Eye diagram of digital baseband received signals

PROCEDURE We designed the given model using the simulink library and tested for different SNR values and different M values in the M-ary PAM modulator. Later we changed the PAM modulator QAM block and tested. The observations are as follow. Introduction The eye diagram is a useful tool for the qualitative analysis of signal used in digital transmission. It provides at-a-glance evaluation of system performance and can offer insight into the nature of channel imperfections. Careful analysis of this visual display can give the user a first-order approximation of signal-to-noise, clock timing jitter and skew.

Significance to the communication systems The eye diagram is an oscilloscope display of a digital signal, repetitively sampled to get a good representation of its behavior. In a radio system, the point of measurement may be prior to the modulator in a transmitter, or following the demodulator in a receiver, depending on which portion of the system requires examination. The eye diagram can also be used to examine signal integrity in a purely digital system such as fiber optic transmission, network cables or on a circuit board. The amount of energy in the harmonics, relative to the fundamental, is related to rise and fall time and pulse duration. Fast rise and fall times ( square transitions) and narrow pulse durations create the most harmonic energy. This is unlike a purely digital system, where these clean transitions are highly desirable In order to reduce interference, radio transmission channels are not permitted to have unlimited bandwidth. Otherwise, the harmonic energy in the data signal would create corresponding modulation sidebands that extend well beyond the intended bandwidth of the allocated communications channel.

IF circuits and baseband signal processing. to assure that the filter is behaving properly. A more obvious use of the eye diagram is to evaluate the received signal quality. . Impairments to the signal can occur in many places. from the pre-filtering in the transmitter. receiver front-end. the data signal must be band-limited (filtered) in a manner that reduces the harmonic energy while maintaining the integrity of the transmitted data. Figure1: Basic information contained in the eye diagram. through the frequency conversion and amplifier chain. Noise problems will most often be external to the equipment and timing issues can be isolated to the receiver or transmitter with tests on each. Information from the eye diagram can help greatly with troubleshooting. It is also important to record the eye diagram so it is available for comparison if new problems arise in the future.To reduce these unwanted sidebands. The eye diagram can be used to look at the signal before transmission. propagation path.

M=2 SNR 5 SNR 10 SNR 15 SNR 20 SNR 25 SNR 30 .

M=4 SNR = 5 SNR =10 SNR = 15 SNR = 20 20 25 SNR =25 SNR= 30 M=8 snr=5 .

M=8 SNR=5 SNR=10 SNR=15 SNR=20 SNR=25 SNR=30 snr=25 .

QAM M=8 SNR=5 SNR=10 snr=15 SNR=15 SNR=20 snr=20 snr = 25 SNR=25 SNR=30 .

When we increase the SNR of the signal the eye becomes more and more opened or in other words when we are transmitting at a high power the effects of noise becomes less and less significant and hence the detector can guess rebuild the signal more correctly.Results Interpretation Based on the observations I can summarize following conclusions. That is because when the M value increases there will be more signal positions and each contributes to the eye diagram. The above fact can be verified for every M value in the M-ary modulator and the results obtained also match with the theory. Hence the eye will be more blocked. When we increase the M value in the M-ary modulator the eye becomes more closed. If the signal can be guessed more correctly that means the sample signal points the eye diagram overlap each other and results in a more opened eye. .

(b) With a higher data rate. Jitter can be defined as the deviation of the significant instances of a signal from their ideal location in time. . So sources of jitter can be identified as factors affecting the ideality of an eye diagram. Figure2: Idealized digital signal eye diagram (with finite rise and fall times). jitter is how early or late a signal transition is with reference to when it should transition. In a digital signal the significant instances are the transition (crossover) points.Factors that can cause reduction of the eye diagram Jitter Jitter is a major phenomenon which causes the eye diagram to be distorted. To put it more simply. Figure3: Timing error: (a) Misalignment of rise and fall times (jitter). this diagram has much less open eye area than (a) despite a smaller absolute time error.

related sources include: Crosstalk from radiated or conducted signals Dispersion effects Impedance mismatch 2. System phenomena These are effects on a signal that result from the characteristics of its being a digital system in an analog environment. Examples of these system.The sources of Jitter 1. which is associated with electron flow in conductors and increases with bandwidth. and noise resistance Shot noise electron and hole noise in semiconductors in which the magnitude is governed by bias current and measurement bandwidth Pink noise noise that is spectrally related to 1/f . Random noise phenomena These are phenomena that randomly introduce noise in a system. temperature.These sources include: Thermal noise kTB noise. Data-dependent jitter sources include: Intersymbol interference Duty-cycle distortion Pseudorandom. Data-dependent phenomena These are patterns or other characteristics of the data being transferred that affect the net jitter arriving in the receiver. bit-sequence periodicity 3.

This filtering process also causes the eye to be reduced. . The filter s parameter determines the opening of the eye. Figure 5: Effects of filter coefficient over eye diagram =0.Filtering As mentioned in the significance section the filters are added to limit the bandwidth in order to reduce unwanted sidebands. it can be observed that the horizontal eye opening with smaller than with =1. Figure 4: At the top is the eye diagram of a raised cosine filtered signal ( = 0. The two lower waveforms represent the square-wave bit stream before and after filtering (these are not aligned with the eye diagram display).6) as it might be applied to a modulator.5 is From the above figures.

Reason: The tails of the raised cosine filter with =1 dies away faster than the case where =0. So they can be treated as another factors that affecting the reduction in the eye. Hence error in timing cause a bigger performance degradation for scenario. The effects of receiving delayed and distorted versions of the signal can be seen in the loss of definition of the signal transitions. However. The effects of ISI are shown in the second image which is an eye pattern of the same system when operating over a multipath channel. which shows that the performance of the system will be worse Figure 6: Effects of ISI over eye diagram ISI is usually caused by multipath propagation or the inherent non-linear frequency response of a channel. .5 than for =1 =0. It also reduces both the noise margin and the window in which the signal can be sampled. =1 is the increased bandwidth required for Inter symbol interference (ISI) Inter symbol interference (ISI) is a form of distortion of a signal in which one symbol interferes with subsequent symbols. the flip side of using transmission.5.

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