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Background Examples
1. How much energy, in J and kJ, is required to raise the temperature of 123.4g of aluminum metal
from 3.0 'c
to 31.6 'C? CAI~ 0.900 Jig 'c
Note: We are asked to find the energy required to heat up a piece of aluminum and are given its specific
heat. From this we know that q is go ing to be positive (since energy is requ ired) and that we should use the
formula q ~ mc)T.
First we need to calculate LlT:
IIT~Tr- T, ~ (3 J.6 'C · 3.0 ' c) ~ 28.6 'c
Now we substitute:

q ~ mc~T = (l23.4g)(0.900J/g°C)(28.6°C)

q = 3. 17 x 10' J = 3.17kJ

2. How much energy is released when 44.6g orlithium metal is cooled from 82.2 °c to 23.0 °C? Answer
in both J and kJ. CLi = 3.556 Ji g 'c.
Note: Since the lithium is cool ing dow n and energy is being released, we know that our energy, q, is goi ng
to be negati ve. Since there is a temperature change, the formula we need to use here is q = meLlT.

## First we need to calculate LIT:

LIT = Tr - T, = 23.0 °c - 82.2 'c ~ -59 .2 'c
No w we can find q:

q = mc~T ~ (44.6g)(3556J/g°C)(-59.2°C)
q = -9.39 x 10' J = -9.39kJ

3. What increase in temperature will resuit if212.0g of copper abso rbs 4.08kJ of heat energy? C c , =
0.385 Ji g 'c
Note: This problem is similar to the questions above in that it involves one single element heating up or
cooling down. Therefore; we need to use q = mc.6.T. However, since we are looki ng for a temperature
change, we will need to rearrange the formula.
Remember: when you are given an energy and specific heat, always check yo ur units. In thi s question,
energy is given in kJ and specific heat is in J. Therefore we must convert the energy from kJ into J:
Note #2: Now we need to figure out if q is positive or negative . Since the copper absorbs heat, it must be

## q(J) = q(kJ) x 1000J = 4.08kJ x 1000J = 4080J = 4.08 x I oj J

IkJ IkJ
heating up. Therefore the q term will be pos itive.

q = mc~T

~T ~ l ~ ~ 50.00C
3
4.08 X 10 J
me (2 12.0g)(OJ85J/g°C)
Therefore, the copper metal will increase in temperature by 50.0 0c.
2. How many joules of heat are needed to rai se the temperature of 10.0 g of aluminum from
22°C to 55°C, if the specific heat of aluminum is 0.90 J/gOC?

{::,Q" CM!). T
-: :O .'{ ~"t K105 55 . ;: =- oc..)

3. A 55.1 g piece of metal is heated to a temperature of 45.l o C, and placed into a cup
containing 359 g of water at 20.0°e. The final temperature of the water and metal is 22.3°C.
a. How much heat energy did the water absorb?
..6Q '"c.."",b. T h d

.
"

/ - 34S 1 J I

## c. What is the specific heat of the metal ?

.6Q=(.MDT
- 34S1 .:r -: C. (55 . I~ Y 2Z?, -If.S.1 't )
4 . You are measuring the heat of a reaction with a calorimeter filled with 200-g of water. The
reaction caused the temperature of the water to increase by 2.00°e. How much heat was
given off by the reaction?
60. ~. C. M DT
:: ('f . l g~ ·c ' (~ (2..0~ ) r~Q= 1(,,72 1]
5. 1.84 g of magnesium is burned in a calorimeter. The temperature of the water rose from
21.30°C to 28.56°e. How many joules of heat were produced by the reaction?

## .60. "{~ .1 8 f5 <t '( X2.8 5b - eV . So~)

'"1 - . ... --­
f ~ ~~~ ~oJ<I.~
6 . A 36.9 g sample of metal is heated to JOO.O°C , and then added to a calorimeter containing
141.5 g of water at 23.1 0e. The temperature of the water rises to a maximum of 25.2°C.
a. Did the water absorb heat or did it release heat?

T~b]
b. How many joules of heat was exchanged between the water and the metal?
7. If a sample of chloroform is initiall y at 25°C, what is its final temperature if 150.0 g of
chloroform absorbs 1.0 kilojoules (1000 1) of heat, and the s pecific heat of chloroform is 0.96
l /goC?
AQ", G.oN\ D.. T

## 1000 I ", (0 .9 b J/~0c.

~->L..:~---.:

8. A container of water changes temperature from 34°C to 40°C when a 300 g pfice of
aluminum originally at lOooe IS placed in side. What is the mass of the water?
AQ w -t A.Q AI -0 9
14 Ig~"c. \r¥l w ('iO -3~oc..) f (D.tt J'~t)(3eOjX:-~W - loa "c.) =-/
.:lS .0 g "'" w - 1b2-0~ J -:::?5 eM uJ = b i'b :5\
9. If200. grams of water is to be heated from 24.00e to 100.0°C to make a cup of tea, how
much heat must be added? The specific heat of water is 4.1S 1/g0C
A"
./1 0.-:-- G.-I'I\
:: (4.18~'C\("2.001¥IOO-L4°G.)

lb 3 ~6.JJ

10. A total of280 joules of heat are absorbed as 58.3 g of lead is heated from 12.0°C to 42.0°C.
This energy came from water coo ling from 95°C to 42°C. What is the heat capacity of the
~Q ~ eM t:. T
l.~O J = S>b (58 .3j '+ 1-12."'-)

-
r ,

Ic.Pl. - 0 Ib% ~

II. Granite has a specific heat of800. l /g°C. What mass of granite is needed to store 1.50 xl0 6 1
of heat if the temperature of the granite is to be increased by I S.5°C?
6. ex :;. Co. 'Iv- b T
, .S 1(/010 J'::. (8 00 11-'--( Mt iS. S DC J
F!~
12. If al l of the heat requ ired to rai se the temperature of 2S grams of water from 25.00e to 2S.0oe
came from a piece of gold jewelry cooling from IllS .soC to 28.0°C. What is the mass of the
gold ?
~w+A~ ~ ¢

## (<I , '8~~c. 'i.?5::.'{ZS -L<;"<-) of 10 ./5 :z1t-)Lr.,AJ (JB- 14~.S)

313,5 j + (-IS . b") A-J - 1
13. If the heat released when 30.0 g of water is cooled from 8S.0°C to 80.0°C goes into a 20 g
silver spoon initiall y at 28.0°C. What is the heat capacity of silver?
6Q W -+- 6QA~ ~~
,:! 18:Jjj "c ) (.~ol '.(B () -~5"c...\ + ~! ( z.~ y.. 80 - 2.B '-J :: P (~:: 0.'- ~"'C
- b 2. 7 :r -I- ~ (10'10) sz:'
-:0 '---'''-__ _
14.2 .50 g of hydrogen gas is heated from 17.0°C to 23.0°C. The specific heat capacity of
hydrogen is 14.267 J/g°C. How much energy is absorbed?
DQ-=0M C.T <
~ ~4 ' "Lb1 ~cc.)( l.. S~ r 23 -17°,-) ::

15.300 .0 mL of 4.0° C water chan ges its temperature to 37°C when a 500 g piece of hot iron is
added. If the specific heat of water is 4.18 J/gOC, calculate the initial temperature of the iron .
{:,Qu.J ~. A QF... ~;/J

## (4 J 8%t)(~~37-tf°c) +(O,~'f~'t~srojr37-~) "-,

'+(l8 L.:r
(~8
+ Z 2.0 (.3'7 -"I.' )'"
= 37-T~
~ 1 T-
{~
== 2 2S
_ _ '_ _ _!:d
0
16. A 26.6 g sample of mercury is heated to IlO.O° C and then placed in 125 g of water in a
calorimeter. The initial temperature of the water is 23.00°C. The specific heat capacity of
water is 4.184 J/gOC, and the specific heat capacity of mercury is 0.139 J/g°C. What is the
final temperature of the water and the mercury?
() Q ItS 1" AQ w : ~
(0.1 ~9 %'t.l( 2".b~ '(rTf-II 0 ) + (&.I, 18 ~ 0(.)( Iz.s~ I; -23j : ~t
3 .7 (Tf -110) -+ 52.2.· S(Tf -23)= II' "!i! - I Z'l.2-,l S- -hs.?t
5, 7T-f - 407 + 522 5 If - /2017.5 =-" SZl, .2.. 1
17. Calculate the mi ss ing ioformation for each su bstan ce using the information given.

## Substance Heat added Mass Temp change Specific Heat

~
Ji g °C
Water 55.5 J 6.35°C 4.18
2 ..{yf
Iron 3.01 kJ 38.9 g
--­ 0.450
(172°C.)
Mercury 451 J 1ll.lg 29.u "C' 0.140

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