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Conference on Information,

Communication & Embedded Systems


(ICICES–2011)
www.excelpublish.com
Conference on Information,
Communication & Embedded Systems
(ICICES–2011)

23–24 February, 2011

Editor
Prof. Umarani Srikanth

Organised by

S.A. Engineering College


Thiruverkadu Post, Avadi-Poonamallee Road, Chennai–77

EXCEL INDIA PUBLISHERS


New Delhi
First Impression: 2011

© S.A. Engineering College, Thiruverkadu Post, Avadi-Poonamallee Road, Chennai–77

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)

ISBN: 978-93-80697-65-9

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Preface
Information, Communication and Embedded Systems increasingly dominate the world of super computing because
of their flexibility, power and relatively low cost. It is imperative to develop all the above domains to meet the
future requirements. Research and development in to these areas will throw light for better understandings of these
domains. Moreover, there is a necessity to consolidate the work of various researchers and to utilize the same for
future studies. The proceedings of this conference help us to establish wide knowledge in the above domain
covering various aspects.
We have received around 780 papers, and all of them with abundant information. But our aim is to show, the
direction in which the future research will dominate in the field of Information, Communication and Embedded
systems. So we had to make difficult choices in the selection of papers and we ultimately ended up with 230
papers.
The selected papers are classified in the areas of
1. Information
2. Communication
3. Embedded Systems
We are optimistic that there papers will serve as a valuable reference material for the researchers, academicians
and for the industry professionals.

Chairman
S.A. ENGINEERING COLLEGE
(NBA Accredited and ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution)
Poonamallee–Avadi Road, Veeraraghavapuram, Chennai–600 077
E-Mail: ncact2011@saec.ac.in Website: www.saec.ac.in
Phone Nos: 044 –26801999, 26801499 Fax No: 044–26801899

Shri. D. duraiswamy,
Chairman

Message
“The beliefs you hold in the beginning of a journey define your journey. When you believe that “you can
do it”, and really believe in this belief of your, then the “how to do it” unfolds automatically. Believing that
something can be done sets your mind and those infinite forces into motion to find a way to do it”.
It is a great pleasure and honor to announce the International Conference on “Information, Communication
and Embedded Systems ICICES-2011”, which takes place on 23rd & 24th Feb 2011 in our esteemed Institution
very first time. This International Conference is a forum for scientists, engineers, and practitioners to present their
latest research results, ideas, developments and applications in the areas Information, Communication and
Embedded Systems. Our intention at this combined scientific meeting is to offer a variety of papers which will be of
interest to the researchers and academicians throughout the world. Education is undergoing presently a welcome
seismic change. I fervently hope that the participants will enjoy this technical festival ICICES-2011. I wish them
all success.

Chairman
S.A. ENGINEERING COLLEGE
(NBA Accredited and ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution)
Poonamallee–Avadi Road, Veeraraghavapuram, Chennai–600 077
E-Mail: ncact2011@saec.ac.in Website: www.saec.ac.in
Phone Nos: 044–26801999, 26801499 Fax No: 044–26801899

Shri. D. Dasarathan
Secretary

Message
I am extremely happy to learn that the Department of PG studies is organizing an International Conference ICICES-
2011 on 23rd and 24th Feburary, 2011. I am sure that this conference will provide much needed information for the
researchers, faculties and software professional for the betterment of Information, Communication and Embedded
System Technologies.
I wish them all success in their endeavour.

Secretary
S.A. ENGINEERING COLLEGE
(NBA Accredited and ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution)
Poonamallee–Avadi Road, Veeraraghavapuram, Chennai–600 077
E-Mail: ncact2011@saec.ac.in Website: www.saec.ac.in
Phone Nos: 044–26801999, 26801499 Fax No: 044–26801899

Shri. S. Amarnaath
M.Com., Correspondent

Message
We at this institution constantly strive to provide an excellent academic environment for the benefit of students and
faculty so that they will acquire a technological competence synonymous with human dignity and values.
We are dedicated to a continuous process through this first International Conference on “INFORMATION,
COMMUNICATION AND EMBEDDED SYSTEMS ICICES-2011” to enable upgrading academic
performance and managerial practices through infra-structure and technological facilities. This commitment, will
enable us to provide updated knowledge-inputs and practical support to the participants in order to build their
confidence level.
I am happy to know that our Institution is maintaining the tradition set with respect to the contents in
Engineering & Technology, cultural and other activities of the organization extending with another milestone of this
International Conference in this academic year 2010-2011, organized by the Department of PG studies.
I congratulate and offer my best wishes to the organizers who have involved themselves in this conference
towards the academic development for the benefit of research fraternity.

Correspondent
S.A. ENGINEERING COLLEGE
(NBA Accredited and ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution)
Poonamallee–Avadi Road, Veeraraghavapuram, Chennai–600 077
E-Mail: ncact2011@saec.ac.in Website: www.saec.ac.in
Phone Nos: 044–26801999, 26801499 Fax No: 044–26801899

Shri. P. Venkatesh Raja


B.E., M.S., Director

Message
This institution is a tribute to the great organizing genius of its Founder. Without his initiative and inspiration it
would have been impossible to find an institution of this character. This institution is a memorable experiment in
the moral and technological regeneration of India. It stands for nothing less.
We proposed to maintain here standards of discipline and decorum of decency, dignity and character building
are equalled by few and surpassed by none in contemporary education systems.
With this, we are proud to conduct the first International Conference on “Information, Communication and
Embedded Systems” ICICES-2011, on 23rd & 24th February, 2011. I wish this conference to act as a gate way for
knowledge sharing for all the participants who take part in this event. I appreciate the work done by the faculty
members who had involved and made our dreams come to true.

Director
S.A. ENGINEERING COLLEGE
(NBA Accredited and ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution)
Poonamallee–Avadi Road, Veeraraghavapuram, Chennai–600 077
E-Mail: ncact2011@saec.ac.in Website: www.saec.ac.in
Phone Nos: 044–26801999, 26801499 Fax No: 044–26801899

Dr. S. Suyambazhahan
M.E., Ph.D., (IITM) Principal

Message
“Real Knowledge, like everything else of the highest value, is not to be obtained easily. It must be worked for,
studied for, thought for …” Thomas Arnold.
First, my heartfelt thanks to the management, the stimulant of all the ventures of S. A. Engineering College.
I am extremely elated to know that the Department of PG Studies is organizing the first International
Conference on Information, Communication and Embedded systems, ICICES–2011 on 23rd and 24th February,
2011. The diligence of the department ensures the success of the conference. The incessant urge to quench the thirst
of knowledge keeps the researchers in track. This conference kindles the individual innovative aspirations of the
researchers and students. I am confident that the presenters of various academics, R&D Institution will be sufficed
with their yearnings. The zealous of the presenters elucidates their unyielding effort in their accomplishments. This
intelligible participation configures the success of the conference. The astounding papers of the authors are
appreciable. The faculties dispensed by the department towards the excellence of the conference are inexplicable. I
wish the department to achieve the best in all its walks of expertise

Principal
S.A. ENGINEERING COLLEGE
(NBA Accredited and ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution)
Poonamallee–Avadi Road, Veeraraghavapuram, Chennai–600 077
E-Mail: ncact2011@saec.ac.in Website: www.saec.ac.in
Phone Nos: 044–26801999, 26801499 Fax No: 044–26801899

Smt. G. Umarani Srikanth


HOD/ Department of PG Studies
Convener-ICICES–2011

Message
Dear Participants,
I welcome you all to the first ever International conference ICICES-2011 in India. Our Director Shri P. Venkatesh
Raja directed me to organize an International conference. I was very much elated because it is a fantastic and rare
opportunity for me. I personally thank our Director for having confidence in me and also for providing much
needed support.
Keeping in view, the importance of software, communication and Embedded systems in the fast changing
technological world, the theme of this conference was aptly selected. We are optimistic that this conference will
serve as a platform to provide information for future technologies. Our country India being a frontrunner in the
software technology field, we in the Conference pledge to make our country a technological power that could serve
for the wellbeing of mankind.
We in the organizing committee would like as many as participants as possible to benefit by listening to the
experts. We would also like to make this conference an annual event. We pray the Almighty for the success of the
conference. We request all the participants to convey constructive criticism to me so that it will help us to perform
and upgrade ourselves for next upcoming ICICES–2012.
We also wholeheartedly thank Dharma Naidu Educational trust and its administrators without whose solid
support this conference would not have been possible. We also sincerely express our thanks to Dr. S.
Suyambhazlahan IITM, Principal for his timely advice and direction in conducting this event.
On behalf of the Management, staff and students We the organizing committee of S.A.Engineering College are
very much honoured by the glorious presence of honorable Shri. Behrang Seraj, Vice Consulate General of USA,
Chennai and Shri. R. Muthu, Consulate General of Switzerland, Chennai. Our sincere thanks and gratitude to
the above esteemed dignitaries.
The Organizing committee is also thankful to our special guest and International advisory committee member
Dr. Alexander Bolotov, Professor, Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, University of
Westminster, United Kingdom who has made his presence here to enrich the conference. We also thank our
special guest and National advisory committee member Dr. C. Senthil Kumar, Senior Scientific Officer, Safety
Research Institute, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Kalpakkam for his timely suggestions and for his
valuable presence here.
We also thank all the Members of the Conference ICICES–2011 who have acceded to our request to be a part
of International and National Advisory members. We also thank all the Head of the Departments of our college,
staff members and other non-teaching staff for their overwhelming support in organizing this event and making it a
grand success.
Convenor-ICICES–2011
Contents

Preface v
Message vii

INFORMATION
1. An Efficient Authentication System for Wireless Sensor Network
R.S. Sangeetha and P. Vinothiyalakshmi 3
2. Data Mining Applications in Banking Sector
S. Asokkumar 3
3. Secure and Robust Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks
Kalpana A.V. and Jayakumar C. 4
4. Effective CAPTCHA Implementation (Next Generation Captcha)
B.Thilak Raj, S. Sri Ganesh and A. Thilagavathy 4
5. An Efficient Hash Tree Based Indexing Scheme over Distributed Hash Tables
G.S. Gayathri Amsa and C. Swarnambigai 5
6. Smart RFID Care [SRC] for Pervasive Health Care System
R.S. Lysa Packiam and A. Pravin Renold 5
7. A Memory Efficient and Secure Key Management Scheme
for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
Ashly Thomas and N. Dhinakaran 6
8. An Efficient En-Route Filtering Scheme for Highly Dynamic
Wireless Sensor Networks
I. Bildass Santhosam and Anitha Christy Angelin 6
9. Analysis of Nodes Behavior Inconsistency on Reputation System
and Reduction in Manet
AR. Arunarani and R. Ramachandran 7
10. Survey on BGP QOS Support
R. Kamal Jagadeesan and N. Dhinakaran 7
11. Location Based Intelligent Mobile Organizer (LBIMO)
S. Ananya and B. Venkatalakshmi 8
12. New Efficient Proxy Based Quantum Key Distribution Protocol
for Group Communication
Prabu G., Ananthakumaran S. and Ramar K. 8
13. Implementation of Text and Smooth Block Compression in the Compound Image
N. Alagupriya and P.S. Jagadeesh Kumar 9
14. Optimized MaxMin Approach for Hiding Frequent, Itemsets
Janani R., R. Anuradha and N. Rajkumar 9

Contents ‹ xiii
15. An Approach for Measuring Semantic Similarity between Words
Using Association Rule Mining
Geetha K. and Rajkumar N. 10
16. Gesture Driven User Interface for Handhelds
Merrlin Benjamin and Ranjith Balakrishnan 10
17. Prediction of Future Stock Prices and their Performance Statistics
K.K. Sureshkumar and N.M.Elango 10
18. Automatic Detection of Masses in Digital Mammograms-A Novel Approach
M. Vasantha and Dr. V. Subbiah Bharathy 11
19. Multilingual Multi Document Summarization Using Fuzzy Model
with Naïve Bayes Classifier
Soundaravalli R., Dr. K.G. Srinivasagan and S. Babu Rengarajan 12
20. Enhancing the Adaptability of Web Service in Mobile Environment
Sivalingam, Shenbagavadevu and Kala 12
21. Ensuring Network Security in MANETs and Wireless Sensor Networks
with Artificial Neural Network Algorithms
S. Sivakama Sundariand R. Sundar 13
22. Clustering of Multispectral and Hyperspectral Images
J. Seetha, Dr. R. Varadharajan and Dr. V. Vaithiyanathan 13
23. Enhancing Elliptic Curve Cryptography Efficiency
M. Swarnalatha 14
24. SCTP Multihoming in Wireless Networking
S. Ambareesh and P. Aravind 14
25. Active Learning with Dynamic Queries Using Cart Algorithm
D. Senthil Kumar and G. Sathyadevi 15
26. Extraction of Palm Dorsal Vein Patterns Using Binarization and Thinning Methods
M. Rajalakshmi and P.Rega 15
27. Buffer Overflow Attack Blocker Using Sigfree Concept
N. Anbarasi and S. Kalaimagal 16
28. Providing Randomized Routes for Avoiding Compromised Node
and Denial of Service attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks
A. Arence Flemi and P. Robert 16
29. Person Identification Based on Decision Level Data Fusion Using Neural Network
S. Janardhanam, Dr. K. Venkatalakshmi, S. Vasuhi and Dr. V. Vaidehi 17
30. Energy Efficient Secure Data Collection Approach in Wireless Sensor Networks
Madhan V. 17
31. Improvised Shadow Removal for Video Sequences through Efficient Modeling
of Robust Statistical Descriptors
T. GraceWinsolin and M. Prakash 18
32. Network Traffic Control Using Multiagent System (Data Mining)
M. P. Srinivasan, T.Mahalingam and Dr. K.L. Shunmuganathan 18

xiv ‹ Contents
33. Multicast Authentication Based on Merkle Hash Tree Using MD5 Algorithm
Balaji Chandrasekaran 19
34. Trust System Protocol for Scada Networks
V.M. Priyadharshini and S. Sathiya 19
35. Enhancing the Design Quality by Move Method Refactoring
S. Durai and C.P. Indumathi 19
36. Simulation on JOB Scheduling Based on Cost Optimization in Grid Environment
Mohamed Mustafa, N. Shivakumar and N. Balaji 20
37. Network Based Framework for Information Retrieval Using Feature Association
Evangelin D. and Kalaivani V. 20
38. Ranked Query Processing Approach in Uncertain Databases
L. Vinoth Kumar and B. Jaison 21
39. Artificial Intelligence Based Decision Making System Using IRIS
J.K. Thiyagarajan and D. Karthik and Prof. Dr. S. Nagarajan 21
40. Securing Witness in Active Mode using Enhanced Secure Deep
Throat Protocol in P2P Networks
S. Manoj Thomas and M.A. Mukunthan 22
41. Realization of Self Healing Techniques by Virtualization to Progress
Software Rejuvenation
Anoo p Cherian Varughese and R. Sivakami 22
42. Effective Ways to Find Outliers during Classification
Malathi Eswaran and P. Vishnuraja 23
43. Advanced Congestion Control Technique for Health Care Monitoring
in Wireless Biomedical Sensor Networks
Jeshifa G. Immanuel, Prof. A. Fidal Castro and Prof. E. Babu Raj 23
44. Classification of Blood Types by Microscope Color Images
S.M. Nazia Fathima 24
45. Performance Analysis of Pest Image Segmentation Using Nonlinear
Objective Assessments
Pravin Kumar S.K. and Sivasangari A. 24
46. Enhanced Three-Party Quantum Key Distribution Protocol
Angel A., Ananthakumaran S. and Ramar K. 25
47. Extending QOX Metric Suit to Additional Metrics for Reducing
the Cost of ETL Design
Parthiban N., Jaisankar N. and Vijaya Bhaskar K. 25
48. A Secure Client–Side Watermark Embedding Using ST–DM algorithm
M. Leela 26
49. A Secure Resource Allocation for Grid
Sheeba J. and Neelaveni P. 26
50. HAC: Highest Affinity Clustering using Impetus Perception (IP)
Algorithm for Categorical Data
R. Kavitha, T.K.S. Rathish Babu and T. Kalaichelvi 27

Contents ‹ xv
51. Elastic Routing Table with Efficient Congestion Control
Using Node Capacity in DHT Networks
Tarun R. and Pandimurugan V. 27
52. Application of UNL in Document Summarization
S. Mangairkarasi and S. Gunasundari 28
53. A Congestion Free Contract Signing Protocol based on the RSA Signature
L. Sharmila 28
54. A Comparison of Maximum Likelihood Classifier and Edge Detection
Techniques for Performing Change Detection Analysis Using SAR Images
S. Vidhusha and T. Sree Sharmila 29
55. Effective Information Retrieval using Ontology and Semantic Link Network
S. Ganesh Shanker 29
56. A Fair and Connection based Opt Scheduling in IEEE 802.11 based Mesh Topology
Sajini S., Kanaga Suba Raja S. and Jebarajan T. 30
57. Hybrid Scheduling using Selection Method in Grid Environment
R. Bindhuja, G. Arul Dalton and Jebarajan T. 30
58. Improved Driver Fatigue Detection for Efficient Vehicle Control
based on Eye-Tracking
M. Bommy, D. Jayanthi and Sheik Faritha Begum 31
59. An Efficient Approach for Combating Spamdexing in Web Search Engine
using Link and Content Analysis
D. Saraswathi, Dr. A. Vijaya Kathiravan and S. Anita 31
60. A Review of Significant Researches
on Automatic EEG Epileptic Detection Algorithms
S. Vijay Anand and Dr. R. Shantha Selvakumari 32
61. Applying Ant Colony Optimization Technique for the Job Scheduling Problems
of a Semi-Automated Production System
Tamilarasi T., Jegadeeshwaran R. and Thangarasu S.K. 33
62. Multiparty Session Authentication Protocol for ODS SOA Based Business Processes
Bakiya K and Chellammal P. 33
63. Back-Up Routing for Cluster based Delay Tolerant Mobile Network
V. Gunasekaran and K. Sathyapriya 34
64. Optimization of Linear Recursive Queries with Infinite Recursion in SQL
R. Gomathi and A.M. Natarajan 34
65. Techniques for Clustering and Visualizing Web Search Results
S. Poomagal and Dr. T. Hamsapriya 35
66. Multi Resolution Wavelet Decomposition Image Fusion
R. Vijaya Arjunan, C.K. Swapna and B. Sivachandra Mahalingam 35
67. Implementation Aspects of Secure Network and Design of Log Analyser
S. Manikandan and Kiran M. Kumar 36

xvi ‹ Contents
68. Cell Breathing for Load Balancing in Wireless LAN
R. Latha and S. Radhakrishnan 36
69. High Sensitive Multiple Object Motion Detection in Surveillance
Video Applications
Ferdin Joe J. and Prof. B. Vijayakumar 37
70. Implementing Shrew Attack Protection (SAP) to Defend Against
Shrew Attack on Edges
D. Gayathri and Dr. N. Sankar Ram 37
71. Preventing Data Leakage Using Allocation Strategies
Parvathi Maheswari T. and Manjula R. 38
72. CAMSHIFT Object Tracking Algorithm Based
on Inter-Frame Differences for Noise Removal
P. Rayavel, G. Appasami and R. Nakeeran 38
73. Uninteresting Rule Reduction Using Ontologies and Bayesian Belief Networks
Suhasini Manoharan and Madhan Subramaniam 39
74. Decision Support System for Weapon Detection Using Image Mining
Alleluia Pushpa A. and D. Senthil Kumar 39
75. Advanced Searching Technique for Peer to Peer Network
Using Friend Set Concept
S. Anbu and C. Jayakumar 40
76. Efficient Cache Consistency Maintenance in Ad-hoc Networks
Y.S. Beena Wislien and A. Kanagaraj 40
77. Extended Gradient Descent Method for Privacy Preservation
Devipriya A., Anuradha R. and Rajkumar N. 41
78. Enhancing Features of Steward Protocol to Scale Byzantine Fault-Tolerance in Wan
P. Sathish, Dr. N. Sankar Ram and T.K.S. Rathish Babu 41
79. Efficient Packet Delivery in Manet Using RSGM
T. Chindrella Priyadharshini and S. Neelakandan 42
80. Imposing GUI Runtime State Feedback for Model-based Testing
J. Aswini and S. Vimala 43
81. SHARF: Secret Enhanced Security Framework for Metropolitan WMNs
V. Parthipan and N. Partheeban 43
82. TEAR: Trust Evaluation and Attack Detection
using Reputation of Nodes in MANET
K. Sudharson and C. Bala Krishnan 44
83. Public Security in Tracking People Using Surveillance Cameras
P. Uma Eswari and K.Sumathi 44
84. Picture Based Tamil Sentences Generation
M.S. Girija 45
85. Similarity Search and Identification of Online Videos with Graph
Transformation Techniques
Dwarakanath B. and Karthik B. 45

Contents ‹ xvii
86. Traffic Analysis Attacks on Anonymity Networks
Bhaskar N. R.Prabu and R. Karthikeyan 46
87. Snoogle: A Physicalworld Search Engine
P. Robert and T.G. Ruby Angel 46
88. A Dynamic Fuzzy Technique for Mining Temporal Medical Database
S. Radhika and T. Sethukkarasi 47
89. An Efficient Age Estimation System based on MPCA
V. Tamil Selvi and Dr. K. Vani 47
90. Neural Cryptography with Spy Units of Pre-Sharing Key Architecture
Dr. N. Prabakaran, A. Anthonisan and B. Madasamy 48
91. Dynamic Load Balancing and Job Replication
S. Muthukumarasamy and N. Sivakamy 48
92. Adaptive File Replication and Consistency Maintenance
in P2P Network Systems
P. Karpagam and V. Umarani 49
93. Record Matching over Query Results using Fuzzy Ontological
Document Clustering
G. Kalpana, R. Prasanna Kumar and Dr. T. Ravi 49
94. Web-based Intrusion Detection System Using Gaussian Mixture Model
V. Sulochana and P. Preethy Rebecca 50
95. Mobile General Packet Radio Services Sensors Array for Atmospheric
Air Pollution Monitoring
Dr. L. Vijay, Rakesh Kumar Giri, Dr. M. Umamaheswari and S. Sivasubramanian 50
96. Privacy Awareness Monitoring for Continuously Moving Object
Dr. L. Vijay, Rakesh Kumar Giri, Dr. M. Umamaheswari and S. Sivasubramanian 51
97. Information Security and Retrieval on E-Business
K. Jarina Begum and Ammer K. AL-Deber 51
98. Speaker Identification Using Neural Network
M.S. Ghute, V. B. Niranjane and P.M. Awachat 52
99. A New Methodology for Reducing Test Suites Using Ping-Pong Heuristics
M. Narasimhulu and A. Ananda Rao 52
100. Load Balancing Through Shortest Path in Regular Mesh Topologies
M. Ashwini and S. Vasundara 52
101. Effective Packet Loss Measurement with Geometric Approach
K. Ashfaq Ahmed and R. Raja Sekhar 53
102. Thin Plate Spline (TPS) Based Image Warping
V.B. Bagde, A.C. Bhagali and S.I. Parihar 53
103. Interconnect-Centric Design for Advanced System-on-Chip & Network-on-Chip
B. Muralikrishna, A.L.G.N Aditya, M. Sahithi and J. Poornima 54
104. Network Intrusion Detection for Unsupervised Authentication Records in Matlab
Bhawana Pillai, Vineet Rechhariya and Er. Niranjan Singh 54

xviii ‹ Contents
105. Retinal Recognition System
Nandana Prabhu and Ashwin Prabhu 55
106. Intelligent Mobile Banking based on Cloud Computing
R.Suresh, G. Raghu, M. Kumaravendan, A. Thamizharimam T. Manikandan 55
107. Development of Adaptive Traffic System Using Video Processing
Swapnil.S. Jain, Atish.S. Khobragade and Yeshwant.A. Deodhe 56
108. Position based Routing Scheme Using Concentric Circular Quadrant
Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network
Upendra Verma and Vijay Prakash 56
109. Model Driven Design Method: An Approach to Design Software Architecture
Gaurav Kumar Gaur and Vaishali Mishra 57
110. Detection of Deformities in Lung Using Short Time Fourier Transform Spectrogram
Analysis on Lung sound
Abhinav A. Parkhi and Mahesh S. Pawar 57
111. A Novel Aop Based Adaptive Strategy Design Pattern for Autonomic Systems
V.S. Prasad Vasireddy, Vishnuvardhan Mannava and Yamini Chirumamilla 58
112. A Novel Autonomic Design Pattern for Stream Classification
System Design Using Aop
Bangaru Babu Kuravadi, Vishnuvardhan Mannava and V S. Prasad Vasireddy 58
113. A Co-clustering Model by Using Cross-domain Text
Classification through Wikipedia
R. Venkat, Dr. K. Raghava Rao and B. Ram Kumar 59
114. Analysis of Image Quality Using Quantitative Methods
Shruthi T.V., Ramyashree N, Pavithra P. and Kamalam Balasubramani 59
115. Administrative Office Content Management via Semantic Web–A Case Study
Dr. Sanjay K. Dwivedi and Anand Kumar 60
116. Time Synchronization in Heterogeneous Sensor Networks
Md. Rahmathulla and Mr. R. Raja Sekhar 60
117. Secure Integration of Private Data
K.V. Phani Kumar, B. Ramesh Babu and M. Sudhir 61
118. User Controlled Inter-Domain Routing Architecture
G. Zabeen Taj and G. Prakash Babu 61
119. A Novel Framework for Selective Encryption of MPEG-2 Video
Chittaranjan Pradhan and Mukut Roy 62
120. Efficient Dynamic Search Algorithm for Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks
S.Vijaya and S.Vasundara 62
121. SVM Identify Handwritten and Type Character
with Small and Capital Character
Abha Suryavanshi and Er. Niranjan Singh 63

Contents ‹ xix
COMMUNICATION
122. Maximizing Strength and Performance by Manually Designed Biquad Antenna
Vrushali V. Kadu and V.A. Gulhane 67
123. Design and Implementation of Multistandard Digital Filter Using FPGA
Bhanu A. and Latha R. 67
124. FPGA Based Convolutional Encoder and Viterbi Decoder
Sankari K.N. and Mohana Geetha D. 68
125. Point to Multipoint Communication in Mobile Adhoc Devices using Bluetooth
J. Praveen Kumar 68
126. CAMSHIFT Object Tracking Algorithm Based
on Inter-Frame Differences for Noise Removal
P. Rayavel G. Appasami and R. Nakeeran 69
127. Secure Approach towards Wormhole Attack in Ad-hoc Network
N.S. Raote and K.N. Hande 69
128. FPGA Implementation of Digital Front End QAM Modulator
for OFDM Transceiver
K. Anitha and A. Parimala 70
129. Novel Approach Based Coverage Repair in Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks
J. Naskath and K.G. Srinivasagan 70
130. A Bio-Inspired Adaptable Network Implemented With Stilted Molecule
ArunKumar U. and Roopa Sriram 71
131. Design of Parallel Multiplier with Low Power Adder Units
S.P. Prakash and P. Malarmathi 71
132. Combined Source and Channel Coding
for Image Transmission Using Turbo Decoding Algorithms
T. Gnanasekaran, P. Sivaselvi and D.V. Soundari 72
133. Implementation of Systolic Matrix Multiplication on FPGA
G.C. Veeresh and Mahesha M.S. 72
134. High Fault Coverage in SRAM-Based FPGA Using BIST Technique
Chandra Mohan Gupta V. and Meenakshi Vidya P. 73
135. Low Power High Speed Multiplier
Venkatesh Kolli and Meenakshi Vidya P. 73
136. Speckle Reduction and 3D Volume Evaluation of 2D Ultrasound Images
V. Kumutha and K.Sumathi 74
137. An Efficient VLSI Architecture for 3-D Discrete Wavelet Transform
Using Folding Technique
N. Vinod Kumar and V.R. Saraswathy 74
138. Analysis of Fiber Nonlinearity for Various Power Levels
of Individual Channels in DWDM System
T. Sabapathi, S. Sundaravadivelu and M. Ganesh Babu 75

xx ‹ Contents
139. Performance Analysis of Scheduling Algorithms in IEEE 802.16e
Gnanasekaran T., Kadhambari T., Rajarajachozhan C. and Kanagasundaram K. 75
140. Design and Power Analysis OF SPST Equipped VMFU and H.264 Codec
V. Manimekalai and M. Shanthi 76
141. An Efficient Multistage Decimation Filter Design based on Residue Number System
R. Venkata Krishnan and R. Latha 76
142. A Noval Approach on Multicast Algorithms for Multi-Radio
Wireless Ad hoc Networks
V. Tamilarasi and S. Sivakumar 77
143. Lowpower Implementation of 10-BIT Flash ADC in 90nm CMOS Technology
Akhila Mohan 77
144. Low Complexity and Low Power Digit Serial Systolic Multiplier
K. Archana and R. Senthamizh Selvi 78
145. An Enhanced Traffic Less Cooperative Proxy Caching
V. Krishna Kumar and P.S. Prakash 78
146. Performance Evaluation of Low-Power SRAM Cell
Nithya B. 79
147. An overview of Smart Antenna Implementation Using Neural Network
Sonia Jaiswal, Rasika Manapure and S.W. Varade 79
148. Design of Sparse-2 Ling Adder
Prabha 80
149. Efficient and Dynamic Key Distribution Protocol for 4G Wireless Sensor Networks
G. Shoba and S. Uma 80
150. Design of Sequential Circuits Using Gate Diffusion Input Technique
Deepa S., Priyadarshini R. and Rajalakshmi R. 81
151. Design of Solid Mounted Components
Using Bulk Acoustic Wave Technology for RF Communication
K. Radhika, B. Venkatalakshmi and S. Manjula 81
152. A Secure Authenticated Real Time Video Streaming Using WI-FI
S. Ganesh and A. Pravin Renold 82
153. Design of Dual Band UHF RFID Reader Antenna
Radha Manohar K., Venkatalakshmi B., Manjula S. 82
154. Detection of Unauthorized Access Points Using Clock Skew
Based Fingerprint Technique
Chandru Vignesh C. and Prakash P.S. 82
155. Design, Analysis and Applications of Cylindrical Array Antenna
H.L.Viswanath, S.Ghosh and D.Ganesh Rao 83
156. Optimization of Distributed Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks
Beulah Mary J. and I. Johnsi Stella 84
157. Analysis of Anomaly Detection and Data Transfer in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
Josephin Ida Litrizia and Ganesan 84

Contents ‹ xxi
158. Extended-Refined Sequence Estimation: A novel Approach for TCM
Basamma D.U. and Dr. Suresh Chandra Mohan 85
159. Elimination of Non-monotonicity
of Variance Estimate in Weighted Overlap Segment Averaging
Venkatanarayana Moram, Mahaboob Pasha and Jayachandra Prasad Talari 85
160. Implementation of Hex-Derived Structure in Hexagonal Networks
V. Ceronmani Sharmila, T. Surekha and A. George 85
161. LSB Matching Revisited based Video Steganography
R. Selvaraj and P.S. Prakash 86
162. Channel Allocation Scheme for Preemptive Priority
based Handoffs in Multimedia wireless Networks
Satish K. Srivastava, Alok Jha, Saurabh Desai, Virendrapratap Singh 86
163. Dynamic Region Growth for Image Segmentation
Sunita Parihar, Prof. D.M. Meshram and Prof. V.V. Bagde 87
167. Performance Enhanced Delay Modelled Multiplier Accumulator
based on Modified Booth Algorithm USING FPGA
U. Krishna Divya, M. Ravi Kishore and N. Bala Dastagiri 87
168. Human Recognition using RFID
Nilu R. Mishra and Archana Charkhawala 88
169. Study of STTC MC-CDMA System for Wireless Application
Rasika Manapure, Sonia Jaiswal, and S.W. Varade 88
170. Morphological Background Detection and Contrast Development of Color Images
P. Premkumar and S.Deepa 89
171. Optimization of Reversible BCD Adder in Terms of Number of Lines
P. Radhika Ramya and V. Rajmohan 89
172. High Data Rate AES Encrypt/Decrypt Using Iterative Approach
D. Jeslin Sophia 90
173. MAC Module Structure for Secure Simplification WiMAX
Yogesh Gedam and S.D. Chede 90
174. RF-MEMS Switch and its Applications for Antennas
S.N. Ganorkar and Y.A. Nafde 90
175. WBAN based Health Monitoring by Using OMNeT++
S.B. Rangankar and S.D. Chede 91
176. Denial of Sleep Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks
Sruthi Sivakumar and Kamal S. 91
177. A Survey on Multimodal Biometric System
S. Senthilnathan and A. Arunkumar 92
178. Design of Clock Multiplication Unit (CMU) Block
of RF Transceiver: Challenges and Solutions
S. Sophiya, S.R. Sindhu and Dr. Siva Yellampalli 92

xxii ‹ Contents
179. Hybrid Pass Transistor/CMOS Logic Cells for Low Power Optimization
I. Flavia Princess Nesamani and S. Miriam Niranjana 92
180. Compact Hardware Architecture for BLAKE Function
P. Lavanya and M. Rajmohan 93
181. Passive Method for Detecting Spliced Image
M. Selvakumar and J. Granty Regina Elwin 93
182. High Performance QOSTBC using Quasi Zero Forcing Decoding Algorithm
Darling Sweet Star J. and Senthil Kumar K. 93
183. PSO Tuned Neural Network for False Contour Reduction
Regina Manicka Rajam G. 94
184. QOS based Manycasting in Optical Networks
Ahilan S., Sivasubramanian A. and Balamurugan A.M. 94
185. FPGA Implementation of High Speed Infrared Image Enhancement
M. Nageswaraiah and Syed Jahangir Badashah 95
186. Reducing Power Consumption in SRAM Using BIST
and Programmable Delay Control
P. Sakthi Shunmuga Sundaram and G. Jeyalakshmi 95
187. Millimeter–Wave Mixer Circuits in Baseline CMOS Technology: A Review
Shubhangi B. Kadam and Dr. K.B. Khanchandani 96
188. Design and Simulation of Carbon NanoTube Conformal Antennas
Arivazhagan S., Kavitha K. and Amudha S. 96
189. Design and Analysis of Ring Resonator
based Programmable Optical Buffer for CWDM and DWDM Optical Networks
Sangamithra M. and Prita Nair 97
190. Secure IDMA Communication Using Quantum Cryptography
K. Divya, D. Sankareswaran and P.G. Bavyasri 97
191. Design of Reversible Logic Gates and It’s Application as BCD Adder
Anjalee P. Mandharey and Dr. Pravin K Dakhole 98
192. Environmental Economic Dispatch
Using Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization Technique
Er. Khushbu Sahu and Dr. K.T. Chaturvedi 98
193. Convolutive Blind Source Separation Using Frequency
and Time Domain Transformation
Jerine Rini Rosebell V. Sharanya R. and Sugumar D. 99
194. Reduction of ICI Using ICI Self Cancellation Scheme in OFDM systems
Zahiruddin Syed and Sreekanth Neriyanuri 99
195. VoIP Network Quality Magnitude Using Time Delay
and Packet Loss for Voice Signal and Data Applications
M. Vijayakumar, Dr. Karthikeyani and Dr.Ammar Kalifa 100
196. A New Scan Architecture for Both Low Power Testing
and Test Volume Compression Under SOC Test Environment
V. Ramya 100

Contents ‹ xxiii
197. A Multi Layer IDS in Manet Using Clustering Techniques
M. Madhavi Latha, A. Fidal Castro and Dr. E. Babu Raj 101
198. A Selective Trigger Scan Architecture for VLSI Testing
N. Matthew Jones 101
199. QAM Transmitter and Receiver Design based on FPGA
GAE Satish Kumar, H. Devanna and K. Vasudevareddy 102
200. Miniaturization of Microstrip Patch Antenna Using Metamaterial as Substrate
Ratish Kumar, Rakesh N. Tiwari and Raman Sharma 102
201. A Novel U-Slot Loaded Broadband Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna
Rakesh N. Tiwari, Ratish Kumar and P. Kumar 103
202. Fault Detection in Gearbox/Ball Bearings Using Acoustic Analysis
K. Yavanarani, Y. Swaminathan, G.S. Simon Sundara Raj, S. Sheena Christabel,
J. Vijayaraghavan, Ganabhushan Rao S., Jagadeesh C.B. and Satheesh P. 103
203. Efficient Resource Sharing and Channel Assignment in Wireless Mesh Network
M. Raja and V. Bhanumathi 104
204. Low Power and High Speed Design of Double Edge Triggered D Flip-Flop
A.R. Kasetwar 104

EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
205. Multisensory System for Obstacle Detection and Location Estimation
on Railways
Preena Prasad 107
206. Soft-Switching Boost Converter with HI-Bridge Auxiliary Resonant Circuit
Lis Emmanuel and N. Maheswari 107
207. Design of Amplifier for Health Monitoring Wearable Device
Anu Priya R and Saravanan V. 108
208. Survey on Routing Attacks in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
Sebastian Terence J. and Britto Dennis J. 108
209. Implementation Experiences of Genetic Algorithm based Weighted
Clustering Algorithm in Mobile Ad hoc Networks
R. Pandi Selvam and V. Palanisamy 109
210. Wireless Sensor Network Based on ZigBee, ARM9
and GPRS for Advance Monitoring in Remote Areas
Ravi Sankar Reddy Lingareddy and Sahaya Lenin D. 109
211. Speed and Position Control of Autonomous Mobile Robot Using FPGA
O. Rakesh, K. Gerard Joe Nigel and Mahaboob S.K. 110
212. THD Reduction in Multilevel Inverters Using Real-Time Algorithm
Megha Jess Mathew and T. Chelladurai 110
213. Dynamic Key Management Scheme, Using AES Algorithm
for Wireless, Sensor Networks
Selvi S., Arthigeetha H., Asha.M, Swaruba P. 111

xxiv ‹ Contents
214. An Optimum PID Controller Design Based on Repulsive
Particle Swarm Optimization
S. Rajasekaran, Dr.T.Kannadasan and Dr. T. Kannadasan 111
215. Unmanned Reconnaissance Vehicle with Obstacle Sensing Design
to Decimate Eco-Warfare
T. Karthick, M. Sathyan and S. Vijayakumar 112
216. Smartdust Network for Tactical Border Surveillance System to Detect, Classify
and Track Enemy Intrusion
Nelliyan G. and Muthamizh S. 113
217. Network Power Management Using SNMP
S. Madhan Kumar and K.R. Jaya Chitra 113
218. Design Approach for Human Brain Hypothermia Detection System
Ashlesha S. Nagdive and Prof. Dr. L.G. Malik 114
219. A Real Time Hand Gesture Recognition Technique for Human
Computer Interaction
Shubhangi Moon and Prof. R.W. Jasutkar 114
220. Significance of Software Developemnet Process in Autosar
Anikesh Monot, Annie Smitha Paul, Martin K.M. 115
221. Electric Meter Theft and Tampering Detection
Priya S. Kamble and Sonali T. Bodkhe 115
222. Counterfeit Currency Recognition System Using Characteristics Extraction
1
Trupti Pathrabe and 2Dr. N.G. Bawane 116
223. Comparative Study of FPGA based TRNGs
Demeke Gebresenbet, M.M. Kuber and Vidyavati S. Nayak 116
224. Interconnect-Centric Design for Advanced System-on-Chip
& Network-on-Chip
B. Muralikrishna, A.L.G.N. Aditya, M. Sahithi and J. Poornima 117
225. Multi-agent Systems Approach For Authorization, Authentication
and Secure Shared Storage in Mobile Business Applications
Ashlesha Mahawadiwar 117
226. Secured Infants Monitoring by Designing an Embedded Device
using DSP Processor
Kranti A. Dive and Prof. R.W. Jasutkar 118
227. PIC based Actuation System for Multi-Stage Reverse Osmosis Plant
Loitongbam Surajkumar Singh, Bhausaheb A. Botre and Shashikant Sadistap 119
AUTHOR INDEX 121

Contents ‹ xxv
INFORMATION
An Efficient Authentication System
for Wireless Sensor Network
R.S. Sangeetha and P. Vinothiyalakshmi
PG Student, Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science,
Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Chennai, India
E-mail: Sangee.me.cse@gmail.com, vlakshmi@svce.ac.in
Abstract—X-TESLA, a new member of the TESLA family uses two levels of chains that have distinct
intervals and cross-authenticate each other are used. This allows the short key chains to continue
indefinitely and makes new interesting strategies and management methods possible, significantly
reducing unnecessary computation and buffer occupation. We propose a technique X-TESLA, can
efficiently be combined with public-key techniques. In this, data are splitted into two halves and that
data’s are encrypted. So that dos attack and other attacks are completely prevented. This encryption is
done by RSA algorithm.
Keywords: X-Tesla, cross-authentication, public key technique, short key chain, RSA algorithm.
Projection distances, multidimensional statistics, weighted coefficients, DYMO protocol.

Data Mining Applications in Banking Sector


S. Asokkumar
Research Scholar, Anna University of Technology Coimbatore
Abstract—Data mining, which is a type of artificial intelligence, has been used primarily to analyze
scientific and business data. Data mining helps banks profit from their customer and financial data. Banks
are constantly struggling with global competition and market positioning, adapting new strategies to help
distinguish its core market, build and expand customer base, and manage market uncertainties. Statistical
theory and methods are central to the classification, clustering, and modeling issues involved in most data
mining applications. “Data Analytics“ has been used by many of the business intelligence software
vendors in different ways, basically it is used to describe everything from OLAP (online analytical
processing) to predictive analytics used in banking, E-commerce and Business Process Outsourcing
(BPO). Data Mining techniques can be of immense help to the banks and financial institutions in this
arena for better targeting and acquiring new customers, fraud detection in real time, providing segment
based products for better targeting the customers, analysis of the customers’ purchase patterns over time
for better retention and relationship, detection of emerging trends to take proactive stance in a highly
competitive market.
Keywords: OLAP, BPO, Data Analytics, segment, E-commerce

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 3


Secure and Robust Localization
in Wireless Sensor Networks
Kalpana A.V. and Jayakumar C.
1
Department of Computer Science & Engineering,
Anna University, R.M.K Engineering College, Kavaraipettai–601206, India
2
Professor, Department of Computer Science & Engineering,
Anna University, R.M.K Engineering College, Kavaraipettai–601206, India
E-mail: kalpanavijay21@gmail.com, cjayakumar2007@gmail.com
Abstract—Wireless sensor networks are a large network which consists of low power sensor nodes
which are distributed in an ad hoc manner. Localization is a major challenging issue in wireless sensor
networks. Most of the localization algorithms require a special type of node called beacon nodes, which
know their own location either through GPS or through manual pre-programming during deployment.
Even in the presence of cheating or malicious beacon nodes, an accurate and efficient localization should
be obtained to achieve robustness during two-dimensional localization which is the main focus of this
research work. First, a necessary and sufficient condition is to be derived to obtain a secure localization,
which guarantees a bounded localization error. In this research work, when the number of malicious
beacons is greater than or equal to a threshold, then no algorithm can have a bounded localization error.
Furthermore, when the number of malicious beacons is below that threshold, a set of localization
algorithms is obtained that can guarantee a bounded localization error. Three algorithms are identified,
one of which guarantees to finish in polynomial time, while the other two algorithms are based on a
heuristic and is practically efficient. Secondly, the performance of these algorithms through simulative
experiments is to be verified. Finally the above results can be extended to three-dimensional cases.
Keywords: Wireless sensor network, malicious nodes, trilateration, triangulation, localization

Effective CAPTCHA Implementation


(Next Generation Captcha)
1 2 3
B.Thilak Raj, S. Sri Ganesh and A. Thilagavathy
1,2,
Final Year B.E, RMK Engineering College
3
Assistant Professor, RMK Engineering College
E-mail: bthilakraj@yahoo.co.in, ssriganesh@gmail.com., thils_mailbox@yahoo.co.in
Abstract—CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Human Apart)
mechanism has been introduced to distinguish humans and computers. Due to the fast development of
pattern recognition and artificial intelligence technology, there are increasing safety loopholes concerning
traditional two dimensional static CAPTCHAs, resulting in that certain malicious computer programs
could launch serious program attack through breaking such CAPTCHAs. In this paper, we propose a
dynamic CAPTCHA, originally bonding the biological vision theory with the single - frame zero-
knowledge theory, ensuring it not only extremely hard to recognize each single frame, but easy to
identify for humans as well. It also makes full use of disadvantages of computers in recognizing
numerous moving objects from a complicated background and to increase the security we further
introduce the timing mechanism that is for each and every few minutes CAPTCHA will automatically
refresh itself and generates new CAPTCHA, making it still very difficult for computer programs to break
even using several frames. To verify its security, an analysis is further carried out. Moreover, the 3-layer
structure makes the design of CAPTCHA more distinct and more secured.
Keywords: CAPTCHA; 3-layer; dynamic; single-frame zero- knowledge theory; biological vision
theory; moving objects recognition

4 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


An Efficient Hash Tree Based Indexing Scheme
over Distributed Hash Tables
1 2
G.S. Gayathri Amsa and C. Swarnambigai
1
II M.E. CSE, Jayaram College of Engineering & Technology, Tamil Nadu, Trichy
2
Lecturer, Jayaram College of Engineering & Technology, Tamil Nadu, Trichy
E-mail: gaya3.nsr@gmail.com, cswarnambigai@gmail.com
Abstract—A Distributed Hash Table is a class of decentralized distributed system that provides a lookup
service similar to a hash table. The distributed hash table forms an infrastructure that can be used to build
more complex services such as distributed file systems, peer-to-peer file sharing and content distribution
systems. This existing system retrieves the records from database, only when an exact match is found and
also complex queries are not supported. One of the solutions to support complex queries is to build Index
on the top of distributed hash tables. But the existing Indexing-Based hash table such as Prefix Hash Tree
suffers from query inefficiency and high maintenance cost. An efficient indexing scheme namely
LIGhtweight Hash Tree along with pipelined approach is proposed for supporting complex queries. A
novel naming mechanism and a tree summarization strategy for distribution of its index structure is
included in proposed method. It provides fast retrieval of data and hence will reduce the processing time
and overhead. This approach avoids overloading of data and is useful in networking application to
maintain large amount of data.
Keywords: Distributed hash tables, Lightweight Hash Tree, indexing, pipelining and complex
queries

Smart RFID Care [SRC] for Pervasive


Health Care System
R.S. Lysa Packiam and A. Pravin Renold
1
TIFAC –CORE in Pervasive Computing Technologies, Velammal Engineering College, Chennai
E-mail: lysasouri@gmail.com, aprenold@velammal.org
Abstract—RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is applied widely in many domains. RFID technology
has been dramatically improving so much in recent years, which in turn results in inexpensive tags and
higher, read reliability. RFID middleware is a new breed of software system which facilitates data
communication between automatic identification equipments like RFID readers and enterprise
applications. It provides a distributed environment to process the data coming from tags, filter and then
deliver it to a variety of backend applications. In this paper we designed and implemented an automated
healthcare application using RFID technology which will be the smart assistance for nurse. This provides
the nurse with the bulk checking of patient details which will reduce the time of reviewing. Usage of
RFID readers allows the nurse to work in a mobile environment.
Keywords: RFID, Middleware, Healthcare

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 5


A Memory Efficient and Secure Key Management
Scheme for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
Ashly Thomas and N. Dhinakaran
IT Department, Karunya University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: ashlythomast@gmail.com, kndhina@karunya.edu
Abstract—In today’s network context, the most major requirements of wireless ad hoc networks are
security, scalability and memory efficiency. In most of the earlier implementations on wireless ad hoc
networks, cryptographic key management methods alone were mostly used for providing security. There
are few methods available for decreasing the number of keys that is stored in each node, such that the
memory efficiency is maintained along with uncompromised security. But these methods lack the ability
to resist few security attacks like IP-spoofing and masquerading. This paper presents a novel method
which combines cryptographic and non-cryptographic methods that eliminates the above mentioned and
a few other attacks and their possibilities. Thus this scheme provides more security and flexibility for
wireless ad hoc networks, by preventing them from being targeted by attackers.
Keywords: Cryptographic security, RSS, Non-cryptographic security, Wireless Ad-hoc networks,
Public Key Cryptography.

An Efficient En-Route Filtering Scheme for Highly


Dynamic Wireless Sensor Networks
I. Bildass Santhosam and Anitha Christy Angelin
IT Department, Karunya University Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: bill.dass@gmail.com, anitha.angelin@yahoo.com
Abstract—In Wireless Sensor Networks the nodes will be self-organizing and will not have any
centralized authority. The nodes should cooperate to form the network, especially in the networks whose
topologies change frequently. Opponents can inject false data reports via compromised nodes and launch
DoS attacks against legitimate reports. Recently, a number of filtering schemes against false reports have
been proposed. However, they either lack strong filtering capacity or cannot support highly dynamic
sensor networks very well. Those schemes are energy consuming and the energy optimized is very big
challenge in Wireless Sensor Networks. In this paper, an efficient en-route filtering scheme that
addresses both false report injection and DoS attacks in highly dynamic wireless sensor networks has
been proposed. In this scheme, each node has a hash chain of authentication keys used to endorse reports.
First, each node disseminates its key to forwarding nodes. Then, after sending reports, the sending nodes
disclose their keys, allowing the forwarding nodes to verify their reports. Performance evaluation tells
that compared to existing solutions, our scheme is very energy efficient and can drop false reports earlier
with a lower memory requirement with an increased lifetime of highly dynamic sensor networks.
Keywords: Data reporting, clustering, data aggregation, energy efficient, en-route filtering scheme,
wireless sensor networks.

6 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


Analysis of Nodes Behavior Inconsistency
on Reputation System and Reduction in Manet
1 2
AR. Arunarani and R. Ramachandran
1
PG Student, Department of Computer Science,
Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Chennai, India
2
Professor, Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering Chennai, India
E-mail: arunaraghav83@gmail.com, rrama@svce.ac.in
Abstract—A MANET is a type of ad hoc network that can change locations and configure itself on the
fly. Because MANETS are mobile, they use wireless connections to connect to various networks. We
Propose Random Direction mobility model and derived both exact and approximate (but simple)
expressions for the probability of path duration and availability. We used these results to determine the
optimal path in terms of route stability; in particular, we showed some properties of the optimal path and
we provided an approximate yet accurate expression for the optimal number of hops. And also we
proposed an approach to find and select routes, which accounts for the expected data transfer time over
the path and allows reducing the overhead of reactive routing protocols. We propose schemes based on
the reputation system, which use mobility as an asset to reduce uncertainty in far-flung nodes and reduce
the overall uncertainty in the network proactively.
Keywords: Reputation system, Random Direction Mobility Model, Intra Region and Inter Region
Trust Information Collection.

Survey on BGP QOS Support


1 2
R. Kamal Jagadeesan and N. Dhinakaran
IT Department, Karunya University Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: kamaljagdish@gmail.com, kndhina@gmail.com
Abstract—In the recent past, there has been a tremendous growth in Internet Applications. Many
Important applications run in internet and they need some guarantees, so that applications can run on
required service level. For these kind of applications Internet has to provide QOS guarantees and this
guarantee has to be provided without changing the current structure of internet since it may increase the
cost. The QOS guarantees can be provided by the Internet by enhancing the protocol used. Internet can be
considered as a collection of Autonomous Systems (AS). Border gateway Protocol (BGP) is currently
used for Inter-domain AS Routing. In this survey paper we discuss various methods of providing End to
End QOS guarantees for BGP with minimal change.
Keywords: End to End QOS, AS, Inter-domain, Intra-domain, BGP.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 7


Location Based Intelligent Mobile
Organizer (LBIMO)
1 2
S. Ananya and B. Venkatalakshmi
1
Mobile and Pervasive Computing, Anna University, TIFAC-CORE in Pervasive Computing
Technologies, Velammal Engineering college, Surapet, Chennai–66, India
2
TIFAC-CORE in Pervasive Computing Technologies,
Velammal Engineering College, Surapet, Chennai-66, India
E-mail: ananya_sundar@yahoo.co.in, venkatalakshmib@velammal.org
Abstract—Pervasive existence of the mobile phones have demanded a need for developing variety of
light weighted Operating System as well as applications that would facilitate the user requirements.
Smart phones have grown significantly in terms of both processing and display which will satisfy the
growing ubiquitous demands of the user. Limitations in the existing tracking based applications will
cripple the scalability of using mobile phones in any location, at any time, by anyone thus demanding
need for an intelligent application to be deployed in smart phones. This paper aims in developing an
integrated application namely, Location Based Intelligent Mobile Organizer (LBIMO) that will facilitate
user to have a context aware service, so as to add and associate tasks based on profile categorized as
personal, professional and social contacts while moving near to the location of interest. This intelligent
observer module is developed using Jdk 6, Eclipse3.5 (Galileo) and Android SDK 2.2(Froyo) installed on
Windows XP. Being at a Point of Interest (POI), user will be able to add the tasks and associate those
with that context as on move, and can view location alerts in an Android mobile. This observer
application is integrated into a pervasive device that can form an integral part of our routine activities.
Keywords: Android, Location Based Service (LBS) Software Development Kit (SDK), Keyhole
MarkupLanguage (KML), Droid Debug Monitor Server (DDMS).

New Efficient Proxy Based Quantum


Key Distribution Protocol for Group Communication
1 1 2
Prabu G., Ananthakumaran S. and Ramar K.
1
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, National Engineering College
K.R. Nagar, Kovilpatti – 628 503, Tuticorin (DT), Tamilnadu, India
2
Sri Vidya College of Engineering and Technology,
P. Kumaralingapuram – 626 005, Virudhunagar (DT), Tamilnadu, India
E-mail: prabude@gmail.com, vsak_reddy@yahoo.co.in, kramar_nec@rediffmail.com
Abstract—The two models of traditional cryptography (symmetric and asymmetric encryption) are
having a problem of distributing keys with perfect security. A solution to this problem is proposed by
quantum physics. In quantum cryptography, the security of the exchanged key is not based on
algorithmic complexity but rather on the laws of the quantum physics. The BB84 protocol provides an
unconditional security due to Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle. Secure communication link is the most
important of today’s modern society and its development is increasing dramatically. Quantum Key
Distribution (QKD) has become more secure transmission method used to transmit secret key between
two legitimate parties. QKD uses quantum mechanics to guarantee secure communication. This paper
uses BB84 Protocol to share secret information for successful Group Communication. The proposed
proxy based QKDP for group communication to share secret information efficiently and also used to

8 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


reduce time consumption and workload of server. The proxy based Quantum information sharing could
be to different types of network topologies. The shared secret keys can be compressed by means of
performing bitwise Exclusive OR (XOR) Operation on consecutive 0’s and 1’s. The proposed protocol
can be implemented with the current technologies.
Keywords: Quantum Cryptography (QC), Qubits, Quantum Key Distribution Protocol (QKDP),
Proxy, Raw Quantum Transmission (RQT), Socket.

Implementation of Text and Smooth Block


Compression in the Compound Image
N. Alagupriya and P.S. Jagadeesh Kumar
1
Professional affiliation of the authors .P.G. Student (Computer and Communication), Department
of Information Technology, SSN College of Engineering, Rajiv Gandhi Salai,
Kalavakkam–603110, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India
E-mail: priyab.014@gmail.com, jagadeeshkumarps@ssn.edu.in
Abstract—Data holders such as hospitals, banks having sensible information want to develop an
application by combining the information present in two databases, while integrating the information
present in the two databases, the information that is kept as private is revealed that is privacy is lost for
sensible information. In this paper we propose a securely integrating private data (SIP) algorithm to
securely integrate the private information present in more than one database, the resultant data (i.e.
integrate information) contain the essential information for data mining tasks.
Keywords: Privacy, K-anonymity, Generalization, Taxonomy tree, Specialization.

Optimized MaxMin Approach


for Hiding Frequent, Itemsets
1 2 3
Janani R., R. Anuradha and N. Rajkumar
1
Department of Computer Science and Engineering (PG),
Sri Ramakrishna Engineering College, Coimbatore—641022, India
2
Department of Computer Science and Engineering (UG),
Sri Ramakrishna Engineering College, Coimbatore 641022, India
E-mail: jananirajendran@sify.com, 3nrk29@rediffmail.com, radhu_anu@rediffmail.com
Abstract—In this paper, a novel method to take advantage of FPtree representation of incremental
transaction database for incremental mining is proposed. The solution builds upon the idea that the
impact of the changes in the data that we apply in order to hide the sensitive knowledge can be
minimized, by considering only to minimize the impact on the positive border of the frequent patterns.
As long as the minimum gain is maximized, all the non-sensitive frequent patterns which are not in the
positive border remain above the support threshold which means that they are preserved. Performance
study shows that the FP-growth method is efficient and scalable for mining frequent patterns, and is
about an order of magnitude faster than the Apriori algorithm.
Keywords: Association rule hiding; Frequent itemset hiding; Frequent Patterns; Knowledge hiding;
Privacy preserving data mining.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 9


An Approach for Measuring Semantic Similarity
between Words Using Association Rule Mining
Geetha K. and Rajkumar N.
Department of Computer Science and Engineering (P.G),
Sri Ramakrishna Engineering College, Coimbatore- 641022. Tamil Nadu - India
E-mail: glory.kg222@gmail.com, nrk29@rediffmail.com
Abstract—Semantic similarity measures play important roles in information retrieval and Natural
Language Processing. Despite the usefulness of semantic similarity measures in various applications,
robustly measuring semantic similarity between two words remains a challenging task. Robust semantic
similarity measure is proposed, that uses the information available on the Web to measure similarity
between words or entities. The proposed method exploits page counts and text snippets returned by a
Web search engine. Also a technique called Higher Order Association Mining is used to mine word
similarity. We exploit indirect associations of words, in addition to direct ones for estimating their
similarity. Evaluation results on different data sets shows that our method outperforms several competing
methods.
Keywords: Semantic Similarity, Web search engine, Higher Order Association Mining, Benchmark,
Human judgment.

Gesture Driven User Interface for Handhelds


Merrlin Benjamin and Ranjith Balakrishnan
TIFAC CORE in Pervasive Technologies, Velammal Engineering College, Chennai–66
E-mail: merrlinbelina@gmail.com,ranjithbke@gmail.com
Abstract—In this paper we introduce a new robust algorithm for both PC and mobile platforms based on
skin color for hand gesture tracking and recognition. A gesture recognition system is developed, which
can reliably recognize single hand gesture on a standard camera. A fast segmentation method which uses
the pixel based color information for detection followed by velocity based automatic gesture spotting
algorithm. The DCT values are utilized to recognize the gesture using DTW algorithm.
Keywords: Gesture Tracking, Gesture recognition, computer vision, skin detection, Feature
Extraction.

Prediction of Future Stock Prices


and their Performance Statistics
1 2
K.K. Sureshkumar and N.M.Elango
1
Assistant Professor, P.G. Department of Computer Science,
Kongu Arts and Science College, Erode, Tamilnadu, India
2
Professor, MCA Department, the Oxford College of Engineering, Bangalore, India
E-mail: kksuresh_oda@yahoo.com,nmeoxford@yahoo.com
Abstract—A challenging and daunting task for financial investors is determining stock market prices—
when to buy, sell and the future price of a stock. This challenge is due to the complexity of the stock

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 10


market. Last few years there has been much advancement in the application of neural network in stock
market indices forecasting with a hope that market patterns can be extracted. Trading in stock market has
gained unprecedented popularity in major financial markets around the world. However, the prediction of
stock price or index is a very difficult problem. New methods have emerged that increase the accuracy of
stock prediction. Predicting stock market movements is affected by many factors including political
events, general economic conditions and investor’s expectations.
Data analysis is one way of predicting if future stocks prices will increase or decrease. The main aim
of every investor is to earn maximum returns on investments. There are many conventional techniques
used to predict stocks and these include technical and fundamental analysis. The basic objective of this
research and inturn the paper is to present the use of artificial neural network as a forecasting tool for
predicting the stock price or index value of the NSE (National Stock Exchange) stock market. In this
paper, neural works predict tools are used to predict future share prices and their performance statistics
will be evaluated by linear correlation, average absolute error, maximum absolute error and root mean
square error. The results from analysis shows that neural works predict offer the ability to predict the
stock prices more accurately than the other existing tools and techniques. The accuracy of the predicted
output values that lie within 20% of their corresponding target output value. The results will be used to
analyze the stock prices and their prediction in depth in future research efforts.
Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), Back Propagation
algorithm (BP), National Stock Exchange (NSE), Technical Analysis, Stock prediction, Performance
Measures.

Automatic Detection of Masses in Digital


Mammograms-A Novel Approach
1 2
M. Vasantha and Dr. V. Subbiah Bharathy
1
Research Scholar, Mother Teresa Womens University, Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu
Assistant Professor, St.Peters University Avadi, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
2
Dean of Academics, DMI College Of Engineering, Chennai
E-mail: vasantha_spec@yahoo.com
Abstract—This work presents a new approach for classification and detection of masses from
mammogram images. Digital mammography plays an important role in Computer Aided Detection of
Breast cancer. This paper presents a new classification method which classifies the image into benign,
malignant and determines the severity of tumour. It extracts the intensity features and Texture features
from the image and uses Sequential Search Forward and Genetic Algorithm to select relevant feature. A
database of 113 mammograms from the Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) was used for
our experiments. For classification, we have used the java based open source Machine Learning package,
WEKA to train our data set using J48 decision tree method. Out of 113 images in the dataset, 80 were
used for training and the remaining for testing. Our algorithm produces better accuracy and reduces the
computation time. Such innovation guarantees a more accurate classifier and a better optimization of the
medical work
Keywords: Digital Mammography, Genetic algorithm, feature extraction, classification

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 11


Multilingual Multi Document Summarization
Using Fuzzy Model with Naïve Bayes Classifier
1 . 1 2
Soundaravalli R , Dr. K.G. Srinivasagan and S. Babu Rengarajan
1
Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
National Engineering College K.R. Nagar, Kovilpatti-628 503, Tutucorin (Dt), Tamilnadu, India
2
Department of Information Technology, PET Engineering Collge,
Post Box No.6, Thiruchendur Road, Vallioor-627 117, Tirunelveli(Dt), Tamilnadu, India
E-mail: soundaravalli@gmail.com, kgsnec@rediffmail.com, sbabu_sbr01@rediffmail.com
Abstract—Nowadays, the textual revolution has seen a tremendous change in the availability of online
information, and information overload has created an acute need for summarization. Typically, the same
information is described by many different online documents. Hence, summaries that synthesize common
information across documents and emphasize the differences would significantly help readers. Such a
summary would be beneficial, for example, to a user who follows a single event through several
newswires. This system proposes for multilingual (Tamil and English) and multi document
summarization by using an approach to address the problem of improving content selection (Extraction),
in automatic text summarization by using some methods in fuzzy concepts. In proposed system the
corpus (Dataset) is collected from the online search engine. The system explores the problem of subtopic
segmentation by proposing a fuzzy model for the semantics of both words and sentences. Single
document summarization is done by using sentence scoring. The Single Document Summary outputs of
similar documents are used as an input for Multi Document Summarization. Sentence Similarity is used
to compare the sentences and the resultant summary is produced with Naive Bayes Classifier.
Keywords: Fuzzy Modelling, Corpus, Fuzzy Similarity, Natural Language Processing, Fuzzy
Semantics, Topic Segmentation.

Enhancing the Adaptability of Web Service


in Mobile Environment
1 2 3
Sivalingam, Shenbagavadevu and Kala
1 2 3
Scholar, Asst. Professor, Asst. Professor CSE Department, Anna
University of Technology Tiruchirrappalli, India
N. Shenbagavadevu MCA Department,
Anna University of Technology Tiruchirrappalli, India
E-mail: sivalingam.me@gmail.com, foreverkala@gmail.com, kshenthu@gmail.com
Abstract—In the present scenario mobile devices become vital element in the day to day activities, even
for connecting to the internet. The web services can serve as an important role of distributed environment
that can provide different type of services. In the current environment the web services are very
determined as regards their invocation from different types of devices, particularly for mobile devices.
This paper provides a methodology for the creation of the flexible web service which can be adaptable
from different types of devices. The adaptation is performed based on the characteristic of devices and
end-user preferences.
Keywords: object-oriented development, mobile device, web service.

12 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


Ensuring Network Security in MANETs
and Wireless Sensor Networks
with Artificial Neural Network Algorithms
1 2
S. Sivakama Sundariand R. Sundar
1
Lecturer, Department of Information Technology, Adhiparasakthi College of Engineering,
G.B. Nagar, Kalavai, Vellore Dt., Tamil Nadu, India
2
Lecturer,Department of Information Technology, Adhiparasakthi College of Engineering,
G.B. Nagar, Kalavai, Vellore Dt., Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: hanuman_sundari@yahoo.com, apcesundar@gmail.com
Abstract— Mobile Ad-hoc networks (MANETs) specially need focus on network security. The intrusion
detection system (IDS) plays a vital role in safeguarding the integrity of the network. The misbehaving
nodes are to be monitored with the help of specialized algorithms and artificial neural network
techniques. This paper takes an exhaustive survey of the different neural network schemes and the merits
and demerits of each system. There are many challenges and issues in ensuring the security of wireless
sensor networks. This paper prescribes a special technique to detect and tackle the misbehaving nodes
and provide network security using artificial neural network algorithms.
Keywords: MANETs, IDS, Neural Network Intrusion Detector (NNID), NeGPAIM, Evolutionary
Neural Network (ENN).

Clustering of Multispectral
and Hyperspectral Images
1 2 3
J. Seetha, Dr. R. Varadharajan and Dr. V. Vaithiyanathan
1 2
Research Scholar and Assistant Professor, Dhanalakshmi college
of Engineering, Chennai. seetha.venkat80@gmail.com
3
Professor, SASTRA University, Thanjavur Professor, SASTRA University, Thanjavur
Abstract—Nowadays aerial photographs as well as imagery obtained from remote sensing using aircraft
or spacecraft have a wide range of commercial and military applications.These images may be a
panchromatic,multispectral,hyperspectral or even ultraspectral of terra byte size files. A very efficient set
image mining tools are needed for remote sensing.We are experimenting with both Supervised and
Unsupervised algorithms on multispectral and hyperspectral. The Result analysis requires both
experiment and experience. Here, we have compared some of the clustering algorithms and implemented
a clustering algorithm for multispectral based on fuzzy cluster.
Keywords: Multispectral, hyperspectral, Spectral, Supervised, unsupervised classification, Cluster

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 13


Enhancing Elliptic Curve Cryptography Efficiency
M. Swarnalatha
Assistant Professor, allikkaranai, hennai-600100
E-mail: warna.madugula@gmail.com
Abstract—In recent years it is proven that Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) provides the same level
of security as that of RSA with reduced key size. The speed of scalar multiplication dominates the
efficiency of the ECC. Fast multiplication is particularly more crucial for some environments such as
central servers etc. Because of such importance of scalar multiplication, methods have been developed to
improve the performance of the algorithm, such as Binary method to improve the performance of scalar
multiplication. The performance of ECC with LSB and ECC with Montgomery method evaluated on
value and time. The results have proven that Encryption using ECC with Montgomery method gives
good time improvement.

SCTP Multihoming in Wireless Networking


1 2 2
S. Ambareesh and P.Aravind
1 2
Assistant Professor & Research Scholar Lecturer Dept of IT Er. Perumal Manimekalai
College of Engg. Er. Perumal Manimekalai College of Engg. Hosur, TN Hosur, TN
E-mail: ambareesh.s@rediffmail.com, aravindkumar_it@yahoo.com
Abstract—SCTP(Stream control transmission protocol) is a new transport layer protocol amended as
RFC4960. SCTP provides reliable ordered and unordered transport services. The congestion control and
flow control mechanisms for SCTP are very similar to those for TCP (transmission control protocol).
SCTP can apply more than one IP address when establishing associations. SCTP multihoming can
support multiple paths in association. These features provide SCTP with some network-level fault
tolerance through network address redundancy. SCTP multihoming has tremendous transmission
potential. However, SCTP path management is very simple in RFC4960 and therefore cannot effectively
distinguish path conditions; it also has no path switch strategy appropriate for wireless networking. These
factors all degrade SCTP performance. This study proposes a new path management (quality-aware
SCTP) for wireless networking; this includes a new path failure detection method and ICE (idle path
congestion window size estimation) mechanism. An experiment using NS2 was performed, showing that
quality-aware SCTP can effectively improve the network performance. SCTP Multihoming is simple and
provides a more effective performance than SCTP alone.
Keywords: Multihoming, Multistream, SCTP Path Management, Dynemic Parallel
Congestion, Tranmission Services.

14 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


Active Learning with Dynamic Queries
Using Cart Algorithm
D. Senthil Kumar and G. Sathyadevi
Department of Computer science and Engineering Anna University
of Technology, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu, India
2
E-mail: chandsent@yahoo.co.in, sathya_ciet42@yahoo.co.in
Abstract—Active learning involves domain experts in its need to construct fewer examples in building
an accurate classifier. It aims to provide label information for the queries asked to Oracle or domain
experts. However, previous works of active learning deals only with the specific queries. In this paper,
dynamic queries are constructed and submitted to the Oracle. The proposed approach uses CART
decision tree algorithm for labeling the given training datasets to handle uncertain answers from Oracle.
The proposed technique prevents dramatic changes in the data distribution when new examples are
included in the training set. Thus, the CART derived model along with the extended definition for
identifying (diagnosing) heart disease provided a good classification accuracy based model.
Keywords: Active learning, domain expert, data mining, dynamic query, ID3 algorithm, CART
algorithm, C4.5 algorithm

Extraction of Palm Dorsal Vein Patterns Using


Binarization and Thinning Methods
1 2
M. Rajalakshmi and P.Rega
1 2
P.G. Student (Computer and Communication), Assistant Professor,
Department of Information Technology SSN College of Engineering, Rajiv Gandhi
Salai, Kalavakkam-603110, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India
E-mail: srmraji@gmail.com, regap@ssn.edu.in
Abstract—This paper proposes an improved palm dorsal (back of hand) pattern extraction algorithm for
biometric personal authentication applications. The proposed method employs the existing database of
near Infrared (IR) images of palm dorsal hand vein surface. The proposed system include: 1) Infrared
palm dorsa images database collection; 2) Detection of Region of Interest; 3) Palm vein extraction by
median filtering. The input image is segmented using an optimum thresholding algorithm. The knuckle
points are used as key points for the image normalization and extraction of region of interest (ROI). The
extracted ROI is processed to get the reliable vein pattern.
Keywords: palm dorsal vein, vascular biometrics, knuckle points, thresholding algorithm, histogram
equalization, median filtering.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 15


Buffer Overflow Attack Blocker
Using Sigfree Concept
1 2
N. Anbarasi and S. Kalaimagal
1 2
Jaya Engineering College, Prof in Computer Science Jaya Engineering College
Omic Computing, Design patterns, Dynamic adaptability and AspectJ
E-mail: anbarasi.cse@gmail.com
Abstract—SigFree - online signature-free out-of-the-box application-layer method for blocking code-
injection buffer overflow attack messages targeting at various Internet services such as web service.
Motivated by the observation that buffer overflow attacks typically contain executables whereas
legitimate client requests never contain executables in most Internet services, Sig Free blocks attacks by
detecting the presence of code. SigFree is signature free, thus it can block new and unknown buffer
overflow attacks. SigFree is also immunized from most attack-side code obfuscation methods. We focus
on buffer overflow attacks whose payloads contain executable code in machine language, and we assume
normal requests do not contain executable machine code. We shows that the dependency-degree-based
SigFree could block all types of code-injection attack packets tested in our experiments with very few
false positives.

Providing Randomized Routes for Avoiding


Compromised Node and Denial of Service attacks
in Wireless Sensor Networks
1 2
A. Arence Flemi and P. Robert
1
PG student, Vel Tech MultiTech Dr. Rangarajan Dr. Sakunthala Engineering College,
Avadi, Chennai
2
Assistant Professor, Vel Tech Multi Tech Dr. Rangarajan Dr. Sakunthala Engineering College,
Avadi, Chennai
E-mail: arenceflemi@gmail.com, robertmtech2005@gmail.com,
Abstract—In wireless sensor networks (WSN) compromised node and denial of service are the two key
attacks. Black holes are formed by this attack. This is due to the unattended nature of the wireless sensor
networks. Severe black holes can disrupt the normal data delivery mechanisms. In this paper we develop
data delivery mechanisms that can circumvent the black holes formed by the above attacks. Here we use
a randomised approach, in that we obtain a randomized path each time an information packet needs to be
sent, such that the set of routes taken by various shares of different packets keep changing over time.
Besides randomness, the routes generated by our mechanisms are also highly dispersive and energy-
efficient, making them quite capable of bypassing black holes at low energy cost. Extensive simulations
are conducted to verify the validity of our mechanisms.
Keywords: Randomized multipath routing, wireless sensor network, secure data deliveyr, data
collection, dispersive

16 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


Person Identification Based on Decision Level
Data Fusion Using Neural Network
1 3 4
S. Janardhanam, Dr. K. Venkatalakshmi, S. Vasuhi and Dr. V. Vaidehi4
1 2 3 4
Research Scholar, UCET Campus, Asst. Prof & Head/ECE, Asst. Prof/ECE,
MIT Campus, Prof & HOD, MIT Campus, Anna University of Tech, Chennai, India
E-mail: sjanaath@gmail.com, venkata_krish@yahoo.com,
vasuhi_s@annauniv.edu, vaidehivijay@gmail.com
Abstract—Person identification has been done using different classifiers for face images and Iris
images.The decision level fusion is used to take final decision based on decision taken by two classifiers.
Fusing the result of the classifiers is considered as the building block for the next generation
authentication system. Person identification based on decision level data fusion has been implemented
using consensus theory based majority voting with Back Propagation Neural Network as a classifier. The
back propagation Neural Network is used as a classifier to identify whether the person is available in the
database or not. The ICA (Independent Component Analysis) Coefficients are collected from each image
of the face database and iris database. Two separate classifiers are trained with ICA coefficients from
face images and Iris images. Once training is over, ICA coefficients for test image has been collected and
tested with the classifier, if both the classifiers are agree on the decision, then the person is accepted. If
both the classifiers are not agreeing on the decision, then the person is rejected. If any one classifier says
‘Yes’ and other one says ‘No’ then recollect the coefficients and repeat the test process once again.
Decision making process has been carried out using consensus theory. Keywords:-ICA,BPN, Majority
Voting.

Energy Efficient Secure Data Collection Approach


in Wireless Sensor Networks
Madhan V.
PG Scholar, Department of CSE, Anna University of Technology Tiuchirappalli, TamilNadu, India
E-mail: vmadhan1986@gmail.com
Abstract—In addition to the large number and severe resource constraint of wireless sensor nodes, a
particular challenge comes from potential insider attacks due to possible node compromise, since a WSN
is usually deployed in unattended/hostile environments. Two key attacks in WSNs (Wireless Sensor
Networks) are Compromised-node (CN) and denial-of-service (DOS). Here, we study data delivery and
routing mechanisms that can with high probability evade black holes formed by these attacks. Since, the
existing multi-path routing approaches are deterministic in nature; so they are vulnerable to DOS attacks.
So once the routing algorithm is acquired by an adversary, it can compute the same routes known to the
source, and hence jeopardize all information sent over these routes. In this paper, novel routing
mechanisms are proposed that can generate randomized multipath routes. In this mechanism, the routes
taken by the “shares” of different packets change over time. So, though the routing algorithm becomes
known to the adversary, it cannot isolate the routes traversed by each packet. In addition to randomness,
the routes generated by our mechanisms are also highly disseminative (dispersive) and energy-efficient,
making them quite capable of bypassing black holes at low energy cost.
Keywords: randomized multipath routing, secure data collection, black holes

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 17


Improvised Shadow Removal for Video
Sequences through Efficient Modeling of Robust
Statistical Descriptors
1 2 2
T. GraceWinsolin and M. Prakash
1
P.G. Student, Computer Science and Engineering,
Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Chennai, TamilNadu, India
2
Asst. Professor, Computer Science and Engineering, Rajalakshmi
Engineering College, Chennai, TamilNadu, India
E-mail: t.gracewinsolin@gmail.com, Salemprakash@yahoo.com
Abstract—In a video sequence we need to identify and track the moving objects and then to remove the
shadows from the identified objects play an important problem in computer vision applications in several
fields, such as video surveillance and target tracking. Most techniques reported in the literature use
background sub-traction techniques to obtain foreground objects, and apply shadow detection algorithms
exploring spectral information of the images to retrieve only valid moving objects using Gaussian
mixture model and Kernel density estimation. In this paper, we propose a new method for background
subtraction and the shadow removal for color video sequences through RGB color components. The
background image is modeled using robust statistical descriptors and a noise estimate is obtained.
Foreground pixels are extracted and a morphological operators are required which thus processed to take
out the isolated foreground pixels. Finally, a statistical approach combined with geometrical constraints
is adopted to detect and remove shadows. Our proposed approach works robustly and effectively when
compare with other techniques used.
Keywords: Surveillance, Moving object detection, Gray scale sequence, RGB color, Background
model, Shadow removal.

Network Traffic Control Using Multiagent


System (Data Mining)
1 2 3
M. P. Srinivasan, T.Mahalingam and Dr. K.L. Shunmuganathan
1
Lecturer, Bhajarang Engineering College, Ayathur, Veppampattu (R.S), Thiruvallur Dist–602024
2
Bhajarang Engineering College, Ayathur, Veppampattu (R.S), Thiruvallur Dist–602024
3
Professor, Bhajarang Engineering College, Ayathur, Veppampattu (R.S), Thiruvallur Dist–602024
E-mail: lionsrini2000@gmail.com, mahaaalingam@gmail.com, hod.cse@rmkec.ac.in
Abstract—The purpose of this paper is to open a research perspective on accurate prediction of traffic
distribution in Computer Network Systems. The underlying hypothesis is that dynamic models of
Computer network systems can be established by the use of data mining techniques being applied to data
gathered in observing the Computer Network systems. The main concern of the work is focused around
the operation of web systems in the Internet; the ideas and solutions presented here are aimed to enrich
the existing systems with the flexible control over the quality of service features. Due to the complexity
and dynamics of the modern telecommunication networks, a new methodology is proposed and explored,
emerging from the blend of artificial intelligence and data bases research. Feeding observations in an on-
line monitoring process into such a model allows predicting upcoming reliable and performance
problems, thus enabling the user or the system to take preventive measures for increased reliability or
performance.
Keywords: data mining; distributed systems; reliability; network modelling

18 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


Multicast Authentication Based on Merkle
Hash Tree Using MD5 Algorithm
Balaji Chandrasekaran
PG Scholar, Department of CSE, Anna University of Technology
Tiruchirappalli Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu, India
E-mail: chandrasekaranbalaji.13.06.88@gmail.com
Abstract—Conventional multicast authentication scheme uses 320-bit DSA signature and 171-bit BLS
signatures are generated and achieving more bandwidth efficiency and provide same level security than
1024-bit RSA signature. In this paper, the basic scheme uses the popular hash algorithm MD5. MD5
produces 128-bit signature and achieve more bandwidth efficiency and security than DSA and BLS. Our
paper present an enhanced scheme, which combines the basic scheme with a packet filtering
mechanism(with the help of merkle tree) to tolerate the packet injection.
Keywords: Multimedia, multicast, authentication, signature

Trust System Protocol for Scada Networks


1 2
V.M. Priyadharshini and S. Sathiya
1
Assistant Professor, Department of CSE, Anna University of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, India
2
PG Scholar, Department of CSE, Anna University of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, India
E-mail: priya@tau.edu.in, sathiya.it09@gmail.com
Abstract—WSN infrastructures controlled by specialized systems, known as supervisory control and
data acquisition (SCADA) system. They will provide authority information to the network operator. The
data/ information are collected from the various wireless sensor nodes, and authorization is checked. The
packets are encrypted and send to the server or node side were threats are continuously monitored. In the
destination side, receivers retrieve the packet and decrypt. The new trust system implementations allow
firewall and intrusion detection security to be embedded through tunnel connections when SCADA
traffic must pass through the Internet or other unsecured networks including WSN.
Keywords: Supervisory control and data-acquisition (SCADA) systems, Wireless sensor mesh
network, Network Security.

Enhancing the Design Quality by Move


Method Refactoring
1 2
S. Durai and C.P. Indumathi
1
PG Scholar, Department of CSE, Anna University of Technology Tiruchirappalli, India
2
Asst. Professor, Department of CSE, Anna University of Technology Tiruchirappalli, India
E-mail: duraitrichy@gmail.com
Abstract—An Object Oriented system is considered to be well design in terms of low coupling and high
cohesion. Moving state and behavior between classes can reduce coupling and increase cohesion.
Refactoring improves the system design quality without altering its external behavior. Feature envy is a
sign of violating the principle of grouping behavior with related data and occurs when a method is “more

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 19


interested in a class other than the one it actually is in”. Here we consider a methodology called Move
Method Refactoring to solve the Feature Envy problems. Our methodology employs the idea of distance
between system entities and classes extract a list of refactoring suggestions. Entity placement metric is
proposed to rank the factoring suggestions according to the effect on the design. It is our (designer)
responsible to decide whether a Refactoring should be applied. The proposed methodology will be
evaluated by qualitative analysis, efficiency aspects of the suggested Refactorings in a number of open
source projects to distinguish the most effective Refactorings in terms of their impact on the design.
Keywords: Design quality, Feature Envy, Move Method Refactoring, Eclipse plug-in.

Simulation on JOB Scheduling Based on Cost


Optimization in Grid Environment
Mohamed Mustafa, N. Shivakumar and N.Balaji
Department of Computer Science and Engineering Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai
E-mail: mohamedmustafa@tce.edu, shiva@tce.edu, nbcse@tce.edu
Abstract—Grid computing is a developing trend in distributed computing systems and used for solving
potentially large-scale scientific problems using heterogeneous and geographically distributed resources.
Scheduling in grid environment is the process of allocating jobs to resources for execution. The
scheduling polices are used to maintain and providing jobs based on scheduling techniques to the
resources. An efficient grid scheduling system is the essential part of the Grid and addition to processor
utilization, it is important to consider throughput and cost for executing jobs in resources for evaluating
the performance of grid scheduling strategies. They allow the sharing of geographically distributed
resources in an efficient way for better performance. This paper is considered the time and cost for better
utilization of resources for the jobs waiting to be executed. The proposed scheduling method is
considered with initial information about the grid resources, the jobs details and threshold value which is
derived from length of total jobs and number of resources available at that time. Jobs with the lower
threshold value are executed in lower cost resources and higher value in higher cost resources. Because
of its low cost and high accuracy for the complex problems solving, optimization design by
computational simulations is attracted more and more researchers. Based on the proposed technique jobs
are executed and results shows that cost reduced more than 30 percent than normal method. Thus the
proposed method is reasonable and effective in execution of jobs.
Keywords: Cost optimization, Grid computing, GridSim, Scheduling, Resource utilization.

Network Based Framework for Information


Retrieval Using Feature Association
Evangelin D. and Kalaivani V.
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, National Engineering College,
K.R. Nagar, Kovilpatti–628 503, Tuticorin (DT), Tamilnadu, India
E-mail: evedasan@gmail.com, kalai.engr@rediffmail.com
Abstract—Various fields like medicine, telecommunication, finance and banking, online business etc.,
use electronic records to store and retrieve the information effectively. For example in a medical field for
a particular disease, the document is prepared for that disease and the treatment required to cure the
disease. When the same case appears later, a search can be performed on that stored documents. As more
records accumulate the retrieval process became more complex to retrieve the relevant documents

20 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


efficiently. Current record retrieval techniques are not suitable when applied to this defect record retrieval
problem. In this study, a new paradigm for defect record (e.g., document containing remedy for the
problem) retrieval using network-based feature association (NBFA) is proposed. The defect record
retrieval process is proposed by constructing feature associations between the records in the database to
limit the search space. And the new keyword weighting scheme is proposed to increase the relevance
measure. In this paper, performance assessments on real data for a medicine field is provided and
highlights the difficulties and challenges in this area of research are addressed.
Keywords: Text mining, Information Retrieval, query, keyword weighting, vector space model
(VSM).

Ranked Query Processing Approach


in Uncertain Databases
L. Vinoth Kumar and B. Jaison
Department of Computer Science & Engineering, R.M.K Engineering College,
Kavaraipettai, India–601206
E-mail: vinoth_l@yahoo.co.in, bennet_jaison@rediffmail.com
Abstract—New applications such as sensor data monitoring and mobile device tracking, rise up the issue
of uncertain data management. Compared to “certain” data, the data in the uncertain database are not
exact points, which, instead, often reside within a region. Here the study ranked queries over the
uncertain data. The existing system such as decision making, recommendation raising, and data mining
tasks proposes only for certain data. Robust novel solutions speed up the probabilistic ranked query
(PRank) with monotonic preference functions over the uncertain database. Specifically, Introduced two
effective pruning methods: Spatial and Probabilistic pruning, these reduce the PRank search space. A
special case of PRank with linear preference function is also studied and seamlessly integrate these
pruning heuristics into the PRank query procedure. A preference function specified by users, a ranked
query retrieves k data objects in the database such that their scores (calculated by the given preference
function) are the highest. The proposed system tackles the PRank query processing over the join of two
distinct uncertain databases. Extensive experiments will be conducted to demonstrate the efficiency and
effectiveness in answering PRank queries.
Keywords: Minimum Bounding Rectangles, PRank, J-PRank, Spatial Pruning and Probabilistic
Pruning.

Artificial Intelligence Based Decision


Making System Using IRIS
1 1 2
J.K. Thiyagarajan and D. Karthik and Prof. Dr. S. Nagarajan
1
Research Scholar, Hindustan University, Chennai
2
M.E., Ph.D., Hindustan University
E-mail: jktrajan@gmail.com, karthik_softwarepro@yahoo.co.in
Abstract—Biometrics is the science of establishing human identity by using physical or behavioral traits
such as face, fingerprints, palm prints, iris, hand geometry, and voice. Iris recognition systems, in
particular, are gaining interest because the iris’s rich texture offers a strong biometric cue for recognizing
individuals. Located just behind the cornea and in front of the lens, the iris uses the dilator and sphincter

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 21


muscles that govern pupil size to control the amount of light that enters the eye. Near-infrared (NIR)
images of the iris’s anterior surface exhibit complex patterns that computer systems can use to recognize
individuals. Because NIR lighting can penetrate the iris’s surface, it can reveal the intricate texture details
that are present even in dark-colored irides.

Securing Witness in Active Mode using Enhanced


Secure Deep Throat Protocol in P2P Networks
S. Manoj Thomas and M.A. Mukunthan
Dept. of Computer Science and Engg, Jaya Engineering College, Thiruninravur, Tamilnadu, India
E-mail: manojthomas88@gmail.com, mamukunthan@gmail.com
Abstract—In this paper, we introduce the concept of witness anonymity for peer-to-peer systems, as
well as other systems with the peer-to-peer nature. Witness anonymity combines the seemingly
conflicting requirements of anonymity (for honest peers who report on the misbehavior of other peers)
and accountability (for malicious peers that attempt to misuse the anonymity feature to slander honest
peers). We propose the Secure Deep Throat (SDT) protocol to provide anonymity for the witnesses of
malicious or selfish behavior to enable such peers to report on this behavior without fear of retaliation
and enhances the SDT protocol. On the other hand, in SDT, the misuse of anonymity is restrained in such
a way that any malicious peer attempting to send multiple claims against the same innocent peer for the
same reason (i.e., the same misbehavior type) can be identified. The active mode can be used in scenarios
with real-time requirements, e.g., detecting and preventing the propagation of peer-to-peer worms. We
present countermeasures that can be used to mitigate various attacks on the protocol. Moreover, we show
how SDT can be easily integrated with existing protocols/mechanisms with a few examples. Trust server
is introduced to manage the malicious activities.
Keyword: Peer-to-peer, privacy, reputation systems, trust server.

Realization of Self Healing Techniques


by Virtualization to Progress Software Rejuvenation
1 1
Anoop Cherian Varughese and R. Sivakami
1
Information Technology Department, Anna University Tiruchirappalli PSNACET,
Dindigul, Tamilnadu, India
2
Information Technology Department, Anna University Tiruchirappalli PSNACET,
Dindigul, Tamilnadu, India
E-mail: anp.cv007@gmail.com, rsivakami@psnacet.edu.in
Abstract—In this paper, an approach for software rejuvenation based on automated self healing
technique by virtualization is done. This technique can reduce the downtime of the application servers.
Software aging and transient failures are detected through continuous monitoring of system data and per
formability metrics of the application server. When some anomalous behaviour is identified, the system
triggers an automatic rejuvenation action. This self-healing scheme is meant to disrupt the running
service for a minimal amount of time, achieving zero downtime in most cases. We exploit the usage of
virtualization to optimize the self-recovery actions. The techniques described in this paper have been
tested with a set of open-source Linux tools and the XEN virtualization middleware.
Keywords: Server redundancy, Software aging, Self-healing, Software Rejuvenation, Virtualization

22 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


Effective Ways to Find Outliers during Classification
1 2
Malathi Eswaran and P. Vishnuraja
1
PG Scholar, Department of CSE, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai,
Erode, Tamil Nadu, India
2
Lecturer, Department of CSE, Kongu Engineering College,
Perundurai, Erode, Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: malathieswaran@gmail.com, vishnurajap@gmail.com
Abstract—Data mining is a process of extracting valid, previously unknown and ultimately
comprehensible information from large data set and using it for organizational decision making. Data
mining engines have different kinds of approaches such as classification, clustering, association and
outlier analysis. Classification is the important task of generalizing known structure to apply new data
set, while applying this known structure to new data set there would be some anomalous observation. In
order to perform efficient classification, we need to remove these anomalies. Outlier detection is mainly
used to remove anomalous observation from data. There are many techniques to predict outliers. The
major objective of proposed work is to identify outliers during classification using PSO algorithm.
Keywords: Data Mining, Classification, Outliers, PSO, Genetic Algorithm.

Advanced Congestion Control Technique


for Health Care Monitoring in Wireless Biomedical
Sensor Networks
1 2 3
Jeshifa G. Immanuel, Prof. A. Fidal Castro and Prof. E. Babu Raj
1
M.E (CSE), Jaya Engineering College, Thirunindravur–602024
2
Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
Jaya Engineering College, Thirunindravur–602024
3
Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
Sun College of Engineering and Technology
E-mail: jeshifa@gmail.com
Abstract—Congestion is the difficult problem in wireless sensor networks, which causes an increase in
the amount of data loss and delays in data transmission. Both the node level and link level congestions
have direct impact on energy efficiency and Quality of Data (QoD). In this paper, we propose a new
congestion control technique called Adaptive Compression-based congestion control Technique (ACT)
which is designed for remote monitoring of patient vital signs and physiological signals. The
compression techniques used in the ACT are Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Adaptive Differential
Pulse Code Modulation (ADPCM), and Run-Length Coding (RLC).DWT is introduced for priority based
congestion control because it classifies the data in to four groups with different frequencies. Congestion
is detected in advance, using ACT at each intermediate sensor node. The main purpose of ACT is to
guarantee high quality of data by reducing dropped data due to congestion. ACT increases the network
efficiency and guarantees fairness to sensor nodes as compared with the existing methods. Moreover; it
exhibits a very high ratio of the available data in the sink.
Keywords: Wireless Biomedical Sensor Networks, Health Care Monitoring, Priority Based Congestion
Control.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 23


Classification of Blood Types
by Microscope Color Images
S.M. Nazia Fathima
Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
Sethu Institute of Technology, Virudhunagar, Tamilnadu, India
E-mail: smaizan@gmail.com
Abstract— Blood typing is a method to tell what specific type of blood a person has. It is a mandatory
that everyone should know their blood type. It is extremely useful in blood transfusions, donation,
accidents and other emergencies. The blood type testing is typically made in laboratories by technicians.
Such a procedure presents undesirable drawbacks: slowness and it presents non standardized accuracy
since it depends on the operator's capabilities and tiredness. This paper presents a methodology to
achieve a semi automated system for classification of blood types by microscope color images. This
paper concerns with the ABO and Rh blood typing systems. The classification of blood types in
microscopy images allows identifying the blood groups and Rh factor accurately. The proposed system
first performs image pre-processing by histogram equalization and color correction and then a color
space conversion from RGB to HSI is done. Then it extracts the color and texture features of the images
using cumulative histogram and Haralick method respectively. Finally it classifies the blood type by
support vector machine (SVM).
Keywords: blood group, color correction, color space conversion, cumulative histogram, Haralick,
SVM

Performance Analysis of Pest Image Segmentation


Using Nonlinear Objective Assessments
1 2
Pravin Kumar S.K. and Sivasangari A.
1
PG-Scholar, Department of Ece Bannariamman Institute of Technology, Erode, Tamilnadu, India
2
Lecturer-Department of Ece, Bannariamman Institute of Technology Erode, Tamilnadu, India
E-mail: skpravinece@gmail.com, sivak_san04@yahoo.co.in
Abstract—Image segmentation is a major step for automated object recognition systems. In many cases,
image processing is affected by illumination conditions, random noise and environmental disturbances
due to atmospheric pressure or temperature fluctuation. The quality of pest images is directly affected by
atmosphere medium, pressure and temperature. This emphasizes the necessity of image segmentation,
which divides an image into parts that have strong correlations with objects to reflect the actual
information collected from the real world. Image segmentation is the most practical approach among
virtually all automated image recognition systems. The performance of an image segmentation algorithm
depends on its simplification of image. The different segmentation algorithms namely, fixed threshold,
Experience threshold, Iteration method, OTSU method and fuzzy c-means segmentation [5] are
implemented for pest images and they are compared using nonlinear assessment or the quantitative
measures like gray level energy, entropy, and normalized mutual information. Out of the above methods
the experimental results show that fuzzy c means clustering algorithm performs better than other methods
in processing pest images. FCM based simulated annealing algorithm [2] provides better results than
other intelligent techniques.
Keywords: segmentation, energy, entropy, Mutual information, simulated-annealing algorithm, fcm
clustering

24 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


Enhanced Three-Party Quantum
Key Distribution Protocol
1 2 2
Angel A., Ananthakumaran S. and Ramar K.
1
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, National Engineering College
K.R. Nagar, Kovilpatti–628503, Tuticorin (DT), Tamilnadu, India
2
Sri Vidya College of Engineering and Technology
P. Kumaralingapuram–626005, Virudhunagar (DT), Tamilnadu, India
E-mail: angel.20feb@yahoo.com, vsak_reddy@yahoo.co.in, kramar_nec@rediffmail.com
Abstract— All cryptography schemes, like symmetric and asymmetric cryptography, are using the secret
key. But if the key distribution technique is weak, then all the schemes will be ineffective. The security of
the most schemes is based on number-theoretic cryptographic assumptions, namely the integer
factorization problem or discrete logarithm problem. Herein lays the quandary that Quantum
Cryptography (QC) is looking to solve the key distribution problem. It is quite often possible to hear or
read that the QC will destroy many or all known cryptosystems. In the two-party Quantum Key
Distribution (QKD), both the entities have to be equipped with quantum devices, which is expensive. In
existing system, the center itself can act malicious, which can be avoided by means of applying shuffling
technique at recipient side, which requires the recipient to be equipped with quantum memory. This leads
to the concept of three-party QKD, in which the center alone needs to be equipped with quantum devices.
This paper presents, an Enhanced Three-Party Quantum Key Distribution Protocol, to demonstrate the
merits of the new combination, which include the following: (1) security against attacks such as dense
coding by employing bitwise exclusive OR (XOR) operation, eavesdropping, (2) efficiency is improved
as the proposed protocol contains Quantum Devices (QDs) at Untrusted Center (UC) only. Further the
key size can be reduced by means of performing bitwise exclusive (XOR) operation on consecutive 0’s
and 1’s. This protocol is feasible with the present day techniques.
Keywords: Quantum Key Distribution Protocols (QKDPs), Quantum Secret Sharing (QSS), Dense
coding attack, Unitary operations, Quantum Devices (QDs).

Extending QOX Metric Suit to Additional Metrics


for Reducing the Cost of ETL Design
Parthiban N., Jaisankar N. and Vijaya Bhaskar K.
Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
MNM Jain Engineering College, Chennai–97, Tamilnadu, India
E-mail: parthiban24589@gmail.com,jaisasi_win@yahoo.com, vijaybaskar.k@gmail.com
Abstract—One of the major problems in distributed business environment is decision making. In order
to assist the decision making, data warehouse is used for collecting data from different operational
sources. Extract –Transform-Load (ETL) process plays an important role while creating a data
warehouse. Typically, design work on ETL has focused on performance as the sole metric to make sure
that ETL process finishes within an allocated time window. However, at each design level ETL designers
deal with a host of QOX quality objectives besides performance including reliability, recoverability,
maintainability, freshness, scalability, availability, flexibility, robustness, affordability and auditability
and so on. In fact, since current solutions neither captures nor tracks such qualities. The consulting and
design team has to revisit and complement the designs at later points. This process increases overall cost

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 25


of the ETL design. The only way to reduce this cost is ETL designs to be automated, In order to achieve
this a novel idea to ETL design has been proposed that incorporates a suit of quality metrics termed QOX
at all stages of the ETL design process. Further, to reduce the cost we proposed to extend QOX metric
suite to additional metrics.
Keywords: Data Warehouse, ETL, ETL design, QOX, BI

A Secure Client–Side Watermark Embedding


Using ST–DM algorithm
M. Leela
M.E Student [IV Sem], Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
Sri Krishna Engineering College, Panapakkam, Chennai–601301, Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: leela.mani@gmail.com
Abstract—The distribution of multimedia content has gained popularity among the customers. Client-
side watermark embedding systems have been proposed as a possible solution for the copyright
protection in large-scale content distribution environments. A new look-up-table-based secure client-side
embedding scheme properly designed for the spread transform dither modulation watermarking method
has been proposed. A theoretical analysis of the detector performance under the most known attack
models is presented. The experimental results prove that the advantages of the informed embedding
technique in comparison to the spread-spectrum watermarking approach, which are well known in the
classical embedding schemes, are preserved in the client-side scenario. The proposed approach permits us
to successfully combine the security of client-side embedding with the robustness of informed
embedding methods.
Keywords: Spread Transform Dither Modulation (ST-DM), Spread Spectrum (SS), multiple
decryption, client-side embedding, secure watermark embedding

A Secure Resource Allocation for Grid


Sheeba J. and Neelaveni P.
2
Associate Professor, GKM College of Engineering, Perungulathur Tamil Nadu Chennai
E-mail: sheeba_19@yahoo.co.in, srirang_neels@yahoo.co.in
Abstract—Grid Computing is a group of clusters connected over high-speed networks that involves
coordinating and sharing computational power data storage and network resources operating across
dynamic and geographically dispersed locations. In a desktop grid model, the job is submitted for
execution only when the resource is idle. There is no guarantee the job started to execute will complete
its execution without any distruption.This paper describes a secure resource allocation model, which
allocates the resources to authenticated grid users. We improve the functionality of the system by
submitting the jobs on machines that have a higher probability of being available at a given time.
Keywords: Resource availability; grid computing; resource allocation; authentication

26 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


HAC: Highest Affinity Clustering using Impetus
Perception (IP) Algorithm for Categorical Data
R. Kavitha, T.K.S. Rathish Babu and T. Kalaichelvi
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Velammal Engineering College,
Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: kavitha_r87@yahoo.com, tksbabu80@gmail.com, aroonkalai@yahoo.co.in
Abstract—Many organizations and firms capture large amount of information about their products,
customers, etc, to discover patterns from such large database, Data Mining is used. Mining information is
a complex task, to reduce the complexity we use clustering technique by which objects are organized
based on their similarity. Many clustering techniques are available for numerical data but data labeling of
categorical data remains a challenging issue. We go for categorical domain so we can group the data
which helps in finding out the diversity of data. But this labeling of entire data into appropriate cluster is
a complex process so we use HAC (Highest Affinity Clustering) method to allocate the unlabelled data
points into the appropriate cluster based on their maximum resemblance of the data points to do this
labeling we use IPD (Impetus Perception Detection) algorithm. IPD algorithm compares the current
clusters and previously existing cluster if the results are different then the previously existing clusters are
dumped out and re-clustering is done. The CRA (Clustering Relationship Analysis) is done to find out
the relationship between the dumped out cluster and existing cluster. IPD can be used in detecting the
drift in both real and synthetic data and it improves the efficiency of clustering.
Keyword: Data mining, clustering, categorical data, data labeling, concept drift

Elastic Routing Table with Efficient Congestion


Control using Node Capacity in DHT Networks
Tarun R. and Pandimurugan V.
Department of Information Technology,
Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science, Chennai, India
E-mail: tarun_rg@yahoo.com, pandimurugan006@gmail.com
Abstract—The current approaches in highly Distributed Hash Table networks have a continuous load
imbalance and intolerable congestion control. The lookup latency of hashing table also suffers the most.
In this research paper solves these faults by implanting a new congestion control mechanism named
‘Elastic Routing Table’. It effectively balances load, controls congestion and decreasing lookup latency
of Hashing table by evenly distributing the load to all neighbouring nodes based on result acquired from
the node capacity using a derived formula. The whole paper is based on its result obtained from the node
capacity using a derived formula. The analysis and study is undertaken by means of simulation in NS2
linux simulator.
Keywords: Elastic Routing Table, Distributed Hash Table, load capacity and in-degree.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 27


Application of UNL in Document Summarization
1 2
S. Mangairkarasi and S. Gunasundari
1 2
P.G. Scholar, Assitant Professor,
Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
Velammal Engineering College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: gomathichamy@gmail.com, gunaannauniv@gmail.com
Abstract—Text Summarization is extracting the important information from the document and leaves
out the irrelevant information, by reducing the details and collects them in a compressed way. Normally
text summarization is done in single or multi documents. The advantage on processing time can be
achieved in the text summarization. Converting English sentences into expressions or Interlingua is
called Universal Networking Language (UNL). The given source document is preprocessed by
eliminating tables and images. The preprocessed document is fed into sentence splitter and then to word
separator. The given word is sent to Morphological Analyzer to find the root word. This root word is fed
into UNL dictionary for finding the corresponding concepts and attributes. By using the heuristic rules,
we identify the relations between concepts. UNL represents knowledge in the form of graphical format,
where nodes represent concepts and links represent relations between concepts. It represents the whole
document not for sentence. The graph algorithm is to be used to find the weight age of links connected to
the Universal Word. According to the highest weight age the document is summarized.
Keywords: Sentence splitter, Word separator, UNL dictionary, Morphological Analyzer

A Congestion Free Contract Signing Protocol


based on the RSA Signature
L. Sharmila
M.E Student [IV Sem], Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
Sri Krishna Engineering College, Panapakkam, Chennai–601301, Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: shar_12883@yahoo.co.in
Abstract—Running contract protocols without the property of abuse-freeness is a risk for a honest party
as a possible dishonest party maybe does not really want to sign the contract with her but only use her
willingness to sign to get leverage for another contract. Consequently this is an important security
requirement for contract-signing protocols. Like the existing RSA based solutions for the same problem
our protocol is not only fair but also optimistic, since the trusted third party is involved only in the
situations where one party is cheating or the communication channel is interrupted. Furthermore the
proposed protocol satisfies a new property abuse-freeness. A fair contract-signing protocol allows two
potentially mistrusted parties to exchange their commitments (i.e. digital signatures) to an agreed contract
over the Internet in a fair way, so that either each of them obtains the other’s signature or neither party
does. Based on the RSA signature scheme a new digital contract-signing protocol is proposed. That is, if
the protocol is executed unsuccessfully none of the two parties can show the validity of intermediate
results to others. Technical details are provided to analyze the security and performance of the proposed
protocol, and show that it is both secure and efficient. However except the discrete logarithm other
optimistic contract-signing protocols are not abuse-free.
Keywords: RSA, security, contract signing, protocols, e-commerce, digital signature

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 28


A Comparison of Maximum Likelihood Classifier
and Edge Detection Techniques for Performing
Change Detection Analysis Using SAR Images
1 2
S. Vidhusha and T. Sree Sharmila
1 2
PG Student, Assistant Professor,
Department of Information Technology, SSN College of Engineering, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
Abstract—It is an important task to detect land cover changes from remotely sensed data for
environmental monitoring. A fast detection and visualization of change in crisis area is an important
condition for planning and coordination of help. For automated change detection, a large number of
algorithms have been proposed and developed. In this paper, the texture features extracted from Synthetic
Aperture Radar (SAR) images have been subjected to the Maximum Likelihood (ML) classifier and the
results prove that it is better than the traditional edge detection algorithms. The textural information can
portray the spatial variations in the SAR image at the water bodies. Thus, change detection through
texture feature analysis can be efficiently and effectively utilized for influencing management and policy
decision making by predicting the preventable losses.
Keywords: Change Detection, Texture feature extraction, SAR images, Maximum Likelihood
classifier.

Effective Information Retrieval


using Ontology and Semantic Link Network
S. Ganesh Shanker
Assistant Professor, Department of information Technology, VelTech MultiTech
Dr. RR Dr. SR Engineering College, Avadi Chennai, India
E-mail: sganeshshanker@gmail.com
Abstract—Semantic Link Network model is a semantic Web model using semantic links. It is an
extension of hyperlink by attaching semantics to hyperlink. This approach is to construct a semantic
overlay on web resources. It will act as tool for giving tags like ordinary tag definition and semantic tag
definition for web page. Ordinary tagging involve parameters like article title, author, self definition,
intra link, inter link, paragraph, comments, reference contact details link email of author, etc., Documents
has to be tagged by parameters based on the different domains, in education domain like universities
detail about staff members to whom they are guiding and which domain or area of specialisation they
belong to and all are needed parameters to be tagged for easy access and tag to improve findability.
Keywords: Semantic web; Web 2.0; Tagging; RDF/XML; Information retrieval; Information
extraction; NLP.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 29


A Fair and Connection based Opt Scheduling in IEEE
802.11 based Mesh Topology
1 2 3
Sajini S., Kanaga Suba Raja S. and Jebarajan T.
1,2
Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
The Rajaas Engineering College, Vadakkangulam
3
VV College of Engineering, Arasoor
E-mail: sajinimol_s@yahoo.com, skanagasubaraja@yahoo.com
Abstract—Modern real-time wireless networks require high security level to assure confidentiality of
information stored in packages delivered through wireless links. However, most existing algorithms for
scheduling independent packets in real-time wireless networks ignore various security requirements of
the packets. Also, Packet transmission scheduling for supporting realtime traffic in aWMN is difficult,
and one of the main challenges is to coordinate temporal operations of the mesh access points (APs) in
order to provide strict latency guarantee while efficiently utilizing the radio resources. In this paper, A
new connection-based scheduling (CBS) scheme with a novel dynamic security-aware packet-scheduling
algorithm is proposed. Connections with more hops are given a higher priority, and connections with a
lower priority can only use resources remaining from serving all higher priority ones. For each multihop
connection, the scheduling minimizes latency between successive hops. A connection-based optimization
problem is formulated with an objective to minimize the amount of required AP resources, subject to the
latency requirement of the connections. Also the proposed algorithm is capable of achieving high quality
of security for realtime packets while making the best effort to guarantee realtime requirements (e.g.,
deadlines) of those packets. Experimental results show that compared with two baseline algorithms, the
proposed algorithm can substantially improve both quality of security and real-time packet guarantee
ratio under a wide range of workload characteristics.
Keywords: Wireless networking, packet scheduling, resource utilization, Security aware connection
based scheduling, Performance.

Hybrid Scheduling using Selection Method


in Grid Environment
1 2 3
R. Bindhuja, G. Arul Dalton and Jebarajan T.
1
Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
The Rajaas Engineering College, Vadakkangula
2
Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
The Rajaas Engineering College, Vadakkankulam
3
VV College of Engineering, Arasoor
E-mail: bindhuja@gmail.com, aruldalton@rediffmail.com
Abstract—A hybrid scheduling methodology is encapsulated for task graphs to multiprocessor systems
in grid environment. The proposed methodology is designed for task graphs that are dynamic in nature
due to the presence of conditional tasks and tasks whose execution times are unpredictable but bounded.
Three-phase strategy as Equal Load Balancing, Dynamic Load Balancing and Selection Method. In first
phase, task nodes are mapped to the processors in the first phase. In second phase, Dynamic Load
Balancing is a runtime scheduling algorithm that performs list scheduling based on the actual dynamics
of the schedule up to the current time. In the third phase, selection method or DLB/JR method is
performed that some critical nodes are identified and duplicated for possible rescheduling at runtime,

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 30


depending on the code memory constraints of the processors. The third technique provides better
schedule length compared to previous two techniques, which are predominantly static in nature, with low
overhead and a complexity comparable with existing techniques.
Keywords: Grid Computing, Equal Load Balancing, Dynamic Load Balancing, Job replication,
Performance.

Improved Driver Fatigue Detection


for Efficient Vehicle Control based on Eye-Tracking
1 2 3
M. Bommy, D. Jayanthi and Sheik Faritha Begum
1
Dept. of CSE, Anna University, Arcot–632503, Vellore District, India
2
Dept. of IT, Anna University, Arcot–632503, Vellore District, India
3Dept. of CSE, Anna University, Melvisharam–632509, Vellore District, India
E-mail: bommycse@yahoo.com, jayanthi@svce.ac.in, sfaritha@gmail.com
Abstract—In modern days, a large no of automobile accidents are caused due to driver fatigue. In the
existing system, a task-based fatigue detection is used in which fatigue is detected only based on two
states of eyes i.e. opened or closed which cannot be true at all cases since eyes can be opened or closed
for various reasons. To address this problem, we propose a vision-based real-time driver fatigue detection
system based on eye-tracking. Eye tracking is one of the key technologies, for, future driver assistance
systems since human eyes contain much information about the driver's condition such as gaze, attention
level, and fatigue level. Face and eyes of the driver are first localized and then marked in every frame
obtained from the video source. The eyes are tracked in real time using correlation function with an
automatically generated online template. Neural network classifier is used to train eye templates and
detect different stages of fatigue and also to alert fatigue at different levels. Additionally, driver’s
distraction and conversations with passengers during driving can lead to serious results. A real-time
vision-based model for monitoring driver’s unsafe states, including fatigue state is proposed. A time-
based eye glance to mitigate driver distraction is proposed.
Keywords: Driver fatigue, Eye-Tracking, Template matching, Fatigue Detection, Neural network.

An Efficient Approach for Combating


Spamdexing in Web Search Engine
using Link and Content Analysis
1 2 1
D. Saraswathi, Dr. A. Vijaya Kathiravan and S. Anita
1
Asst. Professor in Computer Science, K.S.R. College of Arts & Science,
Tiruchengode–637209, Namakkal, TN, India
2
Professor, MCA Dept., Nandha Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode, TN, India
E-mail: saraswathi.ds@gmail.com, vijayakathiravan@gmail.com, anita.sigamani@gmail.com
Abstract—Search Engine spam is a web page or a portion of a web page which has been created with the
intention of increasing its ranking in search engines. Web spamming refers to actions intended to mislead
search engines and give some pages higher ranking than they deserve. Anyone who uses a search engine
frequently has most likely encountered a high ranking page that consists of nothing more than a bunch of
query keywords. These pages detract both from the user experience and from the quality of the search

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 31


engine. Search engine spam is a webpage that has been designed to artificially inflating its search engine
ranking. Recently this search engine spam has been increased dramatically and creates problem to the
search engine and the web surfer. It degrades the search engine’s results, occupies more memory and
consumes more time for creating indexes, and frustrates the user by giving irrelevant results. Search
engines have tried many techniques to filter out these spam pages before they can appear on the query
results page. In this paper, various ways of creating spam pages, a collection of current methods that are
being used to detect spam, and a new approach to build a tool for spam detection that uses machine
learning as a means for detecting spam. This new approach uses UCINET software and a series of
content combined with a Support Vector Machine (SVM) Binary classifier to determine if a given
webpage is spam. The link farm can identify based on degree and betweenness of link. The spam
classifier makes use of the Wordnet word database and SVMLight tool to classify web documents as
either spam or not spam. These features are not only related to quantitative data extracted from the Web
pages, but also to qualitative properties, mainly of the page links.
Keyword: Search engine, PageRank, Spam, Content Spam, Link Farm, Classification

A Review of Significant Researches


on Automatic EEG Epileptic Detection Algorithms
1 2
S. Vijay Anand and Dr. R. Shantha Selvakumari
1
Electronics and Communication, Sethu Institute of Technology,
Kariapaati, Tamilnadu, India–626106
2
Electronics and Communication, Mepco Schlenk Engineering College,
Sivakasi, Tamil Nadu, India–626005
E-mail: svijaysrinivas@yahoo.co.in
Abstract—Epileptic seizure is a brain disorder caused by large number of small electrical discharges of
nerve cells. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signals are the most commonly used source for Epileptic
seizure prediction. A variety of temporal changes in perception and behavior may be caused by Epileptic
seizures. There have been an increased number of researches carried out with the purpose of devising an
automatic seizure detection and prediction system. This paper provides a review of various methods of
EEG Epilepsy detection systems. A comprehensive review includes some performance comparisons and
advantages of each method.
Keywords: Seizure detection; Approximate entropy; Discrete wavelet transform; Surrogate data
analysis; Fast ICA; SVM.

32 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


Applying Ant Colony Optimization Technique
for the Job Scheduling Problems
of a Semi-Automated Production System
Tamilarasi T., Jegadeeshwaran R. and Thangarasu S.K.
Department of Mechatronics Engineering, School of Building and Mechanical Sciences,
Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai–638052, Erode, Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: tamilarasi_mts@yahoo.com
Abstract—In the face of globalization and rapidly shrinking product life cycle, manufacturing
companies are trying different means to improve productivity through management of machine
utilization and product cycle-time. Job scheduling is an important task for manufacturing industry in
terms of improving machine utilization and reducing cycle- time. However, job scheduling is inherently a
hard problem with no easy solution. This paper describes a novel approach that uses the ants foraging
model to solve the job scheduling problem.
Keywords: Ant colony; tabu search; job scheduling; makespan; optimisation.

Multiparty Session Authentication Protocol


for ODS SOA Based Business Processes
1 2
Bakiya K and Chellammal P.
1
II Year, Dept of ME (CSE), JJ College of Engg & Tech, Trichy, Tamilnadu, India
2
Asst Professor, Dept of CSE, JJ College of Engg & Tech, Trichy, Tamilnadu, India
E-mail: bakyasumanraj.sumanraj@gmail.com, chellachella@rediffmail.com
Abstract—Recent trends of distributed business processes supporting dynamism for dynamic resource
acquisitions and service instances communication across organizations. Such kinds of dynamism support
causes mark able challenges in secure communications, collaborations and dependency too. Orchestration
of web services together in a system with Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) may belong to different
kind of security realms but have to be engaged dynamically at run time. Open Distributed architectural
construct (ODS) provides cross realm authentication relationship, it is technically difficult to enable any
secure collaboration between the services. A potential solution would be to locate intermediate realms at
runtime, which serve as an authentication-path between two separate realms. Establishing authentication
path requires large number of credential conversions and chain of invocations which are highly
complicated. In this paper, this problem could be addressed by designing and implementing a new cross-
realms authentication protocol called multi-party session authentication protocol for dynamic service
interactions which doesn’t require any authentication path and credential conversion. This protocol
ensures authentication while new members are introduced with in a business session which doesn’t
require signature verification every time and also provides authenticated interactions in between session
partner who doesn’t come into interaction with any partner previously and another partner of the same
business session. Network threats such as Reply attacks and Identity theft are addressed by this newly
designed protocol with a proof of diffie Hellmann key exchange algorithm
Keywords: Cross-realm Authentication, Multi-party interactions, Service Oriented Architecture,
Web services, BAN Logic, HCRA, Forward security, SA

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 33


Back-Up Routing for Cluster based Delay Tolerant
Mobile Network
V. Gunasekaran and K. Sathyapriya
Sri Krishna College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, India
E-mail: gunakarur@gmail.com
Abstract—Ad hoc network is a decentralized wireless network Ad-hoc network does not rely on a
preexisting infrastructure, such as routers in wired networks or access points in managed (infrastructure)
wireless networks. Each node participates in routing by forwarding data for other nodes, and so the
determination of which nodes forward data is made dynamically based on the network connectivity.
Delay-tolerant networking (DTN) addresses the technical issues in heterogeneous networks that lacks
continuous network connectivity, undergo frequent network partitions. To avoid these problems some
form of group communication is needed. For that Cluster Based Routing Protocol (CBRP) is used which
has some of the disadvantages like overhead reduction, load balancing, stability, errors in the estimation
of nodal contact probability and delays. Exponentially Weighted Moving Average algorithm is used for
the estimation of nodal contact probability. Backup routing algorithm is proposed to improve the packet
delivery ratio and to reduce the delays during the clusterhead set change. Stability of the clusterhead is
also increased. It is mainly used in networks for deep space communications, sensor networks for
ecological monitoring. Still security is a major problem in these networks and it can be improved further.
Keywords: Clustering, delay-tolerant networks, routing

Optimization of Linear Recursive Queries


with Infinite Recursion in SQL
R. Gomathi and A.M. Natarajan
Department of CSE, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam–638401, India
E-mail: gomsbk@gmail.com
Abstract—Recursion is a fundamental computation mechanism which has been incorporated into the
Structured Query Language (SQL). A linear recursive query is a simplest form of recursion which has a
basic step followed by a recursive step. Linear recursive queries have many applications in relational
databases. Many query optimization algorithms exist for solving linear recursive queries, but they focus
mainly on the data structures used. To reduce the evaluation time of a linear recursive query, few
optimization techniques are used. The recursive query is evaluated using two algorithms called Semi
naive and Direct. The impacts of optimizations with large input tables are evaluated. This paper can be
extended to handle infinite recursion in linear recursive queries.
Keywords: Recursive query, SQL, query optimization, query evaluation, infinite recursion

34 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


Techniques for Clustering and Visualizing
Web Search Results
1 2
S. Poomagal and Dr. T. Hamsapriya
1
Assistant Professor, Department of Computer and Information Sciences
2
Professor, Department of Information Technology,
PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India
Abstract—With the vast amount of information available online, searching results for a given query
requires the user to go through many titles and snippets. Clustering is a method of presenting search
results as clusters so that the user can select the relevant cluster at a glance. A collection of web pages
that are similar to one another can be treated collectively as one cluster. This grouping is done by
identifying the similarity among the web pages. Similarity among the web pages is calculated using the
Term Frequency / Inter Document Frequency (TFIDF) values. Normally for web page clustering fixed
size of terms are extracted from the web page. These terms can be extracted from the entire web page,
snippets, URL or from specific tags. Different clustering algorithms were used by the existing clustering
engines namely, K-means Clustering, Single Pass Clustering, Suffix Tree Clustering and Lingo
clustering.
Once the web pages are clustered, visualization techniques must be employed to display the clusters
on the screen along with their documents in an interpretable way. These visualizations help users to
quickly identify the cluster which contain the needed document from the collection of clusters. This
paper provides an insight into popular clustering and visualization techniques available over the web.
Keywords: Clustering Engine, Clustering Algorithms, Visualization Techniques, Snippets, Search
engines

Multi Resolution Wavelet


Decomposition Image Fusion
1 2 3
R. Vijaya Arjunan, C.K. Swapna and B. Sivachandra Mahalingam
1
Research Scholar, SCSVMV University, Kanchipuram, India
1
Assistant Professor- Senior Scale, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, India
2
Assistant Professor, Adhiparasakthi Engineering College, India
3
Assistant Professor-Grade II, Aarupadai Veedu Institute of Technology, India
E-mail: arjun.connects@gmail.com, ckswap@gmail.com, sivabala_82@yahoo.com
Abstract—This paper proposes a novel global energy merging scheme that is a region-based analysis
approach. At first, multi-resolution wavelet decomposition on each source image is performed, and then
the energy of the each 3*3 matrix region is calculated. The match measure can produce using wavelet
decomposition coefficient and the energy. The three high frequency comparing match measure of several
source images And the low frequency coefficient lies on the choice of the three high frequency
coefficient. Finally, by applying the inverse wavelet transform the final fused image is obtained. The
composite images can preserve more relevant information about the edges Experiments showed that the
proposed wavelet image fusion method can have better performance than existing medical image fusion
methods.
Keywords: DWT-Discrete wavelet transform, IDWT-Inverse discrete wavelet transform, CWT-
Complex Wavelet Transform, ML-maximum likelihood, LLTV-Low light Visible Images, FLIR-Fusion
of forward looking Infrared.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 35


Implementation Aspects of Secure Network
and Design of Log Analyser
1 2
S. Manikandan and Kiran M. Kumar
1
Vel Tech Multi Tech Dr. Rangaragan & Dr. Sakunthala Engineering College,
Anna University, Avadi, Chennai, India
2
Asst. Professor, Department of Information Technology
2
P.G. Student, Department of Information Technology
E-mail: manik.bhuvan@gmail.com, kiran.m48@gmail.com
Abstract—Geographically distributed and heterogeneous networks like internet with millions of entry
points, users and transmission paths, depict a typical insecure network. The points where an
organization’s private network interfaces with the internet are vulnerable to potential security attacks.
Almost all organizations take care to protect their networks through firewalls, proxy servers and the like
but recently even these so called secure networks are being subjected to numerous intrusions. The logs
generated by the firewalls are so huge that it is even more difficult to find the source of attack in the
event of a security breach. In this paper we present a progressive approach to strengthen the security of a
private network beginning from the server level till the gateway interface to the internet. Routers in front
of the firewall can be configured using Context Based Access Control in order to perform an initial
security screening.Further the design of a Log Analyser is discussed which details the process of
collecting and analysing logs from firewalls and application gateways, in an efficient and less time
consuming manner.
Keywords: Proxy Server, Application Gateway, OS Hardening, Context Based Access Control, Log
Analyser, Firewall, Router

Cell Breathing for Load Balancing in Wireless LAN


1 2
R. Latha and S. Radhakrishnan
1
ECE, Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Anna University,
Rajalakshmi Nagar, Thandalam, India, Chennai–602105
2
ECE, Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Anna University
Rajalakshmi Nagar, Thandalam, India, Chennai–602105
E-mail: latha.rajendran1@gmail.com, radhakrishnan_s@hotmail.com
Abstract—Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) are now commonly available on many academic
and corporate Campuses [1]. In a large wireless network with multiple Access Points (APs), a load
balancing policy is necessary for the distribution of the wireless stations to the AP’s, so that the network
performance will be maximized. The load is unevenly distributed across a small number of Access points
in the WLAN. In this paper, the load of AP is balanced using load balancing algorithm utilizing Cell
breathing technique. Cell breathing is a technique where an AP can adjust its cell boundary. Their cell
size is varied according to their load and also to their neighbour’s load. The goal is to identify the
congested AP and setting a threshold, thereby balancing the load. When a user requests service from the
network in an overloaded region, the network tries to adapt itself to handle the user service request by re-
adjusting the load across its APs. The throughput and fairness of APs are calculated so as to balance the
loads of APs.
Keywords: Cell breathing; load balancing; wlan; access point; throughput; fairness

36 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


High Sensitive Multiple Object Motion Detection
in Surveillance Video Applications
1 2
Ferdin Joe J. and Prof. B. Vijayakumar
1
PG Scholar, Department of Computer Science & Engineering,
Einstein College of Engineering, Anna University of Technology, Tirunelveli
2
Asst. Professor, Department of Computer Science & Engineering,
Einstein College of Engineering, Anna University of Technology, Tirunelveli.
E-mail: ferdinjoe@gmail.com, vijaymtech29@gmail.com
Abstract—Motion detection is done for videos with various methodologies. Especially in surveillance
video applications lot of techniques are implied in the past for the detection of motion with the color
mapping of the object. There lies a problem for these sorts of applications in such a way that, it will map
the moving object as a single entity. But in sensitive applications like satellite imaging systems, cancer
cell or medical imaging systems, the sub objects movement is also taken into account for efficient
decision making. So a new methodology is developed in this project for the multiple objects and sub
objects movement in sensitive video applications. A methodology was developed for static images by
Fellenszwalb et al for multiple object detection. This methodology is implied for dynamic video from
various sources like online streaming video, saved video or even thevideo being captured by the webcam.
The system is developed as a real time application.
Keywords: Motion Detection, Surveillance

Implementing Shrew Attack Protection (SAP)


to Defend Against Shrew Attack on Edges
1 2
D. Gayathri and Dr. N. Sankar Ram
1 2
P.G Scholar, Head of the Department,
Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
Velammal Engineering College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: gayathri_dhandapani@yahoo.com, n_sankarram@yahoo.com
Abstract—The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard
Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It consists of different type
topology to connect between various sources. So we have both inner router which connects similar
topology and outer router which connects different topology. Due to traffic or any other technical reason
most of the time we lost data in transmission. One of the error types in communication is packet loss
which is due to dropping of packet by any means which may leads to attacks in TCP connection. Packet
drops are heavy in edges than in internal nodes that lead to Shrew Attack which uses a low-rate burst
carefully designed to exploit TCP’s retransmission timeout mechanism, can throttle the bandwidth of a
TCP flow in a stealthy manner. We have so many reasons for packet drooping in edges; one of such
reason is due to service level agreement (SLA) enforcement where it is a negotiated agreement between
two parties (e.g., customer and service provider). SAP (Shrew Attack Protection) is an architectural
model which is used to defend against the shrew attack rather than attempting to detect and isolate. Basic
concept which used here is differential tagging & drop rate collector to identify the victims Till now
research have been shown mitigating the attack in inner router where the loss very less. But we

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 37


implement SAP in edges to reduce the packet-loss and further stop the TCP connection from closing.
SAP is a destination-port-based mechanism and requires only a small number of counters to find
potential victims, which makes SAP readily implement able on top of existing router mechanisms.
Keyword: Shrew attack, differential tagging, drop rate.

Preventing Data Leakage Using Allocation Strategies


1 2
Parvathi Maheswari T. and Manjula R.
1
Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Anna University,
R.M.K Engineering College, Kavaraipettai–601206, India
2
Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Anna University,
R.M.K Engineering College, Kavaraipettai–601206, India
E-mail: parvathimaheswari@gmail.com, rma.cse@rmkec.ac.in
Abstract—In the world of virtual and widely distributed networks there will be a need that sensitive data
must be handed over to trusted third parties that is, agents. It needs to safeguard the security and durative
of service based on the demands of users. So we need to protect confidentiality of user, maintain
integrity, assure availability of all the data. The idea of modifying the data to detect leakage is not new.
In most cases, objects are made less sensitive, example by adding random noise to sensitive salaries, or
adding a watermark to an image. Prevention of the data’s from leaking when the data’s are passed on
from the distributor to the agents. When the distributor’s sensitive data has been leaked by agents, and
also the agent who leaked the data can be detected. In this research work, assume that the distributor will
not gather data independently by other means; they must assess the likelihood that the leaked data came
from one or more agents. For secure transactions, the data should be prevented from leaking by means of
encrypting the data and fake records. Using Explicit Data allocation strategies (across the agents), which
improves the probability of identifying leakages. Detection of agent who has leaked can be done by
injecting the “realistic but fake data records” to further improve our chances of detecting leakage and
identifying the guilty party.
Keywords: Agent, Distributor, Encryption, Fake Records, Trace Records.

CAMSHIFT Object Tracking Algorithm Based


on Inter-Frame Differences for Noise Removal
1 2 3
P. Rayavel, G. Appasami and R. Nakeeran
1
PG Student, Department of Computer Science Engineering,
2 3
Lecturer, Professor, Department of Computer Science Engineering,
Dr. Pauls Engineering College, Vanur, Villupuram, India
E-mail: rayavel@gmail.com appas_5g@gmail.com sughandhiram@yahoo.com
Abstract—CAMSHIFT is a tracking algorithm, which needs tracking target to be calibrated
automatically, and can only track one single target at a time. Aiming at these problems, this paper
proposes a human/object tracking approach based on method and CAMSHIFT algorithm. The algorithm
developed here is based on a robust nonparametric technique for climbing density gradients to find the
mode (peak) of probability distributions called the mean shift algorithm. In our case, we want to find the
mode of a color distribution within a video scene. Therefore, the mean shift algorithm is modified to deal
with dynamically changing color probability distributions derived from video frame sequences. The
Continuously Adaptive Mean Shift Algorithm (CAMSHIFT) is an adaptation of the Mean Shift

38 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


algorithm for object tracking that is intended as a step towards moving tracking for a perceptual user
interface. In this paper, we review the CAMSHIFT Algorithm and extend a default implementation to
allow tracking in an arbitrary number and type of feature spaces. We evaluate the effectiveness of this
approach by comparing the results with a generic implementation of the Mean Shift algorithm in a
quantized feature space of equivalent dimension. We also intend to apply this CAMSHIFT algorithm to
moving object such as Vehicle, person, ball or any moving object and to track the object based on Region
of Interest (ROI) through wireless vision approach. In this project we concentrate on the noise removal
i.e., shadows of the images such that no better tracking can be attained.
Keywords: MeanShift, Tracking, Image Segmentation

Uninteresting Rule Reduction Using Ontologies


and Bayesian Belief Networks
1 2
Suhasini Manoharan and Madhan Subramaniam
1
Department of CSE, Anna University of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, India
2
Asst. Professor, Department of IT, Periyar Maniammai University, Thanjavur, India
E-mail: suhasini.mano@gmail.com, madhan444@yahoo.com
Abstract—In Data Mining, the usefulness of association rules is strongly limited by the huge amount of
delivered patterns. Thus Association rule reduction has been acknowledged to be a critical requirement
for data mining. To overcome this drawback, several methods were proposed. Most of the existing
methods are generally based on statistical information. Since rule interestingness strongly depends on
user knowledge and goals, these methods do not guarantee that interesting rules will be extracted. A new
interactive approach is introduced to prune and filter discovered patterns to make it interesting and useful
for the user. First, we propose to use ontologies in order to improve the integration of user knowledge in
the post-processing task. Second, we use Bayesian belief network as a probabilistic and causal way of
finding relationship between items. Second, filters have been used to make the post processing step
effective and to reduce the association rules to several dozens or less.
Keywords: Association rules, knowledge management, extraction, filtering, decision support system.

Decision Support System for Weapon


Detection Using Image Mining
1 2
Alleluia Pushpa A. and D. Senthil Kumar
1
Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
Anna University of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, India
2
Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
Anna University of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, India
E-mail: aapushpa@gmail.com, chandsent@yahoo.co.in
Abstract—In the current national security environment, there is little question that terrorism is among
the gravest of threats. Massive resources throughout the government and private sectors have been
allocated and reallocated to the task of preventing terrorism. These efforts, however, often lack a
conceptual-let alone empirically-based–foundation for understanding terrorists and their acts of violence.
This void creates a serious challenge at many levels, from policy- level decisions about how a state
should respond to terrorism, to individual-level decisions about whether a given person of interest, who

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 39


espouses extremist ideas, truly poses a serious threat to country personnel and interests. The main goal of
the paper is to detect the concealed weapon based on the captured IR images using image fusion and
image mining techniques.
Keywords: Concealed Weapon Detection (CWD), Image Fusion, Dual tree Complex wavelet
Transform (DT CWT), Image mining, appearance based learner.

Advanced Searching Technique for Peer to Peer


Network Using Friend Set Concept
1 2
S. Anbu and C. Jayakumar
1
Research Scholar, Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
Bharath University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India–60073
2
Professor, Department of Computer Science & Engineering,
RMK Engineering College, Kavaripettai, Tiruvallur–District
E-mail: anbuss16@gmail.com, cjayakumar2007@gmail.com
Abstract—In this paper, a new searching technique is proposed for Peer-to- Peer networks which use e
stored path result sharing concept and also use the friend concept of Object oriented programming. The
friend concept is used in network searching by making the neighbor nodes as friends. After searching, if
the source node finds a shortest path of the search data then it stores that path information in its own hash
table and also it shares that path information with its friend node which is in the direction of destination
node. Similarly whenever a node want to search a data first it evaluate its own hash table to find the path
information of that search data. If it is available then it uses that path information, otherwise as per this
new concept it will evaluate its friend’s hash tables to find it. If path information for that data is found, as
a friend it has rights to access that path information to retrieve that search data and then the source node
also stores that path information in its own hash table for future references. If data is not found, this
algorithm uses Breadths first searches technique with larger depth limits, until either the query is
satisfied, or the maximum depth D has been reached. If data is still not available at maximum depth, this
technique will use DFS technique until the data is found. The main advantage of this algorithm is a node
can also get path information from their friend nodes so search time will be greatly reduced and it is
approximately 2 times faster than other algorithms using stored path result sharing concepts in Peer-to-
Peer networks.
Keywords: Friend, shortest path, sharing path information, Peer-to-Peer system, Search time

Efficient Cache Consistency Maintenance


in Ad-hoc Networks
1 2
Y.S. Beena Wislien and A. Kanagaraj
1
Y.S. Beena Wislien, PG Student, Sardar Raja College of Engineering, Tirunelveli, India
2
A. Kanagaraj, Assistant Professor, Sardar Raja College of Engineering, Tirunelveli, India
E-mail: beena.wislien@gmail.com, kanagarajat@gmail.com
Abstract—In this paper the consistency scheme is server-based in which control mechanisms are
implemented to adapt the process of caching a data item in a secure manner and updating it by the server
to the neighbourhood of source and destination nodes, called cache nodes. The main objectives of this
system are to transfer data in a secure manner by handling the disconnections of nodes from the network

40 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


and to maintain Cache Consistency. Estimates for the throughput, routing overhead are derived, in order
to determine the gains of employing our scheme in the MANET.
Keywords: Data caching, Cache Consistency, Server-based approach, Secure Message Transmission,
Multi-path Routing

Extended Gradient Descent Method


for Privacy Preservation
1 2 3
Devipriya A., Anuradha R. and Rajkumar N.
1,3
Department of Computer Science and Engineering (PG),
Sri Ramakrishna Engineering College, Coimbatore–641002, India
2
Department of Computer Science and Engineering (PG),
Sri Ramakrishna Engineering College, Coimbatore–641002, India
E-mail: devipriyaa87@gmail.com, rnalliah@yahoo.co.in, radhu_anu@rediffmail.com
Abstract—To effectively shield the sensitive information contained in a dataset by producing its
privacy-aware counterpart that can be safely released using privacy preservation technique. A
preliminary formulation ofgradient descent with data privacy preservation is proposed. The two
approaches—stochastic approach and least square approach are proposed for incorporating various secure
building blocks for both horizontally and vertically partitioned data. We conduct experiments to evaluate
the scalability of the proposed secure building blocks and the accuracy and efficiency of the protocols for
different scenarios. The excremental results show that the proposed secure building blocks are reasonably
scalable and the proposed protocols allow us to determine a better secure protocol for the applications for
each scenario.
Keywords: Gradient-descent method, least square approach, privacy-preserving data mining, secure
multiparty computation, stochastic approach.

Enhancing Features of Steward Protocol


to Scale Byzantine Fault-Tolerance in Wan
1 2 3
P. Sathish, Dr. N. Sankar Ram and T.K.S. Rathish Babu
1 2 3
P.G Scholar, Head of the Department, Assistant Professor-II
Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
Velammal Engineering College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: sathishp@ymail.com, n_sankarram@yahoo.com, baburat@yahoo.com
Abstract—For the last few decades, the use of the computer rises to unbelievable peak level. Now our
society highly depends on the computer networks for our day to day activities. As usual, the increase the
usage of any field will also have to face some critical problems. Though networks provide an easy way of
life, its security issues became a great problem. One of the current network security issues is Byzantine
attack in the distributed network. The name of the attack is inferred from the Byzantine army Generals’
problem and this occurs due to the malicious functionality of general(s) in the army which leads to the
irrespective action by the loyal generals. This attack may lead to the Byzantine failure which causes the
crash of the system, malicious system performance and even endanger the human life, e.g., Airliner
landing message passing problem. To overcome from this problem, we need a byzantine fault tolerance

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 41


(BFT) system which is efficient than the detection environment. From the knowledge of malicious
attacks and Byzantine failures, we can modify the protocol (STEWARD – First BFT protocol for WAN)
to tolerate those attacks in wide area network and asynchronous (Internet) environment. STEWARD
model is efficient and overcome from the drawbacks of previous (Q/U, HQ, Zyzzyva) protocols issues.
Before the implementation, we assume ‘f’ faulty member(s) in (2f+1) group, traitors cannot less than or
equal 1/3 of group and all non faulty members have to function on same input. My protocol can carry out
the tolerance activity using Paxos (2 round communication) which is used in WAN and BFT (3 round
communication) which is used inside the LAN. Threshold Digital Signature, based on standard Rivest,
Shamir and Adleman (RSA) method, gives the trust among the group members and computation process.
Time out terminology helps to maintain the security and data structure provides the history information.
The functionality of my protocol can be shown using the Network Simulator (ns2) and it also can be
analyzed in Juniper test bed. This project can be extended to trace the Byzantine attacker’s locations and
also to find the way through which the attack is carried out.

Efficient Packet Delivery in Manet Using RSGM


T. Chindrella Priyadharshini and S. Neelakandan
Department of Information Technology, Anna University,
Vel Tech Multi Tech Dr.Rangarajan Dr. Sakunthala Engineering College, India
E-mail: chindrella_priyadharshini@yahoo.com, snksnk07@.com
Abstract—There are increasing interest and big challenges in designing a scalable and robust multicast
routing protocol in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET) due to the difficulty in group membership
management, multicast packet forwarding, and the maintenance of multicast structure over the dynamic
network topology for a large group size or network size. In this paper, we propose a novel Robust and
Scalable Geographic Multicast Protocol (RSGM). Several virtual architectures are used in the protocol
without need of maintaining state information for more robust and scalable membership management and
packet forwarding in the presence of high network dynamics due to unstable wireless channels and node
movements. Specifically, scalable and efficient group membership management is performed through a
virtual-zone-based structure, and the location service for group members is integrated with the
membership management. Both the control messages and data packets are forwarded along efficient tree-
like paths, but there is no need to explicitly create and actively maintain a tree structure. The stateless
virtual-tree-based structures significantly reduce the tree management overhead, support more efficient
transmissions, and make the transmissions much more robust to dynamics. Geographic forwarding is
used to achieve further scalability and robustness. To avoid periodic flooding of the source information
throughout the network, an efficient source tracking mechanism is designed. Our results demonstrate that
RSGM can scale to a large group size and a large network size, and can more efficiently support multiple
multicast groups in the network. Compared to existing protocols ODMRP and SPBM, RSGM achieves a
significantly higher delivery ratio under all circumstances, with different moving speeds, node densities,
group sizes, number of groups, and network sizes. RSGM also has the minimum control overhead and
joining delay.
Keywords: Multicast routing, wireless networks, mobile ad hoc networks scalable, robust.

42 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


Imposing GUI Runtime State Feedback
for Model-based Testing
J. Aswini and S. Vimala
Department, of Computer Science, R.M.K. Engineering College,
Kavaraipettai, Tamil Nadu–601206, India
E-mail: aswini.jayaraman@gmail.com, sva.cse@rmkec.ac.in
Abstract—An effective use of overall software application is based on behaviour of Graphical User
Interface (GUI). One of the technique to discover defects and increase the quality of GUIs is Model-
Based GUI testing. Test cases can be created manually or produced automatically from a model of the
GUI. Seed suite (initial test cases) is developed with the help of Event Interaction Graph (EIG) for
Smoke test. During execution of Seed suite, feedback obtained from Application under Test's run- time
state is used to compute Event Semantic Interaction (ESI) relationship. ESI Relationship helps to
generate Event Semantic Interaction Graph (ESIG) which in turn used to generate new additional test
cases. Execution of additional test cases detects more faults for Application under Test (AUT). Feedback
based approach uses multiway interactions of events and detects faults that are not covered by two way
interactions of events. Hence, fault detection effectiveness of overall test cases is improved thereby
effectiveness of software application also improved.
Keywords: Software Testing, GUI, Test Cases, Model-based GUI Testing, Seed Suite.

SHARF: Secret Enhanced Security Framework


for Metropolitan WMNs
1 2
V. Parthipan and N. Partheeban
1 2
P.G. Student, Asst. Professor,
Master of Engineering in Computer Science, S.A. Engineering College
E-mail: parthipansp@gmail.com, knparthi78@gmail.com
Abstract—Security and privacy issues are of most concern in pushing the success of WMNs for their
wide deployment and for supporting service-oriented applications. Recently, multihop wireless mesh
networks (WMNs) have attracted increasing attention and deployment as a low-cost approach to provide
broadband Internet access at metropolitan scale, Though there is a serious need, limited security research
has been conducted toward privacy preservation in WMNs. This motivates me to develop SHARF, a
Secret enHAnced secuRity Framework, tailored for Metropolitan WMNs. On one hand, SHARF enforces
strict user access control to cope with both free riders and malicious users. Security requirements are
essential to ensure the following WMN functions, User-router mutual authentication and key agreement,
User-user mutual authentication and key agreement. SHARF offers sophisticated user privacy protection
and User accountability in the wireless network. On the other hand, SHARF offers against both
adversaries and various other network entities. SHARF is presented as a suite of authentication and key
agreement protocols built upon the proposed short group signature variation. SHARF is resilient to a
number of security and privacy related attacks.
Keywords: Wireless mesh networks, sophisticated privacy, authentication, security

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 43


TEAR: Trust Evaluation and Attack Detection
using Reputation of Nodes in MANET
1 2
K. Sudharson and C. Bala Krishnan
P.G Student, Asst. Professor/CSE,
Master of Engineering in Computer Science, S.A.Engineering College
E-mail: susankumar@gmail.com, kknbalki_saec@yahoo.com
Abstract—Evaluating and quantifying Reputation stimulates collaboration in Mobile ad hoc Network
(MANET). A MANET is an autonomous network that consists of mobile nodes that communicates with
each other through wireless link. The absence of fixed infrastructure nodes here to cooperate in order to
provide the necessary network functionality. This research is concerned with fully distributed reputation-
based mechanisms that improve security in MANETS. This implements a cognitive and optimized
method to calculate the Reputation of the Nodes. This project proposes the Eigen vector & Degree
centrality for evaluation of the individual trust value. The design and Build NS2 over the Dynamic
Source Routing(DSR) prototype, in the presence of Worm Hole Attack in highly mobile and hostile
environment.
Keywords: MANET, Eigen Trust, Reputation, DSR.

Public Security in Tracking People


Using Surveillance Cameras
1 2
P. Uma Eswari and K.Sumathi
1
PG Scholar, Dept. of CSE, St. Peter's University Avadi, Chennai–600054
2
Lecturer, Dept. of CSE, St. Peter's University Avadi, Chennai–600054
E-mail: Umaeswari11@gmail.com, sumathikrishnan2005@yahoo.com
Abstract—The major challenge is to keep track of the object of a particular choice. In this work, a new
moving object-tracking method is proposed. The moving object is recorded in video. The segmentation
of the video is done by contextual clustering. The features of the segmented image is further processed by
the imfeature properties of the matlab The co-ordinates of the human in the video are given as input for
the Kalman filter. This process is further repeated for the successive video frames. An artificial neural
network with supervised backpropagation algorithm learns the input output scenarios of the Kalman filter
and provides a better estimate of the movement of the human in the video frame. A multitarget human
tracking is attempted.
Keywords: Public security, Tracking, Back probagation algorithm, Artificial Neural Network,
Surveillance.

44 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


Picture Based Tamil Sentences Generation
M.S. Girija
Asst. Prof., Department of Computer Science & Engineering,
Jeppiaar engineering college, Chennai, India
E-mail: girijamurugesan@gmail.com
Abstract—A picture dictionary is a dictionary that uses photos or drawings to illustrate what the
headwords mean. Picture dictionaries are useful in a variety of teaching environments, such as teaching a
young child about their native language, and in foreign language instruction for children and adults.
Picture dictionaries are often organized by topic instead of being an alphabetic list of words. Picture
dictionaries are almost always minimizing dictionaries, and only include a small corpus of words. In this
paper a new technique is employed to construct a tamil picture dictionary. Domain related pictures are
provided in the user interface and the input to the system are pictures. Based on the selection of the
pictures, the semantic relationship between the pictures is extracted from the domain ontology. Picture
words and the semantically related words are sent to the sentence structure framework to obtain the
syntactic representation of the tamil sentence. Finally suffixes are added to the words by using
morphological rules to generate tamil sentences automatically.
Keywords: Picture dictionary, sentences generation, ontology, keywords, semantic relationship
extraction, Content bearing words, Morphological analysis for Tamil.

Similarity Search and Identification of Online Videos


with Graph Transformation Techniques
Dwarakanath B. and Karthik B.
Department of Information and Technology,
Hindustan University, P.O.Bag No 01, Old Mahabalipuram Road,
Padur, Kancheepuram District -603103, Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: dwarakanath@hindustanuniv.ac.in, kartheek.it@gmail.com
Abstract—In recent year’s piracy is one of the major problems which is faced internationally. As more
and more video websites were appeared around the world and everyone can upload or download the
media freely. Therefore, it brings some content security problems, such as piracy, sensitive contents'
disclosure and so on. This paper proposes a query processing technique which is used to retrieve similar
frames, i.e., the mapping relationship between the input query and database video. The query processing
is done for matching the video subsequence even if the temporal order is changed in the duplicate copies
i.e. the single frame may be inserted or the order of the frames may be changed. Copyrights to the videos
are implemented by embedding Ordinal signature into the video files, where the different copies with
same content should have the similar signature either it may be any format. If the similar copies are found
with different keys then it is assumed to be duplicate copy.
Keywords: video subsequence, temporal order, ordinal signature, input query

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 45


Traffic Analysis Attacks on Anonymity Networks
1 2 3
Bhaskar N. R.Prabu and R. Karthikeyan
1,3
Information Technology Department, Anna University,
VelTech MultiTech Dr. Rangarajan Dr. Sakunthala Engineering College,
Chennai–62, TamilNadu, India
2
VelTech MultiTech Dr. Rangarajan Dr. Sakunthala Engineering College,
Chennai–62, TamilNadu, India
E-mail: itbhaskaran@gmail.com, watrapkarthik@gmail.com, dprpit@gmail.com
Abstract—Traffic analysis is typically countered by the use of intermediary nodes, whose role is to
perturb the traffic flow and thus confuse an external observer. Such intermediaries are called mixes. We
address attacks that exploit the timing behavior of TCP and other protocols and applications in low-
latency anonymity networks. Intermediaries delay and reroute exchanged messages, reorder them, pad
their size, or perform other operations such a mix network to handle mail traffic. Mixes have been used in
many anonymous communication systems and are supposed to provide counter measures to defeat traffic
analysis attacks. We focus on a particular class of traffic analysis attacks, flow correlation attacks, by
which an adversary attempts to analyze the network traffic and correlate the traffic of a flow over an
input link with that over an output link. Flow-correlation attacks attempt to reduce the anonymity degree
by estimating the path of flows through the mix network. Two classes of correlation methods are
considered, namely time-domain methods and frequency-domain methods. In the time domain, statistical
information about rate distributions is collected and used to identify the traffic dependency. In the
frequency domain, it identifies traffic similarities by comparing the Fourier spectra of timing data. The
empirical results provided in this paper give an indication to designers of Mix networks about appropriate
configurations and mechanisms to be used to counter flow-correlation attacks.
Keywords: mix, anonymity, flow-correlation attack, intermediaries node, security

Snoogle: A Physicalworld Search Engine


1 2
P. Robert and T.G. Ruby Angel
1
Department of Information Technology, Anna University,
Vel Tech Multi Tech Dr.Rangarajan Dr. Sakunthala Engineering College, India
2
Department of Information Technology, Anna University,
Vel Tech Multi Tech Dr. Rangarajan Dr. Sakunthala Engineering College India
E-mail: tgrubyangel@gmail.com, robertmtech2005@gmail.com
Abstract—Snoogle is a search engine for an object tracking network. A user can query Snoogle to find a
particular mobile object, or a list of objects that fit the description. Security and privacy protections are
used to protect sensitive information. It allows users to efficiently search for information in a pervasive
Physical World. The payload data can be encrypted by using the Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC)
encryption algorithm. The decryption key will distribute to the authorized user. Snoogle uses information
retrieval techniques to index information and process user queries, and Bloom filters is used to reduce
communication overhead. The system enhancement is for supporting the mobile objects, and security
mechanism for private objects.
Keywords: Sensor, Bloom filter, KeyIP, ECC, IP.

46 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


A Dynamic Fuzzy Technique for Mining
Temporal Medical Database
S. Radhika and T. Sethukkarasi
Department of Computer Science,
R.M.K Engineering College, Kavaraipettai–601206, Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: radhika_sugathan@yahoo.co.in, sethumaaran@yahoo.co.in
Abstract—Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) are efficient modeling method which provides fuzzy
reasoning, adaptability and abstraction on the simulated system's design. It is used to represent causal
system as a collection of concepts and causal relationships among concepts. As an inference network,
FCM is a signed directed graph with feedback, which consists of a collection of nodes and directed-
weighted arcs that interconnect nodes. FCM provides a more flexible and natural mechanism for
knowledge representation and reasoning, which are essential in working of intelligent systems. A vast
majority of FCM models were constructed manually. The manually developed models have a substantial
shortcoming due to the model subjectivity and difficulties in assessing its reliability due to human
intervention. To solve this problem, a four-layer fuzzy neural network is used for the automatic creation
of the conventional FCMs from the given data. This FCM is generated for the medical temporal database
records of diabetic patients as well as medical interventions is done using Allen’s algorithm.
Keywords: fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs), data mining, time series analysis, fuzzy neural network

An Efficient Age Estimation System based on MPCA


1 2
V. Tamil Selvi and Dr. K. Vani
1
Research Scholar, Anna University / EIE Department,
RMK Engineering College, Kavaraipettai, Tamilnadu
2
IST Department, Anna University, Chennai, Tamilnadu
E-mail: seltamsel@yahoo.co.in, vani@annauniv.edu
Abstract—Age estimation from face images continues to be an extremely challenging task compared to
other cognition problems. Age is a crucial factor in ascertaining the identity of a person. Age is estimated
from the human face images available in the database by existing age estimation systems. But, they
cannot estimate the age of an unknown person. A new age estimation system is employed to overcome
this issue. The primary intension of this work is to develop an age estimation system to estimate the age
of humans from their facial images. The proposed system consists of three processes. Face detection is
the first process that normalizes the facial images. The next process extracts the facial features from the
normalized facial images. Finally the age is estimated using Multilinear Principal Component Analysis.
The efficiency of the proposed system is compared with two features extracted from the facial image.
From the comparative analysis, it can be seen that the proposed system will effectively estimate the age
from the known and unknown person’s facial image with remarkable Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and
Cumulative Score (CS) measurements.
Keywords: Gabor Feature extraction Method, Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), Local Binary Pattern
(LBP), Quasi-Invariants, Multilinear Principal Component Analysis (MPCA), Delaunay Triangulation.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 47


Neural Cryptography with Spy Units
of Pre-Sharing Key Architecture
1 1 2
Dr. N. Prabakaran, A. Anthonisan and B. Madasamy
1
Department of Computer Applications,
Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Thandalam, Chennai–602105, India
2
Department of Computer Applications, Vels Srinivasa College of Engineering and Technology,
Thalambur, Navalur, Chennai–603103, India
E-mail: prabakaran.n@rajalakshmi.edu.in, anthonisan.a@rajalakshmi.edu.in,
bmadasamy@gmail.com
Abstract—In the Tree Parity Machines (TPMs), each output vectors are compared, then the weights in
the left-dynamic hidden unit using Random walk learning rule, hidden unit using Hebbian learning rule
and right-dynamic hidden unit using Anti-Hebbian learning rule are updated with feedback mechanism.
We proposed a Tree Parity Machine Pre-sharing Key Architecture (TPMPKA) which exchanges
encrypted weights using Extended Rijndael Algorithm with hash function during synchronization
between two partners A and B. Also, we discussed the security analysis of genetic attack and majority
flipping attack.
Keywords: Neural Cryptography, Rijndael Algorithm, Pre-sharing Key, Spy units, Tree Parity
Machine

Dynamic Load Balancing and Job Replication


S. Muthukumarasamy and N. Sivakamy
Final Year M.E CSE, Sri Krishna Engineering College, Chennai
E-mail: muthusans@gmail.com
Abstract—In this paper, the modification is made between the existing system and proposed system.
Instead of Bulk Synchronize process (BSP), there are two approaches used as Dynamic Load
Balancing and Job Replication. The calculation is done to assign job for each processor and its each
load. In BSP, each problem is subdivided and distributed on p processors and is given to each processors
per iteration. In order to find total run time, since it is the sum of individual iteration times, the processors
have to wait for the other data before the next iteration starts. Also DLB begins the program as BSP, but
ends with the prediction of processing speed for the next iteration. By considering a processor given to
DLB scheduler, after n iteration, it sends the prediction to the scheduler. It calculates the optimal load
distribution to each processor. The load distributor is optimal when all processors finish their calculation
exactly at the same time and the load assigned to each processor to its predicted processor speed.In JR the
parallel programs executed in BSP with exact copies of each job. Two copies of a job performed with
same computations such as data sets, the parameters and the calculations. A JR process consist of I
iterations. Each iterations take ‘s’ steps and ‘s’ copies of all p jobs to p processors. When one processor
completed one of the copies, it sends a message to the other processor. Hence they kill the job at start the
next job in the sequence. The number of synchronization moments I is the same as for the non-JR cases.
Keywords: Synchronization, Fragmentations, Defragmentation, Task Sharing, scheduling, Load
Calculating, data dissemination.

48 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


Adaptive File Replication and Consistency
Maintenance in P2P Network Systems
1 2
P. Karpagam and V. Umarani
Dept. of Computer Science and Engg., Jaya Engg. College, Thiruninravur, Chennai
Abstract—In peer-to-peer file sharing systems, file replication and consistency maintenance are widely
used techniques for high system performance. Despite significant interdependencies between them, these
two issues are typically addressed separately. Data replication is a common method to reduce the
bandwidth consumption and the access latency in distributed systems. Most file replication methods
rigidly specify replica nodes, leading to low replica utilization, unnecessary replicas and hence extra
consistency maintenance overhead. Consistency maintenance mechanism is necessary for the emerging
peer-to-peer (P2P) applications due to their frequent data updates. This paper presents an Adaptive file
Replication and consistency Maintenance mechanism that integrates the two techniques in a systematic
and harmonized manner. Instead of passively accepting replica and update, each node determines file
replication and update polling by dynamically adapting to time-varying file query and update rates, which
avoids unnecessary file replications and updates. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of
Adaptive in comparison with other approaches. The potential performance benefit that clustering in
demand patterns affords is captured by our results. It dramatically reduces overhead and yields significant
improvements on the efficiency of both file replication and consistency maintenance approaches.
Keywords: File replication, Consistency maintenance, Peer-to- Peer, Distributed Hash Table.

Record Matching over Query Results using Fuzzy


Ontological Document Clustering
G. Kalpana, R. Prasanna Kumar and Dr. T. Ravi
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Jaya Engineering College, Chennai
Anna University of Technology, Coimbatore
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, KCG college of Technology, Chennai
E-mail: g.gkalpana@gmail.com, kumarprasanna.r@gmail.com
Abstract— Record matching is an essential step in duplicate detection as it identifies records
representing same real-world entity. Supervised record matching methods require users to provide
training data and therefore cannot be applied for web databases where query results are generated on-the-
fly. To overcome the problem, a new record matching method named Unsupervised Duplicate
Elimination (UDE) is proposed for identifying and eliminating duplicates among records in dynamic
query results. The idea of this paper is to adjust the weights of record fields in calculating similarities
among records. Two classifiers namely weight component similarity summing classifier, support vector
machine classifier are iteratively employed with UDE where the first classifier utilizes the weights set to
match records from different data sources. With the matched records as positive dataset and non
duplicate records as negative set, the second classifier identifies new duplicates. Then, a new
methodology to automatically interpret and cluster knowledge documents using an ontology schema is
presented. Moreover, a fuzzy logic control approach is used to match suitable document cluster(s) for
given patents based on their derived ontological semantic webs. Thus, this paper takes advantage of
similarity among records from web databases and solves the online duplicate detection problem.
Keywords: Ontology schema, record matching, query results, SVM, UDE, duplicate detection

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 49


Web-based Intrusion Detection System
Using Gaussian Mixture Model
V. Sulochana and P. Preethy Rebecca
1
M.E Computer Science, St. Peters University
2
St. Peters Engineering College
E-mail: sulo62002@yahoo.com, Rebecca_99@rediffmail.com
Abstract—The focus of this chapter is to provide the effective intrusion detection technique to protect
Web server. The IDS protects an server from malicious attacks from the Internet if someone tries to break
in through the firewall and tries to have access on any system in the trusted side and alerts the system
administrator in case there is a breach in security. Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs) are among the
most statistically mature methods for clustering the data. Intrusion detection can be divided into anomaly
detection and misuse detection. Misuse detection model is to collect behavioral features of non-normal
operation and establish related feature library. In the existing system of anomaly based Intrusion
Detection System, the work is based on the number of attacks on the network and using decision tree
analysis for rule matching and grading. We are proposing an IDS approach that will use signature based
and anomaly based identification scheme. And we are also proposing the rule pruning scheme with
GMM(Gaussian Mixture Model). It does facilitate efficient way of handling large amount of rules. And
we are planned to compare the performance of the IDS on different models.
Keywords: Intrusion detection, reliable networks, malicious routers, internet dependability,
tolerance.

Mobile General Packet Radio Services Sensors Array


for Atmospheric Air Pollution Monitoring
1 2 3 4
Dr. L. Vijay, Rakesh Kumar Giri, Dr. M. Umamaheswari and S. Sivasubramanian
1
HOD Dept of MBA, S.A. Engg College., Chennai–77, Tamil Nadu
2
II Year M.Tech (CS&E), Dept of CSE Bharath University, Chennai–73, Tamil Nadu, India
3
HOD Dept of CSE, Arulmigu Meenakshi Amman College of Engineering,
Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu., India
4
Assistant Professor, Dept. of CSE Bharath University, Chennai–73, Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: drvijay@saec.ac.in, rakesh274@gmail.com,
druma_cs@yahoo.com, sivamdu2001@yahoo.com
Abstract—An online GPRS-Sensors Array for air pollution monitoring has been designed, implemented,
and tested. The proposed system consists of a Mobile Data-Acquisition Unit (Mobile-DAQ) and a fixed
Internet-Enabled Pollution Monitoring Server (Pollution-Server). The Mobile-DAQ unit integrates a
single-chip microcontroller, air pollution sensors array, a General Packet Radio Service Modem (GPRS-
Modem), and a Global Positioning System Module (GPS-Module). The Pollution-Server is a high-end
personal computer application server with Internet connectivity. The Mobile-DAQ unit gathers air
pollutants levels (CO, NO2, and SO2), and packs them in a frame with the GPS physical location, time,
and date. The frame is subsequently uploaded to the GPRS-Modem and transmitted to the Pollution-
Server via the public mobile network. A database server is attached to the Pollution-Server for storing the
pollutants level for further usage by various clients such as environment protection agencies, vehicles

50 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


registration authorities, and tourist and insurance companies. The Pollution-Server is interfaced to
Google Maps to display real-time pollutants levels and locations in large metropolitan areas. The system
reports real-time pollutants level and their location on a 24-h/7-day basis.
Keywords: Air pollution, General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), Global positioning systems
(GPSs), microcontrollers, embedded systems, wireless mobile networks.

Privacy Awareness Monitoring for Continuously


Moving Object
1 2 3 4
Dr. L. Vijay, Rakesh Kumar Giri, Dr. M. Umamaheswari and S. Sivasubramanian
1
HOD Dept. of MBA, S.A. Engg. College., Chennai–77, Tamil Nadu
2
II Year M.Tech (CS&E), Dept of CSE Bharath University, Chennai–73, Tamil Nadu, India
3
HOD Dept. of CSE, Arulmigu Meenakshi Amman College of Engineering,
Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu, India
4
Assistant Professor, Dept of CSE Bharath University, Chennai–73, Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: drvijay@saec.ac.in, rakesh274@gmail.com,
druma_cs@yahoo.com, sivamdu2001@Yahoo.Com
Abstract—Traffic monitoring accuracy, efficiency, and privacy, is necessary for the operation,
maintenance and control of communication networks. Traffic monitoring has also important implications
on the user privacy. Efficiency and privacy are two fundamental issues in moving object monitoring. In
our project proposes a privacy-aware monitoring (PAM) framework that addresses both issues. We
propose spatial query monitoring Framework for Continuously Moving Objects Methods to minimizing
the processing time at the server and /or the communication cost incurred by location updates. The
proposed concurrent access framework supports object movement, query movement, and query report for
scalable continuous query processing for moving objects. Based on the notions of safe region and most
probable result, PAM performs location updates only when they would likely alter the query results.

Information Security and Retrieval on E-Business


K. Jarina Begum and Ammer K. AL-Deber
Dept. of Computer Science, Al-Fateh University, Qaser Benqasheer, Tripoli, Libya
E-mail: kjarina@gmail.com, ammar200949@yahoo.com
Abstract—Here we are describing about the method of e-business goes against traditional method
through the internet.It allows the customer, partners, supplier and factory employees to use the business
information. Company publishes up to date available item's information in net. Customers can view the
information from net when they need it, and they can place the orders which can be fulfilled as order
placed by reducing middle man cost. So the profitable business development and secured e-business is
done with complete customer service and support without middleman, that is, as per vendee's description
the exact datum be retrieved through the information retrieval system against search engines, and while
the vendee is paying the payment also it checks for the authentication, and the secured transaction is
done. And also we are describing about the increment of the e-business growth from the small user
community (intranet user) to large community (internet user) and minimize online risk, the management
of the security challenges on vulnerable points, the risen security issues, method of avoiding intrusion,
and some of the e- business security guidelines. Here the advantage is customer can directly
communicate with supplier. Thus the exact cost of item is paid by reducing the middle man cost.
Keywords: Malicious replica, Fault tolerance, Scalability, Steward and Time outs

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 51


Speaker Identification Using Neural Network
1 2 3
M.S. Ghute , V. B. Niranjane and P.M. Awachat
Lecturer, ET Department, Yeshwantrao Chavan College of Engineering, Nagpur
E-mail: minal_ghute@rediffmail.com,
niranjane_vaishali@yahoo.com, pranjaliawachat@gmail.com
Abstract—Speaker recognition is the process of automatically recognizing, who is speaking on the basis
of individual information included in speech waves. This technique makes it possible to use the speaker
voice to verify their identity and control access to devices such as voice dialling, banking by telephones,
telephone shopping, data base access services, i
nformation services, voice mail, security control for confidential information area and remote access to
computers. The goal of this paper is to built a simple and reprehensive automatic speaker recognition
system.
Keywords: speaker recognition, identification, fuzzy min – max, pitch, formant, training, testing.

A New Methodology for Reducing


Test Suites Using Ping-Pong Heuristics
1 2
M. Narasimhulu and A. Ananda Rao
1
CSE department, JNTUA, JNTUACEA, Ananthapur
2
Principal, JNTUA, JNTUACEA, Anathapur, Andhra Pradesh, India
E-mail: malavathulam@gmail.com, akepogo@gmail.com
Abstract—Testing software plays a predominant role in the software industry. The event driven nature
of GUI creates a new challenges for testing. One important challenge faced is Test Suite Reduction. The
existing system collects the call stack dynamically and reduces the available test suite using the concept
of set theory. The algorithm used in set theory affect with overhead when the size of test suite is
predominantly huge. The overheads that are affected in the specified algorithm are rectified using ping-
pong heuristics. The proposed and existing systems are compared and analyzed using ping-pong
heuristics.
Keywords: Call-Stack, Heuristics, Metric, Cardinality, Test Suite.

Load Balancing Through Shortest Path


in Regular Mesh Topologies
1 2
M. Ashwini and S. Vasundara
1
M.Tech Student, Department of CSE, JNTU Anantapur, A.P., India
2
Associate Professor, Department of CSE, JNTU Anantapur, A.P., India
E-mail: mamidi_ashwini@yahoo.com, vasundaras@rediffmail.com
Abstract—Mesh topologies are large scale peer-to-peer systems that use low-bandwidth wireless links to
achieve the application objectives. The quality of service in such system is known to decrease as scale
increase. Uniform spreading algorithm is spreading messages over all the shortest paths. This is a

52 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


straightforward strategy where the source, as well as each intermediate node along every path in the
contour, sends successive messages in a round-robin fashion. Uniform spreading algorithm shows that
the nodes along one of the paths will always handle shortest paths more messages than the nodes along
other paths. Optimal spreading algorithm is effectively utilize all the available shortest paths and
spreading the messages in balanced load. Optimal technique characterize the set of shortest paths
between a pair of nodes in regular mesh topology and derive rules using this characterization, it
effectively spread the messages over all the available paths to improve QOS.
Keywords: Wireless Communication, Network Communication, Routing Protocols, Mesh topology

Effective Packet Loss Measurement


with Geometric Approach
1 2
K. Ashfaq Ahmed and R. Raja Sekhar
1
PG Scholar, Computer Science and Engineering Department, JNT University Anantapur, AP, India
2
Assistant Professor, Computer Science and Engineering Department,
JNT University, Anantapur, AP, India
E-mail: ashfaqme@gmail.com, drasharaj2002@gmail.com
Abstract—Network traffic dynamics between end hosts provides the foundation for the development of
many different network protocols and systems. Dynamics include packet loss behaviour which is more
important since loss can have a significant impact on the performance of both TCP- and UDP-based
applications. Loss will probably never be eliminated due to the intrinsic dynamics and scaling properties
of traffic in packet switched network. End-to-end active measurements using probes provide a valuable
perspective since they indicate the actual conditions that application traffic is experiencing on those
paths. Present work involves the evaluation geometric loss measurement methodology with
parameterization.
Keywords: Packet loss, Probes, Active Measurement, Geometric Method, Parameters

Thin Plate Spline (TPS) Based Image Warping


1 2 3
V.B. Bagde, A.C. Bhagali and S.I. Parihar
1,3
Electronics & Communication Engineering,
Priyadarshini Institute of Engineering & Technology R.T.M. Nagpur University, Nagpur, India
2
Priyadarshini Institute of Engineering & Technology, Nagpur, India
E-mail: vandana.bagde0801@gmail.com, parihar_sunita@yahoo.co.in, acbhagali@rediffmail.com
Abstract—In this paper, a Thin Plate Spline (TPS) based Image Warping Algorithm is used. Thin Plate
Spline is a conventional tool for surface interpolation over scattered data. It is an interpolation method
that finds a “minimally bended” smooth surface that passes through all given points. The name “Thin
Plate” comes from the fact that a TPS more or less stimulates how a thin metal plate would behave if it
was forced through the same control points. In this paper we intend to review different warping methods
and compare them based on various attributes. We have defined attributes such as, computational time,
visual quality of morphs obtained and complexity involved in selection of features, for making an
effective comparison.
Keywords: Thin Plate Spline, image warping, surfaceinterpolation, mesh warping, feature based
warping

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 53


Interconnect-Centric Design for Advanced
System-on-Chip & Network-on-Chip
1 2 2 2
B. Muralikrishna, A.L.G.N Aditya, M. Sahithi and J. Poornima
1 2
Assistant Professor, M.Tech VLSI (PG Students),
Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, K.L. University India
Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, K.L. University, India
E-mail: muralikrishna@kluniversity.in, adityasind@gmail.com,
mannesahithi@gmail.com, poori_jujjavarapu@yahoo.com
Abstract—NoC improves the scalability of SoCs and the power efficiency of complex SoCs compared
to other designs. NoC applies networking theory and methods to on-chip communication and brings
notable improvements over conventional bus and crossbar interconnections. Rapid advances in
semiconductor manufacturing technologies have resulted in an ever increasing number of components to
be implemented on a single chip. Such System-on-a-Chip (SoC) designs have very demanding
communication requirements between individual components. Traditional bus-based communications
systems that connect multiple blocks and span a large portion of the chip have become a performance
bottleneck. One solution to these problems is to use an on- chip interconnection network, commonly
known as Network on Chip (NoC). Traditionally, ICs have been designed with dedicated point-to-point
connections, with one wire dedicated to each signal. For large designs, in particular, this has several
limitations from a physical design viewpoint. The wires occupy much of the area of the chip, and in
nanometer CMOS technology, interconnects dominate both performance and reduces the growing
complexity and design time. Basically FPGAs comprised of a large number of dynamic power
dissipation, as signal propagation in wires across the chip requires multiple clock cycles. The selected
topology of the components interconnects plays prime rule in the performance of NoC architecture as
well as routing and switching techniques that can be used.
Keywords: System-on-a-Chip, Network on Chip, On Chip Interconnects, Routing and Switching.

Network Intrusion Detection for Unsupervised


Authentication Records in Matlab
1 2 1
Bhawana Pillai, Vineet Rechhariya and Er. Niranjan Singh
1
M-Tech, Bhopal, (M.P.) India
2
M-Tech, LNCT Bhopal
E-mail: Vineet_rich@yahoo.com, enggniranjan@gmail.com, bhawanapillai@gmail.com
Abstract—Anomaly detection is a critical issue in Network Intrusion Detection Systems. Most anomaly
based NIDS employ supervised algorithms, whose performances highly depend on attack-free training
data. Moreover, with changing network environment or services, patterns of normal traffic will be
changed. In this paper, we developed intrusion detection system is to analyses the authentication records
and separate genuine and fraudulent authentication attempts for each user account in the system. To
achieve this we combine two machine learning algorithms Expectation Maximization(EM) algorithm
followed by Bayesian Classification. Intrusions are detected by determining outliers related to the built
patterns. We present the modification on the outlier detection algorithm. It is important problems to
increase the detection rates and reduce false positive rates in Intrusion Detection System. Although

54 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


preventative techniques such as access control and authentication attempt to prevent intruders, these can
fail, and as a second line of defence, intrusion detection has been introduced. Rare events are events that
occur very infrequently, detection of rare events is a common problem in many domains. As the tool for
the algorithm implementations we chose the language of choice in industrial world MATLAB.
Keywords: Anomaly detection, Intrusion Detection, Expectation Maximization, MATLAB,
fraudulent authentication, genuine, reduce false.

Retinal Recognition System


1 2
Nandana Prabhu and Ashwin Prabhu
1
Associate Professor, Department of Information Technology,
K.J. Somaiya College of Engineering, Vidyavihar, Mumbai–77 India
2
Student-FYBTech, Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, Matunga, Mumbai–17 India
E-mail: nandana1167@gmail.com, symphonyashwin92@gmail.com
Abstract—The recent advances in research have enabled the industry to find more complex
methodologies for personal authentication. This has led to the high development in the area of biometrics
for the research of the retina recognition which is more complex and accurate for the authentication. A
simple, yet reliable method for retina recognition is presented/proposed in this paper. The feature
extractor, extracts the same number of discriminative features for each retinal image. The performance of
the proposed system is found to be satisfactory on the samples of images tested. The obtained results are
exceptionally significant and proved the effectiveness of the approach followed.
Keywords: Retina Recognition, Feature Extraction, Biometric

Intelligent Mobile Banking based on Cloud


Computing
1 2 2 2 2
R.Suresh, G. Raghu, M. Kumaravendan, A. Thamizharimam T. Manikandan
1
Assitant Professor, Dept of Information Technology, Sri Manakula Vinayagar Engineering College
2
Students, Dept of Information Technology, Sri Manakula Vinayagar Engineering College
E-mail: sureshramanujam78@gmail.com rahman.it.1990@gmail.com,
kumaravendan@gmail.com, thamizharima@gmail.com maniaathee@gmail.com
Abstract—Mobile payments are a new and alternative payment method. Instead of using traditional
methods like cash, cheque, or credit cards, a customer can use a mobile phone to transfer money or to pay
for goods and services. Mobile payments have numerous advantages over traditional payment methods.
Apart from their apparent flexibility, they enable consumers who do not have easy access to banking
facilities to participate readily in financial transactions. Unfortunately, existing mobile payment solutions
in India are not interoperable; i.e. they only offer services for merchants registered with them and do not
allow the transfer of money to, or between, users of other payment providers. This limitation reduces the
widespread adoption of mobile payments. In this paper, we propose new mobile payment architectures
using Cloud computing to Provide interoperability by solving the problem of departments segmentation
during mobile payment development, to realize the barrier-free communication and integration of mobile
payment industrial Chains, to cut down customer attrition cause by low usability of mobile payment.
Keywords: Mobile payment, Cloud computing, Interoperable.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 55


Development of Adaptive Traffic System
Using Video Processing
1 2 3
Swapnil.S. Jain, Atish.S. Khobragade and Yeshwant.A. Deodhe
1 2
Department of Electronics Engineering, Department of Electronics & Telecommunication,
3
Department of Electronics Engineering, RTM Nagpur University,
Yeshwantrao Chavan College of Engineering, Nagpur, India
E-mail: swapniljain73@rediffmail.com, atish_khobragade@rediffmail.com,
yeshwant.deodhe@gmail.com
Abstract—This paper is an application of image processing and computer vision methods to traffic flow
monitoring and road traffic analysis. The application is modified to the needs and constrains of road
traffic analysis. The functional capabilities of the system is to monitor the road, to initiate automated
vehicle tracking, to measure the speed, and to recognize number plates of a car. The paper is about
development of a new system for traffic monitoring and analysis and uses MATLAB tool for developing
and result is testing with the actual data.
Keywords: vehicle tracking, speed measurement, number plate recognition, motion detection,
contour extraction, contour labelling, filtration, threshold, mask, License plate recognition

Position based Routing Scheme Using Concentric


Circular Quadrant Routing Protocol
in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network
1 2
Upendra Verma and Vijay Prakash
1
M.E. (Research Scholar), Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Shri Vaishnav,
Institute of Technology and Science, R.G.T.U., Bhopal, India
2
Asst. Prof., Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Shri Vaishnav,
Institute of Technology and Science, R.G.T.U., Bhopal, India
Email: upendra4567@gmail.com, vijayprakash15@gmail.com
Abstract—Mobile ad hoc network is a self-organizing and selfconfiguringnetwork in which, mobile host
moved freely, due to this disconnection is often occurred between mobile hosts. In mobile ad hoc
network location of mobile nodes are frequently changed. Location management is a crucial issue in
manet due to dynamic topologies. In this paper we propose a position based routing scheme called
“Concentric Circular Quadrant Routing Scheme (CCQRS)”. In this paper we use single location server
region for location update and location query. This strategy reduces the cost associated with location
update and location query.
Keywords: mobile adhoc network, routing protocol, Concentric Circular location management.
location management.

56 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


Model Driven Design Method: An Approach
to Design Software Architecture
Gaurav Kumar Gaur and Vaishali Mishra
nd
M.Tech (S.E.) 2 Year, Shri Ram Murti Smarak College of Engg. & Tech., Bareilly
E-mail: gkgaur1987@gmail.com, vaishalimishra13@gmail.com
Abstract—Software Architecture allows for early assessment of and design for quality attributes of a
software system. It provides an important help for current software development. The development of
software architecture is complex due to the absence of a standard way that lead the generation of software
architecture artifacts. In this paper we define an architecture design method that provides the systematic
method for software architecture of business application. We apply model driven engineering techniques
to achieve the goal, the architecture is treated as a model composed of related models and application of
design decision is encoded in terms of model transformation. We define a specialization of the attribute
driven design(Add) method using model driven engineering techniques that systematizes and assists the
Decision Making activity.
Keywords: Model Driven Architecture, Model Driven Development, UML, Model Driven
Architecture tools etc.

Detection of Deformities in Lung Using Short


Time Fourier Transform Spectrogram
Analysis on Lung sound
1 2
Abhinav A. Parkhi and Mahesh S. Pawar
1 2
M.Tech (II Year) Electronics Department, Electronics Department
Yeshwantrao Chavan College of Engineering, Nagpur (India)
E-mail: abhinav.parkhi@gmail.com, mahesh2323@gmail.com
Abstract—The lung itself cannot generate sound if there is no airflow; pressure differences between
structures within the thorax. Listening and interpreting lung sounds by a stethoscope had been an
important component of screening and diagnosing lung diseases. However this practice has always been
vulnerable to poor audibility, inter-observer variations (between different physicians) and poor
reproducibility. Lung sound consists of two main types of sound Basic Lung sound and adventitious
sound. The timing, repeatability, and shape of crackles are important parameters for diagnosis. In this
paper we aim at automatic analysis of lung sounds for wheeze and crackle detection and classification.
Keywords: Lung sound, Crackle, Wheeze.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 57


A Novel Aop Based Adaptive Strategy Design
Pattern for Autonomic Systems
1 2 3
V.S. Prasad Vasireddy, Vishnuvardhan Mannava and Yamini Chirumamilla
1,2
Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
KL University, Vaddeswaram–522502, A.P, India
3
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Acharya
Nagarjuna University, Guntur, 522510, A.P, India
E-mail: vasireddy.vvs@gmail.com, yaminichirumamilla@gmail.com, vishnu@klce.ac.in
Abstract—The growing complexity in the systems due to growing size need a new mechanism to enable
the system to self-manage, releasing administrators of low-level task management while delivering an
optimized system. The Autonomic systems are: self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing, self-
protecting. They sense the environment in which they are operating and automatically take action to
change their own behaviour or the environment. There are no well established methodologies that a
designer of an autonomic system can exploit to drive their work. So, the Current autonomic systems are
ad hoc solutions in which each system is designed and implemented from scratch. In this paper, we
propose an Adaptive Strategy Design Pattern that can be used to analyze or design self-adaptive systems
accommodating legacy components. The pattern is depicted and described using an aspect-like notation
for the aspects and interfaces.
Keywords: Aspect Oriented Programming, Auton

A Novel Autonomic Design Pattern for Stream


Classification System Design Using Aop
1 2 3
Bangaru Babu Kuravadi, Vishnuvardhan Mannava and V S. Prasad Vasireddy
1,2
Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
KL University, Vaddeswaram, 522502, A.P, India
3
Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
KL University, Vaddeswaram, 522502, A.P, India
e-mail: bngrbbk@gmail.com, vasireddy.vvs@gmail.com, vishnu@klce.ac.in
Abstract—The growing complexity in the systems due to growing size need a new mechanism to enable
the system to self-manage, releasing administrators of low-level task management while delivering an
optimized system. The Autonomic systems are: self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing, self-
protecting. They sense the environment in which they are operating and automatically take action to
change their own behaviour or the environment. There are no well established methodologies that a
designer of an autonomic system can exploit to drive their work. So, the Current autonomic systems are
ad hoc solutions in which each system is designed and implemented from scratch. This paper proposes a
design pattern which can be easily exploited by the dataflow-management-systems designer to achieve
autonomicity with a minimal effort. The pattern is depicted and described using an Aspect Oriented
Programming (AOP) like notation for the classes and interfaces.
Keywords: Autonomic Computing, Design patterns, Aspect Oriented Programming, Dynamic
adaptability and AspectJ.

58 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


A Co-clustering Model by Using Cross-domain
Text Classification through Wikipedia
1 2 3
R. Venkat, Dr. K. Raghava Rao and B. Ram Kumar
1,3
M-Tech CSE Project Scholars, Koneru Lakshmaih University
Vaddeswaram, Guntur Dist., Andhra Pradesh, India–522502
2
Professor, Koneru Lakshmaih University Vaddeswaram,
Guntur Dist., Andhra Pradesh, India–522502
E-mail: rayalavenkat534@gmail.com, ramkumarbathina@gmail.com, krraocse@gmail.com
Abstract—Traditional approaches to document classification require labeled data in order to construct
reliable and accurate classifiers. Unfortunately, labeled data are seldom available, and often too
expensive to obtain. Given a learning task for which training data are not available, abundant labeled data
may exist for a different but related domain. One would like to use the related labeled data as auxiliary
information to accomplish the classification task in the target domain. Recently, the paradigm of transfer
learning has been introduced to enable effective learning strategies when auxiliary data obey a different
probability distribution. A co-clustering based classification algorithm has been previously proposed to
tackle cross-domain text classification. In this work, we extend the idea underlying this approach by
making the latent semantic relationship between the two domains explicit. This goal is achieved with the
use of Wikipedia. As a result, the pathway that allows propagating labels between the two domains not
only captures common words, but also semantic concepts based on the content of documents. We
empirically demonstrate the efficacy of our semantic-based approach to cross-domain classification using
a variety of real data.
Keywords: Clustering, Cluster Analysis, Co-clustering, Labelled data, Wikipedia

Analysis of Image Quality Using


Quantitative Methods
1 2 3 4
Shruthi T.V., Ramyashree N, Pavithra P. and Kamalam Balasubramani
1
Lecturer, East West College of Engineering, Bangalore, India
2
Ms. Ramyashree N, NMIT, Bangalore, India
3
Lecturer, Reva Institute of Technology, Bangalore, India
shruthi16srini@gmail.com, ramya.vijaykrishna@gmail.com
4
Assistant Professor, Atria Institute of Technology, Bangalore, India
E-mail: shruthi16srini@gmail.com, ramya.vijaykrishna@gmail.com,
pavithraperumal@gmail.com, Kamalam_b@yahoo.com
Abstract—Image quality metrics is an important tool to assess images that aims at quantification of
image quality.
The goal of research in objective image quality assessment is to identify quantitative measures that
can automatically predict perceived image quality. An objective image quality metric can play a variety
of roles in image processing applications. First, it can be used to dynamically monitor and adjust image
quality. Second, it can be used to optimize algorithms and parameter settings of image processing
systems. Third, it can be used to benchmark image processing systems and algorithms. In this paper, a
study is made in identification of objective image quality metrics for different applications and their
response towards the application.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 59


The paper addresses the following issues:
• Quality metrics that assess a single image quality
• Quality metrics that assess quality of an image processed by an algorithm that takes single input
and gives out single output image
• Quality metrics that assess quality of an image processed by an algorithm that takes multiple
input and gives out single output image
Keywords: Quality Metrics, Image Enhancement, Image Fusion

Administrative Office Content Management


via Semantic Web–A Case Study
Dr. Sanjay K. Dwivedi and Anand Kumar
Department of Computer Science, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University
Vidya Vihar, Raebareli Road, Lucknow–226025, India
E-mail: skd200@yahoo.com, anand_smsvns@yahoo.co.in
Abstract—Office Content Management Systems in an administrative office at paperless environment is
very complex to manage the files or documents of various departments and sections, where is increasing
the numbers of paper, cost of paper and overload to carry tons of paper and secure files overnight. The
proposed framework provides a value-added semantics layer where various activities such as annotation,
querying, reasoning and delivering the claim files and documents can be carried out to support
management requirements. The objective of this work is to semantically connect the various departments
and sections to provide support to paperless environment on the integrated platform. In this paper, We
discuss the development of Semantic Web based framework with a case study of a typical administration
of higher educational institutes and universities, to show how semantic web technologies can be
employed on administration to build up a paperless environment for enhanced office content management
system.
Keywords: Workflow of Administration; Semantic Web; Web Technology; CMS; Dublin Core
Metadata Initiative [DCMI]; Semantic Desktop.

Time Synchronization
in Heterogeneous Sensor Networks
1 2
Md. Rahmathulla and Mr. R. Raja Sekhar
1
Associate Professor, K.S.R.M.C.E, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India
2
Assistant Professor, JNTUA, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India
E-mail: mdrahmathulla@yahoo.co.in
Abstract—A Wireless sensor networks[1] is comprised of a large number of sensors that are scattered
over a region. Sensor networks are a special type of ad hoc networks, where wireless devices(nodes) get
together and spontaneous form a network. Sensor Networks have their own characteristics such as very
limited energy sources, high density of node deployment and cheap and unreliable sensor nodes. These
networks are used for various applications such as residence, industry, military, and many others. Time
synchronization in a computer network aims to provide a common timescale for local clocks of nodes in
the network. Several time synchronization algorithms (Reference Broadcast synchronization (RBS)[2],

60 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


Time-Sync Protocol for sensor networks(TPSN)[3], Flooding time synchronization protocol(FTSP)[4]
have been proposed for sensor networks. However these schemes are designed for homogeneous sensor
networks(purely static clustering) and may incur large communication/computation overhead or my
cause accumulated synchronization error. A new efficient and effective time synchronization scheme for
HSN which has better accuracy and much less communication overhead then existing schemes.
Keywords: Reference Broadcast synchronization (RBS), Time-Sync Protocol for sensor
networks(TPSN), Flooding time synchronization protocol(FTSP), Clustered Sensor Networks;
Homogeneous Sensor Networks, Heterogeneous Sensor Networks (HSN);

Secure Integration of Private Data


1 2
K.V. Phani Kumar, B. Ramesh Babu and M. Sudhir
1
Student, CSE Department, KL University, Guntur, India
2
Asst. Professor, CSE Department, KL University, Guntur, India
3
Student, CSE Department, K L University, Guntur, India
E-mailL phani.Karumanchi@gmail.com, ramsbattula@gmail.com, msudhir24@gmail.com
Abstract—Data holders such as hospitals, banks having sensible information want to develop an
application by combining the information present in two databases, while integrating the information
present in the two databases, the information that is kept as private is revealed that is privacy is lost for
sensible information. In this paper we propose a securely integrating private data (SIP) algorithm to
securely integrate the private information present in more than one database, the resultant data (i.e.
integrate information) contain the essential information for data mining tasks.
Keywords: Privacy, K-anonymity, Generalization, Taxonomy tree, Specialization.

User Controlled Inter-Domain Routing Architecture


1 2
G. Zabeen Taj and G. Prakash Babu
1
Dept of Computer Science, Intell Engg. College, Anantapur (AP), India
2
Dept of Computer Science, Intell Engg. College, Anantapur (AP), India
E-mail: taj.zabeen@gmail.com, prakash_g27@gmail.com
Abstract—In today’s Internet, users can choose their local Internet service providers (ISPs), but once their
packets have entered the network, they have little control over the overall routes heir packets take. Giving a user
the ability to choose between provider-level routes has the potential of fostering ISP competition to offer
enhanced service and improving end-to-end performance and reliability. This paper presents the design
and evaluation of User Controlled Internet Routing Architecture (UCIRA) that gives a user the ability to
choose the sequence of providers his packets take. UCIRA addresses a broad range of issues, including
practical provider compensation, scalable route discovery, efficient route representation, fast route fail-
over, and security. UCIRA supports user choice without running a global link-state routing protocol. It
breaks an end- to-end route into a sender part and a receiver part and uses address assignment to represent
each part. A user can pecify a route with only a source and a destination address, and switch routes by
switching addresses. We evaluate UCIRA using a combination of network measurement, simulation, and
analysis. Our evaluation shows that UCIRA supports user choice with low overhead.
Keywords: User Controlled internet,Tipp,Scalability.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 61


A Novel Framework for Selective Encryption
of MPEG-2 Video
Chittaranjan Pradhan and Mukut Roy
School of Computer Engineering, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, India–751024
E-mail: chitaprakash@gmail.com, mukutroy@gmail.com
Abstract—Rising popularity of internet technology, driven by the new technological improvements, has
opened up some very popular internet applications like Video on Demand, Internet TV, Video
Conferencing, Telemedicine etc. But the unwanted third party, adversary can have access the content if
there is no security. Therefore, the security and privacy of the video content is major concern in last
decade. Many encryption algorithms have been proposed. But, lack of application friendliness limits
those algorithm form practical implementation. In this paper, we have proposed one framework to
address such application requirements. Achieving efficiency and more application friendly with different
security requirement encryption algorithm is a challenge of researchers.
Keywords: Selective Video Encryption, RVEA, VEA, MVEA,

Efficient Dynamic Search Algorithm


for Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks
1 2
S.Vijaya and S.Vasundara
1
M.Tech Student, Department of CSE, JNTU Anantapur, A.P., India
2
Associate Professor, Department of CSE, JNTU Anantapur, A.P., India
E-mail: vshabada@yahoo.com, vasundras@rediffmail.com
Abstract—Designing an efficient search algorithm is a key challenge in unstructured peer-to-peer
networks. Flooding and Random Walk are two typical search algorithms. Flooding searches aggressively
and covers the most area of the network in short span of time. While Random Walk search takes a
considerable time and may miss some part of the network. But flooding consumes more network and
node resources while Random Walk consume lesser. Both have their own pros and cons. We Propose a
Dynamic search algorithm that utilizes the merits of both the algorithms and minimize the demerits. Our
proposed Dynamic Search algorithm is an optimal solution to achieve better search and preserve the
network and node resources.
Keywords: Unstructured peer-to-peer networks, Search algorithms, Flooding, Random Walk

62 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


SVM Identify Handwritten and Type Character
with Small and Capital Character
1 2
Abha Suryavanshi and Er. Niranjan Singh
1
M.Tech (CSE) NRI Bhopal Bhopal, (M.P.) India
2
M.Tech (CSE) Bhopal, (M.P.) India
E-mail: abha_suryavanshi15@yahoo.co.i, enggniranjan@gmail.com
Abstract—A handwritten character is represented as a sequence of strokes whose features are extracted
and classified. Support vector machines have been used for constructing the stroke recognition engine.
The results have been presented after testing the system on text scripts. Optical Character Recognition
(OCR) refers to the process of converting printed text documents into software translated Text. The
printed documents available in the form of books, papers, magazines, etc. are scanned using standard
scanners which produce an image of the scanned document. The preprocessed image is segmented using
an algorithm which decomposes the scanned text into paragraphs using special space detection technique
and then the paragraphs into lines using vertical histograms, and lines into words using horizontal
histograms, and words into character image glyphs using horizontal histograms. Each image glyph is
comprised of 24×42 pixels. Thus a database of character image glyphs is created out of the segmentation
phase. Then all the image glyphs are considered for recognition using mapping. Each image glyph is
passed through various routines which extractthe features of the glyph. The various features that are
considered for classification are the character height, character width, the number of horizontal lines
(long and short), the number of vertical lines (long and short), the horizontally oriented curves, the
vertically oriented curves, the number of circles, number of slope lines, image centroid and special dots.
The glyphs are now set ready for classification based on these features. The extracted features are passed
to a Support Vector Machine (SVM) where the characters are classified by Supervised Learning
Algorithm.
These classes are mapped onto for recognition. Then the text is reconstructed using fonts.
Keywords: OCR, Features, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Artificial Neural Networks,
Handwritten Character

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 63


COMMUNICATION
Maximizing Strength and Performance
by Manually Designed Biquad Antenna
1 2
Vrushali V. Kadu and V.A. Gulhane
1
M.E IV Semester (Wireless Communication & Computing),
Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
G.H. Raisoni College of Engineering Nagpur, India
2
Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
G.H. Raisoni College of Engineering Nagpur, India
E-mail: sparkvru@gmail.com, vinagulhane@gmail.com
Abstract—Wi-Fi is a fantastic new gadget, but its reach is only about 50 to 100 meters. Fortunately it is
possible to build our own antenna cheaply (less than 10 US dollars) in an hour or two. Now a day, more
individuals, businesses and local governments are enjoying wireless internet access proliferating Wi-Fi
hotspots, home, office, and public wireless networks. However, Wi-Fi users are rarely completely
satisfied with the signal strength offered by the off the shelf Wi-Fi cards, routers, access points and USB
adapters. Compounding to the coverage problems, many locate their routers, access points or desktop Wi-
Fi cards in a closet, against the wall or under a desk, diminishing signal strength and limiting bandwidth.
This research paper includes the steps for the Biquad antenna construction, requirements and software
testing of antenna on desktop to check the signal strength at various locations in campus area.

Design and Implementation of Multistandard


Digital Filter Using FPGA
Bhanu A. and Latha R.
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineeering, Kumaraguru College of Technology
PB No 2034, Coimbatore—641006, Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: bhanu.hari@gmail.com and lathar_26@rediffmail.com
Abstract—Recent efforts in the design of wireless RF transceivers focus on high integration and multi-
standard operation. At the back of a wide-dynamic range sigma-delta modulator, a decimation filter can
select a desired channel in the presence of both strong adjacent channel interference and quantization
noise from the digitization process. The decimation filters are important block in devices to establish
communication using different standards. This paper addresses usage of Cascaded Integrated Comb Filter
(CIC) and Half Band Filter (HB) as the decimation filter to reduce the implementation step to realize the
design in hardware. Low power design for CIC filter and HB filter will be implemented. Unlike the
existing decimation filters, the filter architecture is designed using Canonical Signed Digit representation
(CSD) and Minimum Signed Digit representation (MSD). It is suitable for common sub expression
elimination, and it significantly reduces the number of adders required for the filter synthesis. The
proposed architecture fulfils the requirements of three standards: Wi-max, UMTS and GSM.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 67


FPGA Based Convolutional Encoder
and Viterbi Decoder
Sankari K.N. and Mohana Geetha D.
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineeering,
Kumaraguru College of Technology PB No 2034, Coimbatore—641006, Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: sankari_me@yahoo.com, mohanageetha@yahoo.com
Abstract—Convolutional codes are widely used in many digital communication systems for increasing
the reliability of transmission due to fact that they have regular trellis structure. These codes are designed
to detect and correct some of the occurred errors with reliable data transfer. Viterbi Algorithm is a
decoding algorithm for convolutional codes. For Viterbi Decoder, high throughput is achieved by
applying look - ahead technique in Add - Compare - Select (ACS) unit, which is the system speed bottle
neck. As the look - ahead level increases, the Branch Metric Precomputation (BMP) dominates the
complexity and delay of the architecture. So, the optimal branch metric computation scheme is employed
so that minimal complexity and latency can be achieved. Here, the layered architecture other than the
look - ahead is proposed for reducing the latency at low complexity. The design is implemented in
VHDL (Very high speed integrated circuits Hardware Description Language) and logic simulation is
done using Modelsim XE III 6.2g and synthesis is done using Xilinx ISE 9.2i.

Point to Multipoint Communication in Mobile


Adhoc Devices using Bluetooth
J. Praveen Kumar
Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
Anna University of Technology Tiruchirappalli, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: jpraveenkumar5288@gmail.com
Abstract—Bluetooth is one of the standards for wireless communication. Communication between two
bluetooth enabled devices can be done easily and in secure manner. Bluetooth offers reliable point to
point communication links which transfer the data from one device to another device. In this paper the
structure of the network is designed, which enables quite large data transmission between one Multipoint
Control Unit and many movable slave stations (point to multipoint network). It also gives an overview of
Bluetooth and examines the easy way to produce point to multipoint communication.

68 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


CAMSHIFT Object Tracking Algorithm Based
on Inter-Frame Differences for Noise Removal
1 2 3
P. Rayavel G. Appasami and R. Nakeeran
1 2 3
PG Student, Department of Computer Science Engineering, Lecturer, Professor, Department of
Computer Science Engineering, Dr. Pauls Engineering College, Vanur, Villupuram, India
E-mail: rayavel@gmail.com appas_5g@gmail.com sughandhiram@yahoo.com
Abstract—CAMSHIFT is a tracking algorithm, which needs tracking target to be calibrated
automatically, and can only track one single target at a time. Aiming at these problems, this paper
proposes a human/object tracking approach based on method and CAMSHIFT algorithm. The algorithm
developed here is based on a robust nonparametric technique for climbing density gradients to find the
mode (peak) of probability distributions called the mean shift algorithm. In our case, we want to find the
mode of a color distribution within a video scene. Therefore, the mean shift algorithm is modified to deal
with dynamically changing color probability distributions derived from video frame sequences. The
Continuously Adaptive Mean Shift Algorithm (CAMSHIFT) is an adaptation of the Mean Shift
algorithm for object tracking that is intended as a step towards moving tracking for a perceptual user
interface. In this paper, we review the CAMSHIFT Algorithm and extend a default implementation to
allow tracking in an arbitrary number and type of feature spaces. We evaluate the effectiveness of this
approach by comparing the results with a generic implementation of the Mean Shift algorithm in a
quantized feature space of equivalent dimension. We also intend to apply this CAMSHIFT algorithm to
moving object such as Vehicle, person, ball or any moving object and to track the object based on Region
of Interest (ROI) through wireless vision approach. In this project we concentrate on the noise removal
i.e., shadows of the images such that no better tracking can be attained.

Secure Approach towards Wormhole Attack


in Ad-hoc Network
1 2
N.S. Raote and K.N. Hande
1 2
M.E. IV Semester [Wireless Communication & Computing] Assistant Professor,
Computer Science & Engg. Dept, Nagpur University, G.H. Raisoni College of Engg. Nagpur, India
E-mail: n.raote@yahoomail.com, kapilhande@gmail.com
Abstract—In ad-hoc networks the need for cooperation among nodes to relay each other’s packets
exposes them to a wide range of security attacks. The most devastating attack is known as the wormhole
attack, in which two or more malicious colluding nodes create a higher level virtual tunnel in the
network, which is employed to transport packets at one location in the network Where the adversary
records transmitted packets at one location, and retransmit them into the network.Even if all
communication provides authenticity and confidentiality, the wormhole attack is possible. In this paper
we provide a countermeasure for wormhole attack, which does not require specialized hardware.Our
solution allows detection of wormhole, followed by the procedure to tackle the behaviour of malicious
node.This approach uses the multipath concept, it also uses the cryptographic method so that the dynamic
modification of the packet should not be possible and to give more robust protection in special scenario
which needs highly secured environment.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 69


FPGA Implementation of Digital Front End QAM
Modulator for OFDM Transceiver
1
K. Anitha and 2A. Parimala
1
Senior Lecturer of Electronics and Communication Eng, Arunai Engineering college,
Thiruvannamalai
2
PG Student, M.E (Applied Electronics), Arunai Engineering College, Thiruvannamalai
E-mails: anitha16ramesh@yahoo.co.in, parimala.ruth@gmail.com
Abstract—The orthogonal frequency division multiplexing(OFDM)in parallel with FPGA has gained an
advantage in the high data rate transmission and system performance along with the application in the
field of wired and wireless system. The proposed design includes the higher level of modulation
techniques such as 256 QAM instead of BPSK AND QPSK techniques which leads to the increase in the
data rate beyond 52Mbps which was implemented in the last generation. The resource utilization is
greatly reduced when operated at the frequency of 104.45 Mhz. The whole OFDM transceiver system
was implemented in the pure VHDL design and tested on Quartus II software.

Novel Approach Based Coverage Repair in Clustered


Wireless Sensor Networks
1
J. Naskath and 2K.G. Srinivasagan
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, National Engineering College,
K.R.Nagar, Kovilpatti–628503, Tuticorin (DT), Tamilnadu, India
E-mail: nash_naskath@yahoo.com
Abstract—Wireless sensor networks constitute the platform of a broad range of applications related to
national security, surveillance, military, health care, and environmental monitoring. The coverage
problem for wireless sensor network (WSN) has been studied extensively in recent years, especially
when combined with connectivity and energy efficiency. This paper focuses on the sensor replacement
problem in wireless sensor networks composed of mobile and static sensors. Mobility equipped mobile
sensors are utilized to recover and maintain the overall coverage and connectivity. Unlike existing
solution making assumptions of precise location information. The proposed fault repair solution does not
assume the localization information is available. Mobile sensor nodes make use of simple geometric
operation to locate and replace dying nodes to recover or increase the existing coverage and connectivity.
A self configuring Deployment algorithm for mobile sensor network is proposed.

70 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


A Bio-Inspired Adaptable Network Implemented
With Stilted Molecule
ArunKumar U. and Roopa Sriram
Sree Sastha Institute of Engineering and Technology, Chennai
E-mail: arunumapathy@yahoo.co.in, roopa.sriram@rediffmail.com
Abstract—This paper mainly focuses on creating an artificial network on a bio-inspired hardware. We
contribute our work towards a network system which it can adapt itself for an updating environment. We
inspired on a bio-inspired network and we thought of adding portability for the network ports. Most of
the bio-inspired are adaptable for damage cell which is known as self-repairing but not the port
adaptability, thus we create a design which can allow change in port.We use reduced stilted molecule in
the design for a specified task which often carried out by the any network layer. The “Stilted” pretends
Artificial Character in the DNA sequence of an organism. In the living organism the biological network,
which has been evolving for millions and millions of year follows some complicated method for
communicating the data with the brain from the organism. Here the same concept is used for a nonliving
artificial network. We have used a state method to exhibit functional ability of our design. Further a
connection is establish between two device is also stimulated using Xlinx tool and model simulator. Here
we are forced to answer for a question which doubts about the adaptability and extendibility of the
circuit. We offer an answer that a multileveled stilted may be used for the enrichment of network
connection. The preference may be given based on the data, mode and devices to be connected
The purpose of this chapter is to evoke the idea of living organism in simplified terms.

Design of Parallel Multiplier


with Low Power Adder Units
1 2
S.P. Prakash and P. Malarmathi
1
ECE Department, Anna University,
Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, Tamilnadu, India
2
ECE Department, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, Tamilnadu, India
E-mail: eieprakash@gmail.com, malarmathiperumal@gmail.com
Abstract—Design of portable battery operated multimedia devices requires energy-efficient
multiplication circuits. Multiplication is an expensive and time consuming operation. The performance of
many computational problems is dominated by the speed at which a multiplication operation can be
executed. Parallel multiplier with bypassing technique is used to reduce power consumed by the
multiplier. Multipliers are in effect of complex adder Arrays. The adders present in the multiplier are
used to add the partial products and produce the result. By using row bypassing technique the average
power consumed by array multiplier with conventional FAD, XNOR based FAD and XNM based FA is
designed and average power consumption is analyzed. It is observed that the power is reduced by 31.17%
using XNOR FAD and by 31.06% using XNM FAD compared to the conventional FAD. By using
column bypassing technique the average power consumption is reduced by 31.02% using XNOR FAD
and by 25.26% using XNM FAD compared to the conventional FAD. Thus average power consumption
is further reduced when using column bypass technique. Circuit is drawn using S-Edit and simulation is
performed using T-Spice in Tanner 12.0. The power results are compared and plotted using Matlab.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 71


Combined Source and Channel Coding for Image
Transmission Using Turbo Decoding Algorithms
1 2 3
T. Gnanasekaran, P. Sivaselvi and D.V. Soundari
1,3
ECE Department, Anna University,
Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, Tamilnadu, India
2
ECE Department, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, Tamilnadu, India
E-mail: t.gnanasekaran@gmail.com, psivaselvi23@gmail.com, soundaridv@gmail.com
Abstract—The transmission of any signal gets corrupted due to noise and interference present in the
channel. In order to retrieve the original information from the corrupted signal various channel coding
techniques are proposed. Among these Turbo codes are recommended, because of increased capacity at
higher transmission rates and superior performance over convolutional codes. Turbo codes are suitable
for protecting multimedia signals, since they are characterized by a large amount of data. Turbo decoder
employs the log Maximum a-posteriori Probability (MAP) decoding algorithm. The traditional Turbo
code system uses Equal Error Protection (EEP) which gives equal importance to the entire message or
data. But in some applications, Unequal Error Protection (UEP) can be used, in which the important
message bits are more protected than the other message bits. In this work, BER performance of UEP in
AWGN and fading channel are analyzed for an image with DCT as source coding technique. This paper
shows the performance of log MAP, Modified log MAP (MlogMAP) and Enhanced log MAP
(ElogMAP) algorithms used for image transmission. The model for Turbo encoder is also implemented.

Implementation of Systolic Matrix Multiplication


on FPGA
1 2
G.C. Veeresh and Mahesha M.S.
1
1st Year M. Tech-VLSI Design & Embedded System,
VTU Extension Centre, UTL Technologies LTD., 19/6 Ashokpuram School Road, Industrial
Suburb, Yeshwanthpur, Bangalore Karnataka, India
2
BE-Electronics and Communication, PES College of Engineering, Mandya Karnataka, India
E-mail: veeru_gc89@rediffmail.com, maheshams1@gmail.com
Abstract—Matrix multiplication is a computationally intensive and fundamental matrix operation in
many algorithms used in scientific computations. It serves as the basic building block for signal, image
processing, graphics and robotic applications. To improve the performance of these applications, a high
performance matrix multiplier is required. Traditionally, matrix multiplication operation is either realized
as software running on fast processors or on dedicated hardware. Software based matrix multiplication is
slow and can become a bottleneck in the overall system operation. However, Field Programmable Gate
Array (FPGA) based design of matrix multiplier provides a significant speed-up in computation time and
flexibility. The main aim of this paper is focus on FPGA based hardware realization of matrix
multiplication based on a parallel architecture. The used parallel architecture employs advanced design
techniques and exploits architectural features of FPGA. One such efficient parallel array is Systolic array.
Systolic Arrays for matrix multiplication, as much as the corresponding hardware implementation is
investigated. The selected platform is a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) device since, in systolic
computing, FPGAs can be used as dedicated computers in order to perform certain computations at very
high frequencies. The description language used as an entry tool to model the hardware architecture is
VHDL (Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language).

72 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


High Fault Coverage in SRAM-Based FPGA
Using BIST Technique
Chandra Mohan Gupta V. and Meenakshi Vidya P.
Department of ECE, Easwari Engineering College, Chennai, India
E-mail: vchmohangupta@gmail.com, meenakshi_vidya@yahoo.com
Abstract—BIST is a design technique that allows a circuit to test itself. The technique can provide
shorter test time compared to an externally applied test and allows the use of low-cost test equipment
during all stages of production. The use of field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to implement
complex logic functions in digital applications has become increasingly common. FPGAs are regular
structures of logic modules that communicate through an interconnected architecture of lines and
switches. The logic modules and the interconnect structures are programmed to select a particular
function of each logic module and specific interconnect paths to realize the global function of the FPGA.
This proposed work presents a built-in self-test (BIST) design for fault detection and fault diagnosis of
static-RAM (SRAM)-based field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The FPGA BIST structure can test
both the interconnect resources and lookup tables (LUTs) in the configurable logic blocks (CLBs). The
test pattern generator and output response analyzer are configured by existing CLBs in FPGAs; thus, no
extra area overhead is needed for the BIST structure. The target fault detection/diagnosis of the BIST
structure are open/short, bridging faults and delay faults in the wire channels, stuck on/off faults in PSs,
and stuck-at-0/1 faults in LUTs.

Low Power High Speed Multiplier


Venkatesh Kolli and Meenakshi Vidya P.
Department of ECE, Easwari Engineering College, Chennai, India
E-mail: kolli.venkatesh@yahoo.com, meenakshi_vidya@yahoo.com
Abstract—a multiplier is one of the key hardware blocks in most digital and high performance systems
such as FIR filters, digital signal processors and microprocessors etc. Multiplier is such an important
element which contributes substantially to the total power consumption of the system. On VLSI level, the
area also becomes quite important as more area means more system cost. Speed is a key parameter while
designing a multiplier for a specific Application. These three parameters i.e. power, area and speed are
always traded off. Speaking of DSP processors, area and speed are the most important factors. But
sometimes, increasing speed also increases the power consumption, so there is an upper bound of speed
for a given power criteria. Considering the battery operated portable multimedia devices, low power and
fast designs of multipliers are more important than area. Generally as we know multiplication goes in two
basic steps, Partial product and then addition. Hence in this paper we have first tried to design ripple
carry adder and carry select adder and compare their speed and complexity of circuit i.e. the area
occupied. While comparing the adders we found out that Ripple Carry Adder had a smaller area while
having lesser speed, in contrast to which Carry Select Adders are high speed but posses a larger area. The
result is a completely synthesized Efficient 8-by-8 shift and adds multiplier with low power and low area
compared to the low power structure called bypass zero, feed a directly (BZ-FAD) TECHNIQUE of
shift-and-add multipliers. The simulation result for 8 bit multipliers shows that the proposed low power
architecture lowers the total power consumption by 51.11% when compared to the conventional
architecture.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 73


Speckle Reduction and 3D Volume Evaluation
of 2D Ultrasound Images
1 2
V. Kumutha and K.Sumathi
1
Communication Systems, Sri Sai Ram Engineering, College, Chennai–600044, TamilNadu, India
2
Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engineering, Sri Sai Ram Engineering, College,
Chennai–600044, Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: kumuthavelavar@gmail.com, ksumathi_0409@yahoo.co.in
Abstract—In recent decades, Ultrasound imaging has got its widespread use. The most important
underpinning technologies include transducers, beam forming, pulse compression, tissue harmonic
imaging, and techniques for measuring blood flow and tissue motion. However, using ultrasound images
for diagnosis for volume measurement is difficult. This process has to be automated and a guideline for
the physician to give the approximate volume will be more useful in making the diagnoses. Speckle is
caused by the ultrasound pulse passes through an interface at a relatively small angle (between the beam
direction and interface surface); the penetrating pulse direction will be shifted by the refraction process.
The ultrasound images can’t be directly used due to the existence of speckle which degrades spatial and
contrast resolution and obscures the underlying anatomy. It makes human interpretation and computer-
assisted detection techniques difficult and inconsistent. It has become a great challenge to reduce the
speckle. To initiate, a Curvelet based Denoising Algorithm for Ultrasound Image will be implemented
and it can be compared with other techniques. For volume extraction, we need to convert the 2D
ultrasound images into 3D image. First of all the 3D points cloud should be determined from the
ultrasound image. This can be done by various techniques including a numerical interpolation algorithm
to achieve those points. From a selected 3D point, the multiple-direction 3D recursive algorithm is used
to decide the interested related points surround it. This constitute volume calibration, seed point
determination and calculation of the related points of the interested area. The volume calculation is done
for the region of interest by approximating the shape of the region of interest to a known, regular shape. It
can be simulated efficiently in a MATLAB environment.

An Efficient VLSI Architecture for 3-D Discrete


Wavelet Transform Using Folding Technique
1 2
N. Vinod Kumar and V.R. Saraswathy
1 2
II-ME (VLSI Design) Assistant Professor, Department of ECE,
Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode, Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: vinod_narayanappa@yahoo.com, msaraswathy@gmail.com
Abstract—This paper proposes Efficient Folded Architecture (EFA) based running 3-D Discrete
Wavelet Transform (DWT), which is a powerful image and video compression. The proposed design is a
complete 3-D DWT architecture without the restriction on the number of pictures in group. The EFA is
based on a novel form of the lifting scheme. Due to this EFA, the conventional serial operations of lifting
data flow can be optimized by employing parallel and pipeline techniques. The proposed architecture
possesses better performances in critical path latency, operating frequency and control complexity.

74 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


Analysis of Fiber Nonlinearity for Various Power
Levels of Individual Channels in DWDM System
1 2 3
T. Sabapathi, S. Sundaravadivelu and M. Ganesh Babu
1
Assitant Professor, Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi, Tamil Nadu, India
2
Professor/ECE Dept, S.S.N College of Engineering, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
3
M.E. Student, Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi, Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: sabapathi@mepcoeng.ac.in, sundaravadivelus@sssn.edu.in, ganshbabu87@gmail.com
Abstract—Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) effect is one of the Non linear effects in Dense
Wavelength Division Multiplexed (DWDM) Fiber Optic Communication System. The effect of
Stimulated Raman Scattering causes power to be transferred from the lower wavelength channel to the
higher wavelength channel. This will reduce the Optical Signal to Noise Ratio (OSNR) for the high
frequency channel or low wavelength channel. SRS effect is studied for different input power and for
different number of wavelengths. SRS effect could be reduced by setting optimum optical power in the
fiber. 32-Channel DWDM system for various power levels of individual channels is stimulated in the
sample mode of OPTSIM software for getting the effects of SRS like Power Tilt in the optical spectrum,
after the fiber.

Performance Analysis of Scheduling


Algorithms in IEEE 802.16e
1 2 3 4
Gnanasekaran T., Kadhambari T., Rajarajachozhan C. and Kanagasundaram K.
1
Professor, Department of ECE, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology,
Sathyamangalam, Tamil Nadu, India
2
PG student, Department of ECE, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology,
Sathyamangalam, Tamil Nadu, India
3
Lecturer, Department of ECE, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology,
Sathyamangalam, Tamil Nadu, India
4
Ericsson India Private Limited, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
E-mail: t.gnanasekaran@gmail.com, kadhamk28@gmail.com,
c.chozhan@gmail.com, kksundaram73@gmail.com
Abstract—In this paper, we analyze different scheduling algorithms used for allocation of packets in
mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e). The algorithms used for analysis are Earliest Deadline First (EDF),
Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) and Weighted Round Robin (WRR). The experiment is carried out on
scheduling services namely real Time Polling service (rtPS), non-real time Polling Service (nrtPS),
extended real time Polling Service (ertPS) and best effort (BE) with throughput and delay as QoS
parameters. From the analysis, it is clear that WRR algorithm does not assure proper throughput and
delay. EDF is the most suitable algorithm for VoIP traffic and other real-time applications and WFQ
gives high average throughput which is most important for non-real time applications like FTP.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 75


Design and Power Analysis OF SPST Equipped
VMFU and H.264 Codec
V. Manimekalai and M. Shanthi
Department of ECE, Kumaraguru College of Technology,
Anna University, Coimbatore-106, Tamilnadu, India
E-mail: manimekalai_21@yahoo.co.in, mshanthi_ece@gmail.com
Abstract—Multimedia and DSP applications have been adopted in all wireless environments and hence
dedicated low power VLSI designs become more important to prolong the operating time of the portable
electrical devices. This paper presents a low power VLSI technique called Spurious Power Suppression
Technique (SPST) and its application for efficient multi transform coding design (ETD) for H.264 and a
versatile multimedia functional unit (VMFU). The proposed SPST technique separates the design of 16
bit adder/subtractor used in these two applications into two parts namely most significant part (MSP) and
least significant part (LSP). The MSP is turned off whenever it does not affect the computation result.
Turning off MSP avoids unnecessary signal transitions and helps to save power. The design is
implemented in VHDL (Very high speed integrated circuits Hardware Description Language) and logic
simulation is done using Modelsim XE III 6.2g and synthesis is done using Xilinx ISE 9.2i. The VMFU
and ETD are implemented with SPST based arithmetic circuits and also with conventional arithmetic
units. Power comparison is made and it is found that SPST based design resulted in less power
consumption.

An Efficient Multistage Decimation Filter Design


based on Residue Number System
R. Venkata Krishnan and R. Latha
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering,
Kumaraguru College of Technology, Anna university-Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India
E-mail: rvenki4u@gmail.com, lathar_26@rediffmail.com
Abstract—In recent days, the use of efficient digital filter in wireless application is increasing because of
the speed of conversion, fast performance, less hardware and less power consumption. The decimation
filter provides all the above objectives. This paper presents a multistage, programmable decimation filter
based on Residue Number System (RNS) that is adaptable for GSM standard. Multi-stage decimation
filter implementation offers low computational complexity and power dissipation. The FIR filters of the
multi-stage decimator operating in RNS domain offers an integer system appropriate for implementing
fast digital signal processors. It also offers high data rate because of carry free operations on smaller
residues in parallel channels. Finally, the computational complexity comparisons are performed based on
the results from simulation of the proposed RNS based decimation filter with traditional binary one.

76 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


A Noval Approach on Multicast Algorithms
for Multi-Radio Wireless Ad hoc Networks
1 2
V. Tamilarasi and S. Sivakumar
1
M.E (Applied Electronics), Arunai Engineering College, Thiruvannamalai
2
Research Scholar, Anna University, Chennai
E-mail: tamtrue19@gmail.com, sivakumar_aec@yahoo.com
Abstract—Multicast plays an important role in implementing the group communications in bandwidth
scarce multi hop wireless ad hoc networks. This noval approach proposes multicast algorithms such as
Level channel assignment algorithm (LCA), Multichannel multicast algorithm (MCM) and hybrid mode
multicast algorithm to optimize the throughput, network capacity and network life time for multi-radio
and multi-interface wireless ad hoc networks. The proposed multicast algorithms use dedicated channel
assignment strategies which exploit both orthogonal and partially overlapping channels in order to solve
some objective function such as maximizing network throughput or minimizing interference. The hybrid
mode multicast algorithm can further improve the throughput by combining the advantages of both LCA
and MCM algorithms. Simulations show that the proposed algorithms exhibit superior performance
characteristics over the single-channel multicast algorithm.

Lowpower Implementation of 10-BIT Flash


ADC in 90nm CMOS Technology
Akhila Mohan
Electronics& Communication Department,
Anna University Tiruchirappalli, PSNACET, Dindigul, Tamilnadu, India
E-mail: akhilam86@gmail.com
Abstract—In this new design of flash ADC the power consumption and area is get minimized. The new
10 bit flash analog to digital converter uses minimum no of comparators in its architecture. Here the
proposed system uses only 10 comparators and 9 multiplexers to generate the required binary code while
the traditional one uses 63 comparators. In traditional ones the power and complexity increases
proportionally with the resolution. Here this problem will not arise. The maximum sampling speed is
1GHz and the analog supply voltage is only 1.2V in proposed flash ADC. The flash ADC is designed
using 90nm cmos technology which helps to reduce the overall area of the design, is a promising design
techqnique in VLSI field.The tool used for the design is schematic layout editor.The main concern of this
paper is to reduce the power consumption for flash ADC to be suitable for usage in low voltage
applications. This design can be extended to high resolution applications because of the simplicity of the
circuit.The flash ADC have received a great interest in digital signal processing and communication field
since they offer a high sampling frequency and a high conversion speed because of its fully parallel
architecture.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 77


Low Complexity and Low Power Digit
Serial Systolic Multiplier
1 2
K. Archana and R. Senthamizh Selvi
1
VLSI Design, Department of ECE, Easwari Engineering College,
Anna University, Chennai, India
2
Department of ECE, Easwari Engineering College, Anna University, Chennai, India
E-mail: archana.kulandai@gmail.com, sachin92k4@yahoo.com
Abstract—Galois field arithmetic finds widespread applications in the fields of public key cryptography
and error correcting coding. It spreads through the areas of mathematics and computer science including
coding theory, LFSRs, combinatronics, cryptology and the mathematical study of switching circuits.
Therefore, an efficient design of multiplication architecture over GF (2m) is essential to implement
cryptosystems. This paper presents digit-serial systolic multiplication architecture for polynomials over
GF (2m) for efficient implementation of Montgomery Multiplication (MM) Algorithm suited for
cryptosystems. A digit serial systolic multiplier based on MM algorithm for polynomials over GF (2m)
with low complexity is developed. Analysis shows that the latency and circuit complexity of the
proposed architectures are significantly less than those of earlier designs for same classes of polynomials.
Features of regularity, modularity and unidirectional data flow exist for the digit serial systolic multiplier
thereby suiting VLSI implementations. The proposed multiplier maintains clock cycle latency of (2N-1)
where N=m/L, m is the word size and L is the digit size. Power is reduced using pipelining technique and
also computational delay time gets reduced.

An Enhanced Traffic Less Cooperative Proxy Caching


V. Krishna Kumar and P.S. Prakash
Department of Computer Science and Engineering (PG),
Sri Ramakrishna Engineering College, Coimbatore–641022, India
E-mail: krish232007@gmail.com, prakashpsrajan@rediffmail.com
Abstract—Cooperative proxy caching method have been proposed for reduce the burden produced by
P2P traffic on Internet Service Providers (ISPs).In this paper, we propose two models for cooperative
proxy caching of P2P traffic. The first model enables cooperation among caches in different autonomous
systems (ASs), second model enables cooperation among caches within the same autonomous system.
Then we propose simple object replacement polices for web caching in peer-to-peer network. Then we
analyse different angles of cooperative caching schemes, our results are: 1) significant improvement in
byte hit rate, 2) the simple object replacement polices are sufficient to attain maximum gain.3) the
overhead produced by cooperative caching is negligible.4) the P2P traffic imposed on ISPs are reduced
significantly. Our modelconfirms substantial gains from cooperative caching are attainable under wide
range of traffic and network characteristics.

78 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


Performance Evaluation of Low-Power SRAM Cell
Nithya B.
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering,
R.M.K. Engineering College Chennai, Tamilnadu, India
E-mail: nithyabala28@yahoo.co.in
Abstract—In this paper, Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) cells that reduce the static power
dissipation due to gate and sub-threshold leakage currents are presented. The first cell structure result in
reduced gate voltages for the NMOS pass transistors, and thus lowers the gate leakage current. It reduces
the sub threshold leakage current by increasing the ground level during the idle (inactive) mode. The
second cell structure makes use of PMOS pass transistors to lower the gate leakage current. In addition,
dual threshold voltage technology with forward body biasing is utilized with this structure to reduce the
sub threshold leakage while maintaining performance. Compared to a conventional SRAM cell, the first
cell structure decreases the total gate leakage current by 66% and the idle power by 58% and increases
the access time by approximately 2% while the second cell structure reduces the total gate leakage
current by 27% and the idle power by 37% with no access time degradation.

An overview of Smart Antenna Implementation


Using Neural Network
1 2 3
Sonia Jaiswal, Rasika Manapure and S.W. Varade
1,2Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering,
Priyadarshani College of Engineering, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
3
Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering,
Priyadarshani College of Engineering, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
E-mail: soniahokam@yahoo.com, rasikaman@gmail.com, swarade@rediffmail.com
Abstract—In this paper, we propose a neural network approach to smart antenna. Conventional
algorithms for smart antenna find it difficult to deal with the non linear behavior of antenna array
elements. Neural networks however, can provide easy implementation of the DoA estimation,
beamforming and antenna arrays. They can reduce computation time of super resolution systems.
Adaptive beamforming is known to have resolution and interference rejection capability when the array
steering vector is precisely known, however the performance of adaptive beamforming techniques may
degrade severely in the presence of mismatches between assumed array response and true array response.
This problem can be overcome by neural network approach. This paper suggest the development of a
neural network- based robust adaptive beamforming algorithm, which treats the problem of computing
the weights of an adaptive array antenna as a mapping problem is suggested. MATLAB 7.10 will be use
for simulation. we compute the weight vector by using the neural network method.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 79


Design of Sparse-2 Ling Adder
Prabha
VLSI Design, SSIET, Anna University Chennai, India
E-mail: prabha2687@gmail.com
Abstract—Energy-efficient design requires exploration of available algorithms, recurrence structures,
energy and wire tradeoffs, circuit design techniques, circuit sizing and system constraints. In this paper,
methodology for energy-efficient design applied to adder implemented with static CMOS logic family.
Since the design of the basic functional units for digital systems has been raised as there are advances in
CMOS technology. And also technology scaling no longer achieves constant power density, the energy-
efficiency of functional units is of increasing importance to system designers. Of these functional units,
the adder is a basic block to apply the energy-efficient design methodologies. Parallel prefix adders have
been implemented with different algorithms and circuits techniques under different constraints. This wide
implementation space makes the adders a good example study to explore the design methodologies

Efficient and Dynamic Key Distribution Protocol


for 4G Wireless Sensor Networks
G. Shoba and S. Uma
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Dr. Paul’s Engineering College,
Pauls Nagar, Vanur Taluk, Villupuram District,Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: mailtoshoba@gmail.com, dewuma@gmail.com
Abstract—Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have gained much attention due to large number of
applications. The WSN systems are usually deployed in adversary environments where they encountered
a wide variety of malicious attacks. To achieve security in wireless sensor networks, it is important to be
able to encrypt and authenticate messages sent between sensor nodes. Before doing so, keys for
performing encryption and authentication must be agreed upon by the communicating parties. Key
distribution is one of the most challenging security issues in wireless sensor networks where sensor nodes
are randomly scattered over a hostile territory. In such a sensor deployment scenario, there will be no
prior knowledge of post deployment configuration. In order to protect the transmitted messages between
any two adjacent sensor nodes, a mutual authentication and key exchange protocol is required for
wireless sensor networks. Because some nature restrictions of sensor nodes which include low power,
less storage space, low computation ability and short communication range, most existing protocols
attempt to establish a pairwise key between any two adjacent sensor nodes by adopting a key pre-
distribution approach. However, this approach has some inherent drawbacks. In this paper we propose a
key distribution technique for the clustered sensor network. We focus on avoiding the node capture attack
to provide high security. Since each sensor node accommodates only limited set of keys, thus allowing to
have only constant memory storage which becomes scalable. Moreover our approach allows flexibility in
addition and deletion of new network devices.

80 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


Design of Sequential Circuits Using Gate
Diffusion Input Technique
Deepa S., Priyadarshini R. and Rajalakshmi R.
Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, India
E-mail: deeepasubramaniam@gmail.com, priyaratinam@gmail.com, rajeemtech@gmail.com
Abstract—In low power VLSI design, reducing the power consumption is the main concern of
designers. In this paper a GDI technique is proposed to reduce the power by reducing the switching
transitions. The GDI approach allows implementation of a wide range of complex logic functions using
only two transistors. By changing the input variables of the two transistors in GDI Technique, various
operations of the logic gates can be achieved which will reduce the transistor counts in a great amount.
This method is suitable for design of fast, low-power circuits, using a reduced number of transistors
which reduces the complexity of the circuit design. The different methods are compared with respect to
the number of devices and power dissipation. Power reduction can be estimated for the circuits using
tanner pro EDA tool. The results are compared with the existing methods and found that the proposed
method reduces the power effectively.

Design of Solid Mounted Components Using Bulk


Acoustic Wave Technology for RF Communication
K. Radhika, B. Venkatalakshmi and S. Manjula
Pervasive Computing Technologies, TIFAC-CORE, Velammal Engineering College Chennai, India
E-mail: radhika2210@gmail.com, venkatalakshmib@velammal.org manjulasankar@gmail.com
Abstract—A bulk acoustic wave (BAW) piezoelectric resonator is a device that has the potential for
meeting the needs of modern wireless communication systems. Acoustic wave technologies based on
piezoelectric materials play a key role in wireless communication devices. SAW filters have been used in
wireless communication systems since the early days of mobile phones. But applications at the higher
handset frequencies run up against the capability of conventional SAW structures. Bulk Acoustic Wave
(BAW) Technology is a relatively recent addition to the technology portfolio. This paper provides the
basic structure of Solid Mounted Resonator (SMR) based on Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) technology.
This technology follows MEMS principle to design high performance microwave components for RF
communication. The SMR structure has been designed taking in account the Material parameters
(considering the material used at each layer) and then, simulated using the 1D Mason Model and
Butterworth Van Dyke Model (BVD) Model in the RF/Microwave design platform Agilent ADS
(Advanced Design System) and the results have been presented here. The simulated results confirm the
tuning of operating frequency of designed BAW material.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 81


A Secure Authenticated Real Time Video
Streaming Using WI-FI
S. Ganesh and A. Pravin Renold
TIFAC-CORE in Pervasive Computing Technologies, Velammal Engineering College Chennai
E-mail: ganeshpathy@gmail.com aprenold@velammal.org
Abstract—Real time streaming video is a sequence of moving images that are send in compressed form
over the network and are seen by the viewer as they arrive. It finds application such as video
conferencing, surveillance, live monitoring etc. Technologies such as EDGE, BLUETOOTH etc are
currently employed for the purpose of communication. The constraints of achieving real time video
streaming over the above mentioned technologies are latency, low bandwidth, data loss and data
corruption due to noise. The low memory space in mobile phones is also a constraint for recording and
streaming of continuous data. In this paper, we propose a secure authentication based real time video
streaming using Wi -Fi technology for android operating system based mobile phones.

Design of Dual Band UHF RFID Reader Antenna


Radha Manohar K., Venkatalakshmi B., Manjula S.
Mobile & Pervasive Computing, TIFAC-CORE, Velammal Engineering College, Chennai
E-mail: radhakomar@yahoo.com, Venkatalakshmib@velammal.org
Abstract—The development of the integrated antennas plays a significant role in the progress of rapidly
expanding communication applications. The recent advances in RF and microwave technologies in
multifunction wireless communication systems have called for the parallel development of compact and
efficient antennas that can be used over a wide frequency range. The main objective is to design the dual
band antenna which is an integrated antenna structure of basic Planar Inverted F Antenna (PIFA) and the
Micro-Strip Antenna, which are destined to work on two UHF RFID bands 433MHz and (865-
868MHz).In this paper the individual performance of antenna with reasonable radiation patterns are
obtained with smaller size suitable for various applications. This type of dual band antenna can be used
for different kind of small RFID readers and other compact wireless systems.

Detection of Unauthorized Access Points


Using Clock Skew Based Fingerprint Technique
Chandru Vignesh C. and Prakash P.S.
Dept of CSE (P.G) Sri Ramakrishna College of Engineering,
Coimbatore–641022, Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: chandru.vignesh21@gmail.com, prakashpsrajan@rediffmail.com
Abstract—We introduce the area of remote physical devise fingerprint technique to detect the
unauthorized Access points quickly and accurately. Node identification is one of the most important
issues in the wireless network. Current approaches use cryptographic authentication and certification
tools to ensure the node identification, while this paper introduces two different methods for this purpose-
one based on linear programming method and the other based on least square fit to identify a node by
measuring its clock skew. This method is based on our observation that every wireless node has a unique

82 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


clock skew value that is different from any other node. We calculate the clock skew of an AP from the
IEEE 802.11 Time Synchronization Function time stamps sent out in the beacon/probe response frames.
Using our measurement data as well as data obtained from a large conference setting, we find that clock
skews remain consistent over time for the same AP but vary significantly across Access point. In
particular, we develop a unique fingerprinting technique that accurately and efficiently identifies the
wireless driver without modification to or cooperation from wireless device. We perform an evaluation of
this fingerprinting technique that shows it both quickly and accurately fingerprints wireless device drivers
in real world wireless network condition. Our results indicate that the use of clock skews appears to be an
efficient and robust method for detecting fake APs in wireless local area networks.
Keywords: IEEE 802.11, fingerprint, MAC address spoofing, fake access point, time stamp.

Design, Analysis and Applications


of Cylindrical Array Antenna
1 2 1
H.L.Viswanath, S.Ghosh and D.Ganesh Rao
1
Dept. of TCE, M.S.Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore–560054, India
2
School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University, Ujjain–456010, India
E-mail: drsanjayghosh.ssp@gmail.com, hlviswanath@msrit.edu
Abstract—A dipole antenna has a uniform radiation pattern in the azimuthal plane and a doughnut
shaped pattern in the elevational plane [7], [12]. The dipole is adequate for most applications of generic
nature. Nevertheless, certain applications like terrestrial TV receivers, tracking radars, geolocation
systems, 3G and 4G mobile communication systems [16], missiles [22], deep space networks etc. call for
antennas with highly directive characteristics, which are met by arrays that are formed by an assembly of
radiating elements in certain electrical and geometrical configurations. In some of the air-borne, ship-
borne and spacecraft platforms [1]-[5], the contour of the array needs to align with the surface of the
vehicle. To meet these requirements, one of the solutions is to employ the cylindrical array antennas.
A cylindrical array antenna is composed of a number of vertically aligned circular sub arrays of equal
radius and equal number of array elements. Computer plots of these antenna patterns are generated for
different design parameters such as array radius, inter element spacing, distance, frequency, bandwidth,
and steering angle. Cylindrical Antenna Arrays are characterized by high directivities, narrow beams, and
low side lobe levels, enhanced spectral efficiency, and improved communications performance. These
arrays may be treated as multiple linear arrays arranged on a circular contour [14]. The cylindrical arrays
are being used successfully to increase the user capacity in the downlink of WCDMA cellular systems
[4], [18]. Their high directivities lead to an increase of interference in the adjacent cells, whereas their
narrow beams and low side lobes help efficiently in interference mitigation. Using the cylindrical arrays,
it is possible to use a common antenna array for both GSM and WCDMA base stations. This solution
will be mechanically more rugged and also aesthetically more elegant than having two sets of antenna
systems for GSM and WCDMA.
The antenna elements of the cylindrical array may be spaced at different fractional wavelengths of
distance between each other, say λ/2, λ/4 etc. which result in different radiation patterns. This apart, the
radius of the circle on which the antenna elements are placed and the number of elements determine the
characteristics of the array. The antenna elements may be excited with currents of different magnitudes
and phases to achieve the desired radiation pattern. In this paper, the distances between the antenna
elements vertically, as well as along the periphery of the circle are maintained constant, and the
characteristics of the array are studied by varying the magnitude and phase of the excitation. Using the
advanced digital signal processing techniques, with algorithms to generate appropriate weight factors, the
radiation pattern of the cylindrical array antenna can be modified dynamically to establish very efficient
radio links.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 83


Optimization of Distributed Detection
in Wireless Sensor Networks
1 2
Beulah Mary J. and I. Johnsi Stella
1
M.E., St. Joseph’s College of Engineering, Chennai–600119
2
Asst. Professor, St. Joseph’s College of Engg, Chennai–600119
E-mail: beulah1107@gmail.com johnsirobert@gmail.com
Abstract—Wireless Sensor Networks are used in a wide range of application areas such as disaster
relief, surveillance and environment monitoring. Wireless sensor Networks consists of a large number of
sensor nodes. A typical sensor network consists of a fusion centre and a number of sensor nodes.
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consists of many sensor nodes deployed to cooperatively monitor the
event of interest. Distributed detection is one of the primary applications of wireless sensor networks and
is often the first step in an overall sensing process. For a decentralized detection in a wireless sensor
network, sensor nodes arrive at decisions about the event of interest and send their predictions to the
fusion centre. The fusion centre combines the received sensor decisions and computes a final inference
about the presence or absence of the event. For binary sensor decisions, determination of the local sensor
decision thresholds is crucial. In this work, for a typical wireless sensor network configuration, a set of
local optimal sensor thresholds are evaluated through multi-objective optimization. In this design, the
global probability of error and the total energy consumption of the Network are optimized
simultaneously.

Analysis of Anomaly Detection and Data Transfer


in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
Josephin Ida Litrizia and Ganesan
Electronics and Communication Department,
Adhiparasakthi Engineering College, Affiliated to Anna University, Melmaruvathur, India
E-mail: idalitrizia@gmail.com, sangs.2007@rediffmail.com
Abstract—A key component of MANETs is an efficient routing protocol, since all the nodes in the
network act as routers. A router can be compromised, making it malicious in nature. In this paper, the
existence of compromised routers is detected and isolated from the routing fabric by using mobile agents
called the Ants. An Ant is a distributed mobile agent that was inspired by the works on the ant colony
metaphor, ACO for solving optimization problems. The mobile agents concurrently explore the network
and exchange collected information. The local information collected by the ants is used in detecting the
existence of malicious nodes, also finding shortest path in MANETs. The results obtained are compared
with probabilistic and q routing and analysed.

84 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


Extended-Refined Sequence Estimation:
A novel Approach for TCM
Basamma D.U. and Dr. Suresh Chandra Mohan
Author Affilalition
Abstract—With the advancement in wired and wireless communications technologies, design of receiver
algorithms for advanced modulation and transmission techniques has become one of the major challenges
today. In this paper, we introduce a new Extended-Refined Sequence Estimation for Trellis Coded
Modulation (TCM) schemes transmission over bandlimited time dispersive channels. The technique uses
modified soft decision Viterbi decoding for reduced state Likelihood sequence estimation with extended-
refining of the noisy received sequence. Computer simulation results shows that the proposed receiver
achieves significant coding gain over conventional reduced state Likelihood sequence estimation with the
additional complexity required only for extended-refining. It is suitable for truncated channel memory
sequence estimation techniques

Elimination of Non-monotonicity of Variance


Estimate in Weighted Overlap Segment Averaging
1 1 2
Venkatanarayana Moram, Mahaboob Pasha and Jayachandra Prasad Talari
1
ECE, K.S.R.M.C.E; ECE, RGMCET, Kadapa, A.P., India; Nandyal, Kurnool, A.P., India
2
K.S.R.M.C.E., Kadapa–516003, A.P., India
E-mail: narayanamoram@gmail.com, jp.talari@gmail.com, urspasha@gmail.com
Abstract—The most popular method of nonparametric spectral density is the Weighted Segment Overlap
Averaging (WOSA). Because of the unequal weighting of observed samples, its variance estimate is non
monotonic function of fraction of overlap. Simple theoretical analysis of the mean and the variance of the
WOSA have been presented nicely. Selecting the optimal fraction of overlap, which minimizes the
variance, is in general difficult since it depends on the window used. The main objective in this paper is
to avoid the nonmonotonic behavior of the variance for the Welch power spectrum estimator (PSE) by
introducing circular overlap to the Welch method. With slight modification, the mean and the variance of
Welch Circular Overlap Segment Averaging (WCOSA) have been presented. With the help of simulation,
the performance evaluations of WOSA and WCOSA have been presented and finally, it is observed that
the variance estimate based on WCOSA is a monotonically decreasing function of the fraction of overlap.

Implementation of Hex-Derived Structure


in Hexagonal Networks
1 2 3
V. Ceronmani Sharmila, T. Surekha and A. George
IT Department, Hindustan Institute of Technology & Science,
P.O. Bag No: 01, Rajiv Gandhi Salai, Padur, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India–603103
E-mail: csharmila@hindustanuniv.ac.in, surekathangaraj@gmail.com
deanstudents@hindustanuniv.ac.in
Abstract—This research deals with the efficiency of Hex-derived Structure in hexagonal honeycomb
network. Honeycomb and Hexagonal networks have been proposed as special architectures for

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 85


multiprocessor interconnection networks. Honeycomb networks are more efficient than mesh connected
systems in terms of degree, diameter, bisection width and cost. Though we have different structures in
different networks, still they face a number of problems like handling capacity in user density patterns,
efficiency and inefficient usage of bandwidth. To overcome some of the above problems any other
different structure should be embedded into the networks. Hex-Derived structure is embedded in
honeycomb-hexagonal network in order to enhance the efficiency of the networks and to compare the
efficiency with other kind of networks in terms of cost, degree and diameter. The efficiency of resultant
network has to be estimated in user density patterns and to find best suitable area for this resultant
network.

LSB Matching Revisited based Video Steganography


R. Selvaraj and P.S. Prakash
Department of Computer Science and Engineering (PG),
Sri Ramakrishna Engineering College, Coimbatore–641022, India
E-mail: selvasasurie@gmail.com, prakashpsrajan@rediffmail.com
Abstract—The least-significant-bit (LSB)-based approach is one of the steganographic algorithm in the
spatial domain. The most of the existing approaches, the choice of embedding positions within a cover
image mainly depends on a pseudorandom number generator. The pseudorandom number generator
method is (randomized algorithm) randomly data hiding in the cover image. These existing approaches
are data-hiding in the smooth/flat regions of the cover images. This will lead to poor visual quality and
low security based on our analysis and extensiveexperiments, especially for those images with many
smooth regions. In this paper, we expand the LSB matching revisited video steganography and propose
an edge adaptive scheme which can select the embedding regions (shaper edge regions) according to the
size of secret message and the difference between two consecutive pixels in the cover video. This
approach is preserving higher visual quality of stego videos.

Channel Allocation Scheme for Preemptive Priority


based Handoffs in Multimedia wireless Networks
Satish K. Srivastava, Alok Jha, Saurabh Desai, Virendrapratap Singh
Department of Electronics and Tele-Communication, University of Mumbai,
Dombivli Mumbai India–421201
E-mail: sk_prof@rediffmail.com, alokjha222@gmail.com,
brilliantsaurabh@gmail.com, virendrap.537s@gmail.com
Abstract—This paper presents a channel allocation model with both priority reservation and preemptive
priority procedures for multimedia traffic in mobile wireless networks. The different types of multimedia
traffic in transmitting through next-generation networks possess different characteristics and demand an
adequate channel allocation scheme to fulfill individual quality of Service (QoS) requirements. In the
proposed model, multimedia traffic is classified into six classes: originating voice calls, originating data
calls, originating video calls, voice, video and data handoff requests, corresponding to different priority
levels in a decreasing order. To effectively reduce the dropping probability, a higher-priority handoff call
is allowed to fully or partially preempt any lower-priority ongoing calls when the channel capacity
becomes insufficient. In addition, to prevent from possible starvation of the lowest- priority traffic, a
portion of system channels are purposely reserved. Performance measures, including the dropping

86 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


probability of handoff calls, the call-interruption probability that an ongoing call is forced to termination
due to full preemption, and the bandwidth reduction ratio due to partial preemption, are investigated
through an analytical model built with 4-D Markov chains. The numerical results demonstrate the
effectiveness of our model.

Dynamic Region Growth for Image Segmentation


1 2 1
Sunita Parihar, Prof. D.M. Meshram and Prof. V.V. Bagde
1
Electronics & Communication Engg. PIET, RTMN University, Nagpur, India
2
Electronics Engineering, PCE, RTMN University, Nagpur, India
E-mail: parihar_sunita@yahoo.co.in, vandanabagde0801@rediffmail.com,
divyameshram@gmail.com
Abstract—In recent years, automatic image segmentation has become a prominent objective in image
analysis and computer vision. Image segmentation can be defined as the classification of all the picture
elements or pixels in an image into different clusters that exhibit similar features. In this paper, I propose
a new unsupervised color image segmentation algorithm, which exploits the information obtained from
detecting edges in color images in the HSV color model. Seeded region growing (SRG) is one of the
hybrid methods. It starts with assigning seeds and growing regions by merging a pixel into its nearest
neighboring seeded region.SGR is the robust to the large variety of images because the characteristics of
rapid and free to tune the parameters, and the considering of local information Such as regions similarity,
boundaries and smoothness. The non-edge and smoothness at pixel’s neighbor are used as criterion for
automatic determination of seed pixel. The seed pixels are merged to form seed region if they are
connected. The obtained texture and color information along with a region growth map will consist of all
fully grown regions will be used to perform a region merging procedure to blend regions with similar
characteristics.
Keywords: Automatic image segmentation, Seeded region growing (SRG), region merging, HSV
color model, seed pixel

Performance Enhanced Delay Modelled Multiplier


Accumulator based on Modified Booth
Algorithm USING FPGA
1 2 3
U. Krishna Divya, M. Ravi Kishore and N. Bala Dastagiri
1,3
MTech ECE-MTech ECE Department, AITS Rajampet India-HITS Chennai Inida
2
Asst. Prof, ECE Department, AITS Rajampet, India
E-mail: krishnadivya.ece@gmail.com, baluece414@gmail.com, ravi.mvrm@gmail.com
Abstract—In this paper, a new architecture of multiplier-and-accumulator (MAC) for applications in
signal processing areas is proposed. The performance of MAC can be increased by using a modified
carry save adder (CSA). The proposed CSA has half adders replacing full adders in the areas of necessity,
there by reducing the carry propagation delay, thus by merging this CSA with accumulator having largest
delay the performance in terms of speed can be enhanced. The proposed CSA uses 1’s complement based
radix-2 modified booth algorithm to increase the bit density of operands. Here in this work the number of
input bits to final adder is decreased at a stage prior to it in operation of CSA. Also, the proposed MAC
accumulates the intermediate results in the type of sum and carry bits instead of the output of the final
adder, making it possible to optimize the pipeline scheme to improve the performance. By removing the
independent accumulation process that has the largest delay and merging it to the compression process of

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 87


the partial products, the overall MAC performance has been improved almost twice as much as in the
previous work. While the delay has been increased slightly compared to the previous research, actual
performance has been increased to about twice if the pipeline is incorporated.

Human Recognition using RFID


1 2
Nilu R. Mishra and Archana Charkhawala
1
M.Tech IV Sem (Student) Priyadarshini College of Engg., Nagpur Maharashtra, India
2
M.Tech Lecturer, Priyadarshini College of Engg., Nagpur Maharashtra, India
E-mail: niki.mishra@gmail.com, archana.charkhawala@gmail.com
Abstract—This paper presents a distinct application of RFID. Human recognition basically involve two
basic types Physiological includes finger print, face recognition, DNA, Palm print,, iris recognition and
behavioral includes typing rhythm, gait, and voice. RFID human recognition uses behavioral technique
namely in this paper voice. It is indistinct application of speaker and speech recognition. This enables a
low cost recognition system with digital communication concept which reduces computation complexity.
The proposed method can detect the human easily and quickly compared with the other methods. The
proposed method first calculates the probability where human with ID tag exists using Baye’s rule.
The human vocal sound is in the range of 30-1100Hz which a low audio frequency,so for this we
require a passive transducer which give each voice frequency a tag which is responsible for human
recognition.

Study of STTC MC-CDMA System


for Wireless Application
Rasika Manapure, Sonia Jaiswal, and S.W. Varade
Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering,
Priyadarshani College of Engineering, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
E-mail: rasikaman@gmail.com
Abstract—Multi-carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) systems receive more attention due
to their great potential in achieving high data rates in wireless communication. Broadband wireless access
for evolving mobile internet and multimedia services are surge of research on future wireless
communication systems to support multi-user access and high data rates. Multi-carrier code division
multiple access (MC-CDMA), which suits high data rate applications with multiplexing technique
appears to be a promising technique in achieving high data rates. In this paper space time trellis code
(STTC) with multiple input multiple output technique (MIMO) is proposed to improve the performance
of MC-CDMA system by improving diversity gain and coding gain over frequency-selective wireless
channels.

88 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


Morphological Background Detection
and Contrast Development of Color Images
1 2
P. Premkumar and S.Deepa
Department of Computer Science, Anna University Coimbatore
K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode–637215
1
Asst. Professor (CSE) of K.S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode
2
II M.E (CSE) of K.S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode
E-mail: deepamecse@gmail.com
Abstract—The background of images in poor lighting are detected by using morphological
transformations. Recently, based on Weber’s law the contrast of an image is enhanced. The first operator
is to give information for the analysis of block, while the second operator is opening by reconstruction,
which is used to define the multibackground notion.
The most common techniques in image processing to enhance dark regions are the use of nonlinear
functions, such as logarithm or power functions. Here the Weber’s law is used for the contrast
transformations are characterized by the normalization of grey level intensities, avoiding abrupt changes.
The main objective of operators consists in normalizing the grey level of the input image with the
purpose of avoiding abrupt changes in intensity among the different regions. Finally, the performance of
the proposed operators is the processing of images with different background with poor lighting.

Optimization of Reversible BCD Adder


in Terms of Number of Lines
P. Radhika Ramya and V. Rajmohan
Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering,
Hindustan Institute of Technology & Science, Chennai, India
E-mail: radhikaramya@gmail.com, rajmohan.vijayan@gmail.com
Abstract—The Reversible logic plays a fundamental role when computations with minimal energy
dissipation are considered and it is the main requirement in the low power digital design. To implement
an irreversible function as reversible function some additional lines are required. Sometimes it is more
than the primary inputs which leads to increased size of the circuit. Hence the reducing the number of
circuit lines is one of the major criterion in reversible logic. The general idea is to merge the garbage
output lines with appropriate constant input lines. In this work, Toffoli gate implementation of BCD
adder is taken and an optimization algorithm has been applied to reduce the number of lines in the circuit.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 89


High Data Rate AES Encrypt/Decrypt
Using Iterative Approach
D. Jeslin Sophia
M.E VLSI Design, K.C.G College of Technology Chennai, India
E-mail: jeslinsophia@gmail.com
Abstract—Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is an approved cryptographic algorithm that is used to
protect electronic data. The AES can be programmed in software or built in pure hardware. The field
Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) offer a quick and more customizable solution. The AES algorithm
is presented with regard to FPGA and is implemented in verilog. The encryption and the decryption
processes are integrated together. Wave pipelining method is used in implementing the AES algorithm.
All the transformations of both the encryption and decryption are simulated using an iterative approach in
order to minimize the hardware consumption. This makes it low-complexity architecture especially in
saving the hardware resources. The architecture gives a high data rate for both encryption and decryption
processes. The security in the system is also high. The proposed architecture is used for hardware critical
applications such as, smart card, Personal Digital Assistants, and mobile phone etc.

MAC Module Structure


for Secure Simplification WiMAX
Yogesh Gedam and S.D. Chede
Department of Electronics & Telecom Engineering, PCE College, RTM University, Nagpur, India
E-mail: gedam.yogesh@gemail.com, santoshchede@rediffmail.com
Abstract—This paper present an overview of MAC layer structure which support mobile topology for
broadband Wireless access. It also include security sublayer which provides authentication of network
access as well as data encryption. IT is connection oriented protocol, with provision to map inherent
connectionless service. WiMAX provides a robust user authentication, access control, data privacy and
data integrity using sophisticated authentication and encryption technology.

RF-MEMS Switch and its Applications for Antennas


1 2
S.N. Ganorkar and Y.A. Nafde
1
M.Tech IV Sem (Communication Engg) Student, Priyadarshini College of Engg.,
R.T.M.N.U. Nagpur (Maharashtra), India
2
Asst. Professor, Department of Electronics & Telecommunication,
Priyadarshini College of Engg. Nagpur (Maharashtra), India
E-mail: sganorkar0@gmail.com, yogita.nafde@gmail.com
Abstract—Innovative and high-performance antenna systems are required due to increasing demand of
bandwidth and service quality in modern communication systems, as well as in a number of industrial
applications. This paper presents various types of antenna using MEMS (Microelectromechanical
Systems) technology. In more demanding environments such as a military aircraft, a circularly polarised
antenna is typically used since it mitigates the radiation losses owing to polarization mismatch in most
situations. The capability of having the same antenna operating at multiple frequencies is also very

90 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


attractive for diverse missions. A simple way to change the resonant frequency of an antenna is to
reconfigure its geometrical structure. This has been made possible lately with the integration of
microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switches into the antenna. The MEMS switch can outperform
its semiconductor counterparts such as transistors and diodes by having lower insertion loss, lower power
consumption and higher Q, which inherently meet the antenna design requirements

WBAN based Health Monitoring


++
by Using OMNeT
S.B. Rangankar and S.D. Chede
M.Tech IV sem (Communication Engg) Student,
Priyadarshini College of Engg., R.T.M.N.U. Nagpur (Maharashtra), India
HOD, Professor, Department of Electronics &Telecommunication,
Priyadarshini College of Engg. Nagpur (Maharashtra), India
E-mail: r.suresh@rediffmail.com, santoshchede@rediffmail.com
Abstract—There is an increasing pressure on quality and quantity of healthcare due to the increase of
aging population, chronic diseases, and health consciousness of people. People put more attention in
prevention and early risk detection. A system that can continuously monitor the health condition of
elderly people and share information with remote care providers or hospitals will be in great demand. As
an effort of catching this trend, body area network (BAN) as an emerging technology for providing this
kind of health information, has been attracting more and more attentions recently. In more common
terms, a Body Area Network will be a network containing sensor nodes in close proximity to a person’s
body monitoring vital signals of the human body and a more intelligent node capable of handle more
advanced signal processing. In order to fully exploit the benefits of wireless technologies in telemedicine,
a new type of wireless network emerges: a wireless on-body network or a Wireless Body Area Network
(WBAN).

Denial of Sleep Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks


1 2
Sruthi Sivakumar and Kamal S.
1
TIFAC-CORE in Pervasive Computing Technologies,
2
Research Member, TIFAC-CORE in Pervasive, Computing Technologies,
Velammal Engineering College, Annauniversity, Chennai, India
E-mail: shruthi.sahitya@gmail.com, kamal.saga@gmail.com
Abstract—Nowadays, wireless sensor network platforms are becoming more powerful having wide
spread use. Like other networks wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to malicious attack. This paper
explores a defend mechanism for the sleep attacks in which a sensor nodes power supply is targeted,
reducing the lifetime of the sensor node. This paper analyses, i) different classes of attacks in the MAC
protocols i.e., Sensor MAC, Berkeley MAC and Timeout MAC ii) the effectiveness and efficiency of the
attacks are validated. iii)a frame work for defending the sleep attacks is also introduced.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 91


A Survey on Multimodal Biometric System
S. Senthilnathan and A. Arunkumar
Sri Krishna College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, India
E-mail: ambysenthil@gmail.com
Abstract—Authentication by biometric verification is becoming increasingly common in corporate and
public security systems, consumer electronics and point of sale (POS) applications. Especially the
multimodal biometric system provides the desired level of security unlike unimodal biometric system.
There are many multimodal biometric systems in real world which differs in level of fusion, techniques
and their performance. This paper consists of various multimodal biometric systems and their techniques
are compared and contrasted and it also explains about the performance criteria for multimodal biometric
system. Here the merits and demerits of each technique are tabulated.

Design of Clock Multiplication Unit (CMU) Block


of RF Transceiver: Challenges and Solutions
S. Sophiya, S.R. Sindhu and Dr. Siva Yellampalli
VTU Extension Centre, UTL Technologies Ltd,
19/6, Ashokpuram School Road, Yeshwanthpur, Bangalore–22, India
E-mail: sophiya_ss@yahoo.com sindhusunderajan@gmail.com siva.yellampalli@utltraining.com
Abstract—This paper discusses the challenges involved in the designing of the clock multiplication unit
(CMU), part of RF transceiver in CMOS technology at high frequency. It also includes a study of the
merit and demerits of various solutions proposed in the literature to overcome the design challenge for
each component in the CMU. Based on our study we have presented the best possible solutions to
overcome the challenges faced during designing of CMU circuits in this paper.

Hybrid Pass Transistor/CMOS Logic Cells


for Low Power Optimization
I. Flavia Princess Nesamani and S. Miriam Niranjana
Department of Electronics and Communication, Karunya University, Coimbatore–641114
E-mail: flavia@karunya.edu, niranjana.miriam@yahoo.com
Abstract—Power is a major concern in today’s design. The work presents a design for low power and
area synthesis. Area reduction is achieved by using the PTL/CMOS cells from library. The idea of using
mixed PTL/CMOS logic is that PTL circuits have smaller area and CMOS circuits have smaller delay.
The development of a logic synthesis tool, designed specifically to work with a reduced set cell library
consisting of a combination of pass logic and standard CMOS topologies is found to be more
advantageous than the conventionally used CMOS logic design styles. Delay and statistical power
models are developed for pass logic cells to be used for optimization. Hence hybrid design styles are
preferred. The processing technology (0.18um) enables the ease of design. This result in hybrid pass
transistor/CMOS logic cells for standard cell based design environment.

92 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


Compact Hardware Architecture for BLAKE Function
P. Lavanya and M. Rajmohan
Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering,
Hindustan Institute of Technology & Science, Chennai, India
E-mail: lavanya.palla380@gmail.com, rajmohan.madasamy@gmail.com
Abstract—This paper advocates the security of the Cryptographic hash function. In SHA-3 proposal
BLAKE is one of candidate. In the BLAKE and LAKE Hash function the block length of the internal
state is double as its initial state and final state. That means more registers, are required for the
implementation of the hash functions. In this paper, we are designing the shift register based compact
hardware architectures for BLAKE hash function by using “SECURE HASH FUNCTION” algorithm.
We can design 32-, 64- and 128- bit data path architectures also. The hash function has some special
design features: a feed forward mechanism and an internal wide-pipe construction within the
compression function. BLAKE is a combination of HAIFA iteration mode and Cha Cha core function.
BLAKE hash function protects the message from second-pre image attacks, length extension, and side
channel attacks. This paper overcomes the disadvantages of LAKE.

Passive Method for Detecting Spliced Image


M. Selvakumar and J. Granty Regina Elwin
Sri Krishna College of Engineering & Technology, Coimbatore, India
E-mail: itselva88@gmail.com
Abstract—A color image splicing detection method based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM)
of threshold edge image of image chroma. Edge images are generated by subtracting horizontal, vertical,
main and minor diagonal pixel values from current pixel values. The GLCMs of edge images along the
four directions serve as futures for image splicing detection. The effectiveness of the proposed method
has been demonstrated by our experimental results..

High Performance QOSTBC using Quasi


Zero Forcing Decoding Algorithm
1 2
Darling Sweet Star J. and Senthil Kumar K.
-ECE, Rajalakshmi Engineering College,
Anna University, Rajalakshmi Nagar, Thandalam, India. Chennai–602105
2
ECE, Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Anna University, Rajalakshmi Nagar,
Thandalam, India Chennai–602105
E-mail: dollyjoseph.sweety@gmail.com, ksenthilkumar_ofdm@rediffmail.com
Abstract—This paper presents a novel Quasi- Orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes (QOSTBC) for
using in multiple transmit antennas systems. We show that with the aid of multiplying the entries of
QOSTBC code words by the appropriate phase factors which depend on the channel information, the
proposed scheme can improve its transmit diversity with one bit feedback. The performances of the
proposed scenario extended from Jafarkhani’s QOSTBC as well as its optimal constellation rotated
scheme are analyzed. By using zero forcing decoding algorithm, simulation results show that zero-
forcing algorithm has better bit error rate performance as compared to the existing typical codes and can
reduce the computational complexity at the receiver.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 93


PSO Tuned Neural Network for False
Contour Reduction
Regina Manicka Rajam G.
II M.E. Applied Electronics, PSN College of Engg & Technology,
Anna University, Tirunelveli, India
E-mail: georegi1@yahoo.co.in
Abstract—In this project, the adaptation of network weights using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)
was proposed as a mechanism to improve the performance of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) in
modelling a image false contour reduction Technique. The false contour reduction part has already two
steps. They are NN processing and bi-directional filtering. False contours are reduced by pixel wise
processing using NNs in the first step and bi-directional smoothing is applied to a neighbouring region of
the false contour in the second step. PSO is proposed to allow automatic update of network weights to
increase the adaptability to dynamic environment. The results obtained in this paper confirmed the
potential of PSO-based ANN model to successfully model false contour reduction process. The results
are explored with a discussion using the SNR illustrate the usability of the proposed approach. Finally,
conclusions and future works are derived.

QOS based Manycasting in Optical Networks


1 2 3
Ahilan S., Sivasubramanian A. and Balamurugan A.M. 3
1 2 3
Post graduate Student, Proffesor, Assistant Professor,
Department of ECE, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering,
Old Mahabalipuram Road, Chennai-119, Tamilnadu, India
Email: ahilansundaradas@gmail.com, siva_31@yahoo.com, bala_am2000@yahoo.com
Abstract—Many distributed applications require a group of destinations to be coordinated with a single
source. Multicasting is a communication paradigm to implement these distributed applications. However
in multicasting, if at least one of the members in the group cannot satisfy the service requirement of the
application, the multicast request is said to be blocked. On the contrary in manycasting, destinations can
join or leave the group depending on whether it satisfies the service requirement or not. Two new
schemes, static over-provisioning (SOP) and dynamic membership (DM), to alleviate this data loss
problem are proposed. The proposed schemes take into consideration the specific properties of
manycasting, and the schemes may complement existing contention resolution schemes.The effectiveness
of the proposed schemes is verified through simulation.

94 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


FPGA Implementation of High Speed
Infrared Image Enhancement
1 2
M. Nageswaraiah and Syed Jahangir Badashah
1
(M.TECH), ECE Department, JNT University ANANTAPUR Madina Engg College,
Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh
2
M.E., (Ph.D), S.G. Asst., Prof Dept of ECE, Madina Engg College, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh
E-mail: royalnagesh@yahoo.com, syd_jahangir@yahoo.co.in
Abstract—This paper deals with Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based hardware
Implementation of Infrared Image (IRI) enhancement of thermo graphic images. The image enhancement
capabilities and properties of the transform are analyzed. The transform is capable to perform both a
nonlinear and a shape preserving stretch of the image histogram. FPGA Implemented results compared
with Matlab Experiments and comparisons to histogram equalization are conducted.

Reducing Power Consumption in SRAM


Using BIST and Programmable Delay Control
1 2
P. Sakthi Shunmuga Sundaram and G. Jeyalakshmi
1 2
PG Scholar, M.Tech, Lecturer, Electronics and Communication Engineering Department,
Sri Muthukumaran Institute Of Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: sakthipaulraj2011@gmail.com
Abstract—In the modern word people are like to do the process faster and the same time with the high
performance that to in the technical field there is strong demand for SRAM with lower power
consumption while achieving high performance and high density. However, the large increase of process
variations in advanced CMOS technologies is considered one of the biggest challenges for SRAM
designers. In the presence of large process variations, SRAMs are expected to consume larger power to
ensure correct read operations and meet yield targets. We propose a new architecture that significantly
reduces the array switching power for SRAM. The proposed architecture combines built-in self-test and
digitally controlled delay elements to reduce the wordline pulsewidth for memories while ensuring
correct read operations, for the BIST input method we are using the encoding and decoding method
because in this method we can avoid the data over flowing in the virtual memory. We are reducing in
array switching power can be achieved for maximum level upto 95% but the previous technology
achieved only 27%.We can see the Simulation results in ModelSim 6.2c and for the simulation and
Implementation Xilinx ISE 9.1i.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 95


Millimeter–Wave Mixer Circuits in Baseline
CMOS Technology: A Review
1
Shubhangi B. Kadam and Dr. K.B. Khanchandani
1
A.G. Awate College of Engg, Hadapsar, Pune–28
2
Professor & Head, Department of Electronics &Tele, S.S.G.M.College of Engg., Shegaon
E-mail: Shubhangikadam2006@yahoo.co.in
Abstract—Millimetre-waves integrated circuits offer a unique opportunity for a holistic design approach
encompassing RF, analog, digital, as well as radiation and electromagnetic. Millimetre-wave circuits
based on CMOS are emerging as an attractive option in the field of wireless communication.
Modern wireless communication systems demand stringent dynamic range requirements. The
dynamic range of a receiver is often limited by the first down conversion mixer. Integrated mixers
become more desirable than discrete ones for higher system integration with cost and space savings. The
use of CMOS allows the implementation of the mixers on the same chip with the rest of the analog and
digital circuits economically while achieving high performance. In order to optimize the overall system
performance, there exist a need to examine the merits and shortcomings of each mixer feasible for
integrated solutions.
Motivated by growing need for optimization, low power and low cost wireless transceiver
mainstream IC technology this paper presents a complete review of different mixers in terms of
methodology used, performance parameter, applications and comparison between them. The
technological background as well as active and nonlinear devices and passive circuit structure suitable for
CMOS based mixers are discussed.

Design and Simulation of Carbon


NanoTube Conformal Antennas
1 2 3
Arivazhagan S., Kavitha K. and Amudha S.
1 2 3
Professor, Asst. Professor, PG Student,
Department of ECE, Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi, India
E-mail: sarivu@mepcoeng.ac.in, vihadakavi@yahoo.com, amudha.me09@gmail.com
Abstract—This paper proposes a conductive Carbon NanoTube (CNT) within a loop to realize
conformal antennas on polymer substrates. Polymer-ceramic composites (rubber-like structures) have
good RF (high dielectric constant and low loss tangent) and desirable mechanical properties (conformal,
flexible and lightweight). The Carbon NanoTubes are considered due to their metallic conducting. In this
paper, the approach of placing nanoparticles inside the loop which is electrically small and having
uniform current distribution is considered. The surface current density, scattering coefficient, return loss,
radiation patterns and gain are calculated for small loop with nanoparticles and placed above the
Polymer-ceramic substrate. The results demonstrate that Carbon NanoTubes Loop Antenna with small
radius takes on the resonant frequency properties from 50 GigaHertz to 60 GigaHertz in the center
frequency of 54.48 GigaHertz, corresponding scattering coefficient is less than –15dB.

96 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


Design and Analysis of Ring Resonator
based Programmable Optical Buffer for CWDM
and DWDM Optical Networks
1 2
Sangamithra M. and Prita Nair
1
Member, IEEE, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering,
2
Department of Physics, SSN College of Engineering
E-mail: sangamithraknm@gmail.com, 2pritanair@ssn.edu.in
Abstract—In this paper we design a variable optical buffer (VOB) using a micro-ring resonator. The
radius of rings is chosen so that they meet two requirements. A radius of 6.25µm is chosen which can
serve as a filter and buffer that supports only wavelength channels at 20nm spacing. They can be used for
separating label and the out-of-band header and the delay obtained is very short. Another design is a ring
of 148µm which gives a larger delay for data in a WDM network simultaneously covering all
wavelengths with an FSR of 100GHz. An analytical model of the resonator is used to design the micro
ring based delay covering the C & L band and the wave propagation through the device is picturised and
confirmed through FEM based modeling using COMSOL.

Secure IDMA Communication


Using Quantum Cryptography
K. Divya, D. Sankareswaran and P.G. Bavyasri
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering,
Sethu Institute of Technology, Kariapatti, India
E-mail: itsmedivya92@gmail.com, sankareswaran_1981@ rediffmail.com, bavyasri.5@gmail.com
Abstract—Interleave Division Multiple access (IDMA) is a new multiple Access scheme proposed by Li
Ping for fourth generation (4G) mobile communication. IDMA is a special form of Code Division
Multiple Access (CDMA) in which user separation is achieved by interleavers instead of using
orthogonal codes as in CDMA. In IDMA each user is assigned an interleaver/de-interleaver with unique
interleaving/de-interleaving index. The interleaved data of all the users are combined before
transmission. At the receiver each user can access their data by using unique de-interleaver. During
transmission it is possible for a hacker or intruder in the communication channel to identify the
interleaving index of a user using a well known “Brute-force attack”. If a hacker or intruder knows the
interleaving index of a particular user he can make any active or passive illness to the transmitted data.
So to avoid thus insecure data transmission the interleaving index are generated by using some secure
mechanism. In this paper we propose the generation of interleaving index using quantum cryptography.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 97


Design of Reversible Logic Gates
and It’s Application as BCD Adder
1 2
Anjalee P. Mandharey and Dr. Pravin K Dakhole
Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, Department of ElectronicsEngineering,
Yeshwantrao Chavan College of Engineering, Nagpur,India
E-mail: anjali.mandhare@gmail.com pravin_dakhole@yahoo.com
Abstract—Reversible logic has become one of the most promising technologies in the recent past, with
applications in several fields; such as low power CMOS, nanocomputing and optical computing etc. This
paper presents reversible gates and reversible logic implementations for Binary Coded Decimal (BCD)
adder. Reversible logic gates are widely known to be compatible with future computing technologies
which virtually dissipate zero heat. The main virtue of BCD adders is that it allows easy conversion to
decimal digits for printing or display and faster decimal calculations. These reversible BCD circuits are
basis of the decimal ALU of primitive Quantum CPU. The proposed BCD adders have been simulated in
VLSI.
Keywords: Reversible Logic, BCD Adder, VLSI, Zero heat dissipation.

Environmental Economic Dispatch Using Multi-


Objective Particle Swarm Optimization Technique
1 2
Er. Khushbu Sahu and Dr. K.T. Chaturvedi
1
ME (Power System), UIT Bhopal
2
UIT Bhopal, Bhopal, (M.P.) India
E-mail: khushbu@njiffy.com
Abstract—Traditional Economic Dispatch (ED) problem finds the most economical schedule of the
generating units while satisfying load demand and operational constraints. this single objective can no
longer be considered adequate due to the environmental concerns that arise from the emissions produced
by fossil-fueled electric power plants. The US clean air act amendments of 1990 and similar acts in other
countries have forced power utilities to follow the environmental constraints. The power companies now
have to adhere to certain strict standards regarding the emission levels of CO, CO2, SO2, NOX and other
harmful emissions. The combined economic and emission dispatch (CEED) problem was solved using
price penalty function method in which the two objectives of cost and emission were combined into a
single objective. In this Paper, multi-objective optimization techniques based on particle swarm
optimization are employed to solve the ECED problem where the objective is to minimize emission level
and generation cost simultaneously for a power system.
Keywords: Economic Dispatch, Multi-objective Particle Swarm Optimization Technique,
Enbiromental Economic Dispatch.

98 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


Convolutive Blind Source Separation Using
Frequency and Time Domain Transformation
Jerine Rini Rosebell V. Sharanya R. and Sugumar D.
Department of ECE, Karunya University, Coimbatore
E-mail: jerinebell87@gmail.com sariyu.ece@gmail.com
Abstract—This paper work describes an efficient level decomposition for Blind Source Separation
(BSS) of convolutive mixtures. The convolutively mixed signals consist of source signals and same
amount of delay or echo of the same source signal. BSS is a technique for estimating original source
signal from their mixtures of signals. To achieve BSS for convolutive mixtures, the time and frequency
domain based Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is considered. In this paper work to evaluate the
performance of multilevel decomposition two types of convolutive mixtures are taken. First mixture is
convolutive mix of Speech and Speech. The second mixture is convolutive mix of Speech and Music.
The mixed signals were decomposed by discrete wavelet from level 4 to 7. ICA is applied on each level
signals then the separated signal is reconstructed. The experimental results show that mixtures2 produce
better results than the mixture1. As the decomposition level increases the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR)
also increases.

Reduction of ICI Using ICI Self Cancellation


Scheme in OFDM systems
Zahiruddin Syed and Sreekanth Neriyanuri
Department of ECE, K.S.R.M. C.E, Kadapa, A.P., India
E-mail: Zaheer.usk@gmail.com, nsreeku@gmail.com
Abstract—OFDM is a multicarrier modulation technique in which a high rate bitstream is split into N
parallel bit-streams of lower rate and each of these are modulated using one of N orthogonal sub-carriers.
In a basic communication system, the date is modulated onto a single carrier frequency. The available
bandwidth is then totally occupied by each symbol. This kind of system can lead to inter-symbol-
interference (ISI) in case of frequency selective channel. The basic idea of OFDM is to divide the
available spectrum into several orthogonal sub channels so that each narrowband subchannels
experiences almost flat fading. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing(OFDM) is becoming the
chosen modulation technique for wireless communications. A well known problem of OFDM is its
sensitivity to frequency offset between the transmitted and received signals, which may be caused by
Doppler shift in the channel, or by the difference between the transmitter and receiver local oscillator
frequencies. This carrier frequency offset causes loss of orthogonality between sub-carriers and the
signals transmitted on each carrier are not independent of each other. The orthogonality of the carriers is
no longer maintained, which results in inter-carrier interference (ICI). The undesired ICI degrades the
performance of the system. This project investigates an efficient ICI cancellation method termed ICI self-
cancellation scheme for combating the impact of ICI on OFDM systems.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 99


VoIP Network Quality Magnitude Using Time Delay
and Packet Loss for Voice Signal
and Data Applications
1 2 3
M. Vijayakumar, Dr. Karthikeyani and Dr.Ammar Kalifa
1
Gushir Bengashir, Tripoli, Libya
2
Salem-Tamilnadu-india
3
Dean, College of Education, Gushir Bengashir, Tripoli, Libya
E-mail: vijayakumar.sm77@gmail.com, drvkarthikeyani@gmail.com, ammar200949@yahoo.com
Abstract—This paper analyses resource provisioning for endeavour Voice-over-IP (VoIP) networks.
Simulation and analytical methods are used to enhance the provisioning process, which ultimately aims
to provide the delivery of consistent Quality of Service (QoS). Consistent QoS is increasingly important
in order to deliver an tolerable service, as defined in terms of Service Level Agreements (SLAs). This
paper defines simple guidelines for network dimensioning in a multimedia environment in terms of end-
to-end delay for the voice traffic, and in terms of throughput and packet loss for TCP data traffic. A
realistic environment is modelled and simulated using ns-2. The model consists of a prioritized network
in which intermediate routers perform priority scheduling to provide differentiation of Internet services.

A New Scan Architecture for Both Low Power


Testing and Test Volume Compression Under SOC
Test Environment
V. Ramya
M.E.VLSI Design, K.C.G. College of Technology, Chennai, India
E-mail: Prud.ramya@gmail.com
Abstract—A new scan architecture for both low power testing and test volume compression proposed.
For low power test requirements, only a subset of scan cells is loaded with test stimulus and captured
with test responses by freezing the remaining scan cells according to the distribution of unspecified bits
in the test cubes. In order to optimize the proposed process, a novel graph-based heuristic is proposed to
partition the scan chains into several segments. For test volume reduction, a new LFSR reseeding based
test compression scheme is proposed by reducing the maximum number of specified bits. In this paper,
by using different clock phases between an LFSR and scan chains, and grouping the scan cells by a graph
based grouping heuristic. Experimental results on the largest ISCAS89 benchmark circuits show that the
proposed technique can significantly reduce both the average switching activity and the peak switching
activity, and can aggressively reduce the volume of the test data, with little area overhead, compared to
the previous methods

100 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


A Multi Layer IDS in Manet
Using Clustering Techniques
1 2 3
M. Madhavi Latha, A. Fidal Castro and Dr. E. Babu Raj
1
Department of Computer Science Engineering Anna University,
Jaya Engineering College, Thiruninravur, Chennai, India
2
Department of Computer Science Engineering, Jaya Engineering College, Chennai, India
3
Professor, Sun College Engineering and Tech, Nagercoil, India
E-mail: madhavi.maramreddy@gmail.com, fidalcastro@gmail.com
Abstract—Intrusion detection System forms a vital component of internet security. To keep place with
the growing trends, there is a critical need to replace single layer detection technology with multi layer
detection. We proposed a novel cross layer intrusion detection architecture to discover the malicious
nodes and different types of DoS attacks by exploiting the information available across different layers of
protocol stack in order to improve the accuracy of detection. We have implemented fixed width
clustering algorithm for efficient detection of the anomalies in the MANET traffic and also generated
different types of attacks in the network and also proposed a collaborative outlier detection algorithm for
MANETS those factors in a nodes reputation. Here utilize cross layer interaction to gather measurements
from different protocol layer to detect attacks with increased accuracy.

A Selective Trigger Scan Architecture


for VLSI Testing
N. Matthew Jones
ME-VLSI Design, K.C.G College of Technology, Chennai–India
E-mail: matthewjones.n@gmail.com
Abstract—Time, power, and data volume are among some of the most challenging issues for testing
System-on-Chip (SoC) and have not been fully resolved, even if a scan-based technique is employed. A
novel architecture, referred to the Selective Trigger Scan architecture, is introduced in this paper to
address these issues. This architecture reduces switching activity in the circuit-under-test (CUT) and
increases the clock frequency of the scanning process. An auxiliary chain is utilized in this architecture to
avoid the large number of transitions to the CUT during the scan-in process, as well as enabling retention
of the currently applied test vectors and applying only necessary changes to them. The auxiliary chain
shifts in the difference between consecutive test vectors and only the required transitions (referred to as
trigger data) are applied to the CUT. Power requirements are substantially reduced; moreover, DFT
penalties are reduced because no additional multiplexer is utilized along the scan path. Data reformatting
is applied in order to make the proposed architecture amenable to data compression, thus permitting a
further reduction in test time. It also permits delay fault testing. Using ISCAS 85 and 89 benchmark
circuits, the effectiveness of this architecture for improving SoC test measures (such as power, time, and
data volume) is experimentally evaluated and confirmed

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 101


QAM Transmitter and Receiver Design
based on FPGA
1 2 3
GAE Satish Kumar, H. Devanna and K. Vasudevareddy
1
Department of Electronics and Communication Engg.,
Stanely Stephen College of Engg&Tech., Kurnool, AP, India
2
Department of Electronics and Communication Engg.,
St. John’s College of Engg&Tech., Kurnool, AP, India
3
Department of Electronics and Communication Engg.,
St John’s College of Engg&Tech., Kurnool, AP, India
E-mail: gaesathi@gmail.com, devanna_03@yahoo.co.in, vasureddy60@gmail.com
Abstract—The FPGA technology has been playing a considerable role in portable and mobile
communication. This is due to the features of flexibility, accuracy and configurability in designing and
implementation. The paper presents a complete design for a 16 – QAM transmitter and receiver based on
the virtex4 FPGA Kit. The implemented system can be applied in particle. Based on the principles of
synchronization, time synchronization, core tools for phase-different detecting as well as adaptive
equalization processing in system generator (a soft ware of Xilinx), the authors have designed a complete
base band 1F 16-QAM system, in which base band signal is unconverted into 1F frequency (up to 12
MHz) at the transmitter and then is down converted at the receiver. After timing synchronization, the
adaptive equalization and phase recovering, the received base band signal is displayed in the
oscilloscopes screen. These accurate experiments conducted in Virtex 4 FPGA board kit have shown a
promising foundation for developing coding, algorithms in 16-QAM modulation scheme.
Keywords: FPGA design, carrier synchronization, symbol recovery, 16-QAM modulation

Miniaturization of Microstrip Patch Antenna


Using Metamaterial as Substrate
1 1 2
Ratish Kumar, Rakesh N. Tiwari and Raman Sharma
1
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering,
Bahra University, Shimla Hill, Solan, India
2
Physics Department, Himachal Pradesh University, Summer Hill, Shimla–171004, India
E-mail: dhimanratish1982@gmail.com, bramans70@yahoo.co.in
Abstract—In this paper, I have explored a significant concept of designing the microstrip patch antenna
using metamaterial as its substrate and tried to reduce the dimensions of the microstrip patch antenna.
The novel design of the patch antenna can be used to enhance the gain as well as to reduce the reflection
losses. Patch antennas are one of the most attractive antennas for integrated RF front end systems due to
their compatibility with microwave integrated circuits. To fulfill the demand of integrated RF front end
systems, this design of microstrip patch antenna give best results in the frequency range from 4.5 GHz to
8.0 GHz because metamaterial or we call it as double negative material shows the negative behavior of
electric permittivity and magnetic permeability in this range. The proposed antenna simulations are
performed by using CST Microwave Studio, a commercially available simulator done simulations based
on finite difference time domain techniques where as the results for verifying the negative curves of
electric permittivity and permeability are obtained by using MathCAD a mathematical tool.
Keywords: Microstrip Patch antenna, Metamaterials, Electric Permittivity, Magnetic Permeability.

102 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


A Novel U-Slot Loaded Broadband Rectangular
Microstrip Patch Antenna
1 1 2
Rakesh N. Tiwari, Ratish Kumar and P. Kumar
1
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering,
Bahra University, Shimla Hill, Solan, India
2
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering,
Jaypee University of Information Technology, Solan–173215, India
E-mail: srakeshnath@gmail.com, erpradeep_tiet@yahoo.co.in
Abstract—In this paper, the design of a novel broadband rectangular microstrip loaded with U-slot is
presented. The rectangular patch antenna printed on microwave substrate is investigated, fed by a coaxial
probe. The simulation of this proposed antenna has been performed by using CST Microwave studio,
which is commercially available electromagnetic simulator based on the finite different time domain
technique. The antenna shows two resonant frequencies that are very closely space to give broadband
characteristics. The maximum impedance bandwidth achieved 42.21% and centered around 8.17GHz,
with good pattern characteristics.
Keywords: Patch antenna, U-slot, broadband, microstrip antenna, coaxial prob.

Fault Detection in Gearbox/Ball Bearings


Using Acoustic Analysis
1 1 1 2
K. Yavanarani, Y. Swaminathan, G.S. Simon Sundara Raj, S. Sheena Christabel,
2 3 3 3
J. Vijayaraghavan, Ganabhushan Rao S., Jagadeesh C.B. and Satheesh P.
1
Combat Vehicle Research and Development Establishment,
Defence Research and Development Organisation, Chennai–600054, India
2
Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Thandalam, Chennai–602105
3
Vel Tech Engineering College, Vel Tech Road, AVADI, Chennai–600006
E-mail: yavanarani14@gmail.com, sheenpreethi7@gmail.com, ganabhushan@gmail.com,
jaagstorm@gmail.com, satheesh.p@gmail.com
Abstract—The health of the hydraulic sub-assemblies in sub systems of Armored Fighting Vehicle
(AFV) should be monitored to prevent equipment failure and to maintain an efficient operating unit. This
paper describes the application of advanced signal processing tools for fault detection in Ball
Bearing/Gearbox of Hydraulic Test Bench at different speed conditions. Great percentage of breakdown
in the productive processes is caused due to faults in the gearbox and bearings. So, the proposed approach
deciphers the condition of the rotating machinery to prevent equipment fatigue. The objective of this
paper is to investigate the defects in Gearbox/ball bearings by Acoustic analysis. The Acoustic signals
were acquired using G.R.A.S. Microphone Type 40PF placed near bearing housing, which is then
analyzed using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) for Feature extraction. Wavelet Transform achieves
a greater accuracy for transient signals and spikes that are non-stationary in nature. DWT is efficient than
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) with lower computational cost and thus it is the widely used technique for
predictive analysis. Wavelet analysis is carried out using LabVIEW software.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 103


Efficient Resource Sharing and Channel Assignment
in Wireless Mesh Network
1 2
M. Raja and V. Bhanumathi
1 2
PG Student, Assistant Professor,
Department of ECE, Anna University of Technology,
Coimbatore, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India
E-mail: raja.muthiah1@gmail.com, vbhanu_02@yahoo.com
Abstract—Wireless Mesh Networks (WMN) are promising and emerging technology for providing low
cost and high quality internet service to the end user. The Lookup algorithm (LU) in wireless
infrastructure enables the possibility of ID assignment of peers and 1-hop broadcast between peers
through cross-layering technique. Thus message overhead reduces and increase information retrieval
performance. Channel assignment (CA) algorithm builds efficient multilevel trees and reduces the
number of relay nodes and hop distances of the trees. The algorithms use dedicated channel assignment
strategies to reduce the interference to improve the network capacity. The result of our study enables
efficient resource sharing and best throughput is performed in wireless mesh network.
Keywords: Wireless Mesh Network, Cross-layering technique, Channel Assignment.

Low Power and High Speed Design of Double


Edge Triggered D Flip-Flop
A.R. Kasetwar
Electronics Department, Bapurao Deshmukh College of Engineering, Wardha M.S. India
E-mail: abhaykasetwar@gmail.com, vrushnasre@gmail.com
Abstract—This paper compares three previously published Double Edge Triggered D Flip-flops
(DETDFF) with the proposed design for their performance and power consumption. The proposed design
is shown to have the least delay and lowest power consumption with respect to other double edge
triggered flip-flops. By simulating and comparing the proposed DET flip-flop with the previous DET
flip-flops, it is shown that the proposed DET flip-flop reduces power dissipation by keeping the same
data rate.. A dual edge triggered flip-flop responds to both edges of the clock. Hence the usage of
DETflip-flops reduces clock related power dissipation in digital VLSIs. DET Yip-flops are also desirable
in high performance applications since Clock frequency can be halved for the same data throughput. In
this article, we compare several published implementations of DET flip-flops for performance, power
consumption. A modified DET flip-flop is proposed that exhibits improved specifications preliminary
simulations are also carried out to evaluate DET flip-flop sensitivities to VDD, temperature, clock and
data rises time. A design of High speed register is also included in this paper which provides high speed
in digital communication.
Keywords: digital CMOS, double edge triggered flip flop, low power, low delay, VLSI

104 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
Multisensory System for Obstacle Detection
and Location Estimation on Railways
Preena Prasad
II M.E. Embedded System Technologies, PSN College of Engg & Tech
Anna University, Tirunelvei, India
E-mail: pulary_303@yahoo.com
Abstract—Rail inspection is a vital task in preventing accidents. The inspection of rails by human operators
will be a slow and tedious process. In order to prevent this problem, a new technique is employed here. The
project describes a multisensory system consisting of infrared (IR) and ultrasonic (US) sensors, that ensures
safety and efficiency on railways. Here a system for obstacle detection and train location estimation is
proposed. The system consists of a microcontroller which is interfaced with the GPS module, GSM modem,
and an ultrasonic and infrared sensor for fetching the data from the GPS module. Once the sensor senses the
obstacle, it assumes an accident. The sensor sends the information to the centralized server and to the display
unit in the train. From the server the information is send to the station near the train. For estimating the
location of trains, the train number is send via GSM to a server and a reply message is send indicating the
position of train. GPS receiver receives train position latitude and longitude from satellite through GPS
antenna. GPS receiver is interfaced with the microcontroller through RS232 converter. Then position
information signal is transmitted to the mobile through GSM network.

Soft-Switching Boost Converter with HI-Bridge


Auxiliary Resonant Circuit
1 2
Lis Emmanuel and N. Maheswari
1
M.E Power Electronics and Drives student, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering, Chennai
2
Associate Professor, EEE Department St. Joseph’s College of Engineering, Chennai
E-mail: 1lis.emmanuel@gmail.com, nmaheswari@yahoo.com
Abstract—A new soft-switching boost converter is presented in this paper. The conventional boost
converter generates switching losses at turn ON and OFF, and this causes a reduction in the whole system’s
efficiency. The new boost converter utilizes a soft-switching method, using an auxiliary circuit with a
resonant inductor and capacitor, auxiliary switch, and diodes. Therefore. the new soft-switching boost
converter reduces switching losses more than the conventional hard-switching converter. The efficiency,
which is about 93% in hard switching, increases to about 95% in the proposed soft-switching boost
converter. In this paper, the performance of the new soft-switching converter is presented for a 100W,
30kHz, soft switching boost converter using MOSFET’s with resistive load.
Keywords: Auxiliary resonant circuit, boost converter, soft-switching boost converter, zero-voltage
switching (ZVS), zero current switching (ZCS

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 107


Design of Amplifier for Health Monitoring
Wearable Device
1 2
Anu Priya R and Saravanan V.
1
Student, TIFAC-CORE in Pervasive Computing Technologies, Velammal Engineering College
2
Research Member, TIFAC-CORE in Pervasive Computing Technologies,
Velammal Engineering College
E-mail: rkanupriya@yahoo.co.in, vsaravananme@rediffmail.com
Abstract—The demand for health-monitoring wearable devices is increasing worldwide among scientists
and clinicians. Low-power, low-voltage and low-noise attributes are important concerns that need to be
addressed in circuits used for continuous personal health monitoring applications, to achieve long battery
life. So, the need for low-power low-voltage bio-amplifiers is increasing. These amplifiers receive the bio-
signals through the bio-sensor, attached to the patient. Thus the amplifier acts as an interface to the wearable
device and amplifies the difference between the two input signals from the bio-sensor. So, it is an important
block at the front-end of the device. The amplifier circuits using Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) and
Operational Amplifier (Op-amp) are designed using Advanced Design System (ADS), an Electronic Design
Automation (EDA) tool. These amplifiers are capable of amplifying the bandwidth range of 0.5Hz to 300Hz
bio-signals like ECG, EEG and EMG etc.
Keywords: Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR), Metal Oxide Semiconductors (MOS), bio-electric
signals, bandwidth, differential amplifier.

Survey on Routing Attacks in Mobile


Ad-Hoc Networks
1 2
Sebastian Terence J. and Britto Dennis J.
1
Lecturer, Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
Angel College of Engineering and Technology
2
Lecturer, Department of Computer Science and Enineering,
Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Engineering College
E-mail: jsebinfo@gmail.com, brritodennis@gmail.com
Abstract—Wireless ad hoc networks are envisioned to be randomly deployed in versatile and potentially
hostile environments. Mobile ad-hoc networks have many potential areas of any applications. Due to this
routing nature, it’s vulnerable to many attacks. Every attack has its own nature. The attackers use different
technique launch these attacks. In this paper we provide survey on different types of attacks in network layer
such as flooding attacks, rushing attacks, blackhole attacks, gray hole attacks, wormhole attacks, sinkhole
attacks, and Sybil attacks. We analyses different routing protocols and its route discovery technology.
Keywords: Mobile Ad-hoc Networks, Routing Attacks, Routing Protocols, Route Discovery.

108 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


Implementation Experiences of Genetic Algorithm
based Weighted Clustering Algorithm
in Mobile Ad hoc Networks
R. Pandi Selvam and V. Palanisamy
Department of Computer Science and Engineering Alagappa University,
Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: pandi0703@yahoo.com, vpazhanisamy@yahoo.com
Abstract—Mobile ad hoc networks are becoming an important concept of modern communication
technologies and services. It provides some advantages to this communication world such as self-organizing
and decentralization. In ad-hoc networks clustering techniques Cluster Head (CH) election is the important
and superior concept in the intra-cluster network. Due to the dynamic topology this CH election is
considering as a complicated process. In this paper, we have concentrated for the implementation of the
Genetic Algorithm based Weighted Clustering Algorithm (GA-WCA) in mobile ad hoc networks. For this
optimization technique we have chosen some parameters such as degree difference, battery power, degree of
mobility and sum of the distance of a node of mobile ad hoc networks. Moreover, this optimized clustering
algorithm has compared with the deterministic Weighted Clustering Algorithm [5, 6] to prove this better
performance.
Keywords: Ad hoc networks, Clustering, Clustering Algorithms, Genetic Algorithm

Wireless Sensor Network Based on ZigBee, ARM9


and GPRS for Advance Monitoring in Remote Areas
1 2
Ravi Sankar Reddy Lingareddy and Sahaya Lenin D.
1
Hindustan University, Chennai, India
2
Hindustan University, Chennai, India
E-mail: ravitoesp@gmail.com, dslenin@gmail.com
Abstract—This project is built on embedded access platform here ARM9 takes gateway and it is built up on
Linux operating system. This article proposed a solution scheme of the wireless sensor network gateway
based on the advantages and characters of the ZigBee protocol and GPRS network. The software design of
the centre core is mainly analyzed, including the way to realize the connection of ZigBee protocol and GPRS
network, along with the design of data conversion task between ZigBee and GPRS network. This also
proposed a solution of data loss, which is caused by the different transmission rates of ZigBee module and
GPRS module. This also analyses and describes the structure of the three layers software system as well as
PPP protocol’s characteristics and transplanting key point and structure of hardware platform and running
process system. The wireless data communication link between the embedded gateway and GPRS network is
finally establishes and we can also set up number of ZigBee to cover waste remote area for monitoring in
feature and as a result the solution of keeping the gateway on line is proposed.
Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network; ZigBee; GPRS; ARM9 Processor; Embedded Linux

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 109


Speed and Position Control of Autonomous
Mobile Robot Using FPGA
O. Rakesh, K. Gerard Joe Nigel and Mahaboob S.K.
Department of E&I, Karunya University Coimbatore–641114, India
E-mail: oleti.vikky@gmail.com, gerardnigel@gmail.com, 44.maha@gmail.com
Abstract—Speed and position control are very important issues for the successful use of an autonomous
mobile robot. This project presents a conception of mobile robots using rapid prototyping, distributing the
several control actions in growing levels of complexity and computing proposal oriented to embedded
systems implementation. This kind of controller can be tested on different platform representing the mobile
robots using reprogrammable logic components (FPGA). The emergence of reconfigurable Field
Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) has given rise to a new platform of complete mobile robot control
system.
This mobile robot will detect obstacle using sensor and also be able to control the speed of DC motor
using driver. Thus to generate collision free path it should have proper motion planning as well as obstacle
avoidance scheme. All required modules will be interfaced using FPGA controller.
Keywords: Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), mobile robot, GP2D12 Distance Measurement
Sensor.

THD Reduction in Multilevel Inverters Using


Real-Time Algorithm
1 2
Megha Jess Mathew and T. Chelladurai
1
Anna University, Tiruchirappalli, Dept. of ECE,
PSNA College of Engineering and Technology, Dindigul, TamilNadu, India
2
Anna University, Tiruchirappalli, Dept, of ECE, PSNACET, Dindigul, Tamilnadu, India
E-mail: meg.4u.777@gmail.com t.chelladurai@gmail.com
Abstract—Multilevel inverters have been widely applied industries. A family of optimal puisewidth
modulation (PWM) methods for multilevel inverters, such as step modulation, can generate output voltage
with less harmonic distortion than popular modulation strategies, such as the carrier-based sinusoidal PWM
or the space vector PWM. However, some drawbacks limit the application of optimal PWM. One of such
crucial drawback is that the optimal switching angles could not be calculated in real-time and one has to rely
on lookup tables with precalculated angles. We propose a novel real-time algorithm for calculating switching
angles that minimizes total harmonic distortion (THD) for step modulation. We give a mathematical proof
that the output voltage has the minimum THD. We implemented the algorithm on a digital signal processor
and provide experimental results that verify the performance of the proposed algorithm.
Keywords: Multilevel inverter, optimal puisewidth modulation (PWM), power conversion, Total
Harmonic Distortion (THD), Digital Signal Processing (DSP).

110 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


Dynamic Key Management Scheme, Using
AES Algorithm for Wireless, Sensor Networks
Selvi S., Arthigeetha H., Asha.M, Swaruba P.
Department of Computer science and Engineering,
Coimbatore Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, India
Department of Information Technology, P.S.R Engineering College, Sivakasi, India
E-mail: sselvi_20@yahoo.co.in, arthigeetha@gmail.com, ashamurthy@yahoo.com,
swarubait@gmail.com
Abstract—The enormous world wide web and itsapplication of sending data have caused a tremendous
increase in stolen or attach the false data with the originaldata while sending from one node to another node
throughthe intermediate nodes for that we have to securely sendthe data from source to destination. This
project solves problem by using the technique of virtual energy based encryption and keying. Virtual energy
based encryption and keying has introduced an effective solution to the problem of detection of false data
over the network. In the virtual energy based encryption and keying technique we introduced an concept is
one time dynamic key (i.e.).The data which is to be send from source to destination is encrypted using the
secret key and the encryption algorithm.The secret key is generated, one time dynamic key is employed for
one packet only and different keys are used for the successive packets. Virtual energy based encryption and
keying is a secure communication framework the data to be send is encrypted using the AES algorithm. The
intermediate nodes are verified the incoming packets if the incoming packet is false packet injected in the
network by the malicious outsiders those packets are detected anddropped otherwise the packet is forwarded
to the next node. In the virtual energy based cryption and keying there are two modes of operations they are
virtual energy based encryption and keying-I and virtual energy based encryption and keying- II. In the
virtual energy based encryption and keying-I each node monitors their neighbour node and in the virtual
energy based encryption and keying- II each nodes randomly choose the nodes and monitors those nodes.
These two modes of operation monitor the nodes and detect the false packet and drop those false packets.

Keywords: Security, Wireless sensor networks security, one time dynamic key.

An Optimum PID Controller Design Based


on Repulsive Particle Swarm Optimization
1 2 2
S. Rajasekaran, Dr.T.Kannadasan and Dr. T. Kannadasan
1
Research Scholar, Anna University of Technology, Coimbatore, Coimbatore, India
2
Director- Research, Anna University of Technology, Coimbatore, Coimbatore, India
E-mail: srsme@yahoo.co.in, tkannadasn56@yahoo.com
Abstract—Most of the industrial process is characteristic of nonlinear, large time delay and time varying.
For such process it is very difficult to tune its controller parameters based on the traditional PID tuning
methods such as the classical Z-N tuning method. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is powerful stochastic
evolutionary algorithm that is used to find global optimum solution in search space. However, it has been
observed that the standard PSO algorithm has premature and local convergence phenomenon when solving
complex problem. To resolve this problem a Repulsive particle swarm optimization (RPSO) is introduced to

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 111


tune the parameters of PID controller. In order to test and verify the effectiveness of the RPSO, the algorithm
is applied to real time nonlinear, time varying industrial process. The algorithm is simulated with MATLAB
programming. The result shows that the PID controller based on RPSO has a fast convergence rate and better
dynamic performance.
Keywords: Heat exchangers; PSO; PID controller; tuning

Unmanned Reconnaissance Vehicle with Obstacle


Sensing Design to Decimate Eco-Warfare
1 2 3
T. Karthick, M. Sathyan and S. Vijayakumar
1
Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering
2
Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering
3
Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering
Sri Sairam Engineering College, West Tambaram, Chennai–600044
Anna University, Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: karthick6390@engineer.com, mhn.styn@gmail.com, vijayakumar1190@gmail.com
Abstract— Terrorism, the new face of nation’s fate has exceeded its own state of action. It’s time to uproot
terrorism instead of facing it and to dedicate the brave hearts to the nation. With terrorism increasing day by
day, its duty of engineer’s to curb it through innovation. Here, a vehicle has been designed, which can
counter the terrorists inside the buildings based on the commands given. The paper domain encompasses a
self navigating robotic system with remote triggered weapon and a surveillance system emplaced over the
base of the vehicle. The microcontroller unit acts as a prime controlling element with the processing unit.
The GPS receiver is integrated with the vehicle for receiving information from the GPS satellites and finding
out the location of the vehicle in terms of latitude and longitude coordinates, anywhere on earth. The
extended proximity sensors are used to detect the obstacle in the path, if detected it takes the alternative route
to reach the desired location. The control room transmit the targeted location to the microcontroller unit,
once the vehicle reaches the targeted location; it will inform the control room that is has reached the location
using the RF data link. The movement of vehicle is detected by the Passive IR sensor, as the movement is
detected the wireless camera is tuned on. Additionally the camera is mounted on an automated pan and tilt
mechanism, which moves the camera in a scanning pattern to capture all the visible details around the
vehicle. The video is transmitted to a control room, if the presence on enemy is detected the mounted weapon
on the vehicle is triggered based on the commands from the control room. The algorithm for the action of the
vehicle is depicted in the form of pseudo code.
Keywords: Control room, GPS Receiver, Microcontroller, obstacle detection, Passive IR Sensor, RF
Transceiver, servo pan, surveillance, tilt head, wireless camera and weapons.

112 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


Smartdust Network for Tactical Border
Surveillance System to Detect, Classify
and Track Enemy Intrusion
1 2
Nelliyan G. and Muthamizh S.
1
Final Year U.G. Student, Department of Electronics, and Communication Engineering,
Sri Ram Engineering College, Chennai, India
2
Senior Lecturer, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering,
Sri Ram Engineering College, Chennai, India
E-mail: randy.nelliyan@gmail.com, muthamizhmohan2k6@gmail.com
Abstract—The greatest threat to national security is “Terrorism” and it cannot be defeated by conventional
military force alone. In critical border areas regular forces or even satellites cannot monitor these intruding
terrorists as the area monitored is quite large and quite complex.
This paper is aims to develop next generation wireless sensor networks for border security. It has a wide
range of intruder detection system that can be deployed at critical locations on land, to enable quick, accurate
and secure localization of a threat. This can be achieved by means of using Smartdust wireless sensor mote.
Keywords: Wireless Sensor Mote, MiWi P2P Protocol, Sensors, DSPIC Microcontroller, RF
Transceiver

Network Power Management Using SNMP


1 2
S. Madhan Kumar and K.R. Jaya Chitra
1
Dept of Electrical and Electronics Engineering,
2
S.A. Engineering College, Chennai–600077, Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: madhanks@yahoo.com,jayamura1912000@gmail.com
Abstract—With knowledge of the power state of network devices, a network manager could remotely audit
the energy consumption of IT equipment and make changes to PM settings.Energy consumption has become
a major factor in the total cost of ownership of IT equipment. In this paper a subset of the Power State MIB
will implemented for LINUX operating system in ARM-cortex based embedded device central pattern
system. The architecture of embedded network management is based on SNMP Protocol in Linux.With the
rapid development of computer technology, the embedded system has widely applied in many industrial
fields. And these applications made it possible that the traditional personal-computer central pattern of
computer transferred into the embedded device central pattern in managing power in IT equipement.
Keywords: SNMP, Power state MIB, Power Management (PM), Linux, ARM-cortex

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 113


Design Approach for Human Brain
Hypothermia Detection System
1 2
Ashlesha S. Nagdive and Prof. Dr. L.G. Malik
1 th
M.E. IV Semester Embedded System and Computing, Computer Science & Engineering Dept.,
G.H. Raisoni. College of Engineering Nagpur, India
2
Computer Science & Engineering Dept. G.H. Raisoni, College of Engineering Nagpur, India
E-mail: ashlesha.nagdive@gmail.com, lateshmalik@rediffmail.com

Abstract—Hypothermia of brain is conditions where rectal temperature lowered down below 33◦C.
Hypothermia occurs mainly during HeadInjury, IschaemicStroke, Prenatal Asphyxia, Cardiac Surgery,
Neurosurgery, Vascular Surgery. Brain hypothermia treatment (BHT) is efficient in decompressing the
intracranial hypertension in neurosurgery. As brain hypothermia treatment (BHT) consists of simultaneous
management of various vital physiological functions, a decoupling control of intracranial temperature (ICT)
and pressure (ICP) is proposed to give hints on this systemic medicine. Out of the methods employed now in
clinical practice for reducing the oxygen consumption by the cerebral tissue, the most efficacious is
craniocerebral hypothermia (CCH). The main objective is to Develop Human Brain Hypothermia Detection
system, thermoelectric hypothermic wearable helmet.
Keywords: Hypothermia, Craniocerebral Hypothermia, hypothermic wearable helmet, Brain
hypothermia treatment (BHT).

A Real Time Hand Gesture Recognition Technique


for Human Computer Interaction
1 2
Shubhangi Moon and Prof. R.W. Jasutkar
1
M.E. IV sem (Embedded System & Computing),
Computer Science & Engg., Department,
Nagpur University. G.H.Raisoni College of Engg., Nagpur, India
2
Computer science & Engg., Department. G.H. Raisoni College of Engg., Nagpur, India
E-mail: shu.chand@gmail.com, r_jasutkar@yahoo.com
Abstract—This paper explores how to interact with the Humanoid robot using the user defined hand gesture.
For this scan line algorithm is used. We explain how to design human-computer interface, and to regulate
and set the motion of humanoid robot. And then the planning motion sequences are stored in the motion
database. A real-time hand gesture recognition system is developed for human-robot interaction of service
robot. Gesture-based interface offers a way to enable untrained users to interact with robots more easily and
efficiently. Proposed system presents a human-robot interface system where robot will perform the same
gesture like human perform. System deals with a method to recognize hand-gesture in system. The system
uses single camera to recognize the user's hand-gesture. It is hard to recognize hand-gesture since a human-
hand is the object with high degree of freedom and there follows the self-occlusion problem, the well-known
problem in vision-based recognition area. However, when we use multiple images & scan line algorithm to
increases the processing speed, this will increase the human computer interaction by using real time hand
gestures.

114 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


Keywords: Gesture, Hand gesture recognition, robotics, Human Computer Interaction (HCI),hand
gesture identification, Human Robot Interaction.

Significance of Software Developemnet


Process in Autosar
1 2 3
Anikesh Monot, Annie Smitha Paul, Martin K.M.
1
M.Tech Embedded Systems Department, Doeacc Center Calicut, Kerala, India
2
Design and Development Center, Tata Elxsi Ltd Trivandrum, Kerala, India
3
Professor M.Tech Embedded Systems Department, Doeacc Center Calicut, Kerala, India
E-mail: anikeshmonot@gmx.com, annie@tataelxsi.co.in, martincedt@gmail.com
Abstract—This papers deals with the significance of choosing a proper software development life cycle for
developing Autosar specific software. Autosar is an open and standardized automotive software architecture,
which was jointly developed by automobile manufacturers, suppliers and tool developers. Autosars aims to
master the growing complexity of automotive electronic architectures by build a common architecture. It
separate the software from the hardware in order to allow software reuse and smooth evolutions limiting re-
development and validation. Autosar has three main features, layered architecture, methodology and
application interface. Autosar gives an embedded developer complete freedom to realize the software
according to his own choice of software development life cycle. In this paper I would present how V-model
would best suit Autosar software development process. Further I would also substantiate my proposal by
presenting how I have realized a Autosar specific Internal Flash Driver driver by following V model SDLC.
Keywords: Automotive, Open-Standard, Autosar, SDLC, Internal Flash Driver

Electric Meter Theft and Tampering Detection


1 2
Priya S. Kamble and Sonali T. Bodkhe
1
M.E. IV Sem (Embedded System & Computing) Computer science & Engg.,
Department. G.H.Raisoni College of Engg.Nagpur, India
2
Head of Department, Information Technology, Department, G.H. Raisoni College of Engg.,
Nagpur,India
E-mail: priyak5685@gmail.com, sonali.mahure@gmail.com
Abstract—Power utility companies have suffered revenue losses due to uncollected bills and energy
tampering for many years. The paper presents a new methodology to identify energy theft and tampered
meters as well as meters that are not working properly. It is based on a central observer meter that is
responsible for metering the overall energy of a group of consumers under investigation. Deterministic and
statistic approaches are used to determine which consumers have problems in their premises. Recent
advances in low-power wireless networking have enabled remote and nonintrusive access to households’
electric meter readings, allowing direct real-time feedback on electricity consumption to home owners and
energy providers. The energy meter contains embedded system, so the choice of agent platform for such an
application is very important. In software aspect, the key to successful AMR system depends on adopting
which communication tools are used.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 115


AMR system is used for less data latency and better transmission reliability. Finally we implement our
AMR system in practice and verify our scheme can achieve better performance by real experiment. The
AMR system consists of three basic components: electrical meter, central station and communication system.
Keywords: Automated Meter Reading, Advanced Meter Management (AMM), Advanced Metering
Infrastructure.

Counterfeit Currency Recognition System


Using Characteristics Extraction
1 2
Trupti Pathrabe and Dr. N.G. Bawane
1
M.E. (Embedded System & Computing) Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Nagpur University, G.H. Raisoni College of Engineering, Nagpur, India
2
Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
Nagpur University, G.H. Raisoni College of Engineering, Nagpur, India
E-mail: truptipathrabe@gmail.com, narenbawane@rediffmail.com
Abstract—Counterfeiting in banknote has been occurring ever since humans grasped the concept of valuable
items, and there has been an ongoing race between certifier ie. banks and counterfeiter ever since. This paper
include some of the current methods used to secure and validate paper currency. The paper currency
recognition is significant for a number of reasons. a) They become old early than coins; b) The possibility of
joining broken currency is greater than that of coin currency; c) Coin currency is restricted to smaller range.
This paper discusses a technique for paper currency recognition. Three characteristics of paper currencies are
considered here including size, color and texture. By using image histogram, plenitude of different colors in a
paper currency is calculated and compared with the one in the reference paper currency. The Markov chain
concept has been considered to model texture of the paper currencies as a random process. This paper also
represents a currency recognition system using ensemble neural network (ENN). The individual neural
networks in an ENN are skilled via negative correlation learning. The purpose of using negative correlation
learning is to skill the individuals in an ensemble on different parts or portion of input patterns.
Keywords: Counterfeit, ENN, negative correlation learning, Markov chain concept

Comparative Study of FPGA based TRNGs


Demeke Gebresenbet, M.M. Kuber and Vidyavati S. Nayak
Dept of Computer Engineering, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology
(Deemed University) Grinagar, Pune–411025, Maharashtra, India
E-mail: stdemeke@yahoo.com, vidyavatinayak@diat.ac.in, mmkuber@diat.ac.in
Abstract—Random Number Generators (RNGs) have numerous applications in diverse set of areas. Many
True Random Number Generators (TRNGs) using different source of randomness have been proposed in
scientific literatures. The aim of this paper is to compare various TRNGs for digital implementation using
FPGAs based on various criteria and to evaluate different parameters such as throughput to area ratio and
power consumption.
Keywords: TRNG, Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG), Ring Oscillator (RO),FPGA,Jitter,
Metastability.

116 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


Interconnect-Centric Design for Advanced
System-on-Chip & Network-on-Chip
1 2 2 2
B. Muralikrishna, A.L.G.N. Aditya, M. Sahithi and J. Poornima
1
Assistant Professor,
Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, K.L. University India
2
M.Tech VLSI (PG Students),
Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering K.L. University India
Email: muralikrishna@kluniversity.in, adityasind@gmail.com,
mannesahithi@gmail.com, poori_jujjavarapu@yahoo.com
Abstract—NoC improves the scalability of SoCs and the power efficiency of complex SoCs compared to
other designs. NoC applies networking theory and methods to on-chip communication and brings notable
improvements over conventional bus and crossbar interconnections. Rapid advances in semiconductor
manufacturing technologies have resulted in an ever increasing number of components to be implemented on
a single chip. Such System-on-a-Chip (SoC) designs have very demanding communication requirements
between individual components. Traditional bus-based communications systems that connect multiple blocks
and span a large portion of the chip have become a performance bottleneck. One solution to these problems
is to use an on-chip interconnection network, commonly known as Network on Chip (NoC). Traditionally,
ICs have been designed with dedicated point-to-point connections, with one wire dedicated to each signal.
For large designs, in particular, this has several limitations from a physical design viewpoint. The wires
occupy much of the area of the chip, and in nanometer CMOS technology, interconnects dominate both
performance and reduces the growing complexity and design time. Basically FPGAs comprised of a large
number of dynamic power dissipation, as signal propagation in wires across the chip requires multiple clock
cycles. The selected topology of the components interconnects plays prime rule in the performance of NoC
architecture as well as routing and switching techniques that can be used.
Keywords: System-on-a-Chip, Network on Chip, On Chip Interconnects, Routing and Switching.

Multi-agent Systems Approach For Authorization,


Authentication and Secure Shared Storage
in Mobile Business Applications
Ashlesha Mahawadiwar
Student of M.E. (2nd Year, Embedded Systems)
GH Raisoni College of Engg., U/38, Narendra Nagar, Nagpur
E-mail: ashlesha37@yahoo.com
Abstract—Now a days designing and implementing complex software systems like m-commerce and other
intelligent applications for handheld devices is rapidly growing. Persistence and distribution of data is crucial
for these systems, as the small handheld devices are not as powerful as that of the desktop computers.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 117


In a wireless environment, there is a need for a secure exchange of information between different
wireless devices. Often it is required to have distribution and sharing of data among various clients. Sharing
the data in J2ME opens the data to be accessible for all MIDlets (small applications running on mobile
devices) present on the device, hence creating a number of vulnerabilities to the confidential information that
is intended to be shared with specific MIDlets. Hence a MIDlet needs to have a secure storage system.
Encrypted storage is not supported in MIDP 2.0. The information can be susceptible to an attack from a
malicious user i.e. it can be accessed and manipulated by other MIDlets (from the same device or from a
different device). Sharing the data among different MIDlets creates a lot of vulnerabilities to the
confidential information; therefore some mechanism is needed to overcome this problem and to prevent
unintended access of the stored data.
The aim of the project is to overcome the problem in data sharing through the concept of Multi-Agent
Systems by providing a shared storage. And also, to provide explicit access to authenticated & authorized
MIDlets. With this mechanism, it is possible to share the data among specific MIDlets safely.
Keywords: J2ME, Mobile business, MIDlets, RMS, MIDP, CLDC

Secured Infants Monitoring by Designing


an Embedded Device using DSP Processor
1 2
Kranti A. Dive and Prof. R.W. Jasutkar
1
ME IV Semester Embedded Systems and Computing, Computer Science & Engg. Dept.,
Nagpur University G.H. Raisoni College of Engg., Nagpur, India
2
Computer Science & Engg. Dept., Nagpur University G.H. Raisoni College of Engg., Nagpur, India
E-mail: kforkranti@gmail.com, r_jasutkar@yahoo.com
Abstract—Design of Embedded device for incubator for the monitoring of infants is proposed here. The
demand of physicians for the development of monitoring and diagnostic systems which are easier to handle
and less obtrusive than the commonly used medical systems is the motivation for the said work. Another
motivation is the frequently expressed concern by parents about the danger of apparently life threatening
events or even the problems of sudden infant’s death syndrome.
This research work provides description of design of embedded device for monitoring of infants. The
Embedded device includes sensors for Door Security, Light Intensity, and Voice detection, temperature of
incubator for the continuous monitoring of infants under clinical and home conditions. It will allow the early
detection of potential life threatening events. The device would involve DSP Processor TMS320C5416. It is
a stand-alone development and evaluation module. It allows evaluators to examine certain characteristics of
the C5416 digital signal processor (DSP) to determine if it meets their application requirements. Code
Composer Studio is the integrated environment for TI’s DSP’s. CCStudio includes a suite of tools used to
develop and debug embedded applications. It includes Compilers for each of TI’s Device families, source
code editor, project build environment, debugger, profiler, simulators and many other features. CCStudio
provides a single user interface taking users through each step of the application development flow.
Keywords: Incubator; DSP TMS320VC5416 Processor; Door Security; Light Intensity; Voice
Detection.

118 ‹ Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011)


PIC based Actuation System
for Multi-Stage Reverse Osmosis Plant
1 2 2
Loitongbam Surajkumar Singh, Bhausaheb A. Botre and Shashikant Sadistap
1
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering,
Tezpur University, Tezpur–784028, Assam, India
2
Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI)
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Pilani–333031, Rajasthan, India
E-mail: surajloi@yahoo.co.in, bhau@ceeri.ernet.in, ssadistap@yahoo.co.in
Abstract—Desalination of sea water needs a double stage reverse osmosis (RO) plant where the water is
made to pass through 2 different stages of RO membrane. For the efficient functioning of the plant, an
embedded system is made to automate the plant. For the purpose, the PIC18 microcontroller is used as it has
many general purpose I/O ports, which is essential for controlling the numerous valves of the plant. The
earlier manual valves were replaced by solenoid valves for easy controlling by a digital signal. Two each of
high pressure pumps (HPP) and booster pumps (BP) associated with each membrane are also controlled by
the PIC. Data provided by pressure sensors placed after each of the HPPs are used to maintain the pressure
across the RO membranes for an efficient filtration process, by adjusting the proportionality valve placed
between the HPP and the RO membrane, using PWM technique. A user interface to control the various
modes of operations of the plant is made through an LCD display with two selection keys and a master reset
key. The plant has different modes of operation and at each mode, the operator is given the freedom of
setting the operation time prior to starting it or end the operation at his/her will. A feedback system is added
for indicating faults in control signals by acquiring back the conditions of the relays, this is accomplished
using the port expander IC, MCP23017, which is accessed by the PIC through I2C communication. Any
operation of the plant executed by the operator is made visible to the supervisor wirelessly through a PC
using zig-bee wireless trans-receiver module. The firmware of the PIC is written in C language using the C18
compiler for PIC18 microcontrollers and is tested successfully on to the PIC18F4520 microcontroller.
Keywords: PIC, solenoid valves, PWM, LCD user interface.

Conference on Information, Communication & Embedded Systems (ICICES–2011) ‹ 119