In an effort to diversify the economy and make Malaysia·s economy less dependent on exports the government has pushed to increase tourism in Malaysia. As a result tourism has become Malaysia·s third largest source of income from foreign exchange,[1] and accounted for 7% of Malaysia's economy as of 2005.[2] As of 2009, Malaysia ranks 9th among the top most visited countries in the world, after Germany. The government agency in charge of promoting tourism in Malaysia is Tourism Malaysia or the Malaysia Tourism Promotion Board (MTPB)[1]. On 20 May 1987, the Ministry of Culture, Arts and Tourism (MOCAT) was established and TDC moved to this new ministry. TDC existed from 1972 to 1992, when it became the Malaysia Tourism Promotion Board (MTPB), through the Malaysia Tourism Promotion Board Act, 1992. Its vision is to make the tourism industry a prime contributor to the socioeconomic development of the nation, and aims to market Malaysia as a premier destination of excellence in the region. Tourism Malaysia now has 34 overseas and 11 marketing representative offices. In 1999, Malaysia launched a worldwide marketing campaign called ´Malaysia, Truly Asiaµ which was largely successful in bringing in over 7.4 million tourists.[3] The extra revenue recently generated by tourism helped the country·s economy during the economic crisis of 2008. However, it is mainly Malaysia·s heavy government regulation of the economy which enabled it to be barely affected by the recent 2008 global economic crisis.[4] In recent years tourism has been threatened by the negative effects of the growing industrial economy. Due to the large amounts of air and water pollution along with deforestation, tourism has decreased in affected areas.[5] The majority of Malaysia's tourists come from its bordering country, Singapore. Islands and Beaches Malaysia has several tropical islands, some of which have been voted the most beautiful in the world. Some of the islands in Malaysia are: 

           

Labuan Langkawi Pangkor Penang Island, the western half of Penang, which is heavily industrialised Redang Island Tenggol Island Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park Perhentian Islands Kapas Island Lang Tengah Island Rantau Abang Beach Mabul Sipadan [edit]National parks and nature reserves 

Bako National Park, Sarawak - famed for its wildlife, especially bearded pigs and proboscis monkeys  Batang Ai National Park, Sarawak  Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak  Gunung Gading National Park, Sarawak  Lambir Hills National Park, Sarawak  Niah Caves National Park, Sarawak  Loagan Bunut National Park, Sarawak  Kinabalu National Park, Sabah - home of 4100 metre peak Mount Kinabalu.  Taman Negara National Park - the self-proclaimed World's Oldest Rainforest, spanning Kelantan, Pahang and Terengganu  Endau Rompin National Park, Johor [edit]Other places of interest Aquaria KLCC, at KLCC tower, KL Batu Caves, KL Kuala Lumpur Bird Park, KL The National Monument Tugu Negara, KL KL butterfly park , KL Muzium Negara, KL Merdeka Square Masjid Negara Mines Resort City, KL Berjaya Times Square KL, KL Zoo Negara, KL Cruise Tasik Putrajaya (CTP) Lake cruises, boat rides, Putrajaya Cameron Highlands Berjaya Hills Resort. French-themed village Iskandar waterfall Kota Tinggiwaterfalls Petronas Twin Towers (KLCC), KL KL Tower, Menara Kuala Lumpur, KL 

                

                

Monorail train at KL Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Mosque, KL Bukit Bintangwalk, KL Thean Hou Temple, KL Kuala Gandah Elephant Orphanage Sanctuary Sri Mahamariamman Temple Dong Zen Temple Eye on Malaysia, Malacca Sunway Lagoon, KL Fraser's Hill Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), KL Genting Highlands A' Famosa Resort, Malacca KL Hop-On Hop-Off, Double-decker city tour bus, KL Malaysian Handicraft Craft Complex, KL KL Look out point, KL Underwater world, Langkawi Crystal Mosque, Kuantan

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