1 Terrell, DG The Emergence of England The Emergence of England: Cut Off From the Roman Empire David G.

Terrell February 20, 2011 A large part of orld hi!tory, ritten in the pa!t 1,000 year!, ha! ac"no ledged the important role played by people! living in, or originating from, the #riti!h $!le!. #ritain, e!pecially the lo land !outh and !outhea!t portion of the i!land that ma"e up modern England, a! the cradle from hich the Engli!h%!pea"ing civili&ation i!!ued. From the Early #ron&e Age 'c. 2(00 #)E* to the beginning of the )ommon Era, the i!land a! the home of a multitude of little%"no n tribal people! ho !melted metal!, built barro !, and engaged in a modicum of !eaborne trade ith the European mainland1. Thi! time of innocence about global i!!ue! ended bet een c.+0 to c.++0 )E, hen lo land #ritain a! renched out of it! !emi%i!olation and made the ,oman Empire-! northernmo!t province. ,ome brought the urbani&ation of civili&ation to #ritain in the form of a fe moderate citie! and remade the country!ide and the !ocial net or"! in a ,oman image. re!ulting in a provincial country!ide of rural villa! ho!e border! to the e!t and north ere guarded by legion! again!t the violent people! in Erie and )aledonia. /o ever, in the fifth century, the Empire lo!t it! hold on #ritain. An influ0 of migrant! flo ing from A!ia cre!ted again!t, and then !urged acro!!, mo!t of the Empire-! boundarie!. For almo!t (00 year!, the migrant! ere driven e!t and !outh e!t by the /un!, a people of the )entral A!ian !teppe!1them!elve!, in the beginning, fleeing pe!tilence and famine. The people! moved before the /un! and their very pre!ence1 bringing ne language!, ne !ocial more!, and independent military po er1appeared to
1

David 2ile!, The Tribes of Britain, '3ondon4 5rion #oo"!, 2006*, 78%119.

2 Terrell, DG The Emergence of England threaten ,ome and )on!tantinople. The ri!" to the Empire-! core area "ept ,oman force! clo!ely engaged there hile another group, cro!!ing an unprecedentedly fro&en ,hine in the north, entered Gaul. Thi! incur!ion parted #ritain from the re!t of the Empire. The flo of people! fleeing the /unni!h advance! e!t, acro!! Europe, continued until +61, in modern France. :ith the /un! !ubdued, the migration! !lo ed and people! began to !ettle forever changing the face of Europe and ;orth Africa. Far from the center of action, on the edge of the "no n orld, #ritain langui!hed in the ab!ence of ,oman pre!ence. The urban infra!tructure dimini!hed and, ith it, the pre!ence of the !peciali&ed labor needed to maintain the citie! and road! built by the legion!. 5ld tradition! rea!!erted them!elve! and by <00 )E, #ritain a! no longer purely ,oman. The local ,omano%#riti!h leader! ari!ing in the vacuum left by the ,oman! ere !cattered and fractiou!, arring among!t them!elve!. They ere con=uered by other people!, fleeing from /un%induced population pre!!ure!1the Anglo%>a0on!, a label u!ed to de!cribe a collection Germanic people! originating in the ;orth German 3o land!. The Anglo%>a0on! added to the culture of the i!land, a!!imilating rather than replacing #riti!h ay!. /o ever, ,ome a! not through ith #ritain. The military and temporal might of the ,oman! a! concentrated in the ea!t and e!!entially bro"en in the e!t but, in it! a"e, a !piritual po er, ,oman )hri!tianity, aro!e to ta"e it! place. 3egion! of prie!t! and mon"! !pread north and e!t from ,ome, to preach )hri!tianity to the people! of northern Europe. #ritain-! !eparation from ,ome continued until about <70 )E, hen )hri!tianity bridged the long divide of year! to theologically reunify #ritain ith ,ome.

( Terrell, DG The Emergence of England Thi! e!!ay ill briefly illuminate the emergence of England by4 !ummari&ing ,ome-! influence upon #ritain during it! time a! a ,oman province. de!cribing the migratory force! that !eparated #ritain from ,ome. commenting on #ritain-! evolution, hile in i!olation and the advent of the Anglo%>a0on!. and, briefly e0amining the migration of )hri!tianity that ideologically reunited #ritain to ,ome1for a time. Roman Britain #y the time the ,oman Empire turned it! attention! to #ritain, it! boundarie! had already e0panded far beyond it! core on the $talic penin!ula. #y the mid%fir!t century #)E, the ,oman province! !tretched from Gaul to )on!tantinople to ;orth Africa. The Empire-! northea!tern boundarie! ere fairly !tatic along the Alp! and the t o great river! of Europe4 the ,hine in the north and the Danube in the !outh. The great river! ere a formidable natural boundary. The ,oman! found it a! difficult to !upport cro!!%river e0pedition! a! did the Germanic people!. /o ever, the pre!ence of #ritain provided a location beyond the end of the ,oman border! from hich force! could land in northern Gaul. $n the mid%fir!t century #)E, thi! a! the concern of Gaiu! ?uliu! )ae!ar, ho a! very involved in effort! to !olidify ,oman intere!t! in Gaul and !ecuring the border at the ,hine. )ae!ar attempted t o e0pedition! to #ritain but failed, confronting the principal difficultie! inherent in pro!ecuting a protracted !eaborne inva!ion4 long, over% ater !upply line! and in!ufficient force! to defeat the !urrounding, numerically !uperior force defending their homeland.2 #ritain remained an uncon=uered thorn, troubling ,ome-! !trategic left flan" for another decade. The !ituation tied do n ,oman force! facing #ritain on the European
2

#ron ynn 3loyd, @,oman #ritain to Germanic England4 A >ettlement >tudy of 2ilitary >ite! in ;orthern England from AD (00 A <00,@ Culture Society and Praxis 'B$$, no. 1 '>pring 2008*4 2(%+2*, 2<.

+ Terrell, DG The Emergence of England coa!t, "eeping them from being u!ed to reinforce the ,hine, or !upport mi!!ion! in other area! of the Empire. The !ituation continued until +( #)E hen the Emperor )laudiu! !ucceeded in e!tabli!hing an enduring pre!ence in #ritain u!ing four legion! reinforced ith au0iliary troop!. The!e !ame legion!, the $$ Augu!ta, $C /i!pana, C$B Gemina, and CC Baleria Bicti0, ould con!titute the ,oman military pre!ence in #ritain for the ne0t three centurie!.( )laudiu!- !ucce!! gre out of an e0pen!ive, inten!e effort to !u!tain the engaged legion! logi!tically, hile forming diplomatic alliance! ith !ome of the #riti!h%)eltic tribe!. The effort to enli!t local allie! !ub!tantially aided the ,oman!.+ 5nce the #riti!h lo land! ere effectively !ubdued, the ,oman-! ere able to deny u!e of the !outhern coa!t to Germanic group!, including Anglo%>a0on!, raiding the coa!t of Gaul. To !u!tain the re!ult!, the ,oman-! !hifted the military mi!!ion from offen!ive operation! in the lo land! to e!tabli!hing effective defen!ive border! in the highland north and e!t, home to the :el!h, $ri!h and )aledonian people! "no n to prey upon the lo land!.. The 3egion!- u!e of temporary facilitie!, in !upport of maneuver arfare, a! abandoned in favor of more permanent !tructure!, !uch a! the 7<%mile /adrian-! :all. The garri!on force! ere oriented to ard! the frontier! and #ritain a! effectively divided into a civilian &one in the !outh and military &one in the north and e!t.6 The (00 year! that follo ed1of #ritain a! a ,oman province1 ere happy and enlightened time! for the ,oman citi&en!, #riton non%citi&en!, and !lave! ho lived there. e!pecially hen the occupation i! contra!ted ith the @barbaric@ year! that came before. $t a! not that the ,oman! e0po!ed the #riton! to =uantum advance! in technology but
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3loyd, 2<. 2ile!, 12+. 3loyd, 2<. 6 3loyd, 28. 2ile!, 12+.

6 Terrell, DG The Emergence of England their !uperior organi&ational !"ill! facilitated the importation of ne technology, religion 'including early )hri!tianity*, language, art! and educational norm!.< The )aledonian! to the north ere held bac" by /adrianD! :all, manned by locally rai!ed au0iliarie! and the legion !tationed at Eor".7 The :el!h and $ri!h ere li"e i!e faced by legion! garri!oned at )aerlon and )he!ter. After !everal generation!, the pre!ence of +0,000 legionnaire! came to guarantee la and order, ample food, and e!tabli!hed cu!tom!. The to n! ere laid out along line! e!tabli!hed by ,oman urban planning. :hile not lavi!h, they ere comfortable. ith forum!, heated home!, communal bath! and temple! that, once ,oman influence vani!hed, ould not return until the 19th century. The #riti!h elite a!!imilated the ay!, habit! and language of ,ome. and, though !ome participated in ,oman politic!, mo!t continued in provincial live!1a !ociety of country gentlemen living in pa!toral villa!.8 $t a! not to la!t. Forces Separating Britain from Rome The force! that ould part #ritain from it! over%(00 year inclu!ion in the ,oman Empire began half a orld a ay, about the !ame time a! #ritain became a ,oman province. Around 80 )E, an epidemic of anthra0 began "illing thou!and! of people and animal!, in an area e0tending from the !teppe! of )entral A!ia to the ea!tern province! of the ,oman Empire. The di!ea!e-! effect! ere inten!ified by a concurrent drought that brought di!parate group! of people and their animal! into clo!e pro0imity, a! many ater !ource! di!appeared1increa!ing the tran!mi!!ion of di!ea!e and the po!!ibility for
< 7

2ile!, (1, 12(. $bid, 121. 8 :in!ton >. )hurchill, A History of the English Speaking Peoples: The Birth of Britain, ';e Eor"4 Dor!et Fre!!, 196<*, (6%+0. 2ile!, 1(6, 1(9%1+0.

< Terrell, DG The Emergence of England human conflict. The terrified tribe! began moving e!t, in !earch of pa!tureland and a ay from di!ea!e and human violence. 5ne of the tribal group!, con!i!ting of about (0,000 people, left their traditional homeland in )entral A!ia 'po!!ibly ithin modern%day )hina, 2ongolia or Ga&a"h!tan* and moved e!t ith about +0,000 hor!e! and 100,000 cattle.9 )ontinuing e!t ard, the group ould be Hoined by other ma!!e! of people from the $ranian plateau and from the >iberian fore!t!. The grouping ! elled, developing a !elf%identity and forming the nucleu! of a ne people that the ,oman! ould learn to call /un!. The /un! are an enigmatic people, a! they did not rite any of their o n hi!tory. ,oman de!cription! hold them out a! a !trictly nomadic people, characteri&ed by improvi!ed leader!hip, di!regard for diplomatic agreement!, ultra%violent behavior and an ignorance of agriculture.10 /o ever, reading bet een the line!, one can !ee that they ere more !ophi!ticated that the ,oman! ere illing to admit. The /un! did u!e fire, tent! and a !ophi!ticated compo!ite !hort bo .11 At it! center, /unni!h !ociety a! undoubtedly pa!torali!t, ith hor!e! and !heep being the chief live!toc". Their need to forage led to the /un! !lo rate of advance acro!! A!ia and Europe. The conventional vie ! that depict great horde! of arrior! moving acro!! the land!cape are not ecologically fea!ible and ba!ed on compari!on! ith modern nomad! in )entral A!ia, /unni!h ba!ic !ocial unit! ere probably e0tended familie!, formed into group! averaging around 20 nuclear familie!. The male member! of the!e !lo ly moving group! ould conduct @!ma!h and grab@ raid! again!t target! of

9

)hri!topher Gelly, The End of E pire: Atilla the Hun and the !all of "o e, '3ondon4 :. :. ;orton I )ompany, 2009*, +(, +6. 10 $bid, 2(. 11 $bid (6, (8.

7 Terrell, DG The Emergence of England opportunity. $t a! li"ely the rapid mobility provided by hor!e combined ith the firepo er of the !hort, compo!ite bo that created the /un-! reputation for ! ift, violent action and the re!ultant fear their pro0imity induced. $t i! al!o important to reali&e that the compo!ite bo !, ! ord! and agon! u!ed by the /un!1and atte!ted to by the ,oman!1 implie! acce!! to manufacturing, metal or"ing and carpentry technologie! normally, but not impo!!ibly, a!!ociated ith !ettled communitie!. The origin! of /unni!h device! are not "no n.12 $n !pite of ,oman a!!ertion! of /unni!h bloodthir!tine!!, the fact that the /un! fed them!elve! indicate! that they had no real intere!t in de!troying the agricultural infra!tructure through hich they moved. De!troying agricultural communitie! in their path ould have eliminated their only acce!! to mar"et! here !urplu! live!toc" could be converted into the grain nece!!ary for !urviving famine and inter. Ta"en together, hile /unni!h !ociety a! un!ophi!ticated, compared to that of ,ome, the ,oman picture of the /un! a! unalloyed barbarian! i! probably over!tated.1( >lo ly and ine0orably, for +00 year!, the /un! moved e!t and !outh e!t out of )entral A!ia, to ard! the border! of the ,oman Empire. Their number! increa!ed by birth and affiliation and their progre!! pu!hed other people!1"no n to u! a! the Goth!, Bandal!, 3ombard!, and other!1to move before them. #y around +00 )E, the /un! had moved e!t. acro!! the J"raine to the !outh end of the )arpathian 2ountain!.1+ There, they !plit into t o group!. 5ne group moved !outh to ard the Feloponne!e, threatening )on!tantinople and ,ome. and, the other traveled e!t into Europe.

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$bid (<%+0. $bid, +1. 1+ $bid, 68.

8 Terrell, DG The Emergence of England $n !outhern Europe, the /un! became ma!ter! of the Great /ungarian Flain by the beginning of the 6th century. /ere, they found gra!!land but, it a! barely one%tenth the !i&e of the )entral A!ian !teppe!1only marginally large enough to !upport the herd! of !heep and hor!e! nece!!ary to their ay of life. The phy!ical limitation! of the geography forced the !outhern /un! !ettle in place. becoming a permanent occupying force that began e0ploiting !urrounding people! ith a protection rac"et on a regional !cale.16 $n northern Europe, the di!placed people! moving e!t acro!! modern Germany reached the ,hine. and ere halted there in increa!ing number! by that natural barrier until the river fro&e in the inter of +0<.1< #y +(0 )E, the Gothic people!, no acro!! the ,hine in number!, had moved into northern Gaul and created a capital at Toulou!e. The #urgundian!, another Germanic tribe, had !tayed near the ,hine, occupying territory there. #oth group! failed to ac"no ledge the !overeignty of ,ome, deeming it too di!tant and ea" to either protect them or collect ta0e!. The ,oman!, in an intere!ting turn, formed an alliance ith the /un! again!t the #urgundian! in +(<, re!ulting in their being !ubdued under ,oman term!. /o ever, thi! !ituation la!ted le!! than a year, ending hen the /un! "illed over 20,000 #urgundian! in an act of ethnic clean!ing that effectively eliminate the group.17 /unni!h advance! acro!! northern Europe continued, and by mid +61, approached 5rlean!, +0 mile! !outh e!t of modern Fari!. here a coalition ,oman%Gothic army had arrived ahead of the /un! and built e0ten!ive defen!e!. $n the face of the determined !tatic defen!e!, the /un! ithdre about 100 mile! ea!t ard and !ettled into garri!on. For the ne0t year, the t o armie! engaged in a !erie! of ineffective negotiation! over the
16 1<

$bid, 69%<1. $bid, 1<1. 17 $bid, 111.

9 Terrell, DG The Emergence of England payment of tribute to the /un!. $n the !pring of +62, the /un! bro"e off negotiation!, mobili&ed, and began an unoppo!ed march !outh e!t through /ungary and >lovenia1 merging ith /unni!h group! on the /ungarian Flain1and continued !traight into $taly. There, they met ith a delegation headed by the Fope, ho induced them to return to the /ungarian Flain ith agon! full of plunder. The /unni!h victory a! !hort lived, a! their chari!matic leader, Attila, died ithin the year, leaving no clear leader. and the /un! lo!t their overall organi&ation, di!cipline and ability to threaten ma!!ive military force.18 >o, by +62 )E, the Gothic tribe! ere able to feel !ecure in northern Europe, having !een fir!t, that ,ome could not defend it!elf, much le!! control it! former province!. and, !econd, that the /un! ere no longer an effective threat. The pre!!ure to run a! abated and the group! !ettled in Gaul permanently, creating a Gothic "ingdom that !tretched from northern France to the $berian Fenin!ula1!=uarely bet een the Empire and #ritain.19 ,ome-! inability to ree!tabli!h it! control over Gaul and #ritain a! e0acerbated by a !erie! of epidemic! that affected the ,oman! and the migrating people!. The di!ea!e outbrea"! tended to halt migratory movement!, driving invading people! into permanent !ettlement! that could hamper ,oman military mobility. They al!o "illed !ignificant percentage! of the Empire-! re!ident!. directly affecting ,ome-! ability to field legionary force! and au0iliarie!. and cau!ing a lo!! of farm population that reduced agricultural output !ignificantly%%leading, in turn, to famine and further lo!! of ,oman population. Britain’s Evolution in Isolation
18 19

$bid, 2++%2<+. $bid, 27+%279.

10 Terrell, DG The Emergence of England #efore advance! in archeological technology e0panded our under!tanding of po!t% ,oman #ritain, hi!torian! thought that there a! an e0tended period1a @brea" in occupation@1bet een the departure! of ,oman military force! in +10, four year! after ma!!ive number! of Germanic migrant! cro!!ed the fro&en ,hine, and the arrival the Anglo%>a0on people! into an e!!entially empty land!cape. $t i! no under!tood that the remaining ,omano%#riti!h population continued occupying permanent !ettlement!, including military facilitie!, and there a! no di!tinct brea" in the occupation of #ritain a! the population !hifted from one life!tyle into another.20 :hat i! !till in =ue!tion i! the character of the tran!formation. and hether it a! a gradual, peaceful a!!imilation. violent con=ue!t by Anglo%>a0on !ettler!. or, !ome admi0ture of both.21 >upporting the fir!t vie i! the reali&ation that it a! not uncommon for ,oman au0iliary troop! to include @barbarian@ people!. #y the time ,ome ithdre it! legion! from #ritain, the unit! !tationed all along the Empire-! border! ere compri!ed mo!tly of non%,oman, u!ually Germanic, troop!1including tho!e !tationed in #ritain. :ith the departure of the legion!, the!e au0iliary troop! remained, e0erci!ing control of a good part of #ritain. $n a !en!e, the legion! peacefully tran!ferred military control of the i!land to barbarian 'i.e. Germanic* troop! ho!e allegiance a! readily tran!ferred to Anglo% >a0on leader! once they arrived, after contact ith the Empire a! !evered.22 Thi! fir!t po!!ibility i! !upported by the neare!t contemporary account, a homily called @The ,uin of #ritain@ ritten at lea!t one hundred year! after the event! by Gilda!,
20 21

3loyd, 2(. 2ile!, 1<0%1<(. 3loyd, 2(. 22 $bid, 2(.

11 Terrell, DG The Emergence of England a #riti!h cleric. The @,uin@ of hich Gilda! rite! i! !piritual, rather than temporal and hi! me!!age i! a call to repentance1u!ing the event! of the pa!t a! an e0ample of God-! vengeance on a !inful people, in the form of Germanic and other barbarian piratical attac"!, upon the #riti!h people. 5f intere!t here i! a brief !"etch, in the document, that indicate! >a0on! ere u!ed a! ,oman au0iliarie! in ea!tern #ritain after the legion!departure. and, that their !ettlement! gre in !i&e and influence until they ere able to overthro their ,omano%#riti!h leader!.2( /o ever, it i! po!!ible the force! left in authority after the legion! ere ithdra n ere not non%,oman foreigner! to #ritain but ere #riti!h men enli!ted into !ervice. $t a! not uncommon for the ,oman government to ma"e treaty ith local people! that laid heredity !ervice re=uirement! in the military force!, though it i! not "no n if !uch a! the ca!e in #ritain. ;everthele!!, if the po!t%legionary force! ere made up of ,omano%#riti!h, it i! po!!ible or even li"ely that ,oman rule reverted to ,omano%#riti!h leader!, ho them!elve! rea!!erted a chieftain%centric !ociety ba!ed on pre%,oman tradition.2+ ,egardle!!, during the migration%induced !eparation from ,ome, #riti!h !ociety e0perienced a !erie! of ar! a! individual! attempted to e!tabli!h and hold regional "ingdom!. There a! a definite economic and !ocial !hift a ay from ,oman urbanity to a more rural%ba!ed !ociety. 5ne cau!e of thi! !hift a! the di!per!ion, if not decline, of !"illed trade!, formerly concentrated in the to n!. For e0ample, archeological evidence gathered in t o ,oman to n!, :ro0eter '>alop* and E0eter, indicate that ,oman%built !tone hou!e! ere not repaired. and, by around +00)E ere being replaced by !impler
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#arbara Eor"e, #ings and #ingdo s of early Anglo$Saxon England, '3ondon4 ,outledge, 1990*, 1%2. 2ile!, 1<0%1<(. 2+ 3loyd, 2(.

12 Terrell, DG The Emergence of England ooden !tructure!. The decline of !tonema!onry contributed to the virtual abandonment of to n! in #ritain during the 6th century. 5ther !ign! of a rever!ion to previou! ay! of life include a reemergence of the u!e of hill%top !ettlement! hich may have functioned a! defen!ive redoubt! or a chieftain-! center of po er. The decline of urban center! re=uired the rural villa! to become more !elf%!ufficient and the e0pan!ive ,oman !ocial order devolved into !mall, independent communitie! one can ea!ily de!cribe a! @early medieval@.26 Even ith the di!appearance of the ,oman admini!tration, it !eem! from the archeological record that the villa! li"ely continued a! a geographic unit of admini!tration rather becoming a center of e0ploitation, ta"ing control of a !urrounding area. The !y!tem of !ubdivi!ion! e!tabli!hed by the ,oman! may have continued a! both the Anglo%>a0on "ingdom! to come and tho!e of the neighboring )elt! ere organi&ed around @!ub!idiary !ettlement! dependent upon a central re!idence hich the Anglo%>a0on! called a villa in 3atin and a KtunL in 5ld Engli!h.@2< Thi! remnant implie! that the fundamental geopolitical organi&ation created by the ,oman! a! be=ueathed to the later Anglo% >a0on "ingdom!.27 At the !tart of the 6th century, the only true military force remaining in #ritain a! the ,oman au0iliarie!, of hatever ethnicitie!. Di!per!ed rural !ettlement! ere beginning to develop their o n !ufficiency and independence. and the ba!i! of pre!tige and political po er collap!ed in parallel ith that of ,oman governance. The non%,oman

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Eor"e, <%7. $bid, 8. 27 $bid, 8.

1( Terrell, DG The Emergence of England troop! probably re!orted to their native !ocial !tructure! e0cept here military di!cipline and tradition! had !upplanted them.28 $t a! into thi! =ua!i%,oman, !emi%#riti!h, touched ith other @barbarian@ flavor !ociety1Hu!t beginning to coale!ce, decade! after the @end of civili&ation@ a! they "ne it1that the Anglo%>a0on! de!cended. The Advent of the Anglo Sa!ons There are !everal, varied ver!ion! of ho and hen the Anglo%>a0on! entered #ritain, not nece!!arily mutually e0clu!ive. $n one, de!pite repeated negative e0perience! ith Anglo%>a0on raiding group! and minor inva!ion!, a #riti!h "ing hired a rea!onably large Anglo%>a0on contingent a! mercenarie! about +60 )E. Thi! force turned on their #riti!h employer! and, after inviting additional reinforcement!, !ei&ed control of lo land #ritain. Thi! change of po er initiated a !erie! of migration! by Fran"i!h, >candinavian and Anglo%>a0on group!, ho cro!!ed the ;orth >ea and Engli!h )hannel to e!cape /unni!h pre!!ure.29 Alternatively, according to the Anglo%>a0on )hronicle, their arrival i! !et in +9+ )E hen K)erdic and )ynric hi! !on landed at )erdicD! >hore ith 6 !hip!L #ut thi! date i! contradictory ith other reference! in the )hronicle that de!cribe earlier #riti!h%>a0on military cla!he!1and, ith Gilda!- a!!ertion that ,oman force! in #ritain included a Germanic element. The lac" of con!i!tency i! ma"e! it difficult to determine hen the Germanic people! fir!t came to #ritain.(0

28 29

3loyd, (9. Eor"e, < (0 2ichael > anton 'ed, tran!*, The Anglo$Saxon Chronicle, ';e Eor"4 ,outledge, 1998*, 8%27. 3loyd, 28. Eor"e, (. 2ile!, 1<2%1<6.

1+ Terrell, DG The Emergence of England $t i! very po!!ible that Anglo%>a0on !ettlement! in #ritain began before the beginning of the 6th century and continued into the <th century. Gilda!- e0planation of hy they ere initially allo ed to !ettle ha! al ay! been very influential. and, archeological evidence doe! reveal multiple burial! of Anglo%>a0on men ith late%,oman !tyled military e=uipment1but, it i! perhap! too much to !ugge!t that all !uch arrior! ere pre!ent a! mercenarie!.(1 At thi! point in time, about the beginning of the <th century, Europe pau!ed. The Anglo%>a0on! ruled the #riti!h lo land!, ith tho!e #riti!h people! not accepting the ne order pre!!ed to the e!t and north again!t the :el!h and )aledonian!. The /un!, dimini!hed by plague and internal !trife had !ettled in the /ungarian plain. The Bandal! 'or no , Bi!igoth!* rule from the ,hine to the #ay of #i!cay, and moving !outh, acro!! the >trait! of Gibraltar into ;orth Africa, into >icily, and !ac"ed ,ome. The ,oman Empire, no !plit, ha! begun arring again!t it!elf. and, the Empire in the e!t i! di!rupted and ea". The "igration of Roman Christianit# )hri!tianity had arrived in #ritain before it! !eparation. another innovation brought by the ,oman!. #y the 6th century, it had !pread into the e!t and north. There, it gained a uni=ue flavor that differed from the )hri!tianity developing around the 2editerranean. 5ne #riti!h )hri!tian figure, Felagiu!, a! the mo!t famou! #riton of the time for hi! theological empha!i! on the re!pon!ibility of the individual to be righteou!, in!ofar a! oneD! ability permitted. that GodD! grace ould not a!h out !in! done ith intent, after oneD! acceptance of )hri!tianity. and, that ongoing repentance a! nece!!ary
(1

Eor"e, 6.

16 Terrell, DG The Emergence of England to oneD! eventual !alvation. :ith the advent of the non%)hri!tian Anglo%>a0on!, #riti!h )hri!tianity e!!entially di!appeared in !outhea!t #ritain.(2 $n the political a!he! of ,ome, the ,oman )hri!tian )hurch remained and, a!!uming many of the out ard trapping! of the Empire, began to pic" up the dropped rein! of imperial po er.(( $t! clergy ere beginning to di!per!e to the north and e!t, hoping to convert the people! no inhabiting the former boundarie! of the Empire. to enlarge, if not reclaim, )hri!tendom for )hri!t. $n +9<, )lovi!, "ing of the Fran"!, !ecure! hi! border! on the ,hine by defeating the Alamanni1and i! converted to )hri!tianity. $n the !pace of the ne0t 20 year!, )lovi!, under the !ign of the cro!!, ab!orb! the European portion of the Bi!igothic "ingdom, ma"e! Fari! hi! capital, and overrun! the 3o )ountrie! to the northea!t. $n the !ame year!, the )hri!tian 5!trogoth! occupying the northern $talic penin!ula ta"e Frovence and $beria from the Fran"!. The ,oman )hurch !pread into the ne nation!, becoming !tate religion in Gaul and $beria. A! the!e area! became )hri!tiani&ed, mi!!ionarie! began to !ee" out the #riti!h $!le! and the no @Engli!h@ people ruling lo land #ritain. $n <<+ )E, the >ynod of :hitby notionally returned the #riti!h $!le to the ,oman )hurch completing a reunion ith ,ome that ould la!t until the ,eformation. The i!olation of the #riti!h $!le!, after it! time a! a ,oman Frovince, i! remini!cent of the i!olation e0perienced by the proto%Gree"! at the end of the #ron&e Age. The 2ycenaean Gree"!, in their i!olation, lo!t literacy1but, emerged from the i!olation having developed mode! of governance that gave individual! a mea!ure of influence in the ma"ing of la !eeming unprecedented in the orld to that point. :hen
(2 ((

2ile!, 1<<%1<7. $bid, 1<9.

1< Terrell, DG The Emergence of England the Feloponne!e a! effectively cut off from the older, authoritarian civili&ation! in the 3evant, the relative i!olation provided the environment for !omething ne to ari!e1a civili&ation that !pa ned cla!!ical :e!tern )ivili&ation.(+ The i!olation that !eparated #ritain from ,ome al!o created !uch a crucible, in hich ,oman gra%itas, organi&ation, education and rule of la a! melded ith the

)eltic pa!!ion for common !en!e and the Germanic tradition! of common la . The re!ulting civili&ation proved to be re!ilient and dominant on the global !tage for the ne0t t o millennia. David G Terrell /erndon, Birginia Bi$liograph# )hurchill, :in!ton >. A History of the English Speaking Peoples: The Birth of Britain& ;e Eor"4 Dor!et Fre!!, 196<. Dre !, ,obert. The End of the Bron'e Age: Changes in (arfare and the Catastrophe ca& )*++ B&C& Frinceton4 Frinceton Jniver!ity Fre!!, 199(. Gelly, )hri!topher. The End of E pire: Atilla the Hun and the !all of "o e. 3ondon4 :. :. ;orton I )ompany, 2009. 3loyd, #ron ynn. @,oman #ritain to Germanic England4 A >ettlement >tudy of 2ilitary >ite! in ;orthern England from AD (00 A <00.@ Culture Society and Praxis B$$, no. 1 '>pring 2008*4 2(%+2. 2ile!, David. The Tribes of Britain. 3ondon4 5rion #oo"!, 2006. > anton, 2ichael 'ed, tran!*. The Anglo$Saxon Chronicle. ;e Eor"4 ,outledge, 1998. Eor"e, #arbara. #ings and #ingdo s of early Anglo$Saxon England. 3ondon4 ,outledge, 1990.

(+

,obert Dre !, The End of the Bron'e Age: Changes in (arfare and the Catastrophe ca& )*++ B&C& 'Frinceton4 Frinceton Jniver!ity Fre!!, 199(*, )hapter +.

17 Terrell, DG The Emergence of England
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